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					Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual




                        FLIGHT OPERATIONS MANUAL


                           (Effective - September 2010)




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                                             PREAMBLE
This section of the IATPL program manual, known as the Flight Operations Manual, combined with the
Standard Operating Procedures; provide a complete system of safe flight operation. Pilots must read and
follow the procedures laid out in these manuals.

This section includes policies for:
   1. Operational Control
   2. Security
   3. Operating limitations
   4. The Dispatch Area
   5. Preflight preparations
   6. Aircraft care
   7. Local operating practices
   8. Record keeping


This manual prescribes general limitations and policies. Standards for how these policies are to be met
are in the SOPs.

Pilots are expected to be familiar and comply with methods, procedures, operating limits, etc. as
provided in the Pilot Operating Handbooks (POH) for the specific aircraft used. Pilots are also expected
to have a working knowledge of the following publications:

       • Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARS)
       • Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)
       • Aviation Program Policies
       • Company Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
       • Company Safety Management System
       • Transport Canada Flight Training Manual
       • Transport Canada Instrument Procedures Manual


This manual has been designed to be compatible with information provided in the above publications. If
situations arise in which these procedures appear to conflict with regulations, the pilot is expected to
follow regulations in the interest of safety and good airmanship. If good airmanship requires deviation
from any of these policies pilots are expected to put safety first.

       Amendments will be issued periodically and should be incorporated upon receipt.




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                                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

RECORD OF AMENDMENTS ............................................................................................................................6

DISTRIBUTION LIST.........................................................................................................................................6

1.0 OPERATIONAL CONTROL ..........................................................................................................................7

   1.1 Flight Authorization and Supervision ............................................................................................................... 7
     1.1.1 Dispatch Log ............................................................................................................................................. 7
       1.1.2 Flight Following by Dispatcher ................................................................................................................. 7
       1.1.3 Authorization of Flights ............................................................................................................................ 8
       1.1.4 Supervision of Flight Operations .............................................................................................................. 9
       1.1.5 Night Flight Supervision............................................................................................................................ 9
       1.1.6 Authorized Airports ................................................................................................................................... 9
  1.2 Dispatch Status Board .................................................................................................................................... 10
  1.3 Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries ................................................................................................................... 10
  1.4 Aircraft Rental Agreement ............................................................................................................................. 11
  1.5 Training Syllabi ............................................................................................................................................... 11
  1.6 Mutual Flights – CRM ..................................................................................................................................... 11
  1.7 Solo Flights ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
  1.8 Recreational Flights ........................................................................................................................................ 12
  1.9 Extra Dual or PIC Flights ................................................................................................................................. 12
  1.8 Carrying Passengers ....................................................................................................................................... 13
  1.9 Unscheduled Landings ................................................................................................................................... 13
  1.10 Exiting Airplane with Engine Running .......................................................................................................... 13
2.0 OPERATING LIMITATIONS ....................................................................................................................... 14

   2.1 Course Outlines .............................................................................................................................................. 14
   2.2 Consistent Dress ............................................................................................................................................. 14
   2.3 Smoking at the Airport ................................................................................................................................... 15
   2.4 Taxiing ............................................................................................................................................................ 15
   2.5 Crew Briefings ................................................................................................................................................ 16
   2.6 Passenger Briefings ........................................................................................................................................ 16
   2.7 Use of Aircraft Operating Manuals ................................................................................................................ 16
   2.8 Use of Checklists............................................................................................................................................. 16
   2.9 Minimum Weather for Flight Operations ...................................................................................................... 17
   2.10 Minimum Altitudes and Temperatures ........................................................................................................ 18
   2.11 Minimum Altitude for Instrument Practice.................................................................................................. 19

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  2.12 Minimum Equipment for IFR Flight .............................................................................................................. 19
  2.13 Night Flight Limitations ................................................................................................................................ 20
  2.14 Operations in Severe Weather Conditions................................................................................................... 20
  2.15 Runway Condition Inspection / Reports ...................................................................................................... 20
  2.16 Touch and Go Limitations ............................................................................................................................ 21
  2.17 Stall/Spin Limitations.................................................................................................................................... 21
  2.18 Minimum Permissible Runway Lengths ....................................................................................................... 21
  2.19 Maximum Permissible Tail winds and Crosswinds ....................................................................................... 22
  2.20 Simulated Forced Approaches Limitations................................................................................................... 22
  2.21 Fuel Reserves................................................................................................................................................ 22
  2.22 Daylight Limitations...................................................................................................................................... 23
3.0 SECURITY ............................................................................................................................................... 23

  3.1 Airport Security .............................................................................................................................................. 23
  3.1 Aircraft Security.............................................................................................................................................. 24
4.0 DISPATCH AREA...................................................................................................................................... 24

  4.1 Dispatcher Responsibilities ............................................................................................................................ 24
  4.2 Base Station Radio - Company Frequency ..................................................................................................... 25
  4.3 Weather Board ............................................................................................................................................... 25
  4.4 Aircraft Status Board ...................................................................................................................................... 25
  4.5 Radio Scanner ................................................................................................................................................. 25
  4.6 Dispatch Status Board .................................................................................................................................... 26
5.0 PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATION ..................................................................................................................... 26

   5.1 Reporting for duty .......................................................................................................................................... 26
   5.2     Review Syllabus before the Flight ............................................................................................................ 26
   5.3     Required Personal Equipment for Flight .................................................................................................. 26
   5.4 Pre-Flight Planning ......................................................................................................................................... 27
   5.5 Licenses and Documents ................................................................................................................................ 27
   5.6 Flight Planned Fuel Reserves .......................................................................................................................... 28
   5.7 Weight and balance and Weather Sheet ....................................................................................................... 28
   5.8 Checking Weather and NOTAMs .................................................................................................................... 28
   5.9 Weight and Balance Data .............................................................................................................................. 29
   5.10 Takeoff, Landing Distance and ASD Computations ...................................................................................... 29
   5.11 Aircraft Information ..................................................................................................................................... 30
   5.12 Survival Equipment ...................................................................................................................................... 30
   5.13 Pre-flight Inspections ................................................................................................................................... 30
   5.14 Aircraft De-icing........................................................................................................................................... 31
   5.15 Use of Auxiliary Power ................................................................................................................................ 31

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6.0 AIRCRAFT CARE ...................................................................................................................................... 31

  6.1 Maintenance .................................................................................................................................................. 32
  6.2 Use of Wheel Chocks ...................................................................................................................................... 33
  6.3 Securing aircraft after flight ........................................................................................................................... 33
  6.4 Parking Brake.................................................................................................................................................. 33
  6.5 Checking and Adding Oil................................................................................................................................. 33
  6.8 Winter Operations.......................................................................................................................................... 34
  6.9 Snow Crews .................................................................................................................................................... 34
7.0 LOCAL OPERATING PRACTICES ................................................................................................................ 34

  7.1 Practice Areas ................................................................................................................................................. 34
  7.2 Local Radio Frequencies ................................................................................................................................. 34
  7.3 Radio Phraseology .......................................................................................................................................... 35
  7.4 Use of 126.7 in the Practice Areas ................................................................................................................. 35
  7.5 Use of the Nelson Airport............................................................................................................................... 35
  7.6 Operation of Aircraft on the Selair Apron ...................................................................................................... 35
  7.7 Fueling the Aircraft ......................................................................................................................................... 36
8.0 RECORD KEEPING ................................................................................................................................... 37

  8.1 Aircraft Journey Logbook ............................................................................................................................... 37
  8.2 Dispatch Log ................................................................................................................................................... 37
  8.3 Pilot Training Records (PTR) ........................................................................................................................... 38
  8.4 Pilot’s Personal Logbook ................................................................................................................................ 38
9.0 PASSENGER AND CREW IN FLIGHT CARE .................................................................................................. 39

  9.1 Passenger Briefings ........................................................................................................................................ 39
  9.1 In-flight Passenger and Crew First-Aid ........................................................................................................... 40
  9.2 In-flight Injury ................................................................................................................................................. 40
10.0 STUDENT CONDUCT REPORTING ....................................................................................................... 40

   10.1       Procedure ................................................................................................................................................. 40




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RECORD OF AMENDMENTS

                No. Date of Amendment   Date Entered    Entered By
              1     September 1, 2004 Incorporated   CFI
              2     September 1, 2009  July 16, 2009 LI
              3
              4
              5
              6
              7
              8
              9
              10
              11
              12
              13
              14
              15
              16
              17
              18
              19
              20
              21
              22




DISTRIBUTION LIST

Aviation Staff
Students
Dispatch Office



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1.0 OPERATIONAL CONTROL


1.1 Flight Authorization and Supervision
      Flight safety demands close supervision of all flight operations. All pilots and dispatchers must
      be familiar with these requirements.


1.1.1 Dispatch Log
      The primary document for flight authorization and supervision is the dispatch log. No flights
      will ever depart without completing the dispatch log and getting authorization, as described
      below. The dispatch log is central to the flight supervision system therefore it is important that
      pilot’s filling out the Dispatch Log do so in an accurate manner, so proper flight following can be
      provided.

