School counsellors advised to change habits by hedongchenchen


									School counsellors advised to change habits

By Jennifer Gray-Grant                                                                                                                                               3

         HEN MONICA FRANK was doing a field placement at a North                                                                                                     -1

         Vancouver school for her counselling psychology masters' degree,
         she counselled an eight-year-old pupil . Frank, who taught English and                                                                                      11
psychology in a Vancouver secondary school for five years before doing her                                                                                           --4

MA at Simon Fraser University, suspected that the child had been abused and
started searching the pupil's file to see what kind of counselling the child had
received in the past: "Being naive, I just expected to find recommendations ."
  There were no counselling records in the child's
file, although Frank knew the child had attended
five schools in two years and had probably seen a
counsellor or two during that time .                            With privacy and
   Now she knows better than to look for such             access to information
records . I ye never seen a counsellors record n
an administrative file or heard of a counsellor             laws now extending
putting one in there ." That left Frank thinking           to schools guidance
about the inefficiencies of a system where counsel-
lors don't share records . It left her thinking about   counsellors are forced
how chUdren would have to go through the same
                                                            to re-examine their
story wrth every new counsellor .
   And it left her mystified as to how counsellors             record-keeping of
could justify hanging onto student's counselling
records, in light of B .C's new Freedom of Informa-     contacts with students
tion and Protection of Privacy legislation .
  The incident bothered Frank so much that she             She wants to let them know that they're tread-      and students become aware of their new rights
decided to write her masters' thesis on the legisla-    ing on dangerous ground in not keeping records or      under the new legislation .
tion governing the confidentiality of school coun-      in maintaining only sketchy records that they             Frank - and others believe that eventually a
sellors' records . What she found - concerning both     refuse to share with others .                          wave of requests will hit the school system as par-
the counsellors' understanding of the legislation          Frank is also recommending the creation of a        ents and students begin to understand that they
and the way many go about their work - disturbed        province-wide system of record keeping for coun-       have the right to request what had been consid-
her so deeply that she plans to write a pamphlet        sellors, so they could share information about their   ered counsellors' private records .
or booklet of suggestions for ways school counsel-      students and still maintain client confidentiality .     The Freedom of Information and Protection of
lors should be carrying out their work .                   The school system is just starting to handle re-    Privacy legislation became law in October of
                                                        quests for access to counsellor's files, as parents                                      See COULD /6

                                 ,                      N Education Across Canada /4
                                                        • Events Calendar /8                                                        Published by
                                                        • Snake oil and snipers : Schools and Tech-
• Education Law : A teacher's affair with a stu-
   dent constituted serious misconduct and led nology columnist David Porter examines a
  to a 14-month suspension for the teacher /2 new book that criticizes schools' approach to
                                                                                                                       the British Columbia School
• Van Tech tops : A national study named new technology                                                                    Trustees Association
  Vancouver Technical Secondary School a     • Education International : U .S . teachers who                           "working Together for B.C. Students'
  successful school in an unprecedented na- have been attacked by students are heading                                      -30
                                                                                                                                  PRINTED ON RECYCLABLE PAPER
  tional study of exemplary schools    /3 to court in their search for justice           /10
     Teacher's affair with student                                                                                                       EDUCATION LEADER
                                                                                                                                  is published by the British Columbia

    considered a betrayal of trust                                                                                                     School Trustees AssoCiation

     N ARBITRATION PANEL in British Columbia                   ply an attempt to provide counselling .                         BCSTA Board of Directors, 1995-96
      as recently ruled that a teacher's "brief af-               The teacher did not deny meeting the student at             Carole James, S.D . #61           President
fair" with a Grade 1 2 student constituted serious             her home and other locations, but his explanation              Bifi Brown, S.D . #39             Vice-President
misconduct justifying a 1 4-month suspension with-             for was that he was trying to provide advice to T .F .         Evelyn Cutts, S .D. #1            Director
out pay. The panel chair, Allan Hope, reached this             and not for any sexual purpose . D .G . said he first          Bev Dendys, S .D. #7              Director
conclusion after a 19-day hearing .                            visited the student's home because she telephoned
   While overturning the school board's dismissal of           him and asked him to bring her a book bag she had              Larry McKay, S .D. #52            Director
the teacher, Hope made it clear that sexual relation-          left at school . He agreed to this request because he          Elizabeth Shannon, S .D. #71      Director
ships between public school teachers and students              wanted to tell T .F . that she should stop frequenting         Jackie Tegart, S .D . #30         Past-President
are inappropriate and warrant severe discipline .              the mechanics area, and to inform her that nothing             Dr . Lee Southern                 Executive
                                                               "inappropriate" could occur between them .
The student's evidence                                            As for the two Saturday meetings, D .G . claimed            Editor: Jennifer Gray-Grant
   In the spring of 1994, a 19-year-old Grade 1 2              he had triec to convey the same message to the stu-            Contributing writers: David Porter, DArcy
student (T.F .) disclosed to school officials that she         dent at the beach, and that she had become very                Rickard, Tern Sussel
had been sexually involved with a married 45-                  upset . His phone call around midnight was simply to           Page composition :
year-old mechanics teacher (D .G .) . The student              ensure she was in a better frame of mind . According
                                                                                                                              Hole-in-the-Wall Conmmriications, Vancouver
claimed she brought the matter to light because                to D .G ., he went to T,F .'s home that evening be-
she was confused about the propriety of the rela-              cause she was afraid that a friend, whom D .G . be-            Education Leader is indexed in the Canadian
tionship, and was uncertain how to terminate it .              lieved to be violent, might come to her home .                 Educa tins Index . ISSN 0843-1779
   T .F . met D .G . through a student in the teacher's           The teacher claimed he drove to T .F .'s that
mechanics class . She alleged that throughout Feb-             evening, and learning that her friend had not arrived,         Our promise to readers - Educatiern Leader:
ruary and March 1994 she wrote letters to the                  he decided to sit in his car near her house to monitor         useful information about broad curriculum and
teacher, and often talked to him at school about               the situation for about 20 minutes. The teacher de-            policy issues and developments, and the latest
her personal life . She also claimed that the teacher          nied having sexual relations with the student .                in trends and research - if it isn't important to
telephoned her at her home on several occasions .                 As for the other encounters, the teacher admitted           schools, it doesn't see print .
   Sometime in March, the student indicated to                 he had met the student, but explained he had mere-
D .G . that she found him attractive . The student             ly bumped into T .F. Moreover, while he admitted                       PUBLICATION POLICY
said the relationship intensified during the 1994              buying stuffed animals and leaving them under T.F.'s           People and public education are best served
spring break when she and D .G . met at or near her            bed, he said he did so at the student's request.               through frank and open discussion. Material pub-
home several times .                                                                                                          lished in the Leader, therefore, sometimes pre-
   Following this encounter, the teacher went to a             The arbitration ruling                                         sents divergent and controversial points of view
student reunion not far from T .F .'s home . Some-                While noting that in some respects the student's            which do not necessarily represent the views or
time around midnight that evening the teacher                  evidence was not reliable, arbitrator Hope conclud-            policies of BCSTA. Education Leader neither en-
phoned T.F . and asked if he could come and see                ed that the teacher's 'account of the relationship is          dorses nor bears any other form of responsibility
her . Thereafter, according to T .F,, the teacher and          not believable . . . The pattern of the conduct im-            for the products and services advertised herein .
student engaged in sexual relations .                          plicit in the aspects of the relationship admitted to
   Following the alleged sexual encounter, the stu-            by [D .C .], when measured against the relationship                     COPYRIGHT POLICY
dent claimed she tried to break off the relationship .         that can be expected to exist between a teacher                The contents of this magazine may not be com-
During this period the teacher met T .F . at a school          and student, was somewhat bizarre ."                           mercially reproduced except with the consent
near her home on a Sunday afternoon and at a                      Remarking that the School Board's investigation             of Education Leader. Any other reproduction is
store late one evening . Not long afterwards, D .G .           of the matter was "thorough and professional," Ar-             encouraged provided Education Leader is ac-
bought the student two stuffed animals as an East-             bitrator Hope found it troubling, as had school ad-            knowledged as the source .
er gift, and left them at her home under her bed .             ministrators, that the teacher did not make any
                                                               mention of his encounters with T.F . to his best                 SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION
The teacher's evidence                                         friend at school, the student's counsellor, or any             Education Leader is published by BCSTA2O
   The teacher agreed he had been extensively in-              other person for that matter. According to Hope,               times a year for an annual fee of $59 . Multiple
volved with the student, but denied that the rela-             the evidence suggested that D .G . 'had become in-             subscriptions of five or more mailed to the same
tionship was sexual . He claimed that the student, a           fatuated with T.F . and allowed himself to be drawn            address are $39 each subscription.
single mother, was sexually promiscuous and that               into an improper relationship with her ."
she was delusional or had fabricated the story .                  This conduct was "a betrayal of his professional            Address cheques or correspondence to :
   He alleged that his interest in T .F . was purely           trust," and according to Hope, did him "great dis-                   B.C . School Trustees Association
professional, and his interaction with her was sim-            credit and deserves condemnation ." i                                1155 West 8th Avenue
TERm A . SUSSEL, of Lidstone, Young, Anderson, is a Vancouver lawyer specializing in education law. This column contains            Vancouver, B .C. V6H 1C5
general information on legal topics related to education . For specific legal problems, you should consult a lawyer . BCSTA         (604) 734-2721 Fax: (604) 732-4559
provides free legal consultation to its member school boards .

