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					COMPLETED AND CURRENT
    RESEARCH PROJECTS

              2007
CONTENTS




Introduction. .................................................................................................................. 1
Completed projects. ................................................................................................... 3
Strategy 1.–.ncreasing.fresh.pork.demand............................................................................. 3
Project Number 1826............................................................................................................ 3.
Food.service.requirements.for.eating.quality.assured.pork.cuts
Project Number 2009............................................................................................................ 4.
Optimising.chilling.systems.to.consistently.produce.high.quality.pork

Strategy 2.–.ncreasing.carcase.value..................................................................................... 5
Project Number 1711............................................................................................................ 5.
ntegration.and.further.development.of.PGBLUP.and.the.National.Pig..
mprovement.Program
Project Number 2096............................................................................................................ 6.
mport.risk.analysis.for.importation.of.embryos.

Strategy 3 –.Reducing.supply.chain.costs................................................................................ 7
Project Number 1928............................................................................................................ 7.
Reducing.the.postweaning.growth.check.of.weaners.
Project Number 1870............................................................................................................ 7.
Quantifying.Respiratory.Disease.mpact.for.AUSPG
Project Number 2001............................................................................................................ 8.
Studies.of.a.novel.agent.causing.stillbirths.&.pre-weaning.deaths.in.pigs.due..
to.myocarditis
Project Number 2019............................................................................................................ 9.
Food.safety.risk.management.to.optimise.market.access
Project Number 2020............................................................................................................ 9.
Development.of.Practical.AQ.ndex,.HACCP.and.SOPs


                                                                                                                                     
     Strategy 4.–.Contracts.and.measurement.systems..................................................................10
     Project Number 2097...........................................................................................................10.
     Review.of.Pig.Marketing.Contract.Arrangements

                                            .
     Strategy 5.–.Ensuring.industry.capacity. ................................................................................11
     Project Number 1800.69......................................................................................................11.
     The.use.of.Feedcheque.to.improve.efficiency.of.on-farm.diet.preparation
     Project Number 1800.70......................................................................................................11.
     The.effect.of.providing.chilled.water.to.lactating.sows
     Project Number 1932...........................................................................................................13.
     Development.of.an.off-the-shelf.training.module.for.outdoor.herds.-.gilt.&.dry..
     sow.management
     Project Number 1993...........................................................................................................13.
     The.development.and.evaluation.of.a.multi-media.educational.program..
     on.pork.farming.for.primary.schools
     Project Number 2005...........................................................................................................13.
     The.effectiveness.of.an.Ecomax.system.in.removing.nutrients.from.piggery.effluent

     Strategy 6.–.Managing.risks.for.sustainability.........................................................................15
     Project Number 1969...........................................................................................................15.
     Guidelines.for.the.Use.of.Spent.Deep-Litter.Bedding.Effluent
     Project Number 1763...........................................................................................................16.
     Monitoring.for.Land.Application.of.Effluent

     Current Projects. .........................................................................................................17
     Strategy 1.–.ncreasing.fresh.pork.demand............................................................................17
     Project Number 2168...........................................................................................................17.
     dentifying.potential.microbiological.risks.associated.with.moisture.infused..
     pork.production
     Project Number 2169...........................................................................................................17.
     Development.of.effective.tempering.methods.for.moisture.infused.pork..
     primals.to.optimise.yield,.cut.quality.and.shelf.life.
     Project Number 2170...........................................................................................................17.
     mplementation.of.an.in-line.forming.solution.to.produce.pork.mince,..
     meat.balls.and.patties
     Project Number 2171...........................................................................................................18.
     Optimising.chilling.systems.to.consistently.produce.high.quality.pork
     Project Number 2172...........................................................................................................18.
     Development.of.cooking.methods.to.consistently.produce.high.quality..
     crackling.of.moisture.infused.pork
     Project Number 2173...........................................................................................................18.
     Development.of.arrange.of.pork.meal.solutions.packaged.in.cook-in.trays
     Project Number 2174...........................................................................................................18.
     Development.of.pre-cooked.Pork.Hock.and.Belly.products
     Project Number 2175...........................................................................................................19.
     Frozen.moisture.infused.pork.–.review.of.storage,.thawing.and.cooking..
     conditions.on.product.quality


Project Number 2178...........................................................................................................19.
Development.and.implementation.of.ready-to-cook,.case.ready.poached..
pork.products.with.a.surface.crust.gourmet.pork.sausage.range.for.the.retail.sector
Project Number 2179...........................................................................................................19.
Development.of.new.value.added.product.ideas.for.ribs.and.bellies..
tailored.to.the.supermarket.and.food.services

Strategy 2 –.ncreasing.carcase.value....................................................................................20
Project Number 1815...........................................................................................................20.
Characterisation.of.the.PC.genotype.for.AUSPG
Project number 2011............................................................................................................20.
mproved.efficacy.of.non-surgical.transfer.of.fresh.and.frozen.embryos

Strategy 3.–.Reducing.supply.chain.costs...............................................................................21
Project Number 1938...........................................................................................................21.
High.fibre.diets.to.feed.dry.sows.ad.libitum
Project Number 2012...........................................................................................................21.
Nutritional.strategies.to.minimise.the.influence.of.bedding.material..
consumption.on.growth.efficiency
Project Number 2017...........................................................................................................22.
Digestion.&.utilisation.of.nutrients.in.new.pearl.millet.hydrids..
when.fed.to.growing.pigs
Project Number 1824...........................................................................................................22.
Porcine.circovirus.infections.in.the.Australian.pig.herd
Project Number 2014...........................................................................................................23.
The.relationship.between.sow.water.intake.during.gestation.and..
reproductive.and.lactation.performance

Strategy 4.–.Contracts.and.measurement.systems..................................................................24
Project number 2165............................................................................................................24.
CT.development.and.new.ultrasound.technology.to.predict.belly.yield
Project Number 2166...........................................................................................................24.
ndustry.Cooperative.nnovative.Program

                                       .
Strategy 5.–.Ensuring.industry.capacity. ................................................................................25
Project Number 1993...........................................................................................................25.
Distribution.and.uptake.of.the.Pork.ndustry.Educational.Program.in..
Victorian.primary.schools
Project Number 2015...........................................................................................................25.
A.‘Measure.to.Manage”.toolkit.for.improving.herd.feed.conversion.efficiency
Project Number 2074...........................................................................................................25.
Demonstration.and.evaluation.of.the.Werribee.farrowing.Pen,.modified..
for.use.in.low-cost.shelters
Project Number 2094...........................................................................................................26.
Field.trial.of.pig.stockperson.selection
Project Number 2100.14......................................................................................................26.
Enhanced.consistency.and.suspension.of.feed.particles.in.liquid.feeding.systems



                                                                                                                                     
     Project Number 2100.17..................................................................................................... 26.
     Managing.WorkCover.seminars
     Project Number 2100.35..................................................................................................... 27.
     ncreasing.profitability.through.modelling.and.optimisation
     Project Number 2102.......................................................................................................... 27.
     Target.25
     Project Number 2154.......................................................................................................... 27.
     Providing.chilled.water.to.lactating.sows.using.a.modified.milk.vat
     Project Number 2164.......................................................................................................... 28.
     Updating.Prohand

     Strategy 6.–.Managing.risks.for.sustainability........................................................................ 29
     Project Number 2013.......................................................................................................... 29.
     dentification.&.prevalence.of.antimicrobial.resistance.genes.in.pigs.at.slaughter
     Project Number 2109.......................................................................................................... 29.
     Evaluation.and.application.of.PCR.tests.for.M.hyopneumonia
     Project Number 2132.......................................................................................................... 30.
     Salmonella.contamination.of.Australian.pork.-.validation.of..
     decontamination.steps.and.molecular.techniques.to.track.source
                              .
     Project Number 2176z. ....................................................................................................... 30.
     Assessing.the.potential.of.DRC-1339.for.control.of.starlings..
     (Sturnus.vulgaris).in.piggeries
     Project Number 1829.......................................................................................................... 30.
     The.medium-term.impact.of.permeable.pond.covers.on.pond..
     performance.&.odour.management
     Project Number 2007.......................................................................................................... 31.
     Agronomic.trial.to.determine.the.optimum.application.rate.of.piggery.solids..
     for.crop.growth
     Project Number 2107.......................................................................................................... 31.
     Sludge.recirculation.in.covered.lagoons;.implications.for.performance..
     and.biogas.yield
     Project Number 2108.......................................................................................................... 31.
     Use.of.covered.highly-loaded.anaerobic.lagoons.to.treat.piggery.effluent.
     Project Number 2130.......................................................................................................... 32.
     Solids.Separation.in.Sedimentation.and.Evaporation.Pond.Systems.(SEPS)
     Project Number 2137.......................................................................................................... 32.
     Assessment.of.Nutrient.Balance.Calculators.for.Piggeries
     Project Number 2139.......................................................................................................... 32.
     Odour.Emissions.from.Sedimentation.and.Evaporative.Ponds.
     Project Number 2140.......................................................................................................... 32.
     Composting.of.Pig.Manure.and.Mortalities.
     Project Number 2141.......................................................................................................... 33.
     Field.panel.trials.of.odour.emissions.from.piggeries
     Project Number 2141.......................................................................................................... 33.
     Anaerobic.digestion.of.spent.bedding.from.deep-litter.housing



V
INTRODUCTION




Australian.Pork.Limited.(APL).is.an.industry-owned.service.company.representing.the.interests..
of.Australian.pig.producers..Our.mission.is.to.deliver.services.needed.for.the.sustainable.growth.
of.the.Australian.pig.industry.