      Dispatch logs will be kept on file for two years after use.

      Instructors will be on site at the airport to authorize and supervise flights directly during normal
      business hours, which are seven days a week from 08:00 to 16:00 (at least) and often until 18:00.


1.1.2 Flight Following by Dispatcher
      All flying done at Selkirk College is part of a flight-training program and as such must be
      supervised, by law. Flight safety is paramount at all times.

      The company dispatcher provides flight supervision and reporting of late aircraft returns. The
      procedures in the event an airplane is late returning are in the emergency response plan, section 8
      of this manual.

      Dispatchers are expected to keep track of the entries on the dispatch log and note any airplane
      that become overdue. To assist in this task an aircraft tracking computer program is run
      continuously on the dispatcher’s computer. Dispatchers are expected to keep the program up-to-
      date by following the software instructions provided at the dispatcher’s desk. Note that in the
      event of a power failure the software will not work but flights may still proceed. In all cases the
      primary reference for when airplanes are due back is the dispatch log as referenced above.


      When an airplane is fifteen minutes overdue the dispatcher should inform the CFI, or if s/he is
      not available, inform another instructor. At thirty minutes overdue the emergency response plan
      will be implemented. Dispatchers are responsible for knowing where the plan is kept (in the
      dispatch office.) Normally an instructor takes the lead in implementing the plan, however if no
      instructors are on duty it is the responsibility of the dispatcher to follow the emergency response
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      plan.

      For ALL daytime flying a dispatcher will be on duty while airplanes are flying. Normally the
      dispatcher is a student assigned to that duty. If no students are available other Aviation
      Department personnel can be assigned dispatch duties. Normally that would be an instructor. In
      rare cases it could be other department members who have been trained in dispatch duties.

      For night flying Selair does not provide dispatchers. Therefore night flights are ALWAYS
      conducted on a flight plan. A responsible instructor must always be assigned for night flying and
      his/her phone number to be reached in the event of an emergency included in the filed flight
      plan.

1.1.3 Authorization of Flights
      Students who wish to go flying will obtain authorization from an instructor who will check all
      their pre-flight calculations and discuss weather and any other hazards and considerations with
      them. The instructor then initials the dispatch log to indicate that the flight is authorized. The
      dispatch log is a legal document that MUST be completed. After the flight students must finish
      the entry indicating that they have returned by inserting the final Hobbs time and the total flight
      time and airtime. The dispatch logs are kept on file for at least two years after completion.

      Instructors authorizing flights are to be personally current with all relevant information including
      weather, NOTAMS, aircraft status, contents of flight exercises, and any other pertinent
      information (see below for clarification of this requirement).

      The CFI maintains a dispatch status board (described below), which is just in front of the
      dispatch log in the flight dispatch area. A current list of NOTAMS applicable to local flights and
      any special dispatch restrictions (e.g. not to use a particular airport, or not to use a particular
      airplane for a particular type of flight activity) are posted on this board. Instructors must check
      this board before authorizing any local flights.

      For cross-country flights SOPs require students to printout and highlight any relevant NOTAMS.
      Instructors will review that list before authorizing such flights.

      Students seeking authorization must provide a briefing to the instructor covering: Minimum
      weather required, actual weather and forecasts, Notams, time till next inspection, deferred
      defects, preflight calculations (as on the company weight and balance sheet), the contents of the
      exercise (with altitude or other restrictions), completion of prescribed assignments, and any other
      relevant flight details.

      NOTE: instructors who regularly provide flight instruction (as opposed to classroom or simulator
      instruction) are generally more aware of the current conditions. Students should obtain
      authorization from such flight instructors whenever possible.


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1.1.4 Supervision of Flight Operations
      On some occasions students may wish (or need) to fly at hours when instructors are not on duty.
      The following restrictions apply, in the interest of flight safety.

      First-year students in the fall semester MUST be directly supervised. I.E. an instructor must be
      on duty at the airport when first year students are flying. This means not only on duty to
      authorize the flight but remaining on duty until the flight returns.

      Students in the winter semester of first year or later may fly syllabus flights provided that a
      dispatcher is on duty. Students must obtain authorization from an instructor before s/he goes off
      duty. After the flight is authorized the instructor may leave the airport.

      Students in the winter semester of first year or later may be authorized for non-syllabus rental
      flights with no dispatcher on duty if a flight plan is filed. Normal authorization procedures as
      described above apply.

1.1.5 Night Flight Supervision
      Night flights require an authorization under the same rules as described above. I.E. an instructor
      must authorize the flight before it departs. When dual night flying is scheduled all students,
      including those going solo, must obtain authorization from the on duty instructors before
      s/he/they go flying. Note that this may require coming to the airport to get authorization earlier
      than the planned departure time.

      If no dual night flying is scheduled on a day when solo night flying is scheduled Selair will
      assign an instructor to come to the airport to authorize night flights. All students must be
      prepared and ready to depart at the designated time or they will not be authorized and will miss
      their flight.

      Dispatchers are not provided for night flights. All night flights must therefore be conducted on a
      flight plan. The only exception would be circuits at an airport where a Tower or FSS will be
      continuously on duty and the flight will NEVER leave the circuit.

      There MUST be an instructor designated as responsible for the night flying who will be at a
      location accessible by telephone. His/her phone number will be included on the filed flight plan
      with instructions to contact that person in the event of an emergency.

1.1.6 Authorized Airports
      Selair pilots may be authorized to land at any public licensed airport with paved runways listed
      in the CFS if the runway meets minimum runway length requirements found elsewhere in this
      document.

      (Note: this provision is for normal operations and does not prevent the PIC from landing at any
      suitable airport in an emergency.)
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      In addition to the airports above the following non-paved runways are used, but only when
      specifically authorized:

      • Crawford bay (land on 32, take off on 14) – only on approved syllabus exercises
      • Crawford bay (land on 14) Dual only
      • Fort Langley (Dual Only)
      • Delta (Dual Only)
      • Hope

      Note: No other non-paved runways may be used except with special permission from the CFI.

      In an emergency pilots are authorized to land at any suitable airport but must report immediately
      as described elsewhere.


1.2 Dispatch Status Board
      A dispatch status board is maintained directly in front of the Dispatch Log in the dispatch area.

      Each day a duty instructor appointed by the CFI posts all NOTAMS for the CYCG, CZNL and
      CAD4 airports on the board. NOTAMS of special significance to flight safety will be
      highlighted.

      The CFI will post any other dispatch limitations such as restrictions on use of a particular airport,
      changes to a particular flight exercise, limitations on the use of a particular airplane etc. on the
      board.

      Instructors must make themselves aware of all this information before authorizing any flights.

      Students must also make themselves aware of all information on this board before requesting
      authorization for any flights.

      Note that checking the dispatch status board is NOT sufficient when authorizing or requesting
      authorization for cross-country flights.


1.3 Flight Plans and Flight Itineraries

      Local flights are followed using the dispatch log and aircraft tracking software, as referenced
      above. The dispatcher is the primary person responsible for flight following for such aircraft,
      which operate under the rules of flight itineraries.

      VFR flight plans will be filed for all cross-country flights. Usually the PIC prepares the flight
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       plan and then either files it on the internet, phones it in personally, or has his/her first officer or
       the dispatcher phone the flight plan in.

       IFR flight plans will be filed for designated IFR exercises in the B-95. These exercises can be
       found in section AVIA 200 of this manual.

       IFR round robin training flight plans will be filed following the exact format given in the AIP.
       Extra information may be included but no required information will be omitted and no changes
       from the published procedures will be made without the specific instruction of a Selair instructor
       or Transport Canada inspector (i.e. not at the request of FSS or ATC without the above
       authorization first). Suggested extra information to include is provided in section FTM/IPM of
       this manual.


1.4 Aircraft Rental Agreement

       All pilots are required to sign an Aircraft Rental Agreement form before flying Selair aircraft.
       Appendix 12 of this manual contains a copy of the form.


1.5 Training Syllabi
       All flight and simulator training exercises will be done in accordance with Selkirk College
       Training Syllabi, which form parts 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this manual.

       Students will be booked for each exercise by the Chief Flight Instructor or his designate.

       Students must read the lesson description in the syllabus and follow the instructions therein.
       Access to these sections is provided through the Intranet.

       If there an assignment to complete it must be done and shown to the instructor before the flight.

       When assigned readings are included in an exercise description they must be completed.

       Some flight exercise descriptions specify use of a computer simulation to prepare for the
       exercise. Students who do not use the simulation usually do not perform satisfactorily on the
       exercise and will be graded accordingly.

       This course manual contains a detailed description of each mutual / solo flight exercise. Students
       should print a copy and take it on their flights to guide performance.


1.6 Mutual Flights – CRM
       Training flights where two students are scheduled to fly together are called mutual flights.
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      Mutual flights provide experience in Crew Resource Management (CRM.) Students take on the
      role of pilot in command (PIC) and first officer (FO).