                                                                      EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
'Dealing with things as they     A little rebeffion
are' nets Van Tech national nod can propel schools
By Jeimifer Gray-Grant                                   more than 20 hours a week; "For many of those
                                                         kids it's not that the y want to bu y the fanc y car ,
                                                                                                                                 to top spot
I   T'S THE WEEK before classes begin and Pat
    Mitchell isn't going to get formal before it's ab-
solutely necessary. Dressed in a casual tennis
                                                         it's contributing to their family," Mitchell said . It
                                                         also includes students who live in single-parent
                                                         families or even without any parent, sometimes
                                                                                                                                ORE THAN A CENTURY AGO, Thomas
                                                                                                                                Jefferson said a little rebellion now and
                                                                                                                       then is a good thing . When it comes to explain-
shirt, black jeans and running shoes sporting fluo-      taking care of younger siblings as well .                     ing the success of exemplary Canadian schools,
rescent green laces, he wanders                                        Mitchell and Palmer and Van Tech                Dr. Jane Gaskell repeats that notion .
through the school office offering                                  teachers acknowledge that many of these               The principal author of the recently released
donuts from a cardboard box to                                      students can't turn up every day for               "Secondary Schools in Canada The National
staff and visitors .                                                every lesson or test . "I would say atten-         Report of the Exemplary Schools Project,"
   Not the straight-laced, down-to-                                 dance is a problem," Mitchell said . That's        through the Canadian Education Association,
business type one might expect from                                 why teachers will work with students to            said that among other things, successful
the leader of one of the exemplary "'                      "" set another time for a test or create an                 schools are rebellious .
secondary schools in the country .                                  alternate assignment . As well, the school            "They don't take what's handed down as
   Vancouver Technical Secondary                                    has created a host of alternative pro -            being the way they have to do things," Gaskell
School was given the nod in the Ca-                                 grams designed to reach kids who don't             said .
nadian Education Association's Ex-                                  fit into the traditional school model .               The study, which focused on 21 schools which
emplary Schools Project . On a late- -                                The Vancouver School Board has des -             the committee deemed to be exemplary, took
summer day, it's hard to see Mitchell                               ignated Van Tech as an Inner-City school,          about three years, Gaskell said, with one year for
immediately why this school in par-                                 which means it receives funding for                planning, another for field woik and a third for
ticular - which looks like a prison and whose halls      things like a breakfast and lunch program . It also           writing up the case studies and overall report .
are deserted - was honored . It has suffered from a      receives extra money for half of a vice-principal's              The report makes no claini that these are
tough-guy reputation for many years ; the an-            salary, for pro-active work in safety and security .          the 21 best schools in Canada as sonic media
nouncement raised more than one Vancouverite's              In the past few years, under the leadership of             reports have implied . Gaskell explained that
eyebrow in surprise .                                    former principal Kathryn Strike, the school created           the schools were selected to provide a geo-
   But that was from people who haven't been in-         numerous special programs to reach out to a vari-             graphically balanced picture of a variety of dif-
side the school for a while . Mitchell and senior        ety of students . For example, there is the Summit            ferent schools that are doing their own thing
vice-principal Jennifer Palmer proudly outline the       Program, which accepts 30 gifted students per                 particularly well
numerous programs Van Tech has initiated to              year, in each of Grades 8, 9 and 10 .                           Two B C schools were included on the list,
reach out to the school's 1,800 kids who live in            The Flex program offers independent study for             Vancouver Technical Secondary School and
one of the poorest areas of the country .                Grades 8-1 0 students who don't feel comfortable             Langley Fine Arts School
   "There's no mindset of what things should be like     in a regular, daily schedule of classes . The Tu-               Gaskell who is a professor in educational
here, we deal with things as they are," Palmer said .    manous Program is for First Nations students .               studies and associate dean at the University of
   "Things as they are" includes a 68-per-cent ESL       "Those kids would not be in school if it was not for         B .C , said the process of selecting, studying .
component among students who represent 50 lan-           that program," Mitchell said .                               and then writing about the exemplary schools
guages. It includes a number of students who work                                                See VAN TECH /8      left her with conflicting and different feelings ."
                                                                                                                         Gaskell said she felt a lot of enthusiasm for
                                                                                                                      some of the things she saw happening in schools .
                                                                                                                         But after spending one year regularly visiting

    SCHOOLS EARN BIG                                  With John Kaplan's "MACIC BUS" Show
                                                                                             $$$                      one school - Caskell led the team doing the
                                                                                                                      field work on Longley Fine Arts School
                                                                                                                      came away from it feeling how much I had
                                                                                                                      learned by being in the school ." Gaskell said it
                                                                                                                                                          See   Si Ju /   8

                                                                                                                     Education Leader
                                                                                                                     wins two APEX awards
                                                                                                                     EDUCATION LEADER has won two awards in the
                                                              Canada's Favourite Family Magic Show                   APEX 95 competition . Editor Jennifer Gray-Grant
        'We followed your project plan and raised                                                                    earned awards of excellence in the news writing
       $3,000 for our playground. The kids were                                                                                                             WINNER
                                                                                                                     and feature writing categories .
       talking about the show for weeks after                                   CALL TODAY                              The news writing award recog-
       highly reeommendedl"
                                Hyland Elementary,                                                                   nized a story on Alberta education
                                         Surrey, BC
                                 February 18, 1994
                                                          -                FREE
                                                                            -       --
                                                                                                                     cutbacks while the feature writing
                                                                                                                     award was for several stories on the       "''"'

    .L JOHN KAPLAN'S                                                                                                 explosive growth of English-as-a-second-language
                                                                                              Tel : (604) 521-8804
                                                                                                                     training in B .C . schools.
      Abracadabra     SHOWPROOUC11ONS
                                                                                             Fax : (604) 278-8549
                                                                                            11831 Voyageur Way,         The APEX awards are held by Communications
                                                                                         Richmond, B .C . V6X 3J4    Concepts, a professional communicators' organiza-
                                                                                                                     tion in Springfield, Virginia .

                                                                  EDUCATiON LEADER September 15, 1995
Red wigglers teach kids about composting                                              support do we give to male teachers in elementary school?" Boyle asked . "It's
            BRITISH COLUMBIA - Brenda Ritcey's Grades 4-5 pupils at                   something I want to took into this fall, along with other educators ." Substitute
            Dutch Lake Elementary School in North Thompson School District            teacher Timothy UIph, 34, said the issue of men teaching elementary school
            are experts in worms and vermi-composting . "Our goal has been            grades was hotly debated among his university classmates . Ulph said society
            to reduce food waste by reusing our lunch food as food for the            still has difficulty accepting the notion . Pollock said she'll be interested to see
worms and then have the worm's castings recycled as fertilizer for our gar-           if the board's probe finds out how male elementary teachers are faring .
dens," Ritcey said . Pupils know lots about "red wigglers," the cadillac of
worms, such as that they like to be in crowded areas . This is not too difficult -    Bosnian relief includes Wnmipeg school supplies
eight adult worms produce about 1,500 babies in eight months . Ritcey's                           MANITOBA School students in Bosnian safe havens will soon