The.Research.and.nnovation.Division.of.APL.aims.to.achieve.this.through.prudent.investment.
in.well.directed.research.and.technology.adoption.programs.

The.Division’s.income.is.derived.from.two.main.sources,.a.levy.on.pigs.slaughtered.for.human.
consumption.(70.cents.per.pig).and.the.Australian.Government’s.matching.dollar-for-dollar.
contribution.for.every.dollar.of.levy.invested.in.research.and.development.(up.to.a.maximum..
of.0.5%.of.the.gross.value.of.production).

For.the.financial.year.2006.–.2007,.APL.will.have.invested.approximately.$4.9.million.into.its.
research.and.development.programs.

This.booklet.is.a.reference.guide.to.completed.research.and.innovation.projects.in.2006.–.2007.
as.well.as.our.current.projects..Past.summaries.of.completed.research.projects.are.available.on.
APL’s.website.www.australianpork.com.au




                                                                                                     1
2
COMPLETED PROJECTS




STRATEGY 1 – INCREASING FRESH PORK DEMAND
Project Number 1826:.          Food.service.requirements.for.eating.quality.assured.pork.cuts.
Principal Investigators:.      Peter.Walker.and.Heather.Channon
Organisation:.                 DP,.Victoria
 .
This.project.developed.an.industry.reference.document.to.provide.advice.and.information.on.
the.procedures.commonly.used.to.produce.moisture.enhanced.(ME).pork—to.enable.companies.
to.evaluate.and.consider.application.of.this.technology.in.their.businesses.

Chefs.in.food.service.outlets.were.presented.with.different.ME.pork.cuts.for.them.to.prepare.
into.pork.dishes.of.their.choice.so.as.to.gain.an.appreciation.of.the.benefits.that.could.be.
derived.from.using.ME.pork.in.their.businesses..t.was.identified.that.chefs.considered.that.
an.advantage.of.ME.pork.was.the.ability.to.cook.pork.to.a.degree.of.doneness.expected.by.
consumers.whilst.still.retaining.good.eating.properties...

Demonstrations.of.various.cuts.of.ME.pork.to.the.food.service.sector.was.also.well.received.
by.large-scale.caterers.and.high-end.restaurateurs..Feedback.from.product.demonstrations.
highlighted.the.versatility.of.a.range.of.cuts.including.boneless.and.bone-in.products.from.
the.shoulder,.middle.and.leg.cooked.in.a.variety.of.different.styles.such.as.pan.and.stir.frying,.
baking.and.grilling..Overall,.this.feedback.focussed.on.the.potential.of.using.some.ME.cuts.in.
food.service...

All.of.the.ME.pork.products.presented.received.favourable.comments.relating.to.their.sensory.
properties,.particularly.juiciness..Some.participants.commented.on.the.need.to.remind.chefs.
that.ME.pork.will.not.require.the.levels.of.seasoning.that.is.often.applied.to.pork.in.the.kitchen...
Many.noted.the.need.to.develop.company.branding.of.some.of.these.products.so.that.there.
could.be.a.means.of.identification.by.consumers.for.the.superior.eating.quality.pork.




                                                                                                        3
    Project Number 2009:.          Optimising.chilling.systems.to.consistently.produce.high..
                                   quality.pork.
    Principal Investigator:.       Heather.Channon
    Organisation:.                 Department.of.Primary.ndustries,.Victoria

    .
    This.project.investigated.whether.pork.quality.variability.arising.from.current.chiller.management.
    practices.could.be.improved.by.determining.chilling.regimes.that.optimise.meat.quality.using.
    existing.chillers...

    A.series.of.experiments.were.designed.and.conducted.to.examine.the.effects.of.altered.chilling.
    programs.on.domestic.and.export.pork.skin.and.flank.colour,.meat.temperature,.pH.and.carcass.
    shrinkage.at.two.separate.abattoirs.

    At.Plant.A,.the.effects.of.a.lower.chilling.temperature.on.export.pork.carcasses.and.a..
    two-stage.chilling.process.for.domestic.carcasses.consisting.of.a.faster.initial.chill.to.compensate.
    for.an.earlier.reduction.in.the.chilling.rate.were.evaluated..n.export.carcasses,.the.altered.
    chiller.program.reduced.carcass.temperature.fall.and.increased.difficulties.in.achieving.the.set.
    chilling.goals.were.experienced,.most.likely.due.to.unequal.chiller.loading..Carcass.shrinkage.
    was.not.affected..The.chilling.profiles.of.export.and.domestic.carcasses.at.Plant.B.were.similarly.
    modified.to.achieve.a.faster,.but.shorter.initial.rate.of.chilling..

    The.experiments.performed.highlighted.that.the.chilling.profile.can.be.used.to.influence.
    carcass.colour..However,.they.also.showed.that.chiller.settings.are.only.one.of.several.chiller.
    management.factors.that.dictate.the.ability.of.a.plant.to.achieve.the.desired.carcass.chilling.
    profile(s).to.optimise.both.carcass.quality.and.yield.attributes..Other.factors.identified.under.
    batch.chilling.operations.to.influence.the.carcass.chilling.profile.included.variation.in.chiller.
    carcass.loads,.mixing.of.hot.and.cold.bodies,.and.the.switching.of.sensor.probes.between.
    carcasses.during.the.chilling.cycle..All.can.collectively.impact.on.the.chiller.and.carcass.
    temperature.profiles.achieved.which.in.turn.can.influence.muscle.colour,.muscle.pH,.skin.colour.
    and.carcass.shrink.which.are.all.of.commercial.importance..Further.work.is.recommended.in.
    this.area.to.provide.Australian.pork.processors.with.a.greater.understanding.of.to.cost-effectively.
    manage.their.existing.chillers.to.maximize.pork.quality.and.reduce.carcase.shrinkage...




4
STRATEGY 2 – INCREASING CARCASE vALUE
Project Number 1711:.          ntegration.and.further.development.of.PGBLUP.and.the.
                               National.Pig.mprovement.Program
Principal Investigator:.       Susanne.Hermesch
Organisation:.                 UNE,.NSW
 .
Project.1711.was.independently.reviewed.in.2006.by.Dr.Rex.Walters.(see.Project.2099)...
This.review.concluded.that,.since.2001,.AGBU.has.achieved.the.targets.set.at.the.start.of.the.
APL-funded.national.pig.genetics.project..Three.major.R.and.D.projects.were.completed;.there.
was.significant.advancement.in.the.PGBLUP.modules,.the.National.Pig.mprovement.Program.
was.transferred.from.the.DP.in.Queensland.and.improved,.and.a.considerable.program.of.
industry.education.was.undertaken.by.AGBU.staff..Direct.use.of.PGBLUP.has.increased.from.
approximately.5,600.to.10,800.breeding.sows.over.this.period.

The.review.estimated.that.the.total.national.pyramid.now.influenced.by.PGBLUP.in.2006.was.
157,945.sows,.or.about.47%.of.Australian.genetics,.and.over.2.5m.slaughter.pigs.per.year.
currently.come.from.breeding.pyramids.operating.PGBLUP   ..

For.PGBLUP.users.there.were.favourable.phenotypic.trends.(changes.in.on-farm.performance).
in.all.the.key.production.traits.over.the.period.analysed..There.were.also.significant.genetic.
gains.in.growth,.feed.conversion,.backfat,.muscle.depth.and.numbers.of.piglets.born.alive...
The.average.economic.gain.resulting.from.genetic.improvement.was.$1.06.per.slaughter.pig...
n.comparison,.the.top.25%.of.herds.had.an.increase.of.$1.92.each.year.while.the.bottom.25%.
of.herds.achieved.$0.35.

When.the.likely.gross.benefits.for.new.PGBLUP.users.and.for.improved.performance.in.existing.
users.were.combined.and.subjected.to.sensitivity.analysis,.the.range.in.benefit.cost.on.the.initial.
APL.investment.was.6.5:1.to.2.4:1.




                                                                                                       5
    Project Number 2096:.          mport.risk.analysis.for.importation.of.embryos.
    Principal Investigators:.      Naomi.Cogger.et.al
    Organisation:.                 Massey.University,.New.Zealand
     .
    The.report.evaluated.the.risks.associated.with.the.potential.importation.of.zona.pellucida.intact.
    pig.embryos.from.Denmark,.Canada,.Norway,.Great.Britain.and.the.USA..The.researchers.
    evaluated.a.number.of.bacterial,.viral.and.parasitic.diseases..The.diseases.identified.as.high.risk.
    (likelihood.of.entry).were.then.subjected.to.risk.management.strategies.to.determine.if.these.
    measures.would.lower.the.risk.to.a.level.acceptable.to.Australia..n.general.the.risk.mitigation.
    measures.included.actions.such.as.collection.of.the.embryos.at.high.bio-security.facilities,.
    delaying.implantation.of.the.embryos.for.3.months.post.collection,.testing.of.donor.animals.
    and.treatment.of.the.embryos.with.trypsin..As.PMWS.has.at.this.time.no.definitive.cause;.
    the.evaluation.for.this.syndrome.was.not.carried.out..However,.pre.and.post.entry.strategies.
    for.control.of.PCV2.were.considered..The.authors.concluded.that.post.entry.treatment.of.the.
    embryos.to.remove.the.ZP.immediately.before.transfer.may.not.remove.all.viral.particles..
    (However.this.is.the.subject.of.a.number.of.published.articles.and.the.authors.conclusions.based.
    on.one.report.may.not.be.appropriate).