      A complete set of SOPs governing each pilot’s duties as a member of the crew is provided in the
      SOP section of this manual. BOTH pilots are responsible for the safety of the flight. A crew
      working together, and being supported by a dispatcher, instructors and a flight safety system
      (dispatch status board, SOPs, etc.) is MUCH safer than an individual pilot making individual
      decisions. It is critical that Selair pilots understand that the procedures put in place and the duties
      assigned to mutual partners and dispatchers are an integral part of the flight safety system.


1.7 Solo Flights
      During solo flights the pilot flying is the sole occupant of the airplane. In accordance with the
      definition of an aerobatic maneuver, the following exercise must be performed solo or dual only:

             • Spins


1.8 Recreational Flights
      The primary purpose of Selair aircraft is training, not recreational flying. Recreational flying is
      defined as non-syllabus flying where the flight is primarily for pleasure rather than training
      toward a specific flight qualification. Recreational flying may be approved on a limited basis at
      the discretion of the aviation instructional staff. Overnight trips will not normally be authorized.

      Recreational flights are logged in the top section of your PTR. If in doubt about whether an flight
      counts as an extra practice flight or a recreational flight see the CFI.

      Charges for recreational flights are subject to the GST tax.



1.9 Extra Dual or PIC Flights
      Extra PIC practice or dual may be assigned by instructors or requested by a student.

      Extra hours may be needed to meet Transport Canada licensing requirements. Such flying is part
      of your training and must be logged in your PTR under exercise 226 for local flights and 430 for
      extra cross countries. GST is not charged on flights made for extra practice.

      Extra practice flights are recorded in your PTR under the exercise numbers:

    • 225 for extra dual
    • 226 for extra local practice
    • 430 for extra PIC cross-country
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1.8 Carrying Passengers
      Passengers other than Selair members are not permitted on training flights.

      Passengers are permitted on recreational flights. When passengers are carried, the pilot is
      required to provide the name of the passengers(s) and their telephone number on the dispatch
      log.

      Passengers will always be given a passenger briefing before flight.



1.9 Unscheduled Landings

      Pilots will only land at locations other than the authorized destination in the event of an
      emergency. If safety demands a landing pilots are required to land.

      Following an unscheduled landing pilots will contact the dispatch office immediately. After
      reporting to the dispatcher pilots should normally also talk to the CFI, or if unavailable another
      instructor to discuss plans for securing the airplane, returning to base etc.

      The PIC is responsible for securing the airplane and arranging for accommodation and other
      needs of the crew. If there are any injuries the PIC will ensure the injured are cared for as the
      first priority.

      Any expenses for accommodation and food due to an unscheduled landing are the responsibility
      of the pilots and their passengers, not the association. Therefore, pilots MUST not use the
      company credit card for such purposes. If the PIC wishes to use the company credit card and
      reimburse the company for the expenses that must be arrange by a phone call to the company
      clerk, or the President of Selair.

      Note: if the aircraft requires maintenance the procedures for arranging that are in the
      Maintenance Control Manual.


1.10 Exiting Airplane with Engine Running
      No student will permit a passenger or crewmember to exit an airplane with the engine running.




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2.0 OPERATING LIMITATIONS


2.1 Course Outlines
      This program manual is for an integrated commercial pilot, multi-engine and instrument-rating
      program. Under the CARs students must be informed of the standards for obtaining those
      licenses. The introduction to this manual has all the required information. In addition appendix
      13 contains all the relevant flight test standard guides and study guides.

      Selkirk College provides a course outline for each course. Outlines for each course, including
      flight and simulator will be provided to each trainee. These outline the course content, texts and
      reference materials, grading scales and evaluation procedures.


2.2 Consistent Dress
      Aviation Policy III D 4 states that all Aviation students are expected to conform to the following
      Dress Code when engaged in College educational activities between the hours of 0700 and 1800
      daily, and at any other time they are involved in Aviation related activities such as field trips.

      1. White shirt (long or short sleeve) with epaulets; no pattern or crests
      2. Navy blue dress slacks
      3. Navy blue tie with college crest or pin
      4. Suitable dress shoes (black)


      Clothing must be clean, tidy and pressed.

      Notes: Blue jeans or other casual style pants are not acceptable. Running shoes or other similar
      sport shoes are not acceptable. Logos and writing on undershirts must not show through outer
      shirts.

      Female students who wish to wear a navy blue skirt rather than slacks may do so for non-flight
      activities (such as class or field trips). Skirts are not acceptable for flight wear (see below).

      Students must be clean-shaven. A small moustache is acceptable. Hair grooming is to be
      conservative and in natural hair color.

      Male students may not wear earrings or other pierced rings. Female students may wear no more
      than one earring stud in each ear and no other pierced rings. For all students jewelry is limited to
      no more than one watch and one finger ring.

      Flight Wear

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      Students will wear the consistent dress above for all flights except that skirts are not acceptable
      for flight wear.

      In addition students are required to wear suitable outer clothing for the weather along the entire
      route. Remember that there will be snow in the mountains from mid October onward. Therefore
      students should always bring winter jackets, gloves, hats, and boots for all flights from mid
      October through April.

      Students not following the above will be barred from flying, simulator and classroom.

      Dispatchers wear the same the same consistent dress described above. Dispatchers may put on
      coveralls for operations such as fueling or cleaning aircraft.



2.3 Smoking at the Airport
      Smoking is not permitted in the following areas:

      • On any of the airport aprons
      • Within 50 feet of an aircraft
      • In the aircraft hangars
      • In any college building
      • Within 50 feet of fuel tankers or fuel dispensers



2.4 Taxiing

      To quote the Transport Canada Flight Training Manual, “it is impossible to rule on a specific
      taxiing speed which will assure safety at all times”.

      • The aircraft should be taxied slowly enough that it can be stopped before a mishap occurs,
      should something unexpected happen.
      • Taxi slowly and do not perform checks when in confined areas or when other aircraft are
      maneuvering close by.
      • Do not assume that the brakes will be effective when taxiing toward obstructions or
      approaching the end of the runway. Slow down early!
      • Taxiing at night demands extra caution due to the difficulty in seeing hazards and judging
      distance.
      • Night taxiing will ALWAYS use the taxi light or landing light to see – the only exception will
      be short periods of time on dual flights when the instructor is demonstration aspects of night
      vision and depth illusions with the taxi lights off.


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2.5 Crew Briefings

      Crew briefings will be completed prior to take-off s and before all VFR and IFR approaches as
      stipulated in the SOPs. Format for the briefing is provided in the SOPs. In single-pilot operations
      the pilot should review the information normally provided in a briefing before commencing a
      takeoff or approach.


2.6 Passenger Briefings

      Selair pilots MUST provide a passenger briefing when passengers are carried, in accordance with
      CAR 602.89. An oral passenger briefing will be completed for all flights where persons other
      than flight crew are carried. A passenger-briefing checklist is included in the aircraft checklist
      book.

      A laminated passenger-briefing card is provided in each airplane. Copies of the briefing cards are
      also included in the checklist – these may be used during the oral passenger briefing. Passengers
      should then be directed to review the card for clarification.


2.7 Use of Aircraft Operating Manuals

      • Pilots will adhere to procedures prescribed in the Cessna 172, Beechcraft Pilot Information
      Manual, and Lycoming operating manuals.
      • In instances where Selair SOPs vary from procedures listed in these manuals, the variance is
      always to enhance the procedure or increase the safety margin due to local operating conditions.
      • Where doubt exists concerning any procedure, refer to the appropriate manual for the correct
      procedure to follow.
      • Some necessary information for planning takeoffs is not provided in the aircraft operating
      manuals. The required supplemental information is provided in Appendix 14 of this manual.


2.8 Use of Checklists

      • Selair provides checklists for each aircraft in the fleet. The checklists address normal and
      emergency operating procedures. Use of checklists is mandatory.
      • Aircraft equipment should be operated at the time it is needed. Switches should be positioned
      when conditions warrant them. I.E. it is not necessary to wait until reading the checklist before
      moving a switch or operating a control. An obvious example is retracting the gear after takeoff.
      The checklist serves the function of CHECKING that no required item has been overlooked.

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       • Despite the above it is often more convenient to perform items as the checklist is being read.
       This is particularly true of the pre-start, start, runup and before takeoff checklists.
       • In single pilot operations the taxi checklist will always be read AFTER taxiing is complete. In
       this case the items on the checklist will have been completed before the checklist is read.
       • The post takeoff checklist will NOT be read until well clear of the circuit. Therefore vital items
       (gear up, flaps up, power set) will be performed by memory then confirmed by checklist.
       • When flying continuous circuits the post-takeoff checklist will not be used due to the heavy
       workload; instead the critical items listed above will be completed by memory.
       • When flying successive circuits or instrument approaches the before landing checks must be
       performed during each circuit or approach.
       • When dealing with emergencies, the checklists show items that are “immediate action items”.
       These are to be completed by memory. Confirmation of the initial items together with
       supplemental actions will then be completed by checklist.