pupils learn through research, observations and experiments . They know                           be using pens, pencils and notebooks collected at Winnipeg
about the worm's body parts (no eyes or teeth), reproduction cycle, and how                       schools earlier this year, said Ted Hidson, a parent in Carpathia
to care for them . Ritcey said "we're hoping other classes, schools and commu-                    School's parent-teacher organization . After sitting in a Winnipeg
nity members will take up vermi-composting ." Dutch Lake pupils will ship red         warehouse for months, 1,363 kilograms of school supplies, and the hard work
wigglers free of charge to interested children . Write Brenda Ritcey, Dutch           and hopes of hundreds of children at Carpathia and other Winnipeg schools,
Lake Elementary, Box 2105, Clearwater, B .C . VOE 1 NO .                              have finally taken flight, on a U .S . military plane offered for relief donations .
                                                                                      "It's great that it's finally out the door and headed to the kids who need it,"
Elimination of racism goes beyond multiculturalism                                    said Hidson, a communications radar technician with the Canadian Forces .
             ALBERTA The responsibility for eliminating racism in Alberta
                       -                                                              Hidson and his wife Irene launched the drive last January after hearing from
             schools must fall to teachers, says John Anchan, head of the Ed-         Canadian peacekepers in Croatia that children are desperate for the basic
             monton Immigrant Services Association . Speaking as a panelist at        tools of learning, The supplies, along with 10 tonnes of clothing collected by
             a foium in Edmonton on racism in schools, he said multicultural          the Mennonite Central Committee, have been shipped to Bosnia via the Unit-
education is not equipped to deal with conflicts from the increasing diversity        ed States, said Catherine Mitchell, writing in the Winnipeg Free Press.
in Canadian society . Anchan said multiculturalism is about being tolerant of
others, but "anti-racism education is more controversial ; it asks questions          Canadian child poverty grows dramatically
about who has power and control ." Panelist John Rymer, a secondary school                         ONTARIO - The gravest threat to Canadians' future security and
teacher for 20 years, agreed : "It is possible within the guise of multicultural                   quality of life is the problem of child poverty, says David Ross, ex-
education to have a racist education ." Rymer argued that schools must take a                      ecutive director of the Canadian Council on Social Development .
preventive approach to racism . Anchan said that until administrators are will-                    Ross said the educational attainment levels of poor children are far
ing to include combatting racism in the curriculum, teachers will have to take        enough below the norm to jeopardize their economic futures . Poor children are
the initiative . Anchan and two other contributing authors from the book              more than twice as likely to have their performance judged "poor" by their
Racism in Canadian Schools, published this year, were speaking at a public            teachers. Poor kids also have double the normal school dropout rates, Ross
forum that was part of the Western Canadian Conference on Chinese Educa-              said . He cited 1993 figures that indicate 21 per cent or 1 .4 million Canadian
tion . Anchan said the need for education to counter racism grows as Canadian         children under 18 live in poverty, almost half a million more than a decade
society becomes increasingly diverse . Lately, more and more immigrants to            ago . In dollar terms, poverty means a single-parent mother with a child must
Canada are visible minorities, a change that's most evident in classrooms,            survive on less than $22,000 a year . In the Montreal Gazette, Ross wrote that
Kerry Powell wrote in the Edmonton Journal.                                           most poor single-parent mothers struggle to get by on closer to $1 2,000 . "The
                                                                                      solution is to go back to our Canadian roots and to rebuild an inclusive, equi-
Study considers situation of male elementary teachers                                 table society that values, and supports, its families and children," Ross said .
            ALBERTA     -  Men who teach in Calgary's public elementary               "We need to reverse widening income inequalities . . . . We need to support day-
            schools are vastly outnumbered by their female counterparts, and          care programs, and income and education programs for single mothers so that
            some in the system believe the challenges they face are discourag-        they have the tools they need to raise healthy children ."
            ing other men from applying to teach the younger grades, says
Lisa Dempster, writing in the Calgary Herald. Dempster reported that three            Newfoundland vote supports system change
years ago, a girl in Grade 2 called teacher Douglas Stretch, 28, a rapist and                      NEWFOUNDLAND Newfoundlanders have voted to support a

spread her story among other children . The school administrator talked to the                     government plan to curb church control over the province's school
girl, who admitted she didn't even know Stretch . Now his classroom door is al-                    system . The province held the referendum to seek support for ask-
ways open ; he never has just one child in after school ; and he touches only the                  ing the House of Commons and the Senate for constitutional
shoulder and above . About 1 9 per cent of the 2,850 elementary school teach-         amendments to enable the educational reforms . For students, the key change
ers in the Calgary public school system are men . Jennifer Pollock, Calgary           will see them going to schools closest to their homes instead of the current
public school board vice-chair, said she is concerned that boys are being             system, which was legislated into effect in 1 876 and largely streams children
raised without good role models for those years . "If it was the other way            and teachers to schools of their religion . The Sept . 5 referendum saw 54 per
around and there were only male teachers in elementary schools, we would be           cent support change, 46 per cent reject it . About 52 per cent of more than
really concerned about it," Pollock said . Principal Brian Del Castilho of Bow-       300,000 eligible voters cast ballots . The vote clears Premier Clyde Wells to
croft Elementary said it's good for young girls to see that men can treat             ask Ottawa to change a clause in Newfoundland's 1 949 Terms of Union with
women with respect, and that they can express their feelings . "I think it's so       Canada that prevented legislators from tinkering with the system . The ques-
important for the children, particularly the boys, to see a man who can handle        tion was : "Do you support revising Term 1 7 in the matter proposed by the
his temper and anger without lashing out and hitting," Castilho said . Mean-          government to enable reform of the denominational education system?" Term
time, Pat Boyle, the board's adviser on gender and equity issues, plans to            1 7 protects the school system from the kind of reform the government plans .
raise the issue of male elementary school teachers working in an environment          Wells reminded Canadians that Newfoundland became a province on the basis
dominated by women . "That's a question we have to talk about more - what             of 52-per-cent support . L1
                                                                      Compiled t y   staff writers

                                                              EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
                                                                                                                                    tion questionnaire and an assess-
Study finds motivation instruction                                                                                                  ment of learning .
                                                                                                                                       In before-and-after sessions, Bell
                                                                                                                                    assessed both groups for math-pat-
pays big dividends in learning                                                                                                      tern-recognition ability, preference
                                                                                                                                    for an easy or a hard task, and deter-
                                                                                       performance-goal oriented, as op-            mined if they were negatively or posi-
By D'Arcy Rickard                                                                      posed to learning-goal orientated ."         tively motivated .
                                                                                          Bell said that because the school            Bell said her motivational inter-