6
STRATEGY 3 – REDUCING SUPPLY CHAIN COSTS
Project Number 1928:.         Reducing.the.postweaning.growth.check.of.weaners.
Principal Investigator:.      Hugh.Payne
Organisation:.                Dept.Agriculture.and.Food.Western.Australia,.WA
.
Observations.and.some.overseas.research.suggest.that.piglets.reared.in.outdoor.systems.are.
more.vigorous.after.weaning.than.those.reared.in.conventional.sheds,.perhaps.due.to.a.more.
mature.gut.development.at.weaning.

Two.experiments.compared.the.health,.performance.and.aspects.of.gut.development.of..
weaners.produced.indoors.or.outdoors.and.reared.in.either.conventional.pens.or.deep-litter.
pens..Dietary.antimicrobials.were.included.in.the.weaner.diet.in.the.first.experiment.and.omitted.
in.the.second.experiment..A.third.experiment.investigated.the.effects.of.feeding.to.litters.of.
indoor.sows.in.conventional.crates.a.mixture.of.straw,.sow.feed.and.soil.(“outdoor.mix”).taken.
from.paddocks.in.which.the.outdoor.weaners.used.in.the.first.two.experiments.were.born..

Overall.the.results.showed.that.the.apparent.robustness.and.superior.post-weaning..
performance.of.piglets.produced.outdoors.reported.by.producers.are.not.caused.by.enhanced.
gut.development.and.ecology.at.weaning..Rearing.pigs.in.deep-litter.pens.increased.feed.intake.
and.growth,.but.reduced.feed.efficiency..Unidentified.factors.associated.with.outdoor.production.
and/or.deep-litter.rearing.systems.increased.dressing.percentage.and.bone.density.of..
finisher.pigs..

Of.interest.was.the.observation.that.piglets.offered.the.outdoor.mix.pre-weaning.had.higher.
serum.iron.and.blood.haemoglobin.levels.than.those.offered.no.creep.or.the.commercial.creep.
feed..Half.the.piglets.offered.no.creep.or.the.commercial.creep.feed.had.haemoglobin.levels.
indicative.of.anaemia,.despite.receiving.200.mg.iron.dextran.when.1.to.2.days.old...
The.average.parity.of.sows.used.in.this.experiment.was.6.3,.suggesting.that.piglets.may.have.
been.born.with.low.iron.stores.resulting.from.sub-optimal.mineral.nutrition.of.their.dams.


Project Number 1870:.         Quantifying.Respiratory.Disease.mpact.for.AUSPG
Principal Investigator:.      Graeme.Eamens
Organisation:.                DP,.NSW
 .
M. hyopneumoniae.alone.had.limited.impact.on.clinical.or.activity.scores,.or.on.body.
temperature.or.feed.intake,.but.it.reduced.growth.from.five.weeks.after.challenge,.with.a.
marginal.deterioration.in.feed:gain..The.growth.rate.of.pigs.in.this.group.then.paralleled.the.
controls,.but.remained.below.the.control.mean.weight..Mycoplasmosis.also.caused.a.decrease.
in.mean.P2.fat.and.a.minor.decrease.in.mean.P2.muscle,.a.minor.decrease.in.mean.%.body.fat.
(by.weight).and.a.minor.increase.in.mean.%.body.muscle.(by.weight)..

                                                                                                     7
     .
    P multocida.had.a.marked.impact.on.clinical.and.activity.scores,.on.body.temperature.and.
    feed.intake,.particularly.in.the.first.week.after.challenge..Growth.rates.were.also.more.severely.
    affected.than.M. hyopneumoniae.infection,.and.the.mean.growth.rates.of.this.group.ran.parallel.
    with.the.others,.but.mean.weights.were.consistently.below.those.of.the.Mycoplasma.group..P     .
    multocida.infection.had.its.greatest.impact.on.body.composition.in.the.subacute.phase.reducing.
    P2.fat.and.muscle,.but.had.little.impact.on.%.body.muscle.and.a.slight.reduction.in.%.body.fat.
    in.the.subacute.but.not.chronic.stage..

                                                       .
    Prior.M. hyopneumoniae.infection.at.the.time.of.P multocida.challenge.markedly.exacerbated.
                           .
    the.effects.seen.with.P multocida.challenge.alone,.with.greater.and.longer.duration.of.impact.
    on.all.parameters..These.effects.were.seen.with.reduced.feed.intake.and.increased.body.
                                                                .
    temperatures.over.the.first.2-3.weeks.after.challenge.with.P multocida,.more.severe.pneumonia.
    and.greater.effects.on.body.composition..This.group.was.consistently.the.least.active,.and.spent.
    the.least.amount.of.time.in.eating.behaviour.and.the.most.in.sleeping.behaviour...
    Pigs.with.single.or.complicated.Pasteurella.infection.spent.much.less.time.than.the.Controls.
    or.Mycoplasma-only.infected.pigs.in.non-sedentary.activities.(standing.or.walking.or.eating)..
    Combined.infection.produced.the.lowest.mean.P2.fat.and.P2.muscle.and.the.lowest.mean.%.
    body.fat.by.weight.at.both.the.subacute.and.the.chronic.disease.time-points..t.also.produced.
    the.greatest.reduction.in.body.water.and.the.highest.%.body.muscle.(by.weight).at.each.of.these.
    times..Growth.of.the.pigs.with.combined.infection.was.markedly.affected,.their.growth.curve.
    paralleled.the.other.groups,.but.mean.weekly.weights.were.always.the.lowest..

    The.infection.models.induced.mean.liveweight.reductions.at.20.weeks.of.age.of.4.kg..
    due.to.Mycoplasma,.of.10.kg.due.to.Pasteurella.and.of.16.kg.due.to.combined.infection...
    This.corresponded.to.reductions.in.mean.daily.gains.of.up.to.200.g/d.over.a.10.week.study.
    period..The.severity.of.pneumonia.(measured.by.lesion.volume.in.live.animals).in.the.subacute.
                                                                                      .
    or.chronic.stages.had.a.strong.negative.correlation.with.daily.feed.intake.after.P multocida.
    challenge,.and.a.positive.correlation.with.daily.feed:gain..When.assessed.during.the.period.after.
     .
    P multocida.challenge,.combined.infection.overall.produced.similar.feed:gain.ratios.to.those.of.
    pigs.infected.with.either.Mycoplasma.or.Pasteurella.alone,.but.this.represented.the.outcome.of.a.
    significantly.reduced.daily.feed.intake.(by.700.g/d).and.reduced.daily.weight.gain.(by.400.g/d).

    The.pneumonia.induced.by.P multocida.alone.or.in.concert.with.prior.M. hyopneumoniae
                                 .
    infection.had.adverse.impacts.on.energy.intake.and.retention,.which.also.correlated.with.lesion.
    severity..The.impact.was.more.evident.in.subacute.than.chronic.disease,.and.resulted.in.energy.
    intakes.in.grower.pigs.between.35.and.70.kg.liveweight.of.<.25.MJ/d.and.energy.retentions.of.
    <.10.MJ/d.during.the.subacute.phase..


    Project Number 2001:.         Studies.of.a.novel.agent.causing.stillbirths.&.pre-weaning.deaths.
                                  in.pigs.due.to.myocarditis
    Principal Investigator:.      Peter.Kirkland
    Organisation:.                DP,.NSW
     .
    This.project.investigated.the.cause.of.Porcine.Myocarditis.(PMC).which.occurred.in.a.pig.farm.
    in.NSW..The.putative.agent.was.identified.and.a.number.of.diagnostic.tests.were.developed..
    Further.work.on.the.agent.will.be.funded.by.the.Australian.Biosecurity.CRC.and.further.funding.
    from.APL.




8
Project Number 2019:.            Food.safety.risk.management.to.optimise.market.access
Principal Investigator:.         David.Hamilton
Organisation:.                   SARD,.SA
.
This.study.was.designed.to.continue.the.industry’s.approach.of.strategic.research.into.food.
borne.hazards.that.may.be.associated.with.the.consumption.of.pork.

The.study.reported.that.no.one.method.was.specific.enough.to.accurately.follow.a.particular.
strain.of.Salmonella.from.the.farm.through.the.abattoir.in.the.sense.of.identifying.a.strain.on.
farm.and.showing.that.it.was.the.same.strain.that.contaminated.the.carcase..Further.work.is.
being.undertaken.in.APL.Project.2132.

This.project.also.evaluated.the.efficacy.of.two.treatments.(hot.water.rinse.and.an.acidified.
sodium.chlorite.solution).to.reduce.carcase.contamination.within.an.abattoir..Both.approaches.
were.found.to.significantly.reduce.the.level.of.contamination..This.finding.will.have.immediate.
application.within.an.abattoir.to.reduce.the.risk.of.contamination.by.E.coli.and.Salmonella.

This.study.also.updated.information.on.the.sero-prevalence.of.Toxoplasma gondii.in.finishing.
pigs.using.the.national.pig.sera.data.bank..The.sero-prevalence.was.found.to.be.4.6%.and.
this.translates.to.a.possible.sero-prevalence.of.40-50%.in.sows..T. gondii.is.a.potential.zoonotic.
disease.and.appropriate.control.measures.are.needed.to.avoid.human.infection.