2.9 Minimum Weather for Flight Operations
       All Selair flights must be conducted in accordance with the weather minima specified in CAR
       602. Beyond the CAR requirements each flight exercise in the syllabus has a specified minimum
       weather requirement. Instructors will consider any safety implications regarding forecast or
       actual significant weather conditions before authorizing a flight. In all cases the pilot-in-
       command will ensure that weather conditions are suitable in accordance with pilot competence
       and flight safety before commencing the flight.

       For flights where no specified weather minima have been established the following MINIMUM
       criteria will be used:


VFR Day Local:
     • Non-mountainous areas: Ceiling 1,000 feet AGL and 3 miles visibility
     • Mountainous areas: Ceiling 3,000 feet AGL and visibility 5 miles


VFR Night Local:
     • Ceiling 1,000 feet above the planned altitude for the exercise.
     • Forecast and actual reported visibility must be at least 5 statute miles.


VFR Day Cross-country:
     • Non-Mountainous route: Forecast and actual ceilings at least 2,000 feet AGL for the planned
     route. Prevailing visibility for the planned route of 6+ statute miles (P6SM) with no visibility
     restrictions, either forecast or actual, of less than 5 statute miles at specific reporting points along
     the route.
     • Mountainous route: Forecast and actual ceilings at least 2,000 feet above highest point on

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       route. Prevailing visibility for the planned route of 10+ statute miles (P6SM) with no visibility
       restrictions, either forecast or actual, of less than 5 statute miles at specific reporting points along
       the route.


VFR Night Cross-country:
     • All cloud forecast or reported no less than 1,000 feet above the cruising altitude.
     • Visibility 6+ statute miles (P6SM) and forecast to stay at that value for a minimum of one hour
     before departure to at least 2 hours after the estimated time of arrival at destination.
     • Also, there should be no reported visibility of less than 10 statute miles at any point along the
     route.


IFR syllabus training flights:

       Prior to departure forecast and actual destination airport weather will be:
       • METAR and TAF 500 feet above applicable approach minima.
       • 1 mile greater than CAP recommended approach visibility.
       • CAP alternate minima apply.

               Note: Once airborne CAP minima apply to all approaches.


   During the flight (if IMC conditions are likely):
      • No CB reported or forecast for any of the destination or alternate airports.
      • No icing forecast or reported below 6,000 feet ASL or cruising altitude whichever is greater.


       Note: Instructors will assess the safety implications of any forecast or reported significant
       weather prior to authorizing a training flight.

Instructor Proficiency and Other Non-syllabus IFR Operations

       • CAP minima apply


2.10 Minimum Altitudes and Temperatures
       No Selair airplanes will be operated when the ground air temperature is less than –20 degrees
       Celsius.

       All pilots must read and follow the restrictions in CAR 602.14 and 602.15.

       Except when taking off, landing, making a practice IFR approach, or specifically authorized (see

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      next paragraph), the minimum height above ground at which students on solo, mutual, or
      recreational flights may fly is 1,000 feet. This includes practice off-airport forced and
      precautionary approaches.

      Operation at below 1,000’ AGL altitudes in specific areas may be authorized from time to time.
      Each flight that will operate to less than 1,000 feet requires specific authorization and will be
      limited to specified areas.

      In no case will flights operate to less than 500 feet from persons or property on the ground.


2.11 Minimum Altitude for Instrument Practice

      The minimum altitude for any mutual simulated instrument practice is the altitude specified in the
      syllabus or 2,000 feet AGL if not specified. The instrument hood must not be worn below this
      altitude (i.e. visual flight only).

      The FO will act as a safety pilot on simulated instrument flights, and as such must keep a sharp
      lookout at all times, especially since he/she is also busy directing the pilot flying.

      Instrument exercises such as practice IFR approaches, which require descent below 2,000 feet
      AGL with the hood on, must be specifically authorized.


2.12 Minimum Equipment for IFR Flight

      Selair pilots will read and comply with CAR 605.18.

      In addition, Selair aircraft will not operate in IMC conditions will less than:
      • 2 serviceable VOR receivers, or one serviceable VOR and one serviceable IFR GPS
      • At least 1 serviceable ILS receiver
      • 1 serviceable ADF


      Instructors must also determine whether any unserviceable radio equipment will compromise the
      educational value of syllabus IFR training flights.

      Selair aircraft will not operate on an IFR flight plan except in “mostly VMC” conditions (as
      defined below) unless the aircraft is equipped with two serviceable alternators and vacuum
      pumps. Mostly VMC, means that canceling IFR and remaining VFR is possible within 5 minutes
      at all points along the route to be flown.



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2.13 Night Flight Limitations


      Single engine night flying is limited to CYXX, CZBB, CYVR, CYPK, CYCW and the routes
      between these airports. Any other routes or airports must be specifically approved and posted
      following at a meeting of the safety committee.


2.14 Operations in Severe Weather Conditions
      Severe weather is defined as any weather that creates a serious hazard to safe flight operations,
      e.g. icing, thunderstorms, tornadoes, severe turbulence, wind shear, strong crosswinds, or
      whiteout.

      • None of the aircraft operated by Selair are equipped for flight in icing conditions, therefore
      pilots will not intentionally fly into areas where icing is reported or forecast to exist. If icing is
      encountered, pilots will exit the area of icing as expediently as is practicable by climbing,
      descending, diverting, or performing a 180.
      • Selair flight operations will not be authorized if severe weather is forecast in the immediate
      area. This does not preclude the possibility of pilots encountering severe weather while en-route.
      In such a case, pilots are expected to use good airmanship and make timely decisions for
      avoidance, whether that means diverting, reversing course, or landing at an alternate destination.
      • Should a landing at other than the locations authorized be required, the pilot will contact the
      dispatch office at soon as is practicable.
      • Pilots will control the aircraft in such a way as to avoid exceeding design limitations as listed in
      the aircraft flight manual.
      • Specific weather limitations for VFR day and night and IFR flights are listed in 2.9 Minimum
      Weather for Flight Operations.



2.15 Runway Condition Inspection / Reports
      No Selair pilot will land on any runway without ensuring that the runway and surrounding area
      are clear of obstructions and hazards.

      If the airport is staffed with a control tower a clearance to land may be interpreted as
      confirmation that the runway is clear. Pilots must still observe the runway environment on final
      to confirm no obstructions on or adjacent to the runway.

      If the airport has an FSS with personnel able to observe the runway, Selair pilots may accept the
      report of the FSS operator that the runway is unobstructed.

      Selair pilots may accept the report of Unicom or another airplane currently at the airport that the

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       runway is clear and unobstructed. If in doubt as to the accuracy of such reports pilots should
       proceed as described below.

       In the absence of any of the above runway condition reports Selair pilots will join the circuit via
       a midfield crossing and carefully observe that the runway is clear. If for any reason a clear view
       of the entire runway cannot be made the pilot will make a low pass along the runway at
       approximately 200’ AGL to confirm the runway is clear before landing.

       Pilots will not land if there are any obstructions, large animals (dogs,deer, etc.), or other hazards
       inside the airport security fence and on or near the runway. If authorized equipment (e.g. snow
       plows and grass cutters) is working on or near the runway pilots must wait until it clears the
       runway before landing - direct radio communications with the operator is preferred but a visual
       indication that they will remain clear is acceptable. Pilots will not land if any other persons or
       equipment they are not in contact with is within 100 feet of the edge of the runway. Pilots must
       NOT land if there are large animals (deer, etc.) inside the security fence and within 100 feet of
       the runway - a second low pass may “scare” the animals away.


2.16 Touch and Go Limitations
       Touch and go landings are permitted in CYCG and CYXX. All other touch and go landings must
       be authorized by an instructor.

       Instructors routinely authorize touch and goes during night flying training at CZBB, CYPK, and
       CYCW. However students should confirm authorization before each flight.

       Touch and goes on solo or mutual flights are NEVER permitted in CZNL or CAD4. Instructors
       may however choose to perform touch and goes on dual flights.

       When performing touch and go landings in the B95s pilots must be extremely careful not to
       accidentally retract the gear. The SOP standard call for this situation must therefore be followed
       strictly.

2.17 Stall/Spin Limitations
       • Since intentional spins with flaps extended are prohibited in the C-172, climbing or descending
       turn stalls with the flaps extended will not be performed.
       • Intentional spins of any kind are prohibited in the Beech 95.
       • Minimum altitudes for spin practice are listed in the SOPs



2.18 Minimum Permissible Runway Lengths
       No Selair pilot will land on a runway that is shorter than the minimum runway as calculated
       using the aircraft POH plus 1,000 feet. If there are obstacles on the approach the appropriate
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      obstacle clearance distance in the POH will be referenced. In short, there will always be at least
      1,000 feet of extra runway to allow for variations in actual landing distance from the ideal values
      specified in the POH.