A    GRADE 2 pupil was sweating over a problem in
     arithmetic . He chanted to himself: "What do I
know? What do I know? Oh yeah, the hundreds chart!"
                                                                                       system is inherently performance-
                                                                                       goal oriented, "we need to pay par-
                                                                                       ticular attention to that, and be con-
                                                                                       scious of it so we can do other things
                                                                                                                                    vention for the one group prompted
                                                                                                                                    some pupils to switch to hard tasks .
                                                                                                                                       As well, Bell said the pupils in this
                                                                                                                                    group experienced a significant in-
The seven-year-old would solve the problem .                                           in the course of our teaching to             crease in their motivational orienta-
                                                                                       counter-balance that .                       tion questionnaire scores, indicating
   Education researcher cindy Maria           Bell, formerly of Lillooet School Dis-      In her thesis, Bell said : "Children      they were more positively motivated,
Bell had armed the boy, and the oth-       trict, said it's vital to tell pupils who   enter school with different motivation-      and in their pattern recognition abili-
ers in his group, with motivation in-      get stuck : don't give up ; think about     al orientations . Each child is confront-    ty scores .
struction . The Simon Fraser University    what you can bring to this problem          ed with academic achievement situa-             Kids who did not receive the moti-
graduate student said motivation in-       from past experience ; think about          tions that are fraught with challenge        vational intervention did not demon-
struction encourages kids to use what      where to start; and think about where       and difficulty . For instance, the intro-    strate significant changes on any of
they already know to solve problems .      to go for help .                                                                                     these measures .
   Bell, a teacher with 11 years of           This is the stuff of                                                                                 Bell said her study shows
classroom experience in nursery            motivational orienta-                                                                                that providing information
school to Grade 7, was delighted to        tion, which Bell con-                                                                                about the nature of learn-
hear the boy chanting to himself . Here    siders vital to effective                                                                            ing appears to be effective
was evidence that he had internalized      learning . Positively                                                                                in promoting positive-
an aspect of motivation instruction .      motivated people at-                                                                                 achievement motivation
   Bell's study compares the influ-        tribute failure to lack                                                                              and effective mathematics
ence of mathematics instruction            of effort, while nega-                                                                               learning in a regular Grade
minus motivation instruction, and          tively motivated ones blame their            duction of new concepts in class is         2 classroom .
mathematics instruction plus motiva-       own inability.                               generally accompanied by some activ-           She also believes her study shows
tion instruction, on children's motiva-       In an interview, Bell explained :         ity to test students' understanding         that endorsing a classroom learning
tion and learning .                        "One of the main things is that, for         and application of the concepts ."         goal, meaning "we can all learn," and
   The children who got the same           the most part, schools demand of                She said that, by their nature, cer-     providing instruction about how to
math instruction, without the motiva-      children that they perform . The way         tain conditions in academic-achieve-       apply effort appropriately in the pur-
tion instruction, didn't do as well .      a teacher assesses how a child is            ment situations threaten to make           suit of learning also appear to be ef-
   It's all laid out in Bell's MA thesis   doing is by performance .                    students feel even more negative           fective in promoting positive-achieve-
in curriculum and instruction, Pro-           "Although, particularly in elemen-        about their ability to learn or solve      ment motivation in young pupils .
moting the Positive Achievement Mo-        tary school, we are trying to do away        problems .                                     Bell said her study has implica-
tivation of Young Children in a Regu-      with this, the business that kids are          The subjects for Bell's study were       tions for the role of regular class-
lar Grade 2 Classroom .                    compared to one another, this is very        38 B .C . public-school pupils from        room teachers in promoting positive-
                                                                                        three Grade 2 classrooms . She spent       achievement motivation for effective
                                                                                       two weeks with each group .                 learning .
                                                                                           Bell gave both groups seven math-          "The goal has been for students to
                                           Face to Face                                ematics pattern-strategy lessons .          willingly confront challenge, and
                                                                                           Besides the mathematics instruc-        when confronted with challenge, to
                                               Communication                           tion, the kids who received motiva-         maintain positive affect, to believe
                                                 Consultants                           tional intervention received informa-       they can overcome the challenge
                                                                                       tion about the nature of learning           through their own effort, and to per-
                                                                                       within a context that valued learning .     sist and apply previous skills and
                                                                                          Bell also told this group that learn-    knowledge to resolve the challenge ."
     We'll help you :                                                                  ing requires effort . Bell gave the            Bell said CS . Dweck's research
     • find the right communication solutions                                          pupils a specific strategy for exerting     shows success alone was not enough
     • develop media and crisis communication                                          effort in the pursuit of learning and       to counteract the debilitating effect
        strategies                                                                     assured the pupils that learning was        of failure on the response of nega-
     • train staff to produce quality publications                                     highly valued .                             tively-motivated children .
     • produce effective publications                                                     Bell's study shows how pupils are af-       Simply being told that getting
                                                                                       fected when a teacher provides descrip-     wrong answers meant that they need
                                                                                       tions of beliefs that help kids learn .     to try harder encouraged the pupils
    With over 13 years experience in B.C.'S educational                                That is that everyone is capable of         to keep trying.
                                                                                       learning, that it is a process fraught         Citing Dweck, Bell said, "errors
    trenches, we know what to do and how to help .                                     with difficulty, but nonetheless achieved   should be capitalized upon as vehi-
    Discreet if you want, noticeable if you need .                                     through one's own efforts .                 cles for teaching the child how to
                                                                                          Bell used three dependent vari-          handle failure ." She added that they
          Phone (604) 857-0115 Fax (604) 857-0188                                      ables to test effects of the motivation     should also have the opportunity to
                                                                                       instruction on pupils' achievement-
                                                                                       motivation orientation and learning :
                                                                                       a task choice, a motivational orienta-                          See LanwING /12

                                                               EDUCATION LEADER September 15 . 1995
  Could confidentiality be compromised?
From 1/SCHOOL                                                 In her field work, she learned that the day-to-     dent herself?), the reason for referral, how often
1993 . The provisions governing schools - includ-          day reality of counsellors is that they're working -   the student saw the counsellor and the length of
ing school counsellors - came into effect in No-           in these days of cutbacks and shrinking budgets -      each session, for example .
vember, 1994 .                                             with very heavy caseloads, and some see the lack          "Something that is very basic and minimal that
   Commonly referred to as FOIPOP, the new leg-            of notes as a tradeoff in trying to cram in more stu   a counsellor can see when a student is transferred
islation does not make it mandatory for counsel-           dents for counselling sessions . They told Frank       between schools.
lors to create records on students . But it does           that producing detailed, daily session notes would        "At the very minimum you know who saw a stu-
make anything that is recorded (in any form, in-           eliminate one or two counselling sessions per day,     dent before and what the problem was ." Frank
cluding written, electronic or photographic, for ex-       further reducing stu-
ample) about a student, part of a file that must be
made available to those affected by - or having a
legitimate interest in - it . This could include stu-
                                                           dents' access to coun-
                                                           selling .
                                                              Frank understood
dents, parents, counsellors, teachers, administra-         their dilemma but
tors, social and health care workers and other re-         said, "There's got to
lated professionals .                                      be a midway between
   There is an appeal process, to an independent           no records and exten-
provincial body, for those refused access to infor-        sive records ."
mation they have requested .                                  In answering
   Frank said that in researching her thesis, she          Frank's survey, coun-
sent a survey to 488 B .C . school counsellors; she        sellors also expressed
had a 39-per-cent return rate .                            a fear that any notes
                                                           they kept of coun-
Counsellors appear misiMormed                              selling sessions could
  Forty-two per cent of the respondents to Frank's         be requested in court
survey said they do not let anybody else see their         cases, such as custody
school counselling records . UTHESE ARE MY                 battles . "My experi-
RECORDS," and 'NO ONE SEES THESE RE-                       ence is that people
CORDS," were some of the capitalized, underlined           fear this and worry
responses counsellors wrote .                              about it but the reali-
   In fact, under FOIPOP, the counsellors are com-         ty is it doesn't happen
pletely wrong; the records belong to the school            much ."                                                said such a record would also alert subsequent
board, which is ultimately responsible for handling           Frank said only three counsellors who answerec      counsellors and teachers to patterns, as well as let
requests for access .                                      her survey had ever been called on to testify ir       counsellors know if a child has spent a lot of time
   But what those requests for access turn up              court .                                                in counselling .
could be surprising . Eight per cent of the counsel-                                                                 Frank said some students become so accus-
lors answering Frank's survey said they keep no            Legal considerations                                   tomed to counselling methods they quickly learn to
records ; a further 11 per cent said they keep                She argued that if a counsellor does turn up in     size up the counsellor, figure out the counsellor's
records on about one tenth of their clients .              court and offers only sketchy session notes, or tes-   "shtick", and give "the stock answers ."
   The remaining counsellors said they keep ses-           tifies no notes were kept, that makes the counsel-        A counsellor, without access to any record of the
sion notes . Frank found, however, that there was a        lor look unprofessional, unaccountable and ineffec-    student's previous counselling sessions, must work
huge variety in the kinds of notes they keep . For         tive .                                                 harder to separate the student's fibs from the
many, session notes are nothing more than a quick             As well, Frank said, American literature on the     truth .
record of the name of the student and the time,            subject (there is virtually no Canadian material in
date, and location of the session . "And then,"            this area) says counsellors fare better in court if    Rethinking record storage
Frank said, "you go back as a counsellor at the            they keep more complete notes documenting the             Frank said along with keeping improved
next school and you can't even get that ."                 counselling relationship and process .                 records, counsellors will also have to standardize
                                                              Frank also discovered that counsellors are re-      their method of storing their records .
Systematic record-keeping                                  markably ignorant when it comes to legislation            From her survey, she discovered that when
   In her thesis conclusion Frank wrote ; "Though          covering their jobs . "The School Act was one of the   counsellors do keep records - sketchy or detailed
counsellors who keep minimal notes may be doing            least familiar documents ." Fully 73 per cent of       - where they keep them follows personal taste
an adequate job for their student/clients, the focus       counsellors said they had little or no familiarity     rather than a provincial standard .
for the future direction of counselling in B .C . points   with it.                                                  Counsellors told Frank that now, they carry
to the necessity of maintaining a systematic and              Frank suggests that counsellors adopt a system      records in their briefcases, stash them in their car,
fully accountable record-keeping system ."                 of record-keeping similar to the one used for com-     or lock them up at home or in their school office .
   At SFU, Frank had just completed a course that          puterized report cards .                                  Now, Frank said, records will have to be main-
included instructions on how to write session                 The computer program would contain thou-            tained in a secure, locked place .
notes . She learned that a good report would in-           sands of comments that counsellors could select           Although the legislation will mean significant
clude about two pages of notes recording the               from quickly to keep a record . These minimal          change to many counsellors' ways of doing the job,
process, what was discussed, the results, and sug-         records would keep track of who referred the stu-      Frank believes that the changes will lead to better
gestions on how to proceed in the next session .           dent to a counsellor, (a parent? teacher? the stu-     counselling .
                                                                 -     -6---
                                                                 EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
  Counsellors face legal and ethical requirements
  T   HERE ARE THREE major issues
       counsellors must study in ensur-
  ing their work conforms with the
                                             CONFIDENTIALITY                                               RECORD
                                                                                                                                   to the facts : you don't make any as-
                                                                                                                                   sumptions or conjecture ."
                                                                                                                                      She doesn't think avoiding
  new FOIPOP legislation says Ber-                                                                         KEEPING                 record-keeping is wise . She said
  nice Dewick, president of the B .C .                                                                                             counsellors can be called upon to
  School Counsellors Association                                                                                                   testify in a court case and they best
     They are : confidentiality, in-                                                                                               serve their client if they have proper
  formed consent and record keeping .                                                                                              records . Memories are not suffi-
     And in considering how all three                                                                                              cient . She said elementary counsel-
  areas at-c affected by the new legis-
  lation . Dewick said counsellors "walk
                                                                   key issues                                                      lors work at a ratio of one serving
                                                                                                                                    1,000 to 1,500 pupils per year .
  that line of legal requirements ver-                                                                                             "You tell me over five years what
  sus ethical ."                                                                                                                   you could recall,"
     Dewick said maintaining client         said, adding she fears it will leave         mation from their file or give con-          She said counsellors will have to
  confidentiality is the primary con-       students feeling they must be less           sent for it to be released,               think about how they can do their
  cern of most counsellors . Certainly,     open and should choose their words              In fact, the legislation doesn't       work and still follow the new legisla-
  in order for counsellors to work ef-      carefully .                                  specify- an age of consent . Judith       tion . One of the most difficult things
  fectively with children it is so impor-      That, Dewick believes, is tab-            Clark, staff lawyer for BCSTA, ex-        for counsellors to accept is that the
  tant to be able to guarantee confi-       solufely" going to hurt students .           plained that FOIPOP is vague in this      school board owns their counselling
  dentiality .                              "We all need support at crisis times         area, adding, "that is a difficulty for   records . "Certainly we have always
     In the past, counsellors knew they     of our life in order to see our issues       boards to deal with,'                     thought them to be our records,"
  had to warn clients that they were        from a different perspective .                  "My guess is that, as a rule of        Dewick said, then said : "The client
  obligated by law to report sonic dis-        "In order to do that we need to           thumb, people are drawing the line        owns the record,"
  closures - such as abuse or physical      have an open and trusting relation-          at the elementary-secondary level ."         Dewick said her association is
  violence - to police or the ministry      ship ." Telling students that anything          In the area of record keeping,         working hard to let counsellors know
  of social services .                      they say may be read by their par-           Dewick said counsellors are becom-        how FOIPOP affects how they must
     Now, counsellors have to warn          ents or teachers one day isn't going         ing aware that any piece of paper on      do their jobs . It has published an ar-
  clients that anything they say could      to engender an open and trusting             which they write information be-          ticle on the legislation in the associa-
  be included in a report of the ses-       relationship, Dewick believes .              comes part of the stLident's record .     tion's newsletter, held a forum on
  sion that could be opened to others,         On the issue of informed consent,            Dewick said the legislation has        the issue at the association's Febru-
  under FOIPOP legislation .                Dewick said counsellors must be              "certainly changed my thinking            ary annual general meeting, and it is
     'I think it certainly would change     aware that once students hit age             about what I will keep as a record .      sending local chapters a videotape
  the counselling relationship," Dewick     1 2, they are able to request infor-            "You just would have to stick right    ofthatforLim . L