Project Number 2020:.            Development.of.Practical.AQ.ndex,.HACCP.and.SOPs
Principal Investigator:.         Thomas.Banhazi
Organisation:.                   SARD,.SA
.
A.previously.acquired.dataset.(air.and.environmental.quality.related.information.collected.in.
160.individual.piggery.buildings.over.two.years).was.used.to.develop.the.model..

Altogether.17.models.were.developed.(using.a.general.linear.modelling.approach).to.explain.
the.variation.observed.in.the.concentrations.and.emissions.of.all.key.airborne.pollutants.(such.
as.ammonia,.carbon.dioxide,.airborne.bacteria,.respirable.endotoxins,.inhalable.and.respirable.
particles).as.well.as.environmental.parameters,.such.as.air.temperature,.relative.humidity.and.
ventilation.rates..After.the.identification.of.statistically.important.factors.for.individual.pollutants,.
these.risk.factors.identified.were.pooled.into.a.“combined”.internal.concentration,.ventilation.
and.emission.prediction.model..The.combined.model.predicts.the.likely.internal.concentrations,.
ventilation.and.emission.rates.based.on.engineering.and.management.features.of.the.piggery.
buildings.without.the.need.to.conduct.expensive.measurements..

The.development.of.the.models.resulted.in.two.major.benefits..First,.after.the.identification.of.
statistically.significant.factors,.their.better.management.could.lead.to.improvement.in.air.quality.
inside.and.outside.of.piggery.buildings..Second,.an.easy-to-use.prediction.tool.was.developed,.
which.could.reduce.the.need.for.expensive.air.quality.measurements.on.site..




                                                                                                             9
     STRATEGY 4 – CONTRACTS AND MEASUREMENT
     SYSTEMS
     Project Number 2097:.          Review.of.Pig.Marketing.Contract.Arrangements
     Principal Investigators:.      John.Riley.et.al
     Organisation:.                 AS.Management.Services,.QLD
      .
     APL.strategic.plan.aims.to.increase.fresh.pork.consumption,.increase.export.opportunities.and.
     improve.returns.for.producers..To.successfully.achieve.this.outcome,.collaboration.between.all.
     sectors.of.the.pork.supply.chain.is.essential..

     This.project.surveyed.98.producers,.3.sale.yard.operators,.15.processors.and.a.retailer.on.their.
     respective.marketing.practices.and.future.direction.

     Most.of.the.farms.in.the.survey.were.marketing.bacon.weight.pigs.(average.74.kg.carcase).and.
     selling.directly.to.the.processor.(65%.of.the.farms)..Across.Australia,.the.most.common.type.of.
     contract.used.to.sell.bacon.pigs.was.Supply.Agreements.(see.Table.below)...
     .
         Type of contract                                                  Percentage
         Supply.Agreement                                                      40
         Spot.price.                                                           26
         Risk.Sharing.                                                         26
         Fixed.price                                                            8

      .
     While.there.were.state.differences.in.relation.to.future.sales.policy,.the.overall.indication.was.
     that.Supply.Agreements.will.be.the.preferred.type.of.contract.sort.by.both.bacon.and.pork.
     producers..The.main.changes.producers.would.like.to.make.to.contracts.were.more.flexibility.
     in.weight.and.back.fat.range,.reward.for.lean.meat.yield,.traceability.and.quality.assurance.
     conformity.

     nformation.supplied.by.the.15.processors.showed.that.65%.of.bacon.pigs.produced.was.bought.
     under.contract.–.Vic..had.the.highest.figure.at.95%..Processors.are.looking.for.consistency.in.
     supply.and.quality.when.buying.pigs.

     The.retailer.interviewed,.Woolworths,.has.an.accreditation.policy.for.processors.to.be.eligible.to.
     be.a.supplier..




10
STRATEGY 5 – ENSURING INDUSTRY CAPACITY
Project Number 1800.69::.      The.use.of.Feedcheque.to.improve.efficiency.of.on-farm..
                               diet.preparation
Principal Investigator:.       Sara.Willis
Organisation:.                 DP&F,.QLD
.
The.objective.of.this.Producer.nnovation.Award.was.to.improve.the.efficiency.and.accuracy.of.
on-farm.diet.preparation.practices.for.the.nine.participating.farms..

One.of.the.key.issues.identified.by.this.study.was.the.lack.of.understanding.in.the.differences.
which.exist.in.protein.reporting..That.is;

i). the.different.conversion.factors.used.by.the.different.testing.laboratories.to.convert.grain.
    nitrogen.per.cent.to.grain.protein.per.cent.(two.values.commonly.used.-.5.7.or.6.35%),.and.

ii). use.of.both.as-fed.basis.and.dry.matter.basis.to.report.on.protein.value..

t.is.important.that.producers.understand.the.differences.because.reported.protein.results.may.
vary.considerably.simply.because.they.were.calculated.differently.by.the.different.users..And.
such.an.oversight.may.impact.significantly.on.pig.performance.

n.addition,.sampling.techniques,.mixing.time.and.weighing.micro-ingredients.accurately.were.
further.issues.producers.need.to.consider..The.recommendations.for.these.issues.are.covered.in.
the.final.report.

Project Number 1800.70:.       The.effect.of.providing.chilled.water.to.lactating.sows
Principal Investigators:.      Sara.Willis.and.Gary.Collman
Organisation:.                 DP.&.F,.QLD
 .
A.main.focus.in.farrowing.sheds.is.maximising.feed.intake..Strategies.such.as.feeding.several.
times.daily,.feeding.a.palatable.diet.and.feeding.wet.feed.are.often.used.to.improve.feed.intake..
However,.water.temperature.is.rarely.considered.even.though.it.could.result.in.sows.consuming.
less.water.and.eating.less.feed..Cool.drinking.water.temperatures.would.be.expected.to.lead.to.
sows.eating.more.and.producing.more.milk.for.the.litter:.resulting.in.higher.weaning.weights.
and.possibly.lower.pre-weaning.mortality.rates.




                                                                                                     11
     This.project.was.conducted.at.the.University.of.Queensland,.Gatton.Campus.piggery.during.the.
     summer.of.2005-2006.(December.2005.to.April.2006)..The.trial.consisted.of.four.replications.
     of.two.treatments:.one.with.drinking.water.cooled.to.approximately.20oC.and.the.other.with.
     uncooled.water..

     The.results.of.this.project.suggest.there.is.potential.for.using.cooled.drinking.water.to.stimulate.
     feed.intake.and.to.improve.sow.and.litter.performance.(see.Table.1).

     Table 1..    The.effect.of.chilled.drinking.water.on.sow.and.pig.performance.in.lactation.
                  between.November.–.April.06

                                                                 Uncooled        Cooled
      Av.drinking.water.temperature.(oC)                              25.4         21.4
      No.sows                                                           80            80
      Total.feed.offered.(kg)                                       146.6         155.9      (p=0.015)
      Feed.offered.(kg/d)                                             5.64         5.87
      Water.disappearance.(L/sow/day)                                   29            34
      Sow.weight.loss.farrowing.to.weaning.(kg)                       9.00          8.77
      Average.piglet.weaning.weight.(kg)                              8.10          8.27
      Av.piglet.weight.gained.from.start.to.weaning.(kg)              6.50         6.70      (p=0.200)
      Pre.weaning.mortality.(%)                                       10.0         7.50      (p=0.151)
      .
     One.of.the.cheapest.options.for.providing.chilled.drinking.water.is.to.use.a.second-hand..
     milk.vat.at.a.cost.of.approx.$1/L..A.2,000L.milk.vat.would.supply.a.500.sow.piggery.and..
     cost.about.$3,800.-.operating.costs.are.additional..A.cost.of.$3,800.for.a.500.sow.piggery..
     (i.e..85.farrowing.pens).amounts.to.$45/sow.place..Table.2.shows.the.improvement.in.
     performance.obtained.from.the.trial.and.its.corresponding.improvement.in.profit..

     Table 2..    mprovement.in.performance.and.corresponding.profit.improvement.by.supplying.
                  cooled.drinking.water.during.the.summer.months

                                                                         .
                                                    mprovement.in.profit.                               .
                                                                                    mprovement.in.profit.
                                                             ($/sow/yr)*                   ($/summer)*
      2.5%.reduction.in.pre-weaning.                                  49                           6,125
      mortalirty
      0.2kg.increase.in.weaning.weight                                20                           2,500
      1.less.empty.day                                                  8                          1,000

     *.includes.cost.of.additional.feed.(0.23.kg/d)




12
Project Number 1932:.          Development.of.an.off-the-shelf.training.module.for.outdoor.herds.
                               -.gilt.&.dry.sow.management
Principal Investigators:.      Simon.Macgugan.&.Tony.Fahy
Organisation:.                 DP,.VC
 .
This.manual.has.been.developed.specifically.for.Australian.outdoor.pig.production.to.assist.in.
the.training.of.piggery.staff.and.others.servicing.the.outdoor.pork.production.industry.


Project Number 1993:.          The.development.and.evaluation.of.a.multi-media.educational.
                               program.on.pork.farming.for.primary.schools
Principal Investigator:.       Margaret.Hay
Organisation:.                 Monash.University,.VC
.
Educating.pre-adolescents.about.pig.farming.is.important.to.the.sustainability.of.the.Australian.
pork.industry,.providing.the.necessary.basis.for.well-informed.debate.about.human.health,.
environmental.and.animal.welfare.issues.over.the.next.several.decades..