2.19 Maximum Permissible Tail winds and Crosswinds
      • For normal operations, pilots should avoid takeoffs and landings with a tail-wind component in
      excess of five (5) knots.
      • Dual flights may operate with tailwinds of up to ten (10) knots, but with extreme caution.
      • Only in an emergency and when other options are not available should a tail-wind component
      of more than ten (10) knots be considered, with due consideration given to longer landing
      distances, directional control and other handling difficulties, and higher landing stresses on the
      aircraft.
      • Instructors keep records in each student’s assessment file of demonstrated proficiency at
      crosswind landings. Instructors will review the record when authorizing any flights where the
      crosswind is likely to be more than 5 knots. Normally students will not be authorized for mutual
      or solo flights when the crosswind is more than they have previously demonstrated on a dual
      flight.



2.20 Simulated Forced Approaches Limitations
      • Simulated forced approaches will only be practiced off-airport when a Selair Instructor has
      given specific authorization.
      • For solo or mutual practice, overshoots will be initiated no lower than 1,000 ft AGL unless
      specifically authorized by a Selair Instructor.
      • Simulated forced approaches in the circuit may be practiced without specific authorization but
      are limited as follows:
               o From the downwind, base or final leg of the circuit
               o With no circuit traffic ahead in sequence to the runway
      • Mutual and solo flights may practice forced approaches from overhead the Castlegar or Trail
      airports. Pilots will state intentions clearly on the MF or ATF frequency. Should a potential
      conflict with other traffic arise while practicing forced approaches the pilot of the aircraft doing
      the simulated forced approach will discontinue the exercise and maneuver clear of the other
      traffic until the conflict is no longer a factor.



2.21 Fuel Reserves
      Fuel reserves for all flights are listed in the preflight section of this manual.



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2.22 Daylight Limitations

      All syllabus cross-country flights, except night flights, must land at least 45 minutes before the
      end of evening civil twilight.

      All local syllabus flights must land at least 15 minutes prior to the end of evening civil twilight.

      When renting an airplane for a recreational flight pilots may be authorized to operate after the
      times specified above, including after dark if the airport is suitably equipped and the pilot is night
      endorsed. Such operation must be specifically authorized by the CFI in advance. In the absence
      of such authorization the limitations listed above apply.


3.0 SECURITY

3.1 Airport Security
      There is an increasing concern about security on the nation’s airports. Pilots are given restricted
      access to areas inside the security fence in order to prepare for flights and tend their aircraft.
      With this comes the responsibility for ensuring that pilots and those accompanying them do not
      jeopardize this security.

      Security personnel may challenge anyone inside the security fence. A valid Pilot’s License is the
      only acceptable I.D. and must be carried at all times when on airside. In Castlegar Selair
      students are advised to also carry their Selkirk College Student Card.

      Access to the airside does not permit personnel to approach or handle other aircraft without the
      owner’s permission. This applies to airline, corporate, or private aircraft.

      Pedestrians are not permitted on or near the Runways, taxiways, or infield areas of the airport
      except with special permission from the Airport Manager or his designate.

      Pilots on the airside of the security fence are responsible for the actions of any person they allow
      inside the fence. It is therefore important to monitor the movements of such persons to ensure
      that they remain in areas required for emplaning, deplaning, etc.

      The gate code must be kept confidential. If asked by an unknown person for entry, a pilot must
      check what business the person has on airside, and if allowing entry, do so without releasing the
      gate code. The pilot remains responsible for the individual while that person is in the restricted
      area.

      Students MUST use the public side of the security fence rather than the ramp side, when
      proceeding to or from the Terminal building or Flight Service Station.

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3.1 Aircraft Security
      For the C-172’s control locks MUST be inserted even if the airplane is in the hangar. (It is
      common for airplanes to be pulled from the hangar and placed on the apron in the morning, at
      which point no one thinks to check for control locks; that is why they must be secured after the
      last flight of the day.)

      For the BE-95’s controls must always be “tied off” when the airplane is not in use.

      Keys for the airplanes are kept on pegs in the dispatch area. Pilots should not leave the keys in
      the airplanes. If the next pilot is not there to accept the keys after a flight the key should be
      returned to the peg in the dispatch area.

      Baggage compartments need not be locked during flight (at the PIC’s discretion) but must be
      locked over night.


4.0 DISPATCH AREA


4.1 Dispatcher Responsibilities
      Organized, smooth running flight operations for any company depend on an efficient dispatcher.
      Each week, some students are scheduled for dispatch duties. Students assigned dispatch duties do
      no flying during the duty period however classes are attended as normal.

      Dispatcher duties are listed in Appendix 5 of this manual. The appendix includes instructions for
      preparing the weatherboard, described below. It also includes instructions for all other dispatch
      duties including locking and unlocking buildings, etc.

      Dispatchers are also responsible for unlocking/checking the fuel truck each morning and locking
      it at night. They also have the job of fueling all aircraft (with the help of the PIC). Students are
      trained in fueling during the first week of classes and a record of the training is kept in their file.
      Instructions for fueling are in appendix 6. Additional safety data relating to 100LL fuel is in
      appendix 7. Dispatchers are responsible for reading and following the safety rules in those
      appendices.

      Dispatchers must also be familiar with the supervision of flight procedures in section 1.1.4
      Supervision of Flight Operations.

      In addition dispatchers are first in line to implement the emergency response plan as outlined in
      the Safety Management Manual. A copy of this manual is kept in the dispatch area and
      dispatchers must always know exactly where to find it should they need it.


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4.2 Base Station Radio - Company Frequency
      Selair holds a Radio License authorizing use of a Company Frequency on 123.3 Mhz, for
      ground-to-air, air-to-ground, and air-to-air communications in the Castlegar area, using a base
      VHF transceiver. Use of this frequency is restricted to the base transceiver and Selair aircraft;
      therefore the frequency should not be divulged to other aircraft.

      The base station frequency should be used primarily for:

      • Aircraft serviceability status
      • Requests for aircraft servicing
      • Company issued instructions to pilots
      • Other information of an essential or operational nature.

      Company personnel are reminded of the “Secrecy of Communications Act.” Information passed
      on this frequency will not be divulged to non-company members.


4.3 Weather Board
       There is a large weatherboard in the dispatch area where extensive weather information is
      posted. It is the dispatcher’s responsibility to obtain and post the weather information.
      Instructions for maintaining the weatherboard are in appendix 5.

      Weather information for flight planning is derived from Nav-Canada’s website, or Flight Service
      (1-866-wx-brief). The dispatcher will ensure the weather is posted on the weather board. Details
      of what should be posted are in appendix 5.


4.4 Aircraft Status Board
      The AME prints a report showing hours until next inspection and time to upcoming out-of-phase
      items and posts it on the aircraft status board. Normally the AME works Monday through
      Thursday. On other days the dispatcher is to calculate time remaining to next inspection and
      update the sheets by hand.


4.5 Radio Scanner
      A handheld radio capable of monitoring the MF is kept in the dispatch area when flight
      operations are ongoing. The dispatcher will monitor the MF and be aware of when aircraft are
      returning to the apron.

      The dispatcher will meet aircraft returning from flights on the apron and marshal them onto the
      apron. (See local operating procedures below.)


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4.6 Dispatch Status Board
       The CFI maintains a dispatch status board just in front on the dispatch log. The dispatch status
       board is explained in 1.2 Dispatch Status Board.


5.0 PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATION
This section provides guidance for the period up to but not including engine start with the intention of
going flying.

5.1 Reporting for duty
       The following are the reporting for duty requirements for training flights. Additional information
       can be found in the SOPs.

       5.1.1 Students must complete all preflight preparations and be ready to go at the scheduled time.
       Preflight preparations are covered below.
       5.1.2 If the weather is not suitable for the flight all preparations must still be completed.
       5.1.3 If the weather is not suitable for the flight students will NOT cancel the flight until they
       check with an instructor. Instructors will consider alternate exercises that could be done.
       Instructors will also consider whether or not waiting for the weather to improve is the best
       option. Instructors will also consider whether alternate training such as a simulator session or
       ground briefing should be done. For all these reasons students are NOT to cancel without
       checking with an instructor.
       5.1.4 Pilots with a valid reason for not attending a training session (e.g. illness) are expected to
       inform the appropriate instructor or the CFI at least 2 hours in advance of the booked time. A
       written report must be submitted to the CFI explaining no-shows.



5.2Review Syllabus before the Flight
       5.2.1 When booked for a flight exercise, the student MUST review the training syllabus to
       determine the objectives of the exercise (section 2 and 4 of this manual, available on the
       intranet).
       5.2.2 If the syllabus includes any assigned readings those must be completed BEFORE the flight.
       5.2.3 If the syllabus includes any assignments those must be completed BEFORE the flight. (Fill
       out the answers and print the appropriate page).