   'The system needs to be changed . ft's for the for information only and not to be copied or used                      'To assure reasonable continuity, accountability,
sake of the kids and for the sake of the profession in any other way .                                                for protection of the institution, for the protection
as well ."                                               If the district had not opened the file, the parent          of the student, I think proper records should be
   'Society is just becoming more aware of what's      could have appealed to the Office of the Informa-              kept and they should stay with the institution
happening in the schools" Frank said . "With the tion and Privacy Commissioner .                                      where the student received instruction ."
new act, people are becoming more aware ."               Portfolio officer Michael Skinner, who handles
   Donna Reimer agrees . The informa-                              school-related appeals (called 're-                'Students are entitled to privacy'
tion and privacy coordinator for the           'The system        quests for review" under the legisla-                  Skinner, who stressed he was giving his own
Nanaimo School District is planning a                             tion) for the commissioner's office,                opinion rather than that of the commissioner, said
workshop for Nanaimo school counsel-            needs to be       said : 'The counsellor should make it               one benchmark for schools to follow is to remem-
lors this year, to let them know how           changed . It's crystal clear, at the outset (of the first              ber that, "students, like any other individuals, are
they must comply with the new legisla- for the sake of counselling session), what degree of                          entitled to privacy and they do not forfeit that
tion . She said the workshop will stress       the kids and confidentiality the student can expect ."                 right by enrolling in a public institution,"
to counsellors that they should keep                                 That means
                                             for the sake of about how anyletting the student know                       An appeal to the privacy commissioner's office
records, store them securely, and be                                               record of the session             for a file to be opened or kept closed will not auto-
aware that their records are available        the profession could be opened to parents, teachers,                   matically result in a favorable ruling from the com-
to others, under certain circumstances .         as               administrators and other related pro-              missioner.
   "I think people will gradually change                          fessionals .                                           The process weighs the right to privacy against
their practices ."                                       Skinner acknowledged this can put the counsel-              the need to open the file to appropriate people .
                                                      lor in the difficult position of trying to help a stu-             Monica Frank still thinks about that eight-year-
Access to luformatioll requests                       dent in emotional turmoil who doesn't want to say              old she counselled in North Vancouver . During the
   This past summer, Reimer dealt with a parent's anything for fear a parent or teacher may find out                 three months she spent at the school, she saw the
formal freedom-of-information request for informa- what he said . He said the easiest way for the coun-              child twice a week.
tion from a student's file . The parent had received sellor to sidestep that problem is to refrain from                  After leaving the school, she destroyed all her
everything from a special-needs student's file, ex- keeping notes .                                                  notes . (Under FOIPOP, not in place at the time, she
cept the raw data from a psychological test .            Skinner doesn't think that's a good idea . 'Not             would have had to keep them for one year .) 'So all
   Reimer said the district was reluctant to hand keeping notes invites just a host of problems . The                the work I did with the child is just gone ."
over the test because it was copyrighted . It eventu- potential for invasion of privacy that comes from                  She has never been contacted by any other
ally gave the parent the test, after receiving the    putting something on paper is small, if the legisla-           counsellor who has worked with the child, she
formal request, with the proviso that the test was tion is followed ."                                               said .
         _________________                         ____________                      7                              -

