Steps the Sales Manager Has to Take While Setting Sales Objectives for the Sales Personnel, as Part of the Sales Plan by cey15174


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									Human Resource
        Learning Objective
 Introduction to Human Resource
 Concept of Human Resource Planning,
 Job analysis,
 Recruitment and selection,
 Performance appraisal,
 Training and development
             Case incident 1
   Global Textile industries had its presence
    in the textile industry for more than 100
    years .The HR DEPT of the company was
    mostly administrative in nature . But with
    the changes in the company environment ,
    the company plan to integrate HR in
    strategy formulation and implementation.
    What are the challenges do you think the
    company HR department would face?
    Human Resource Management
   Human Resource Management (HRM)
     The comprehensive set of managerial
      activities and tasks concerned with
      developing and maintaining a qualified
      workforce–human resources–in ways that
      contribute to organizational effectiveness.
     Effective human resource management is
      a vital strategic concern for organizations
         Definition and concept of HRM
   According to Gluke “ Human resource
    management is function performed in
    organization that facilitates the most
    effective use of people (Employees) to
    achieve organizational and individual
   HRM is a process that consists of Four
    Functions-Acquiring, Developing, Motivating
    and retaining human resources.
   Acquisition-starts with Planning and ends with
   Development function has three dimensions-
    Employee training, Employee Development
    and career development
   .Motivating function includes Identifying the
    individual motivational needs of employees
    and identifying ways to motivate them
   Retention function is concerned with
    providing a conducive work environment
          Definition and concept of HRM
   Managing people is one of the biggest
    challenges for any manager for following
   Individual Differ from each other in terms of values ,
    attitudes , beliefs and culture. This leads to a very
    complex situation in an organizational context
   The stimulating and motivating factors might not be
    same for all the employees.
   The expectation of employees of today are much greater
    when compared to employees of yesteryears. They
    know they are valuable assets and demand to be treated
    as such.
Challenges that HR Dept of Global
  Textile industries would face
 Global Business Environment
 ‟Profitability through Growth
 Technology
 Intellectual Capital
 Adaptability
                 Case Incident 2
   ABC corporation is a large manufacturing organization
    which have been facing problems due to constant
    conflicts between human resource and production
    department. While the production team resents the mere
    presence of HR department the HR team on the other
    hand believes that the production dept does not
    appreciate the value and importance of its contribution to
    the organization. What do you think could be the
    probable cause for the conflict between the two
    department? If you were the external consultant asked to
    resolve this conflict, what would you suggest?
    Line vs. Staff Perspectives
   Organizations typically divide managers into
    two groups:
       Line (now operating) managers in operations,
        finance, and marketing functions supervise and
        direct the workforce in the creation of goods and
        services. Their contributions to the organization
        can be measured directly.
       Staff managers in legal, HR departments perform
        indirect or support functions, which makes their
        contributions less easily measured directly.
       HR departments are assigned staff functions and
        staff responsibility. HRM activities are distributed
        throughout organizations, yet HR departments are
        responsible for monitoring and ensuring
        organizational compliance with laws, regulations,
        policies, procedures, and rules.
HR Staff should reorient itself and play
          more strategic role
   Understanding the market and business better
   Having a complete understanding of organizational
   Being emphatic to the limitation of line function
   Building an atmosphere of trust and transparency
   Trying to work towards a win-win situation rather than
    trying to gain upper hand
   Being open to bouquets as well as brick bats for its
   Playing an active role in designing the strategy of the
                   Case Incident 2
   The economic downturn during the recent past caused serious
    problems to most organizations, especially in the IT field. Horizon
    Technologies, a five-year old firm was faced with the most common
    problem surplus manpower, The top management called for
    a meeting to discuss strategies to help the organization survive
    during those turbulent times. What do you think might be the
    strategies that will help Horizon deal with surplus manpower?
    Human Resource Planning
   It can be defined as a process of ensuring the
    right number of qualified people , into the right
    job at the right time to deliver the results in an
    effective and efficient manner . It is the system
    of matching the available resources either
    internally or externally with the demand the
    organization is going to have over a period of
       Process of Human resource
   1 Analyzing the impact of the organizational strategy
    and objectives on different units of the organization in
    terms of the human resource requirements.
   2. Involving the line managers in determining the
    human resource needs of their respective departments.
   3. Forecasting the quantity and quality of human
    resources required by different departments/divisions.
   4. Matching !he current human resources supply in the
    organization with the numbers required in the future.
   5. Developing an action plan to meet the future
    Dealing With Surplus man power
 Voluntary Retirement
 Attrition
 Reduced work hours
 Work Sharing
 Loaning
 Leave of absence without pay
 Lay off
 Retrenchment
Estimating Internal Labor Supply
        for a Given Unit
                  Case incident
   Triumph Electronics, a manufacturer of electronic
    appliances, decided to conduct a detailed job analysis to
    collect information about various aspects of the different
    jobs in the organization that would provide necessary
    inputs for a number of HR activities like recruitment,
    selection, job design, training and appraisal. However,
    problems cropped up when its employees began to view
    the initiative as a threat to their job security as some
    organizations use this process for downsizing the
    workforce. Organizations like Triumph face such
    problems while implementing the process of job analysis.
    Discuss the various issues associated with job analysis
    and suggest ways of tackling them
               What is a job?
   Job
     Group of related activities and duties
     Made up of tasks