5.3Required Personal Equipment for Flight
       5.3.1 Pilots will wear or carry on board the aircraft clothing appropriate for the weather and
       terrain conditions under which the flight will operate. Winter clothing should include a heavy

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      coat, boots, headgear and gloves, with consideration being given to warmth and water resistance.
      The danger of wearing polyester or similar materials in case of fire must be emphasized. It is
      recommended that only clothing, or at least underclothing, of natural fibers be worn in the
      aircraft.
      5.3.2 Pilots require a headset for all flights. Selair has several headsets that students can borrow.
      But, there are not enough when all the airplanes are flying at once. It is recommended that
      students purchase their own headset as it will be needed after graduation.
      5.3.3 Students need a case for keeping their flight materials organized. A flight bag is the
      preferred method, but a backpack or other case makes a suitable alternative.


5.4 Pre-Flight Planning
      All duties preflight duties specified in the SOPs must be completed.

      In the event that the Internet is not working or unavailable alternate methods of obtaining the
      required weather and NOTAMs must be used. Normally the method would be calling to the
      Castlegar Flight Service Specialist. When all equipment is operating normally pilots are required
      to obtain weather and NOTAMS and complete all pre-flight forms as specified in the SOPs.

      Note that different requirements exist for local and cross-country flights. Pilots are required to
      follow the SOP specifications. For example use of electronic spreadsheets for preparing the
      weight and balance is only acceptable on cross-country flights (see page 28).

      Pilots are directed to pay particular attention to the SOP requirement to write out by hand the
      local METAR and TAF before all local flights. Pilots are encouraged to also write out other
      applicable weather information.


5.5 Licenses and Documents
      • Each crewmember must carry a pilot license, radio operator license, and medical certificate
      appropriate for the flight to be undertaken.
      • Aircraft documents required on board are the POH, GPS Manual (when applicable) Journey
      Log, C of A, C of R, Weight and Balance Report, and Proof of Insurance. Selair also insists that
      you carry a CFS or a copy of the Intercept procedures.
      • On all cross-country flights pilots must carry photo identification.
      • For all trans-border flights pilots must carry those documents required by customs authorities.
      Pilots must have a valid passport to enter the USA.
      • Immigration papers plus additional documentation may be required for persons born outside
      Canada.




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5.6 Flight Planned Fuel Reserves

      All Selair flights must exceed the requirements in CAR 602.88 as specified below:

      VFR flights will operate with a minimum of fuel required to destination plus 1½ hours reserve.

      IFR flights will operate with a minimum of fuel required under the CARS plus an additional 15
      minutes.

      In addition pilots will always take the maximum fuel that weight limits permit. This will usually
      be full tanks. In other words the airplane is to be fueled before departing on any cross-country
      flight.

      On long cross-country flights the refueling points will be planned in advance and approved by
      the authorizing instructor. Students may NOT skip a refueling point. If necessary to change a
      refueling point due to unexpected contingencies the change must be so as to increase fuel
      reserves from the authorized amount. If this is not possible then the PIC must call an instructor
      for reauthorization.


5.7 Weight and balance and Weather Sheet

      A weight and balance and weather sheet must be completed prior to each booking or flight. A
      sample of the approved form is shown in Appendix 9. The form must be filled out by hand
      writing for all local flights.

      The calculations include takeoff and landing distances. When more than one takeoff and
      landing will be conducted at different density altitudes a calculation for each takeoff and
      landing must be completed.

      When on a cross-country flight a separate weight and balance report is required each time
      the airplane is refueled. If the entire trip is conducted without refueling, or passenger or
      baggage load change then one weight and balance is sufficient.

      An electronic weight and balance form is available on the intranet. The electronic form
      may only be used on cross-country flights.


5.8 Checking Weather and NOTAMs
      For local flights students may self-brief from the weather information on the weather board, the
      dispatch status board, and by using the intranet. Students will check NOTAMS on both the
      Dispatch Status board and on the intranet (see SOP 2.0 for more details). Students are expected

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      to complete a weather briefing form for every flight. A copy of the form is in Appendix 9.

      Students planning cross-country flights must phone 1-866-WX-BRIEF for a complete weather
      briefing. Students must also print and take with them a weather and NOTAM summary for the
      flight as per SOP Preflight duties.

      Operating weather minima for each flight is listed in the flight description in section 100 and 200
      of this manual. General weather limitations are listed in 2.9 Minimum Weather for Flight
      Operations.

5.9 Weight and Balance Data

      The following weights pertain to commonly carried equipment and baggage

      • Basic Selair survival kit 45 lbs
      • Snowshoes/axe kit 11 lbs
      • Sleeping Bag 6 lbs
      • Wheel chocks (one wheel) 3 lbs
      • Tow bar 2 lbs
      • Oil can (1 liter) 2 lbs
      · Tiedowns 3 lbs

      Note that on local training flights wheel chocks, an oil can and tiedowns are routinely on board
      and therefore an extra 8 lbs should automatically be included when completing the weight and
      balance calculations.



5.10 Takeoff, Landing Distance and ASD Computations

      A normal takeoff distance chart for the C-172 is not provided in the SOP. Selair pilots will use
      the form in appendix 14. An accelerate stop distance chart for the C-172 is also provided.

      Appendix 14 also contains charts for the B95:

      • Normal Takeoff Distance
      • Normal Landing Distance
      • Accelerate Stop Distance
      • Accelerate Go Distance
      • Single Engine rate and gradient of Climb
      • Single Engine Ceilings

      Takeoff, landing distance, and Accelerate stop distance calculations will be made for each airport
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      of operation. The results of these calculations are written on the weight and balance sheet.

      For any multi-engine flight, Accelerate Go distance and Vgo must also be determined as well as
      the Single Engine Emergency Rate of Climb for an altitude approximately 500' AGL at all
      departure aerodromes.



5.11 Aircraft Information

                                       SPA SPD SPQ SPY OSQ       XFG    SAK
                     U.S. gal (usable) 40   40  40   62    50    106    106
                     Nav/Com Equip. /S/C /S/C /S/C /SG/C /SG/C /SDG/C /SDG/C



5.12 Survival Equipment

      • Selair has 4 basic survival kits. A list of contents is included in Appendix 8 (on the intranet).
      The kits have two parts, one is a sealed box the other a duffle bag containing snowshoes and an
      axe. The kits will be carried on all cross-country flight (more than 25nm from the departure
      aerodrome), and are recommended on all flights unless operational considerations prohibit them
      (e.g. when planning spins, etc).
      • Selair has two sleeping bags. Sleeping bags are highly recommended. It is the responsibility of
      each crewmember to bring a sleeping bag for cross-country flights.
      • Survival kits must be properly secured in the aircraft while in flight.


5.13 Pre-flight Inspections

   • Preflight inspection must be performed by a crewmember (i.e. not the dispatcher or other pilot).
   • If pilots lose sight of the airplane after the preflight (which they usually will) they MUST make a
   quick visual inspection for damage or tampering before entering the cabin for flight. (i.e. walk
   completely around the airplane checking for damage).
   • If pilots perform the preflight inspection in one location (example the hangar) and then the airplane
   is moved, the PILOT must be involved in moving the airplane. If not the pre-flight is invalidated and
   pilots MUST DO ANOTHER PREFLIGHT.
   • A pre-flight checklist that conforms to the POH is provided for each aircraft. Pilots MUST conduct
   the pre-flight in accordance with the checklist. Usually it is best to “flow” each section of the
   preflight by memory then read the checklist to confirm nothing was missed.
   • Fuel quantities must be checked visually and compared to fuel gauge indications.
   • All cargo must be properly secured prior to flight.
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5.14 Aircraft De-icing

       All company aircraft will be operated in accordance with Transport Canada’s “clean aircraft
       concept”. All ice, snow, frost, or other contaminating material must be removed from all critical
       surfaces prior to attempting flight. The preferred method of keeping the aircraft clean is to put
       them in the hangar BEFORE ice forms, or snow falls.

       If the aircraft are outside and become contaminated with dry snow it will be brushed off. But if
       there is ice adhering to the aircraft moving it to a heated hanger is the preferred method of de-
       icing the aircraft. The aircraft must remain in the hangar until it is dry unless the outside air
       temperature is above freezing. Bring a wet airplane into freezing temperatures will cause re-
       freezing and can create an EXTREME hazard.

       When deicing in a hangar is not possible, aircraft will be cleaned with soft cloths and brooms.
       Scrapers will NEVER be used on any part of the airplane, especially the windows.

       If applying de-icing/anti-icing fluids, the manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed to
       ensure the fluids are compatible with aircraft surfaces and safe for use. Protective equipment
       must be worn as required.



5.15 Use of Auxiliary Power

       Normally auxiliary power supplies are not needed for starting Selair airplanes. If the battery is
       low pilots should contact maintenance for support. The battery will normally be charged or
       replaced before flight.

       If auxiliary power units are used it will be in accordance with the aircraft manufacturer’s
       recommendations as outlined in the P.O.H. for the specific aircraft. Use of auxiliary power must
       be directly supervised by the DOM or an instructor who has been trained by the DOM.

6.0 AIRCRAFT CARE

Students share the responsibility of caring for Selair’s airplanes with the instructors and maintenance
engineers.

Students are assigned to aircraft crews responsible for a particular airplane. One member of the crew is
designated as captain. Each student will have an opportunity to act as a plane captain for at least one

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semester during the program.