                                                               EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
                                                               Van Tech tackles Grade 8 dropouts
                                                               by banding students and teachers
                                                               From 3 I DEALING                                          pressed with the school's method of attacking the
                                                                 There are also a couple of school re-entry pro-         problem of Grade 8 dropouts . The school created a
                                                               grams for kids who have dropped out, a hairdress-         Grade 8 grouping so students stay with the same
SEPTEMBER 19-22 : Canadian Education Association
Annual Convention, "Educating for a Sustainable Fu-            ing program that runs a professional salon (every         peers for most classes, and have fewer teachers .
ture," Winnipeg, Manitoba. Contact : Denise Lauziere,          graduate last year landed a job), as well as a               Kelly said Van Tech's accomplishment in reduc-
CEA, phone (416) 924-7721, fax (416) 924-3188 .                Grades 8-12 French Immersion program .                    ing dropout rates and improving exam scores,
                                                                  Mitchell said that aside from the French Immer-        "seems to show that the school was improving it-
SEPTEMBER 28-30: Women, Children and Youth
HIV/AIDS Conference, Vancouver, B .C . Contact: Con-           sion parents, most parents of students at Van Tech        self, and in a quantifiable way ."
tinuing Education in the Health Sciences, Room 105 -           are not the sort to bang on his desk and demand              Kelly said she has been sceptical of vocational
2194 Health Sciences Mall, The University of B .C ., Van-      more things for their kids ; he said there is a lot       programs and, in the past, approached things like
couver, B .C. V6T 1Z3, phone (604) 822-2626, (within           more passive acceptance . "As a principal you feel        the school's hairdressing program wondering
B.C . toll free at 1-800-663-0348), fax (604) 822-4835 .       you have to almost take on the assertive role of          whether such courses belong in a high school, By
                                                               the parents in terms of advocating with the school        the end of the year, she had decided that a high
OCTOBER 13-14 : 30th Anniversary Celebrations of               board or developing programs in the school ."             number of ESL kids would have dropped out of
the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toron-            Dr . Deirdre Kelly, an education professor at the      school if there had been no vocational programs .
to, Ont . Contact: Dr . Beverly Brophy, 30th Anniversary,      University of B .C ., did the case study on Van Tech         At the end of the year, Kelly said, she was im-
phone (416) 926-4722, fax (416) 975-1925 .                     for the Exemplary Schools Project . Kelly, along          pressed by the school . "I was convinced that it was
                                                               with three UBC graduate students, spent two days          really a genuine team effort ."
OCTOBER 18-21 : Learning Disabilities Association
of Canada, Annual Conference, Saskatoon, Sask.                 every week for one school year at the school . Kelly,        "I just met so many teachers who were so dy-
Contact: LDA Saskatchewan, #25-610 Clarence Ave .,             who has published a book, Last Chance High, on            namic and entrepreneurial I was really impressed ."
S., Saskatoon, Sask . S7H 2E2, phone (306) 652-4114,           alternative schools in California, said she wanted           She also praised the students, who, she said,
fax (306) 652-3220.                                            to spend time studying Van Tech because she is in-        expressed "incredible pride in their school ."
OCTOBER 23-24 : The Intuitive Edge : By Our Being              terested in alternative programs, as well as the             It seems that pride also extends to the students'
We Teach, Vancouver, B .C . (October 26-27, Calgary,           process of students dropping out of school .              community. Principal Mitchell pointed out that the
Alberta .) Contact: Focus Conferences, do Barbara                 She said Van Tech's numerous programs, which           new student council has implemented a special
Smith & Assoc . Ltd ., 1881 Beach Dr ., Victoria, B .C . V8R   she referred to as "schools within a school" seem to      rule : This year, entry to all social functions will be
6J4, phone (604) 598-1039, fax (604) 598-2358 .                reach kids who are high academic achievers as well        the price of a ticket plus a can of food or looney for
OCTOBER 26-28 : Trustee Leadership : Shaping the               as those at risk of dropping out . She was also im-       the food bank .
K-12 Plan, a BCSTA conference at Richmond, B .C . Call
Karen Hawkins or Nancy Lagana at (604) 734-2721, fax
                                                               Study shows diversil of excellence
                                                               From 3 I A LITTLE                                          "They are not presented as uniform models for un-
NOVEMBER 3 : From Chaos to Consensus, a work-
shop on meeting dynamics and conflict management at            reminded her of how little time researchers actual-        critical imitation," Fleck said in a news release .
Vancouver, B .C . Call Eli Mina (604) 730-0377 .               ly spend in schools .                                         Gaskell said at Langley Fine Arts, she found
                                                                  National studies with the scope of the exemplary        teachers grappling with the meaning of academics
NOVEMBER 3 : Robert's Rules of Order - Demysti-
tied, a workshop at Vancouver, B .C . Call Eli Mina            schools project are extremely rare . The project is        - a struggle that was going on in many of the ex-
(604)730-0377 .                                                the largest Canadian study ever of                                       emplary schools as they considered
                                                               successful practices in secondary                                        how to balance students' academic
NOVEMBER 3-4: Charting a New Course : Charter
Schools Conference, Vancouver, B .C . Contact: Bar-            schools, Gaskell said research                                           and social needs .
bara Koch, phone (604) 988-2202 or 1-800-338-1667 .            grants tend to be small, focusing on                                        The report's conclusions refer to
                                                               one area of interest in one province .                                   the struggle in many schools between
NOVEMBER 10 : In the Hot Seat, a workshop at Van-              This $2 .5 million study was funded /                                    a common sense of community and in-
couver, B .C . Call Eli Mina (604) 730-0377 .
                                                               by the Department of Human Re-                                           dividual/group differences and the
NOVEMBER 12-14 : Seventh Annual Conference on                  sources Development Canada .                                             conflict between professional autono-
Quality LearnIng and School Improvement, Phoenix,                 This study focuses on 21 Canadi-                                      my and social accountability . "How
Arizona . Contact : Marvel Rogers, phone (604) 861-                                                             ,__    : .-_
                                                                                                                                        these tensions are cultivated and re-
1003, fax, (604) 880-8856 .                                    an public secondary schools in nine
                                                               provinces and one territory . The re-                                    solved determines the nature and suc-
NOVEMBER 20-21 : Focus on the Solutions for Youth              search team had received about 260                                       cess of a school," the report says .
Violence : Believe in the Healing, Victoria, B .C . Con-       nominations. The schools selected Gaskell                                   Over this school year, Education
tact: Focus Conference, c/a Barbara Smith and Assoc .                                                                                   Leader will publish regular stories
Ltd ., 1881 Beach Dr., Victoria, B .C. V8R 6J4, phone,         represent large urban schools, five
(604) 598-1039, fax, (604) 598-2358 .                          small rural schools, three schools serving Aboriginal      about various components of Vancouver Technical,
                                                               students and three alternative schools .                   one of the exemplary schools listed in the report .
                                                                  Gaskell said the schools were selected due to           We'll talk to students and teachers, drop in on pro-
DECEMBER 7-9 : Fighting for Public Education, a                their excellence, and represent different kinds of         grams and special events, and even check out the
BCSTA trustee academy at Vancouver, B .C . Call Karen          schools offering innovative programs .                     hairdressing program . By the end of the year, a
Hawkins or Nancy Lagana, BCSTA, phone (604) 734-                  "The schools studied were 'exemplary' in the            complete picture of an exemplary urban, compre-
2721, fax (604) 732-4559 .                                     sense that they serve to illustrate the diversity of       hensive school should emerge . EL
                                                               Canadian secondary schools, the challenges they           To order a copy of "Seconda,y Schools in Canada : The Na-
                                                                                                                         tional Report of the Exemplary Schools Project," and the ac-
MARCH 7-9, 1996 : Advanced Communications, a                   face, the tensions they must try to resolve, and the      companying video, "Searching for Exemplary Schools," con-
BCSTA trustee academy at Richmond, B .C . Call Karen           creative responses that these particular schools          tact the Canadian Education Association, Ste . 8-200, 252
Hawkins or Nancy Lagana, BCSTA, phone (604) 734-               are making to these challenges and tensions," said        Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ont., M5S I V5 or phone (416) 924-
2721, fax (604) 732-4559 .                                     Patrick Fleck, director of the project for the CEA .      7721, fax (416) 924-3188.

                                                                     EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
                                                                                    Clifford Stoll's new book, Silicon      more realistic and balanced view of
  Author's book a pothole                                                        Snake Oil, has become the rallying
                                                                                 cry for these neo-Luddites . An article
                                                                                 about the book, and Stoll's views on
                                                                                                                            the role of information technology in
                                                                                                                            the learning life of students . At the
                                                                                                                            very least, the new school district
  on information highway                                                         information technology and the fa-
                                                                                             bled information highway,
                                                                                                                            technology plans should explode the
                                                                                                                            myths that Stoll perpetuates .
                                                                                             was on the front page of          Stoll also spends a lot of time
T    HIS MONTH, more than half a •__qu2.
    million British Columbian stu-
dents are returning to school . Are
                                                                                             the Vancouver Sun over
                                                                                             the Labor Day weekend,
                                                                                            just as parents and teach-
                                                                                                                            painting scary pictures of libraries
                                                                                                                           with no books, magazines, or librari-
                                                                                                                            ans . This, he speculates, is what the
those schools in the best position                                                           ers prepared for the           library of the future will look like : a
ever to service those students' infor-                                                       1995-96 learning season .     scenario calculated to make librari-
mation technology needs?                                                                       Stoll makes many            ans take notice .
   I expect so, thanks, in part, to a     What policy development will be        claims about the evils of technology .       He harps about the movement to
ministry of education technology required to guarantee that all stu-             He says that computers reduce stu-        digitize texts and speculates that this
funding program, which requires that dents will receive more than minimal       dent contact with teachers, that com-      will be an impossible task, given that
school districts present a coherent training in the essential computer ap-       puter literacy is a tough sell in a       only the past 15 years of publishing
plan to receive a technology grant . plications? How will schools ensure         back-to-basics era, that music and        is currently in a format which makes
This program represents a large step that their access to the infosphere is     art classrooms are being re-born as        it easily digitizable .
towards ensuring that a strategy for affordable, robust, meaningful, se-        computer labs and that school dis-            I doubt that anybody would com-
the use of computers in schools ex- cure, and safe?                             tricts are cutting programs to make        plain if not all texts are fully digital in
ists, beyond the obvious need to          Where is the vision for moving be-    way for information technology .           the future, as long as some techno-
keep the boxes and wires maintained yond the consolidation of 'computer            I don't know how valid these            logical means exists to help people
and in good supply .                   programs" in schools to a more           claims are in specific instances in        find the references they need and to
   Aside from these technology transformative view of how education             B .C . but, thanks to my frequent trav-    hasten the delivery of the full-text
plans, what are school districts and and schools can be reorganized using       el to school sites around the              version to their home or school .
the ministry of education doing to the magic of information technology?         province, I believe that Stoll's ques-        My local public library already has
move beyond "special funding"             Good questions . So good, that they   tions are the stuff of myth and have       a wonderful system which allows me
arrangements, to make the technolo- linger year after year without answers .    been answered countless times in the       to peruse its catalogue on site or
gy infrastructure of schools as much Meanwhile, there are still doubters        past .                                     from home . I can check the availabili-
a priority as classrooms, books, play- among us who continue to label tech-        Schools have evolved from those         ty of books, videos, and tapes and
grounds, and physical education nology purchases for schools as a               early, mid-'80s days of tinkering with     even put them on hold . I like it .
equipment?                             'misguided allocation of funds ."        computers . Today, they have a much                            See EDUCATION /12