This.project.developed.and.evaluated.the.learning.outcomes.of.an.educational.program.on..
pig.farming.and.food.production.in.multimedia.and.book.form.for.middle.to.senior.primary.
school.children.

The.evaluation.aspect.of.this.project.confirmed.that.good.learning.outcomes.were.achieved.
about.pig.farming.and.processing.by.the.students.who.took.part.in.the.study..The.children.
expressed.a.great.deal.of.enjoyment.in.completing.the.program.particularly.the.multi-media.
aspects.of.the.program.and.its.‘real.life’.depiction.of.commercial.pig.farming..They.also.
expressed.a.desire.for.excursion-type.activities.to.extend.their.learning.about.pig.farming.and.
processing.beyond.the.classroom..nterestingly,.the.children’s.views.regarding.the.abattoir.and.
slaughter.aspects.of.the.program.were.paradoxical..On.the.one.hand,.several.disliked.this.
aspect,.yet.these.same.children.requested.more.of.this.type.of.content.

Project Number 2005:.          The.effectiveness.of.an.Ecomax.system.in.removing.nutrients.from.
                               piggery.effluent
Principal Investigator:.       Chris.Keene
Organisation:.                 Producer,.WA
 .
This.producer.innovation.study.evaluated.the.effectiveness.of.the.Ecomax.system.for.the.
treatment.of.piggery.wastewater.

The.Ecomax.System.was.originally.designed.to.reduce.nitrogen.(N).and.phosphorus.(P).from.
domestic.wastewater..Waste.water.is.directed.through.a.triangular.structure.wrapped.in.a.porous.
fabric.that.is.surrounded.by.red-mud,.a.by-product.of.alumina.refining.with.a.high.phosphorus.
absorption.capacity..The.system.is.contained.within.a.plastic.liner.so.that.treated.water.can.
be.collected.for.re-use..After.consultation.with.the.manufacturer.and.the.WA.Department.of.
Agriculture.and.Food,.a.pilot.system.to.treat.1500.litres.per.day.from.a.secondary.treatment.
pond.was.built.to.test.its.effectiveness.in.treating.piggery.wastewater.which.contains.up.to.ten.
times.more.nutrients.than.domestic.waste.water..

Based.on.the.results.shown.in.Table.1,.the.Ecomax.system.theoretically.would.reduce.the.land.
area.require.for.sustainable.land.application.in.this.highly.sensitive.location.by.28%.for.nitrogen.
and.93%.for.phosphorus.

                                                                                                       13
     Table 1:.    Ecomax.effectiveness.rate.in.removing.contaminants

      Waste water
                                          n-flow.(mg/l)       Out-flow.(mg/l)     Reduction.rate.(%)
      Suspended.solids                             726                    264                     63
      BOD                                          244                     67                     73
      Total.phosphorus                               48                   3.5                     93
      Total.nitrogen                               700                   501                      28


     At.current.values,.an.Ecomax.system.for.1000.SPUs.producing.10,000.litres.of.waste.water.per.
     day.would.cost.about.$47,000,.or.an.annual.cost.of.$3,760.(depreciation.+.interest).over.a.20.
     year.lifespan..The.study.concluded.that.while.the.Exomax.system.significantly.reduced.nutrients.
     in.piggery.waste.water,.further.evaluation.was.required.on.a.larger.system.more.specifically.
     designed.for.piggery.wastewater.needs.to.determine.the.optimum.size,.analysis.variations,..
     shock.loading.capabilities.and.re-use.possibilities.




14
STRATEGY 6 – MANAGING RISKS FOR
SUSTAINAbILITY
Project Number 1969:.          Guidelines.for.the.Use.of.Spent.Deep-Litter.Bedding.Effluent
Principal Investigator:.       Eugene.McGahan
Organisation:.                 FSA.Consulting,.QLD
 .
Deep-litter.production.systems.have.become.a.significant.part.of.the.Australian.pig.industry.in.
recent.years..Substantial.quantities.of.manure/bedding.mixture.(spent.bedding).are.produced.at.
sites.with.deep-litter.sheds..

This.project.has.developed.best.practice.guidelines.for.spent.bedding.management.within.the.
Australian.pig.industry.and.includes:

1.. A.review.of.current.industry.practice,.presented.as.a.series.of.case.studies.findings.

2.. Data.on.the.composition.of.spent.bedding.-.fresh,.stockpiled,.and.composted..

3.. Data.on.odour.emissions.from.different.beddings.and.management.systems..

4.. A.comparison.of.nutrient.availability.in.spent.bedding.compared.to.that.of.inorganic.fertiliser..

5.. An.evaluation.of.composting,.versus.stockpiling.and.immediate.land.application..

6.. Guidelines.for.the.management.and.application.of.spent.bedding,.including:.
    a.. a.costs-benefit.analysis.of.different.management.approaches.
    b.. technical.and.practical.information.regarding.selection.of.site,.materials.and.machinery..
    .   and.site.preparation.required.
    c.. the.value.of.spent.bedding.relative.to.chemical.fertiliser.

The.report.also.noted.that.to.maximise.the.nitrogen.value.of.bedding.it.should.be.applied.to.
crops.directly.from.the.sheds.or.after.stockpiling.to.maximise.ammonia.retention..

Composting.for.bedding.for.offsite.use.has.the.advantages.of.volume.reduction,.and.minimises.
the.risk.of.odour.nuisance,.pathogen.and.weed.transfer..




                                                                                                        15
     Project Number 1763:.          Monitoring.for.Land.Application.of.Effluent
     Principal Investigators:.      Matt.Redding
     Organisation:.                 DP&F,.QLD
      .
     The.report.outlines.a.monitoring.approach.for.land.application.areas.based.on.the.use.of.
     lysimeters.rather.than.soil.sampling..Lysimeters.capture.soil.moisture.and.hence.can.provide.a.
     better.indication.of.environmental.risk.to.groundwater.bodies..

     Studies.indicated.that.current.protocols.are.likely.to.return.inaccurate.monitoring.results.
     by.as.much.as.20.%.from.real.paddock.values..The.lysimeter.protocol.is.designed.to.meet/
     improve.this.level.of.accuracy.and.save.on-going.monitoring.cost.by.around.60.%.of.some.
     current.sampling.recommendations..This.allows.the.initial.installation.cost.for.the.system.to.be.
     recovered.within.4.-.5.years.of.operation.(depending.on.the.selected.installation.configuration).

     Supporting.the.finding.on.scientific.certainty.and.validity.are.a.number.of.statistical.analyses.of.
     the.variability.of.soil.and.soil.water.monitoring..These.results.are.also.relevant.to.understanding.
     uncertainty.involved.in.manure.management.plans.and.result.from.monitoring.re-use.areas..

     The.final.report.includes.a.manual.“Environmental monitoring for effluent application areas
     by piggery managers: A draft for discussion and demonstration”.in.its.Appendix..This.manual..
     is.a.simplified,.step.by.step.guide.to.using.the.alternative.monitoring.protocol..This.new..
     protocol.combines.soil.sampling.with.soil.water.monitoring,.and.claims.substantial.cost.and.
     accuracy.advantages..




16
CURRENT PROJECTS




STRATEGY 1 – INCREASING FRESH PORK DEMAND
Project Number: 2168.          dentifying.potential.microbiological.risks.associated.with.moisture.
                               infused.pork.production

Project objectives:

To.conduct.a.comprehensive.literature.review.with.regard.to.US.and.European.experience.
with.food.safety.issues.of.moisture.infused.pork..This.information.will.be.distributed.to.industry.
to.detail.future.opportunities.for.this.product.category.and.also.used.to.determine.whether.
moisture.infused.(M).Pork.Certification.Standards.for.processors.need.to.be.updated.to.address.
potential.food.safety.risks.of.M.pork.

Completion date:.30/06/2007


Project Number: 2169.          Development.of.effective.tempering.methods.for.moisture.infused.
                               pork.primals.to.optimise.yield,.cut.quality.and.shelf.life.

Project objectives:

This.project.will.investigate.the.development.of.effective.tempering.methods.for.moisture.infused.
pork.primals.to.optimise.yield,.cut.quality.and.shelf.life.

Completion date:.30/04/2008

Project Number: 2170.          mplementation.of.an.in-line.forming.solution.to.produce.pork.
                               mince,.meat.balls.and.patties

Project objectives:

This.project.will.investigate.the.development.and.implementation.of.a.new.in-line.mince.forming.
solution.to.produce.pork.mince,.meat.balls.and.patties.packaged.in.case.ready.packaging.for.
the.retail.sector.

Completion date:.29/02/2008




                                                                                                       17
     Project Number: 2171.          Optimising.chilling.systems.to.consistently.produce.high..
                                    quality.pork

     Project objectives:

     •. Determine.optimised.chilling.regimes.for.specific.plants.and.chillers.that.improve.pork.meat.
        quality.over.existing.chiller.management.practices..

     •. dentify.what.successful.chilling.factors.and.management.practices.can.be.applied.as.rules.of.
        thumb.to.other.plants.and.chillers..

     •. dentify.new.chilling.and/or.packaging.technologies.that.can.improve.consistency.of.pork.
        quality.and.processing.costs.within.existing.Australian.abattoirs..

     •. To.deliver.information.and.research.findings.through.participant.workshops.to.assist.
        commercial.decision-making.on.best-practice.chilling.methods.in.individual.abattoirs.