Each crew is responsible for keeping their airplane clean inside and out. Normally the airplanes are
washed at least twice per year, once just after school begins in the fall and once more in March or April.

Each crew will inspect their airplane at least once per week ensuring that accumulations of paper,
personal items such as CFS, maps, etc. and other items are removed from the seat pouches, floor and so
on. The crew is also responsible for ensuring that bugs are removed from the propeller, cowl front, wing
and stabilizer leading edges and windshields. The crew should also check for and report damage to items
such as hoods, or aircraft interiors.

The dispatcher is expected to bring cleaning materials to the apron between flights to remove bugs (see
previous paragraph) whenever “bug season” is upon us. This should be done while the airplane is being
refueled. Normally the PIC will fuel while the dispatcher cleans (or vice versa). Note that when the
airplane crew performs its weekly inspection (previous paragraph) they should not need to remove bugs
etc. if the dispatchers have been doing their job properly.

The airplane crew for the airplane is expected to take action if the dispatcher is not performing his/her
duties, as described above, adequately.

Aircraft cleaning supplies are kept in the back room of the Flight Operations building. If any supplies
are low inform the CFI who will order more supplies.

We all benefit from having a clean, shiny, and presentable fleet of airplanes. Student involvement in this
task mirrors what they will have to do as working pilots.

6.1 Maintenance
       All maintenance on Selair Aircraft will be accomplished in accordance with Selair’s
       Maintenance Control Manual (MCM), under the supervision of the company’s Aircraft
       Maintenance Organization (AMO).

       All pilots (student and instructors) are required to read the MCM and follow the procedures
       specified there. A copy of the MCM is on the aircraft status board in the dispatch area.

       Only persons designated to do so will deal with the Maintenance Engineers regarding
       maintenance of the aircraft.

       Questions concerning the status and availability of aircraft will be directed to the Dispatcher or
       the Chief Flight Instructor. Normally maintenance will contact the dispatcher when maintenance
       is complete and the aircraft is available for flight operations. Individual students must not contact
       (pester) the engineer.

       Nothing in the above should prevent any pilot from contacting an AME for an opinion as to the

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      serviceability of anything observed on a preflight inspection.

      Procedures for obtaining maintenance when away from home base are in the MCM and must be
      followed. Pilots requiring maintenance on their aircraft at a location other than the home base
      will contact the person responsible for maintenance, who will make arrangements for repairs and
      servicing. Because pilots must also inform dispatch and the CFI of any delay in their flights it is
      recommended that they phone Selair dispatch at 250-365-5031 and talk to the dispatcher, the
      CFI, and the PRM all in one phone call.


6.2 Use of Wheel Chocks
      Wheel chocks will be used anytime the aircraft is parked. When in flight, the wheel chocks will
      be stowed on board the aircraft in the pouches provided for that purpose.

      For the C-172 the chocks should be inserted under the left main wheel. For the B-95 chocks
      should be inserted under the nose wheel.


6.3 Securing aircraft after flight
      All aircraft must be chocked between flights and the control lock inserted. In the B-95 the
      controls will be tied off using either the seatbelt or cord provided. If severe weather is forecast to
      occur (such as thunderstorms or strong winds) the aircraft will either be tied down on the apron
      or put in the hangar.

6.4 Parking Brake
      Parking brakes will not normally be used when the aircraft are parked. Parking brake will only
      be used for short periods of time when tie-down ropes are not available. It is assumed that the
      parking brake is used only while the pilot obtains tie-down ropes or that the stop is for a very
      short period of time, such as refueling and then departing again.


6.5 Checking and Adding Oil

      • Before adding oil to an aircraft’s engine, ensure that the correct type and grade of oil is being
      used. This information can be found in the aircraft’s journey log by referencing information
      relating to the last scheduled maintenance completed.
      • When oil is added to an aircraft’s engine, indicate the amount added in the “remarks” section of
      your flight entry in the journey log. In this way trends in oil consumption can be monitored.
      • Add oil to the C-172s when the oil level drops to 5 quarts.
      • Add oil to the B-95 when the oil level drops to 5½ quarts.
      • Use a funnel when adding oil.
      • Clean up any drips or spills made when adding oil.

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      The oil and oil funnel in the storage pouch of the airplane are intended for use on cross-countries
      only. If oil is added on the Selair apron it should be obtained from the flight operations building
      storage room and a the plastic funnel should be used.


6.8 Winter Operations

      • Aircraft will normally be hangared if not in use to avoid ice and snow build-up on the aircraft
      structure.
      • If the aircraft is to be left outside for lengthy periods during winter months, wing and
      empennage covers should be used. Wet covers should not be used if below freezing temperatures
      are expected.
      • As outlined in section 5.15, all ice, snow, and frost will be removed from the aircraft before
      flight is attempted.
      • ICE SCRAPERS OR OTHER HARD OBJECTS MUST NOT BE USED ON THE
      WINDSHIELDS of the aircraft. The windshields are made of Plexiglass and scratch easily,
      resulting in expensive replacement.
      • For cold engine starts with the outside air temperature below 0 degrees C, the dispatcher will
      stand guard with a fire extinguisher while the aircraft is being started, to take action in the event
      of an engine fire on start-up. The dispatcher will stand to the left of the aircraft, ahead of the left
      wing tip and well clear of the propeller, where he/she is in view of the pilot.


6.9 Snow Crews
      During the winter months snow crews are detailed by rotation, and have the responsibility for
      clearing snow from Selair access pathways and from on and around the aircraft. These duties
      continue during exam periods and are essential to prevent snow loads from damaging the
      aircraft. Individual pilots are responsible for the final clearance of snow, ice, and frost from their
      aircraft before flight.

7.0 LOCAL OPERATING PRACTICES

7.1 Practice Areas
      Student practice is normally confined to the practice areas as specified in the Canada Flight
      Supplement - Castlegar Terminal Procedures Chart.

7.2 Local Radio Frequencies

122.1 - Castlegar Mandatory Frequency (MF)

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126.7 - Traffic advisory in the Castlegar practice areas.
 - Frequency for Nelson and Grand Forks RCO.
 - En-route position reporting when outside the MF area.

123.2 - MF for Trail, ATF for Nelson and Grand Forks.
123.3 - Selair Dispatch


7.3 Radio Phraseology
      Pilots should strive to keep radio phraseology efficient and concise, promoting a clear
      understanding of radio messages, while minimizing the length of transmissions to the extent
      possible to reduce frequency congestion.

      Proper procedures and terminology are listed in the AIM - Com section 5. Examples of
      phraseology for common radio transmissions are provided in FTM/IPM section of this manual.


7.4 Use of 126.7 in the Practice Areas
      Pilots proceeding to a practice area will advise the Aerodrome Advisory Service Flight Service
      Speacialist prior to departure for the practice area to be used, altitude(s) for the exercise, and
      approximate duration of the exercise.

      All Selair aircraft operating in any of the Castlegar practice areas are required to broadcast to
      traffic their location, altitudes being used, and anticipated time in the practice area on 126.7.
      Pilots should also advise the Castlegar FSS if changing area of operations from that previously
      stated, indicating where they are proceeding.

      For exercises involving simulated IFR approaches, or practice on the NDBs pilots should remain
      on the MF even though they are above the MF altitude.


7.5 Use of the Nelson Airport
      Due to the frequent presence of wind shear in the vicinity of the Nelson airport, an Instructor
      must specifically authorize practice approaches of any nature at this airport. I.E. do not go to
      CZNL unless you have been specifically authorized to do so (except in an emergency). First year
      students are not sent solo to Nelson until after they have been checked out there dual.


7.6 Operation of Aircraft on the Selair Apron
      As of summer 2009 Selair has new taxi guidance lines and permanent tiedown locations on the
      apron. Aircraft will be taxied in centered on one of the two taxi lines that enter the apron from
      the taxiway.

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       If not marshaled by the dispatcher, each aircraft will taxi along the line then come to a complete
       stop by the T. More than one aircraft may taxi on a line but extreme caution must be used by the
       PIC’s. Aircraft that need fueling should follow the line on the north side of the apron whenever
       possible. The towbar will be attached at the T and the aircraft towed into the yellow cross-
       hatched TOW ONLY area.

       Once fueling is complete or if it’s not required, the aircraft shall be towed to an appropriate
       parking spot on the apron. It will be parked (chocked and locked) so that he nose wheel of the
       aircraft will sit on the T facing the middle of the apron. Aircraft will be tied down if severe
       weather (such as thunderstorms or strong winds) is forecast to occur and the aircraft is expected
       to remain on the apron unattended.

       If a dispatcher is available s/he will aid pilots by marshalling aircraft (one at a time) along the
       apron lines. When being marshaled and fueling is required, an aircraft may be taxied further than
       the T but must stop prior to the yellow cross-hatched area. This area is for TOWING ONLY and
       shall NEVER be used by any aircraft with its engine(s) running.