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                                                         EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
Attacked U .S . teachers
head to court for justice
WASHINGTON, DC . - "If teachers don't file law-        dents who bring weapons to school to be expelled       was negligent in protecting her from harm .
suits after they've been attacked, they are walked     for a year.                                               Johnson said legal action could be avoided if
on in the classroom," says Celia Lose, a spokes-          Most school districts have some kind of disci-      school districts adopted strict discipline policies
woman for the 875,000-member American Feder-           pline policy . And many school districts offer semi-   and enforced them .
ation of Teachers .                                    nars and literature to school officials to help them      Meantime, teacher Deborah Sanville decided to
   "A lawsuit is a strong message that teachers        create safer school environments .                     join a growing number of teachers across the United
mean business," Lose said .                               In the past few years, state legislatures have      States who say they are frustrated at being targets
   At the same time, in extreme cases, teachers        adopted measures designed to strengthen schools'       for students and are turning to the courts for relief .
have been threatened with losing their jobs if they    ability to curb violence, such as stiffening penalties    Sanville, who teaches government at Hayfield
go to court over attacks by students, she added .      for juveniles who assault school officials . Under a   High School in Alexandria, Va ., went to a Fairfax
   "Many of these incidents                                                                                                        County, Va ., courthouse in
would be crimes if they hap-                                                                                                       search of something she said
pened in a house. But                                     &e         e S                                                           her school had denied her -
                                                                                                                                   justice .
they're not being treated as                                    (for Teachers)
                                                                                                                                       Sanville was attacked by an
seriously in the schools, so
teachers are forced to deal
                                                               ILSALEI                                YES, we carry     -
                                                                                                                                    18-year-old student last spring .
with it outside the school IIsas                                                                       vepuerspray                 He pinned her against a wall . He
system ."                                                                                                                          tried to punch her. Another
   Jessica Portner, writing in                                                                                                     teacher intervened . Sanville ex-
Education Week,      says that                                                                                                     pected that the student would be
more and more teachers                                                                                                             severely punished .
                                                                                                                                       But Sanville says the school
who have been attacked by
students are turning to
courts for relief .
                                                                  ____________                                                     principal gave the student a
                                                                                                                                   five-day in-school suspension,
   In a 1993 Metropolitan                                                                                                          which meant the senior was al-
Life survey on violence Lj                                                                                                         lowed to move about the school
against teachers, 11 per cent rj                                                                                                   on his own . School officials said
of teachers responding na-                                                                                                         such a punishment was appro-
tionwide reported being as-                                                                                                         priate for a first-time offence .
saulted at school that year ;                                                                                                          But Sanville said she felt be-
95 per cent of the perpetra-           _______       [L                                                                            trayed and frightened . "School
tors were students .                                    new Texas law, teachers have the right to refuse a is so dangerous . These are huge young men, and
    The same year, 29 teachers died on the job . student admittance to a class if the student previ- they think nothing of hitting us ."
Six were by assault, said Guy Tuscano, a pro- ously assaulted them . Several other states are con-                The student who attacked Sanville has been or-
gram manager for the U .S . Labor Department's          sidering similar measures .                            dered to enrol in an anger-control program . He paid
Bureau of Labor Statistics, which gathers data                                                                 a $100 fine for a conviction on disorderly conduct .
from death certificates and workers-compensa- School a hazardous workplace                                        "I'm very happy that justice was served,"
tion reports .                                             Nevertheless, teachers are saying schools have Sanville said after the trial . "The district wasn't
    Portner reported there are no national statistics   become an increasingly hazardous place to work .       doing its job with disciplining this child, so I had to
on how many teachers press criminal charges                Anne Johnson, an English teacher in New York do it for them ."
 against students and parents who threaten or as- City, said she was attacked recently by a parent
 sault them .                                           who shouted obscenities and threw her against a Assault caseload doubles
    Nor are there national figures on the number of door after a meeting .                                        Larry Samuel, a lawyer for the United Teachers
 civil lawsuits teachers have filed against individual     Johnson said that when she called for an ambu- of New Orleans, said that union's annual teacher-
 students or school districts seeking damages stem- lance over the in-school communications system, assault case load has doubled from about 20 three
 ming fron a discipline problem .                       the principal intercepted the call and canceled her years ago to roughly 40 .
    Administrators' groups say schools are vigilant request . "He was embarrassed to have the police              Samuel said almost every teacher assaulted this
 in protecting their employees .                        come to the school, and he didn't want to make a year has filed charges against the perpetrator . He
                                                        scene ." Johnson pressed charges against the par- is currently helping a local prosecutor in a criminal
 Discipline policies fail                               ent .                                                  case against a student who shot a high school
    Gary Marx, senior associate executive director          Principal Robert Anastasio of Intermediate teacher - over a new seat assignment .
 of the American Association of School Administra- School 238 said that he did not abort the emer-                As well, Samuel is representing the teacher in a
 tors, says that even the best discipline policies and gency call and that when the teacher was attacked, civil suit against the district, claiming that it failed
 the most modern security systems cannot deter he rushed to her assistance and removed the par- to provide a safe work environment.
 every potential criminal .                             ent from the school .                                      Many teachers say they hope that taking stu-
    'If people intend to commit violent acts, it's very     'Our school provides a safe and secure environ- dents and parents to court will help rein in some of
 difficult to have a system that's fail-safe," Marx      ment for all its staff, and in this case we provided the violence in their schools . Teachers who go to
 said .                                                 all of that and then some," he said .                  court say they hope to deter crime by sending a
     Meantime, a quarter of urban school districts in       But Johnson disagreed   . She says she intends to signal to students and their parents that there are
 the U .S . have adopted policies that require stu- take the school district to court as well, claiming it consequences for violent actions .