     Completion date:.04/03/2008

     Project Number: 2172.          Development.of.cooking.methods.to.consistently.produce.high.
                                    quality.crackling.of.moisture.infused.pork

     Project objectives:

     •. Develop.methods.to.consistently.produce.high.quality.crackling.on.rind-on.moisture.infused.
        pork.roasts.(cooked.and.uncooked).

     •. Develop.and.optimise.methods.to.consistently.produce.flavoured.moisture.infused.pork.roasts.
        with.appropriate.flavour.and.intensity.

     •. mprove.the.sensory.quality.of.cold,.pre-cooked.pork.products.

     Completion date:.30/01/2008

     Project Number: 2173.          Development.of.arrange.of.pork.meal.solutions.packaged.in..
                                    cook-in.trays

     Project objectives:

     This.project.will.investigate.the.development.of.a.range.of.meal.solutions.that.are.packaged.
     in.portion.controlled.dual.ovenable.packs,.for.either.food.service.or.retail.applications.and.will.
     include.both.fresh.and.pre-cooked.products.

     Completion date:.30/09/2007

     Project Number: 2174.          Development.of.pre-cooked.Pork.Hock.and.Belly.products


     Project objectives:

     This.project.will.investigate.the.use.of.retort.packaging.systems.to.produce.flavoured.M,..
     pre-cooked.shelf.stable.pork.hock.and.belly.products.for.food.service.and.retail.markets.

     Completion date:.30/11/2007


18
Project Number: 2175.         Frozen.moisture.infused.pork.–.review.of.storage,.thawing.and.
                              cooking.conditions.on.product.quality

Project objectives:

This.project.will.evaluate.the.quality.of.moisture.infused.pork.steaks.from.various.storage.
methods.(chilled,.vacuum,.gas-flushed,.frozen/thawed).and.cooked.under.various.methods.
(grilled,.steam/baked).

Completion date:.30/05/2007

Project Number: 2178.         Development.and.implementation.of.ready-to-cook,.case.ready.
                              poached.pork.products.with.a.surface.crust.gourmet.pork.sausage.
                              range.for.the.retail.sector

Project objectives:

This.project.will.investigate.the.development.and.implementation.of.new.ready-to.cook,.case.
ready.poached.pork.products.and.a.gourmet.sausage.range.for.the.retail.sector.

Completion date:.31/07/2007

Project Number: 2179.         Development.of.new.value.added.product.ideas.for.ribs.and.
                              bellies.tailored.to.the.supermarket.and.food.services

Project objectives:

This.project.is.focussed.on.developing.new.value.added.product.ideas.for.ribs.and.bellies.that.
are.suitable.to.both.the.food.service.and.retail.sectors..

Completion date:.03/11/2007




                                                                                                  19
     STRATEGY 2 – INCREASING CARCASE vALUE
     Project Number: 1815.         Characterisation.of.the.PC.genotype.for.AUSPG


     Project Objectives:

     1.. Record.food.intake,.live.weight,.backfat.thickness.and.eye-muscle.area.at.intervals.of.one.
         week.in.27.pigs.(entire.males,.surgically-castrated.males.and.females).derived.from.PC.
         genotypes.and.maintained.in.individual.pens.from.25.to.150.kg.live.weight.

     2.. Conduct.CAT–scan.measurements.of.muscle,.bone.fat.and.water.content.on.the.same.
         animals.in.(2).at.30,.60,.90,.120.and.150.kg.live.weight.

     3.. Record.food.intake,.live.weight,.backfat.thickness.and.eyemuscle.area.at.intervals.of.one.
         week.in.45.pigs.(entire.males,.surgically-castrated.males.and.females).derived.from.PC.
         genotypes.and.maintained.in.individual.pens.from.25.to.150.kg.live.weight.

     Completion date:.30/06/2007


     Project number: 2011.         mproved.efficacy.of.non-surgical.transfer.of.fresh.and..
                                   frozen.embryos
     Project objectives:

     1.. Definition.of.the.optimum.stage.of.fresh.embryos.(compacting.morulae.(2.5-3.days),.
         morulae/blastocyst.(4-5.days),.hatching.blastocysts(6-7.days)).for.use.with.non-surgical.
         embryo.transfer.catheters.

     2.. Definition.of.the.optimum.placement.site.for.embryos.using.non-surgical.techniques.

     3.. Definition.of.the.optimum.number.of.embryos.required.for.maximum.pregnancy.rates.and.
         pigs.born.alive.using.non-surgical.techniques,.and.the.optimum.holding.conditions.for.fresh.
         embryos.prior.to.transfer.

     4.. Adaption.of.procedures.developed.for.non-surgical.embryo.transfer.of.fresh.embryos.for.use.
         with.cryopreserved.embryos.

     5.. Documented.procedures.for.non-surgical.embryo.transfer.in.a.practical.manual.for.use.by.
         the.Australian.pig.industry..

     Completion date:.01/07/2007




20
STRATEGY 3 – REDUCING SUPPLY CHAIN COSTS
Project Number: 1938.           High.fibre.diets.to.feed.dry.sows.ad.libitum


Project Objectives:

1.. dentify.and.characterise.the.fibre.sources.that.can.be.used.as.a.diluent.for.ad.libitum.
    feeding.of.dry.sows.

2.. dentify.the.physical.and.chemical.characteristics.as.indictors.for.screening.fibre.sources.for.
    dry.sow.feeds.

3.. Formulate.and.test.diets.that.control.feed.intake.and.energy.intake.under.ad.libitum.feeding.
    of.individual.and.group.housed.dry.sows.

4.. Develop.strategies.of.feeding.fibrous.materials.to.dry.sows.housed.in.eco-shelter.

5.. A.research.report.to.APL.detailing.the.nutritional.values.of.fibrous.feeds.and.the.benefits.
    of.feeding.dry.sows.ad.libitum.under.different.housing.systems.(e.g..group-housing.and.
    individual.pens).

Completion date:.30/04/2007


Project Number: 2012.           Nutritional.strategies.to.minimise.the.influence.of.bedding.
                                material.consumption.on.growth.efficiency

Project objectives:

Consumption.of.deep.litter.material.by.pigs.housed.in.deep-litter.housing.systems.is.thought.to.
reduce.the.efficiency.of.nutrient.utilisation.and.subsequent.production.efficiency,.but.the.extent.
of.this.is.yet.to.be.quantified.

The.five.main.objectives.of.this.project.will.be:

1.. Definition.of.the.upper.level.of.bedding.material.intake.by.pigs.housed.in.commercial.deep-
    litter.systems.accounting.for.an.increase.in.the.level.of.bedding.material.fouling.over.time.

2.. Definition.of.the.increase.in.ad libitum intake.in.formulated.diet.consumption.when.pigs.
    consume.a.proportion.of.their.diet.as.bedding.material.

3.. Quantification.of.the.effect.of.bedding.material.intake.on.the.digestibility.of.other..
    dietary.nutrients.



                                                                                                       21
     4.. Development.of.nutritional.strategies.to.compensate.for.the.consequences.of.bedding.
         material.consumption.by.pigs.housed.in.deep.litter.systems.

     5.. Validation.of.remedial.diet.formulation.and.feeding.strategies.in.commercial.deep.litter.
         production.systems.and.recommendations.to.commercial.producers.

     Completion date:.01/07/2008


     Project Number: 2017.           Digestion.&.utilisation.of.nutrients.in.new.pearl.millet.hydrids.
                                     when.fed.to.growing.pigs

     Project objectives:

     Recent.experiments.by.plant.breeders.from.the.Department.of.Primary.ndustries.&.Fisheries,.
     Queensland.have.established.pearl.millet.yields.of.4.tonnes/ha..and.because.it.has.a.short.
     growing.period.as.well.as.not.being.affected.by.ergot.and.diseases,.it.opens.up.options.for.
     managing.grain.growers’.risks.

     This.project.will.identify.Australian.bred.varieties.of.pearl.millet.with.greatest.potential.and.
     importance.to.the.pig.and.grain.industries.

     Completion date:.30/05/2007


     Project Number: 1824.           Porcine.circovirus.infections.in.the.Australian.pig.herd


     Project Objectives:

     1.. To.undertake.surveillance.for.suspected.and.possible.cases.of.Post-weaning.Multisystemic.
         Wasting.Syndrome.(PMWS),.Porcine.Dermatitis.and.Nephropathy.Syndrome.(PDNS).and.
         congenital.tremors.from.10.properties.

     2.. For.the.duration.of.the.project,.to.maintain.surveillance.on.the.characteristics.of.strains.of.
         PCV.detected.in.Australia.

     3.. To.confirm.whether.strains.of.PCV-2.present.in.Australia.are.potentially.capable.of.producing.
         PMWS.in.conjunction.with.co-factors.existing.in.Australia,.particularly.concurrent.PCV.and.
         porcine.parvovirus.infection.

     4.. To.confirm.whether.strains.of.PCV-2.present.in.Australia.are.potentially.capable.of.producing.
         PMWS.in.conjunction.with.cofactors.existing.in.Australia,.particularly.the.administration.of.
         bacterial.(E. coli).and.mycoplasma.vaccines.during.PCV.infection.