       While being marshaled the PIC must continue to be aware of the proximity of other aircraft and
       persons on the apron--s/he is responsible for safety while taxiing regardless the presence of a
       marshaller.


       A towbar must be used for all towing done on the Selair apron.


7.7 Fueling the Aircraft
       Full instructions for fueling are provided in appendix 6. Additional safety data about 100LL fuel
       is in appendix 7.

       Students must be trained in fueling procedures before doing any fueling. A record of that training
       is kept in the students file.

   •   Only persons authorized and trained to do so will fuel aircraft. A training program will be
       provided to first year students shortly after initiation of training to meet this requirement.
   •   Safety rules and a material data sheet are located in the Appendices of this manual.
   •   Proper daily checks and tests on the fuel truck must have been completed.
   •   The aircraft must be properly bonded before fueling begins.
   •   Aircraft will not be fueled when the aircraft is running or if passengers are on board.
   •   When fueling the aircraft from a commercial pump (on a cross country), pay for the fuel with a
       Selair credit card and obtain an invoice. If fueling more than one aircraft at a time, obtain
       separate invoices for each aircraft. Invoices must be turned in to the dispatch office to avoid
       double billing and to maintain an accurate record of fuel consumption for each aircraft.
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   •   Pilots will check aircraft fuel for contamination prior to each flight.




8.0 RECORD KEEPING

8.1 Aircraft Journey Logbook

       Pilots will enter appropriate data into the aircraft’s journey log after each flight.
       • A separate entry will be made in the logbook after each full stop landing.
       • Separate entries will be made for each leg of a qualifying flight requiring more than one full-
       stop landing (e.g. the 300 nm cross-country flight for the Commercial License).
       • When completing the Air Time/Flight Time columns, the following will apply:
               o Flight time is taken from the Hobbs meter in the aircraft.
               o Airtime is taken from initial takeoff to final touchdown for a full stop landing. Airtime
               should correspond to the up and down times entered in the journey logbook.
               o All times (up and down) are expressed using universal standard time and the 24-hour
               clock.
               o All times entered in the journey logbook (flight time, up, down, air time) are expressed
               using decimals e.g. 10:30 becomes 10.5. Each 6 minutes equals .1 of an hour.

       If takeoff is after 23.9 hours, date the logbook entry for the following day. If takeoff is before
       23.9 hours, regardless of when the landing occurred, date the entry for the same day. In short,
       takeoff time determines the date of the flight. Note that there is no such time as 24.0-- that would
       be 0.0!

       Any defects noted on the flight will be recorded in the “remarks” section of the log-book entry
       after landing or, if there is insufficient room, by making a separate entry on the line immediately
       following the entry for the flight. Defects will be addressed in accordance with the procedure
       outlined the MCM.

       Pilots are cautioned that while the MCM authorizes pilots to defer defects that do not affect
       airworthiness the pilot may not be in a good position to judge airworthiness. It is expected that a
       pilot discovering any defect will immediately consult the person responsible for maintenance
       (identified in the MCM). If the PRM is not available consult the CFI or another instructor for
       advice. Be very cautious about deferring defects.



8.2 Dispatch Log


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      Pilots will complete their entry in the company dispatch log after landing by entering the final
      Hobbs times and total flight time and airtime for the trip. This procedure confirms the aircraft has
      returned to the home base and discontinues company flight following.

      If a pilot does not enter the information the dispatcher should note that and contact the pilot
      immediately either recalling him/her to make the entry or making the entry for the pilot. No
      uncompleted entries must remain on the dispatch log at the end of the day.

      If a flight is signed out but then does not go, for reasons of serviceability or weather change, etc.
      A line will be drawn through the entry on the dispatch log and the word cancelled written over
      the entry.


8.3 Pilot Training Records (PTR)

      Pilots must fill out their electronic PTR immediately after each flight.

      Pilots will log the total flight time in the dual or PIC column as appropriate.

      Pilots will enter additional time in the instrument dual or PIC and the cross-country Dual or PIC
      columns. On cross-countries normally the entire flight is considered a cross-country. On an
      instrument flight only the amount of time spent under the hood or in IMC conditions is logged in
      the instrument column.

      For syllabus cross-country training trips to be considered complete, pilots must hand in the
      appropriate completed navigation log to an Instructor. Failure to do this could result in the flight
      being re-booked.


8.4 Pilot’s Personal Logbook
      CAR 401.08 specifies the requirement to maintain a personal flight log.

      Every Selair pilot is required to accurately maintain a personal logbook as a record of experience
      and currency.

      While enrolled in the program keep your logbook on the shelf in the dispatch area. The CFI will
      review your logbook from time to time and advise you whether or not you are maintaining it
      properly. The CFI will normally certify your logbook at the end of first year and just before
      application for the CPL.

      Selair operates two types of aircraft, the Cessna 172 and the Beechcraft Travelair. Type
      designators to be used in the logbook are as follows:
              • for the Cessna 172, use C-172
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             • for the Beech Travelair, use BE-95

      In the Pilot or Crew columns, pilots other than you should be entered by name. Because the
      logbook is your personal property, you can refer to yourself as “self”

      All syllabus flights must include in the remarks column the exercise number for the flight.

      Times entered in your personal log are flight times. The flight time will be entered in the
      appropriate dual or pilot-in command column. Remember that multi-engine flights are entered
      in different columns than single-engine flights. If the flight was an instrument training flight, an
      entry will also be made in the instrument -hood (simulated) or instrument (actual) column.
      The time entered in that column should only be for the duration of the instrument portion of the
      flight, e.g. the time under the hood or in cloud, as is applicable.

      For ease of license application Selkirk College requires that you have separate columns for dual
      instrument and PIC instrument as well as separate columns for dual cross-country and PIC cross-
      country.

      Navigation trips must be logged so that the full route is clear. E.g. a trip from A - B - C where a
      landing was made at B could be entered as two separate flights, A - B and B – C, or carefully
      described in the remarks column. Always enter the route in the remarks column on cross-country
      flights.

      Note that when you enter simulator time in your logbook no flight time is entered; an entry is
      made in the Instrument - simulator column only.


9.0 PASSENGER AND CREW IN FLIGHT CARE

9.1 Passenger Briefings
      When any passenger is carried aboard a Selair airplane a passenger briefing will be provided
      prior to starting the engine(s.) The briefing shall include at least:
      • Operation of doors and windows
      • Operation of emergency exits
      • Location of fire extinguisher
      • Location of First-aid kit
      • Location and use of ELT
      • Use of seatbelts
      • Procedure to avoid propeller strikes
      • Emergency evacuation procedure


      A briefing card is provided in each airplane to assist in providing the above information.
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9.1 In-flight Passenger and Crew First-Aid

      In the event a passenger or crewmember is injured in-flight the PIC will ensure that aircraft
      control is maintained at all costs. If the PF is injured and an instructor or mutual partner is
      available to take control the PF will transfer control before accessing the first aid kit.

      With control established the crew will take whatever actions are possible to eliminate the hazard
      (use fire extinguisher, etc.)

      If able the PM should access the first aid kit and dispense and apply any bandages etc. as needed.
      The first aid kit is kept in the pouch behind the pilots’ seat.

      If the injury is trivial – for example a minor paper cut – the flight may continue as planned.

      For any significant injury that could benefit from medical attention the PIC shall cause the flight
      to be diverted to the nearest suitable airport where such aid can be obtained. The PIC shall also
      ensure that flight services be notified and emergency personnel be available to meet the airplane
      when it lands.

9.2 In-flight Injury
      If a significant injury occurs that requires the diversion of the airplane as described in 9.1 the PIC
      and FO’s first responsibility is for the welfare of the crew and passengers. After the required care
      has been arranged or obtained the PIC should contact Selair Dispatch and report the incident to
      the CFI. If the CFI is not on duty report the incident to any Selair instructor. The procedures in
      the Emergency Response Plan will then take effect.


10.0 STUDENT CONDUCT REPORTING

10.1 Procedure
      Unprofessional conduct (including any crew action or inaction) such as a pilot who arrives late
      or does not show will be addressed through the student conduct reporting process.

      All reports are to be made by completing the Student Conduct Report form found in the dispatch
      area or on the Professional Pilot website. These forms must be submitted to the CFI in a timely
      fashion. The CFI will assess the situation with input from other faculty members if necessary.
      Normally all pilots involved will be grounded until the assessment process has been completed.
      Student Conduct Report forms will be kept in the students’ personnel file which is maintained by
      the CFI.
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      Note: repeated indiscretions could result in suspension or expulsion as described in the Program
      Policies.

      The Student Conduct Report form is not used exclusively as a form of reprimand; it is more
      frequently used as a method of commendation. Any Instructor or fellow student who wishes to
      officially commend exemplary conduct should fill out a Student Conduct Report form and
      submit it to the CFI where it will remain on file.

      Reports are required for:

      (i)    Late flights.

      (ii)   No shows.

      (iii) Any situation that unexpectedly affected operational readiness other than weather or
            illness.

      (iv) Arriving unprepared for a flight/simulator exercise.




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