                                                              EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
                                                                                                                        Education Act
                                                                                                                      changes end state
                                                                                                                      control of schools
                                                                                                                     BUCHAREST - The Rumanian senate has ap-
 German Abitur certification                                                                                         proved a new Education Act, but the state sec-
                                                                                                                    retary for pre-university education says the ed-
                                                                                                                    ucation reform's biggest problem is changing
  criticized by universities                                                                                        the mentality of those within the system .
                                                                                                                        Romulus Pop says Rumanian educators have
                                                                                                                    always worked under command .
 BONN - By the end of the year the conference of only one allowed to operate its own selection pro-                     "The communist party told us what was to
 education ministers wants to agree to a reform of cedures because it is outside state control, al-                 be taught and learnt," Pop said . Now the new
 the Abitur - the school-leaving certificate which though its students are eligible for state support .             act, stalled in parliament since early 1994, re-
 qualifies students for a university place .              As a result, the university has a negligible drop-out     linquishes state control after 40 years of cen-
   The Abitur is not the stamp of a good general rate compared with 31 per cent of non-finishers in                 tral planning .
 education that it ought to be, says                                         the state system, Schily said .            It is intended that decentralization of the
Jennie Brookman, writing in the                                                 "The continued use of Abitur        budget, delegating responsibility for manage-
 Times Educational Supplement .            'No state can politically T
                                                                             as proof of a successfully cam-        ment, overheads and textbooks to 41 local
    Brookman reported some                     afford to make life           pleted education and as admis-         area authorities, will take place over the next
states want to make the exam               harder for ptq,ils than m \ sian to university doesn't solve             five years .
more difficult to pass as a way of         thr hbodng state. ( any of the problems of the uni-                          "Decentralizing the budget also means that
easing a burden on the universi-                                             versities confronted with over-        headmasters and inspectors have to be trained
ties of too many students .                   Only if the Abitur is I crowding and stagnating fund-
                                                                         )                                          as managers," said Pop in an interview with
   At the same time, Konrad Schi-          freed from Its role as an (                                              Kevin Smith, a writer for the Times Educational
ly, president of Germany's only            entry ftdet to nuversity ) Brookman, writing in the                     Supplement.
recognized private university, said
                                             can it develop into a f says one-third of today's sec-
                                                                             Times Educational Supplement,              'A good teacher is not necessarily a good
the country should scrap the cen-                                                                                   manager, and the concept of balancing the
tralized system relying on the             better exam for pupi .'           ondary graduates go into higher        books is going to be a huge challenge to most of
Abitur.                                                                      education today compared with         these people ."
   Schily, long a critic of the state education sys- only one in 12 in 1960 . The result is chronic uni-               Education reform involves a $1 00-million
tem, said universities should be allowed to operate       versity overcrowding, with 1 .9 million students in a    strategy. It was put together by Rumanian aca-
their own student selection process .                     system designed for 910,000 .                            demics with foreign financial and advisory as-
   Schily said reform of the Abitur will not solve the       Universities complain that many of their stu-         sistance and is being supported with a $50
problem . "No state can politically afford to make dents who pass the Abitur are not university mate-              million loan from the World Bank a 25 million
life harder for pupils than in their neighboring rial . They are particularly critical that each federal           ECU grant from the EU s Phare Fund and tech
state," Schily said . "Only if the Abitur is freed from state sets its own exam with varying degrees of dif-       nical and financial assistance from the Know
its role as an entry ticket to university can it devel- ficulty . For example, in Hamburg 33 per cent of           How Fund
op into a better exam for pupils ."                      students pass the Abitur while in Saxony Anhalt it            The $25 million ECU project ainis to produce
   Schily's university - Witten-Herdecke - is the is only 14 per cent .                                            75 modern vocational education and training
                                                                                                                   (VET) schools throughout Romania by 1998 in
                                                                                                                   order to initiate systematic reform
Going to school with boys stressful for girls                                                                          The strategy addresses three main objec
                                                                                                                   tives restructuring modernization and mea
 DUBLIN - A new study by the Economic and Social             Other studies have suggested that girls did bet-      sures to address critical material sliortagec
 Research Institute for the Education Ministry has ter in single-sex schools, says John Walshe, writing               One of the main reforms concerns moderniza
 uncovered evidence of greater stress among girls in the Times Educational Supplement.                            tion of curricula and textbooks C'ith Comisel a
 in co-educational schools than in single-sex                Walshe reports that a leaked draft of the study      member of the board appointed to design new
 schools .                                                claims that many of the studies that suggest that       curricula for English said Romania is looking at
    The probe found higher levels of stress among         girls did better in single-sex schools failed to take   the U K model for a national curriculum
girls than among boys at the Leaving Certificate into account differences in social class and ability                   The U K model has coherent guidelines
stage . The stress was found in all types of schools,     intake between the schools .                            and yet room also to manoeuvre Comisel
but the report said that it seems coeducation has a          "When these controls were introduced, much of        said After 40 years of centraliz-rtwn you don t
statistically significant negative effect on stress lev- the achievement difference disappears," Institute        want to 'ust go into free-fall .'
els among girls .                                         researchers say .                                           Hungarian and German ethnic minorities say
   The Economic and Social Research Institute               Co-education also seems to have a negative im-        the new education law is too repressive . Ethnic
probed more than 10,000 students in 116 schools pact on students' perception of their appearance                  Hungarian members of the Rumanian prlra
and more than 1,200 school-leavers . Researchers and attractiveness among both boys and girls .                   ment are trying to challenge the law as uriconsti-
also compared the academic performance of girls             Some evidence suggested that co-education re-         tutional .
in different types of schools.                           duces stereotyping in boys' gender role expecta-             Entrance examinations to vocational colleges
   As well, boys in co-educational schools tend to tions .                                                        and universities will now be in Rumanian only .
be somewhat more stressed than their counter-               Researchers say this may be linked to both the        As national minorities, Hungarians and Ger-
parts in single-sex schools, although the effects of     closer interaction and subsequently greater under-       mans can claim under current international law
co-education here are not statistically significant .    standing of girls' roles, as well as the potentially     significant cultural rights, including the right to
   The probe discovered that girls do well academ- greater availability of non-traditional subjects in            mother-tongue education .
ically in co-educational schools .                       co-education schools .
                                                              EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995
                                                                                                     "   Nelscw : TechnoIotJtJPInflifl9PnstItute       ______

Education technology                                                                                       I    III         ttt

naysayer easily disproved                                                                                                                                                C.

From 9 / AUTHOR'S                         of their school years in mindless com-
   Why would anyone dismiss a sys-        puter activities.
tem that's so natural and convenient         Stoll also argues that computers
and represents an improvement from        continue to be accorded special sta-
what came before?                         tus . In progressive situations, that's
   Information technology will not ul-    not true .
timately dehumanize libraries and            A visit to school districts that do
other cultural pursuits, as Stoll spec-   not rely solely on special technology
ulates, but it will cause transforma-     funding for technology purchases,
tions to happen . Information technol-    and where computers and networks
ogy will be a cornerstone in              have been adopted and integrated in                                                                   .4 1O5ui Venn,, P C
                                                                                     Th P C T F']C' PLi .cw Inititwe willne Iti ni CitY ' Y•.
improved library services in our com-     a transparent fashion into the busi-       enistti,Sh.ICn1riit 1 .
munities and in our schools .             ness of schools, can quickly disprove
                                                                                      'iT .
   For example, library systems are       the Stoll hypothesis .                                         C-re'vl St-tiSt-iTH p-tYiTl                        S.tYt.tPJ]
planning to digitize appropriate ma-
terials for convenient access by their    Technology plamthig
clients . Informed humans will decide       Certainly the technology plans re-      The Technology Planning Institute's home page on the
whether to adopt these changes or         quired of school districts in 1995-96
retreat from them .                       should be the mechanism for gener-        World Wide Web promotes the October conference
   Libraries are one point of light in    ally proving to the public and politi-
the use of information technology in      cians that educators do know what to      reading and allow educators to exer-          ting your browser to :
schools: there are others, putting to     do with technology in schools.            cise their arguments against those of
                                                                                                                                    http ://www .etc .bc .ca/provdocs/
 rest more of the Stoll myths about          Parents, through school boards,        a techie who's seen and done it all .
                                                                                       The Technology Planning Institute            disttechlinstitute .html
 how computers and networks are           should be paying attention to the
turning students into pasty-faced iso-    technology-planning process now .         being organized in Vernon for Octo-             The information available at this
 lates who will spend the better part     Books like Stoll's make for good          ber 22-24 will provide the best op-           forum should help B .C . school dis-
                                                                                    portunity in this province for discus-        tricts in both the creation of their
                                                                                    sions about district technology plans .       technology plans and in arming
                                                                                    Information about this forum can be           themselves with arguments against
                                                                                    obtained from a WWW server by set-            the Stolls of the world . L

                                                                                    Learning motivation
                                                                                    From 5 I STUDY
                                                                                                                                  affect and actions, which in turn influ-
                                                                                                                                  ence beliefs, affect, and actions and
                                                                                    experience success as a result of             SO On .
                                                                                    strategic behavior .                             Bell said it's important to explicitly
                                                                                       At the same time, AK . Grote-              state to children that the teacher's
                                                                                    luschen et all contend that choosing,         purpose is that they learn . "Children
                                                                                    applying, monitoring, assessing, and          should be told repeatedly you are
                                                                                    modifying strategies to match the sit-        here to learn ."
                                                                                    uation at hand, is dependent upon                "We don't take the time, often, to
                                                                                    general strategy knowledge . General          say that to children - we just imag-
                                                                                    strategy knowledge is "the under-             ine they have some understanding of
                                                                                    standing that effort is required to           that. Plunked in a classroom, kids
                                                                                    apply strategies and that well-chosen         might form different perceptions, like
                                                                                    strategies improve performance ."             'I have got to get a better mark than
                                                                                       Citing W . Damon's and D . Hart's          Johnny' in the next desk ."
                                                                                     1982 work, The Development of Self-             Now that her thesis is complete,
                                                                                    Understanding from Infancy Through            and Bell is set to collect her masters'
                                                                                    Adolescence, Bell said self-efficacy          in October, she is considering her
                                                                                    beliefs are an aspect of self-concept,        next move . She isn't content to let
                                                                                    and that self-concept - the beliefs a         the thesis gather dust on a shelf.
                                                                                    person has about their abilities and             "I have decided I would like to get
                                                                                    attractiveness - all form the founda-         back out in the field and apply what I
                                                                                    tion for self-esteem .                        know . . . take my research ideas to
                                                                                       Self-esteem, or the liking of one's        the classroom . More specifically, I
                                                                                    self, in turn, has a direct impact on         would like to be an administrator in
                                                                                    affect. It becomes apparent then that         a small school where I could oversee
                                                                                    beliefs and understandings influence          this kind of thing ." L

   ____                                                                         12            . . .-.-_

                                                              EDUCATION LEADER September 15, 1995

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