     Completion date:.30/05/2007




22
Project Number: 2014.           The.relationship.between.sow.water.intake.during.gestation.and.
                                reproductive.and.lactation.performance

Project objectives:

Water.is.a.critical.nutrient.for.pigs.-.especially.for.sows.during.gestation.and.lactation...
This.project.aims.to:

1.. Examine.the.relationships.between.water.intake.in.gestation.and.reproductive.performance.
    of.sows.(farrowing.rate,.litter.birthweight.and.litter.size)

2.. Examine.the.relationships.between.gestational.water.intake.and:.(1).subsequent.lactation.
    feed.intake.and.(2).subsequent.pre-weaning.growth.performance

3.. Determine.the.incidence.of.urinary.tract.infections.that.arise.during.gestation.and.relate.this.
    to.gestation.water.intake

4.. Develop.strategies.for.increasing.water.intake.in.sows

Completion date:.01/07/2007




                                                                                                       23
     STRATEGY 4 – CONTRACTS AND MEASUREMENT
     SYSTEMS
     Project number: 2165.         CT.development.and.new.ultrasound.technology.to.predict..
                                   belly.yield

     Project objectives:

     •. Explore.existing.Windows-based.software.packages.as.a.tool.to.store.and.transfer.computer.
        tomography.(CT).cross-sectional.images.

     •. Test.the.precision.of.the.new.ultrasound.technology.to.predict.CT.side.and.belly.yield.

     •. Conduct.a.retrospective.analysis.of.90.carcases.which.were.CT.scanned.and..
        serially-slaughtered.at.30,.60,.90,.120.and.150kg.live.weight.during.APL.project.1815..
        Measurements.will.include.belly.lean.yield.percentage.and.muscle/fat.content.in.the.fat..
        pad.region.

     Completion date:.30/05/2007


     Project Number: 2166.         ndustry.Cooperative.nnovative.Program


     Project objectives:

     To.develop.a.robust.commercial.grade.software.for.ultrasound.carcase.measurement.system..

     Completion date:.07/03/2008




24
STRATEGY 5 – ENSURING INDUSTRY CAPACITY
Project Number: 1993.          Distribution.and.uptake.of.the.Pork.ndustry.Educational.Program.
                               in.Victorian.primary.schools

Project objectives:

This.project.aims.to.roll.out.the.Pork.ndustry.Educational.Program.(PEP).developed.last.year.to.
Victorian.primary.schools..The.aims.of.the.roll.out.strategy.are.as.follows:

1.. To.achieve.uptake.of.the.PEP.in.a.minimum.number.of.200.Victorian.primary.schools.across.
    the.state,.in.both.metropolitan.and.rural.areas.

2.. To.encourage.implementation.of.the.full.10.week.program.across.the.school.year,.either.as.a.
    sequential.10.week.course.or.as.topic-based,.individual.sessions.

The.lessons.learnt.from.this.rollout.will.be.employed.for.the.national.rollout.later.this.year.

Completion date:.30/05/2007

Project Number: 2015.          A.‘Measure.to.Manage”.toolkit.for.improving.herd.feed.
                               conversion.efficiency

Project objectives:

One.of.the.key.issues.facing.the.Australian.pork.industry.is.herd.feed.conversion.efficiency...
This.project.aims.to.assist.producers.improve.their.piggeries.feed.conversion.by.unifying.APL’s.
current.publications.and.research.into.a.practical.pocket.guide.for.daily.use.in.piggeries..
The.“pig.proof”.pocket.guide.will.contain.decision.trees.for.each.of.the.cost.centres.and.be.
referenced.to.current.APL.manuals.to.help.producers.make.informed.management.decisions..
The.guide.will.also.include.a.disk/CD.to.help.producers.collect.and.analyse.their.farm.data.

Completion date:.11/05/2007

Project Number: 2074.          Demonstration.and.evaluation.of.the.Werribee.Farrowing.Pen,.
                               modified.for.use.in.low-cost.shelters

Project objectives:

1.. To.demonstrate.the.use.of.Werribee.Farrowing.Pens.in.a.low-cost.shelter.

2.. To.compare.sow.productivity.in.Werribee.Farrowing.Pens.in.a.low-cost.shelter.versus.
    farrowing.crates.in.conventional,.environmentally.controlled.accommodation.

Completion date:.30/09/2007
                                                                                                     25
     Project Number: 2094.         Field.trial.of.pig.stockperson.selection


     Project objectives:

     At.present.approximately.50%.of.newly.recruited.pig.stockpeople.leave.the.job.within.6.months.
     of.recruitment..This.results.in.substantial.costs.to.the.industry.in.terms.of.recruitment.costs,.
     training.costs,.possible.lost.production.and.general.stability.and.morale.of.the.workforce...
     This.project.will.test.the.effectiveness.of.the.Stockperson.Selection.kit.in.assisting.piggery.
     managers/owners.select.and.train.new.staff..

     Completion date: 31/05/2007


     Project Number: 2100.14.      Enhanced.consistency.and.suspension.of.feed.particles.in.liquid.
                                   feeding.systems

     Project objectives:

     Liquid.feeding.has.the.potential.to.improve.production.efficiency.in.Australian.pig.rearing.
     systems.through.enhanced.nutrient.availability.and.a.greater.capacity.to.match.diet.
     specifications.to.pig.requirements..However,.separation.of.feed.particles.and.a.lack.of.
     homogeneity.in.the.diets.delivered.to.pigs.is.limiting.the.potential.of.these.systems.and.is.
     negating.any.of.the.other.benefits.that.may.be.conferred.through.their.use..This.commercial.
     validation.award.aims.to:

     1.. mprove.production.efficiency.in.liquid.feeding.systems.by.enhancing.the.consistency.and.
         suspension.of.feed.particles.

     2.. Define.a.chemical.and/or.mechanical.method.that.can.be.applied.to.any.liquid.feeding.
         system.to.enhance.the.suspension.of.feed.particles.when.mash.feed.is.mixed.with.water.prior.
         to.delivery.

     3.. Quantify.improvements.in.production.efficiency.arising.from.more.consistent.feed.delivery.

     Completion date:.30/05/2007

     Project Number: 2100.17.      Managing.WorkCover.seminars


     Project objectives:

     This.Producer.nnovation.Award’s.objectives.are.to.provide:.

     1.. Pig.producers.with.background.knowledge.in.managing.WorkCover.claims.

     2.. Pig.producer.with.a.kit.of.practical.tips.and.tools.for.managing.WorkCover.claims..

     3.. Pig.producers.a.network.with.other.pig.producers.and.professionals.in.human.resource.and.
         WorkCover.management.

     Completion date: 31/08/2007




26
Project Number: 2100.35.      ncreasing.profitability.through.modelling.and.optimisation


Project objectives:

The.objectives.of.this.Producer.nnovation.Award.is.to:

•. To.familiarise.producers.with.the.concepts.of.optimisation.and.modeling.as.decision-making.
   tools.and.to.create.a.structured.opportunity.with.expert.resources.for.them.to.apply.the.tools.
   to.their.own.enterprise.

•. To.enhance.producers.knowledge,.skill.and.ease.with.understanding.and.managing.the.
   interrelationships.between.physical.and.financial.performance.of.their.business.through.
   benchmarking.within.and.between.participating.farms.

•. To.create.a.simple.template.for.producer.group.performance.and.financial.benchmarking.
   that.lends.itself.to.both.ongoing.producer.collaboration.within.a.group,.and.uptake.by.other.
   interested.producer.groups.

Completion date:.30/12/2007

Project Number: 2102.         Target.25



Project objectives:

Little.improvement.has.been.seen.in.the.breeding.herd.performance.of.Australian.pig.herd...
The.project.aims.to.address.by.involving.both.the.advanced.training.of.breeding.herd.staff.and.
the.use.of.consultants.to.help.identify.problems.&.develop.solutions.on.a.farm.by.farm.basis.

Completion date:.31/05/2009


Project Number: 2154.         Providing.chilled.water.to.lactating.sows.using.a.modified.milk.vat


Project objectives:

The.objective.of.this.Group.Demonstration.Award.is.to.evaluate.the.effectiveness.of.milk.vats.to.
provide.cool.water.to.lactating.sows.and.the.effects.of.the.cool.water.on.sow.feed.consumption,.
sow.body.condition,.sow.fertility.and.piglet.growth.rates..

Completion date:.01/07/2007




                                                                                                     27
     Project Number: 2164.          Updating.Prohand


     Project objectives:

     The.aim.in.this.project.is.to.revise.the.existing.multimedia.program.“ProHand”.to:

     1.. Accommodate.changes.in.farm.size.

     2.. ncorporate.new/alternative.housing.systems.

     3.. nclude.information.about.management.of.A.units.and.handling.A.Boars.

     4.. nclude.information.on.pig.behaviour.characteristics.–.including.‘animals.at.risk’.surveillance.

     5.. Provide.links.to.the.National.Competencies.and.RTOs,.including.OH&S.principle.

     Completion date:.28/08/2008




28
STRATEGY 6 – MANAGING RISKS FOR
SUSTAINAbILITY
Project Number: 2013.          dentification.&.prevalence.of.antimicrobial.resistance.genes.in.
                               pigs.at.slaughter

Project objectives:

Public.health.concern.has.arisen.over.the.potential.for.antimicrobial.resistance.genes.(ARGs).
to.transfer.from.food.producing.animals,.particularly.intensively.raised.livestock.such.as.pigs.via.
food.and.environmental.contamination.

The.project.aims.to;

1). dentify.ARGs.in.MDR.E. coli,.enterococci.and.Salmonella.isolated.from.Australian.pigs;

2). Develop.and.validate.multiplex.PCR/HGMF.methodology.to.identify.ARGs.of.public.health.
    significance.and.

3). Measure.ARG.prevalence.in.the.gastrointestinal.tract.of.pigs.at.slaughter.and.identify.on.
    farm.risk.factors.associated.with.high.ARG.prevalence.

Completion date:.01/11/2007


Project Number: 2109.          Evaluation.and.application.of.PCR.tests.for.M.hyopneumonia


Project Objectives:

•. dentify.current.and.published.PCR.methods.and.review.literature.to.determine.limitations.

•. Select.and.evaluate.PCR.methods.on.reliable.culture.sources.and.field.isolations.of..
   M. hyopneumoniae.from.abattoir.samples.

•. Access.materials.from.herds.of.high.and.low.health.status,.and.use.these.to.compare.four.
   PCR.methods.on.nasal.swabs.and.lung.lesions,.and.relate.to.herd.seroprevalence

Evaluate.comparative.sensitivity.and.specificity.of.the.PCR.assays.selected;.examine.and.identify.
procedures.that.maximise.specificity.and.sensitivity.

Completion date:.31/12/2007




                                                                                                       29
     Project Number: 2132.         Salmonella.contamination.of.Australian.pork.-.validation.of.
                                   decontamination.steps.and.molecular.techniques.to.track.source

     Project objectives:

     The.project.objectives.are.to.undertake:

     •. Validation.of.an.abattoir.decontamination.step.for.Salmonella.contamination.of.pig.offal.to.
        meet.import.country.requirements.(hot.water/SANOVA®).

     •. Repeat.carcase.decontamination.for.Salmonella, E. coli.and.TVC.using.hot.water/SANOVA®.
        at.a.second.export.abattoir.to.validate.decontamination.step.

     •. Development.of.genomic.testing.methods.to.support.more.accurate.attribution.of.Salmonella.
        contamination.to.source.

     Completion date:.31/08/2007

     Project Number: 2176.         Assessing.the.potential.of.DRC-1339.for.control.of.starlings.
                                   (Sturnus.vulgaris).in.piggeries

     Project objectives:

     •. Demonstrate.the.effectiveness.of.DRC-1339.for.lethal.control.of.starlings.impacting.on.
        Australian.piggeries.

     •. Assemble.a.package.of.data.to.support.national.APVMA.registration.of.DRC-1339.for.control.
        of.starlings.in.Australia.

     •. Commercialise.supply.of.a.proprietary.formulation.of.DRC-1339.to.Australian.piggeries,.to.
        assist.in.reducing.supply.chain.costs.and.help.manage.a.serious.risk.to.sustainability.

     Completion date:.31/05/2009


     Project Number: 1829.         The.medium-term.impact.of.permeable.pond.covers.on.pond.
                                   performance.&.odour.management

     Project Objectives:

     1.. Following.trials.over.a.minimum.30.month.period,.produce.a.comprehensive.“how.to”..
         guide.to.enable.the.construction,.deployment.and.maintenance.of.permeable.pond.covers..
         by.producers.

     2.. Comprehensively.report.the.impact.permeable.covers.have.on.pond.characteristics.and.
         performance.over.a.three-year.period.

     3.. nvestigate.the.relationship.between.ambient.air.odorant.concentrations.and.olfactometry.

     4.. nvestigate.whether.emissions.from.housing.and.effluent.irrigation.areas.are.increased.
         following.the.deployment.of.a.permeable.cover.on.a.pond.

     5.. Assessment.of.impact.of.permeable.covers.on.odour.intensity.and.offensiveness.

     Completion date:.31/08/2010



30
Project Number: 2007.          Agronomic.trial.to.determine.the.optimum.application.rate.of.
                               piggery.solids.for.crop.growth

Project objectives:

Piggery.solids.can.be.sustainably.used.as.a.substitute.for.chemical.fertilisers.by.understanding.
the.rate.at.which.the.nutrients.become.available.for.crop.growth.

This.project.will.test.this.hypothesis.by.applying.piggery.solids.at.different.rates.to.cropping.land.

Completion dates:.30/05/2007

Project Number: 2107.          Sludge.recirculation.in.covered.lagoons;.implications.for.
                               performance.and.biogas.yield.

Project objectives:

•. To.prove.that.a.pump.and.pipe.network.can.be.used.to.recycle.sludge.within.covered.
   anaerobic.lagoons..

•. To.assess.the.biological.performance.of.a.high-rate.covered.anaerobic.lagoon.with.and.
   without.sludge.recycling.and.effluent.screening..

•. To.assess.the.optimal.sludge.recirculation.regime.(flow.and.SS).to.maximize.biogas.yield.and.
   biological.performance.while.minimizing.pumping.costs..

•. To.determine.biogas.yield.and.composition.from.a.HCAL.lagoon.with.and.without.sludge.
   recycling.and.effluent.screening..

Completion dates:.02/11/2007

Project Number: 2108.          Use.of.covered.highly-loaded.anaerobic.lagoons.to.treat.piggery.
                               effluent.

Project objectives:

•. Assess.the.performance.of.highly.loaded.settling.ponds.in.removing.solids.from.the..
   waste.stream.

•. Assess.solids.accumulation.rates.in.highly.loaded.settling.ponds.

•. Determine.the.impact.of.highly.loaded.settling.ponds.on.odour.emissions.from.subsequent.
   effluent.storages.receiving.overflows.from.the.settling.pond.

•. dentify.practices.required.to.effectively.manage.the.system.

Completion date:.12/12/2007




                                                                                                         31
     Project Number: 2130.         Solids.Separation.in.Sedimentation.and.Evaporation.Pond..
                                   Systems.(SEPS)

     Project objectives:

     To.assess.the.affective.SEPs,.manage.piggery.wastes.and.develop.guidelines.for.their.design.
     construction.and.operation.

     Completion date:.03/12/2007

     Project Number: 2137.         Assessment.of.Nutrient.Balance.Calculators.for.Piggeries


     Project objectives:

     To.improve.knowledge.of.the.most.appropriate.tools.and.methods.available.for.producers.to.
     develop.nutrient.management.plans.(NMP).for.their.enterprises.

     Completion date:.01/07/2007

     Project Number: 2139.         Odour.Emissions.from.Sedimentation.and.Evaporative.Ponds.


     Project objectives:

     To.provide.quantitative.data.on.the.level.of.odour.emissions.that.can.be.expected.from.a..
     well-designed.SEP.system,.in.a.form.that.can.be.directly.incorporated.into.environmental..
     impact.assessments.for.new.or.existing.piggeries.where.this.wastewater.management.system..
     is.proposed.

     Completion date:.27/08/2007

     Project Number: 2140.         Composting.of.Pig.Manure.and.Mortalities.


     Project objectives:

     •. To.develop.best.practice.guidelines.and.SOPs.for.composting.piggery.manures.and..
        co-composting.mortalities.

     •. To.assess.the.risk.to.humans.and.stock.from.the.land.application.of.composted.piggery.
        manures.&.mortalities..To.provide.guidelines.to.producers.and.regulators.on.the.safe.
        application.of.composted.solids.to.land.

     •. To.provide.data.on.the.odour.emission.from.composting.piggery.solids.and.mortalities.to.
        facilitate.odour.impact.assessments.in.development.applications.

     •. To.assess.the.effectiveness.of.irrigating.composting.piles.with.piggery.effluent.to.maximise.
        the.efficacy.of.the.composting.process.and.minimise.the.nutrient.load.in.the.liquid.effluent.

     Completion date:.15/06/2007




32
Project Number: 2141.           Field.panel.trials.of.odour.emissions.from.piggeries


Project objectives:

To.establish.a.new.piggery.or.expand.an.existing.piggery.involves.justifying.the.resultant.odour.
impacts.to.the.regulatory.authorities..The.chief.of.these.authorities.is.generally.the.EPA.of.the.
State.where.the.piggery.development.is.proposed.

The.aims.of.this.project.are.to:

1.. Compare.results.of.NEGP.Level.1.and.Level.2.buffer.distance.calculations.against.field.
    observations.of.odour.travel.and.odour.levels.measured.by.the.Nasal.Ranger..Piggery.odour.
    emissions.for.Level.2.assessment.will.be.calculated.from.recommended.emissions.in.the.APL.
    Odour.Research.Database,.based.on.pig.numbers.

2.. Test.the.effectiveness.of.the.CSRO.TAPM.software.in.determining.a.synthetic.meteorological.
    dataset.suitable.for.input.to.an.air.dispension.model.

3.. Compare.results.from.the.Ausplume.and.Calpuff.dispersion.models..

Completion date:.30/10/2007

Project Number: 2141.           Anaerobic.digestion.of.spent.bedding.from.deep-litter.housing


Project objectives:

To.assess.viability.of.deep-litter.digestion.projects.at.Australian.piggeries..This.project..
will.undertake;

•. assessment.optimal.digester.design.for.deep-letter.bedding;

•. assessment.of.biogas.yield.from.deep-litter.bedding.and

•. provide.preliminary.project.design.and.assessment.for.anaerobic.digestion.at.4-8..
   Australian.piggeries.

Completion date:.31/10/2007




                                                                                                     33
     Notes




34
Notes




        35
     Notes




36
                                 Australian Pork Limited
                          West Wing, Level 1 43-49 Geils Court
                                 DEAKIN ACT 2600
                                ABN: 83 092 783 278
Telephone: (02) 6285 2200 | Facsimile: (02) 6285 2288 | Email: apl@australianpork.com.au
                          Website: www.australianpork.com.au

				
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