   Tasks
     Basic elements of jobs
     “what gets done”
                Job Analysis
   It is the process of determining and
    recording all the pertinent information
    about a specific job, including the tasks
    involved, the knowledge and the skill set
    required to perform the job, the
    responsibilities attached to the job and the
    abilities required to perform the job
       Job Analysis
    Job Description (Job              Information and Facts
                                           Job Specification(Employee
    Oriented)                                    Oriented)
   Job Identification : Job Title,
    Location, Job code, Department
                                                Education
    and unit                                    Experience
   Job Summary: Brief Job                      Training
    content,its authority, responsibility,
    Hazards                                     Judgement
   Relation to other jobs                      Initiative
   Location in the hierarchy                   Physical Efforts
   Machines, tools, equipments used
                                                Physical Skills
   Responsibilities
   Conditions of work, location of             Communication Skills
    work, Posture Etc                           Emotional Characteristics
            Uses Of Job Analysis
   Employment
   Organization Audit
   Training and Development
   Performance Appraisal
   Promotion and Transfer
   Preventing Dissatisfaction
   Compensation Management
   Health and Safety
   Induction
   Industrial Relation
   Career Planning
   Succession Planning
                  Case Incident
   To solve the problem
   Involve the employees in the process of job analysis
   Management should be Transparent
   Need to update the information gathered
   Analyze job not the person
                     Case Incident
   The TNB Bank Ltd. is an established private sector bank in south
    India. The bank has a few vacancies in top managerial positions due
    to the retirement of some of senior personnel. The HR department
    has decided to identify suitable personnel from within the
    organization for promotion, instead of recruiting from outside .Was
    the HR department right in deciding to recruit people from within the
    organization'. Will they not miss out on talent from outside? Discuss
    the pros and cons of conducting an internal recruitment drive instead
    of seeking potential employees from-outside


   Recruitment is the process of searching for
    prospective employees and stimulating them to
    apply for jobs in the organization

   This process starts with the identification of the
    need for the human resources and ends with
    getting the prospective employees to apply for
    the vacancies available.
           Sources of recruitment
   Internal Search-Identify Employees from within
    the the organization to be groomed to take
    higher responsibilities
   Advantages
   -Helps in maintaining good employee relation
   Boost Morale of employees
   Encourages competent and ambitious employees as their
    performance is rewarded
   Time and resources are saved on selection and induction program
          External Sources
 Advertisements
 Employee Referrals
 Employment Agencies
 Education Institutes
 Unsolicited Applicants
                   Case Incident
   Sputnik enterprises had advertised in a leading national
    daily for an able and qualified production manager for its
    Nagpur branch. In response to the advertisement, the
    HR department received a number of applications- After
    a preliminary analysis of the applications, it short listed
    around sixty applicants, who had lo be further tested for
    their managerial and decision-making abilities. Suggest
    appropriate selection methodologies that Sputnik can
    implement to decide on the most suitable candidate for a
    middle-level managerial position of production manager.
 The process of choosing the most suitable
  candidate for a job from among the
  available applicants is called Selection.
 This process starts with gathering
  complete information about applicants
  from his application forms and ends with
  inducting them into the organization

Completion of the Application     Form
            Initial Screening Interview

             Employment test              Test
               Comprehensive Interview

      Background           Investigation

          Physical Examination

 Final Employment           Decision
            Selection Process
   Steps in Selection Process
   1Resumes/CV review
   2 Initial Screening interview
   3 Analyze the application blank
   4 Conducting Tests and Evaluating Performance
   5 Preliminary Interview
   6 Core and departmental Interview
   7 Reference Check
   8 Medical Examination
   9 Placement
             Case Analysis
 Group Discussion- Candidates are tested
  for initiative, lesdership qualities ,
  negotiation skills and decision making
 In basket Exercises – objective is how he
  is able to hadle multiple tasks, prioritize
  things, analyze information and delegate
 Simulated Games- ROLE PLAY
                     Case Incident
   Peoples Bank, a growing private sector bank has just recruited 15
    new employee as senior officers to fill vacancies across the country.
    On the first day at the bank the new recruits had an informal talk
    among themselves. All of them had deferrer opinions about the bank
    and their role in the organization. A lot of ambiguity and uncertainty
    prevailed among them. They were apprehensive about their
    acceptance in the organization, the functions they have to perform,
    their peers superiors and other co-workers. Discuss how Peoples
    Bank can reduce the apprehensions among its employees
   To provide the information and opportunity
    required by all new employees to
    satisfactory adjust to their work and help
    them to develop an enthusiasm for the
    organization, its ideals, policies and
          Objectives of Induction

•   To define the terms and conditions of work
•   To acquaint the employee with the requirements of the
• To inculcate in the employee a confidence in his own
  ability to do the job and also a confidence in the
 To bring about integration and agreement between
  organization goals and personal goals.
          Objectives of Induction

   To provide the information and opportunity
    required by all new employ-ees to
    satisfactory adjust to their work and help
    them to develop an enthusiasm for the
    organization, its ideals, policies and
            Organisational Issues
   History Of the organizatiom
   Names of key executives
   Employee title and dept
   Layout and physical facilities
   Probation period
   Product line and service provided
   Overview of production process
   Company policies and rules
   Discipline procedure
   Employee Handbook
   Safety procedure and enforcement
         Employee Benefits
 Pay scale
 Vacations and holidays
 Rest breaks
 Training and education benefits
 Insurance Benefits
 Retirement programme

 To supervisors
 To trainers
 To co workers
 Employee counsellors
               Job duties
 Job location
 Job tasks
 Job safety requirements
 Overview of the job
 Job objectives
 Relationship with other jobs
                  Case Incident
   Vishnu Group of Industries is a refrigerator
    manufacturing and marketing company. In the recent
    past, the performance of its sales personnel was found
    to be going down. An analysis revealed that the sales
    personnel were not happy with their performance
    appraisal. A survey was conducted, which revealed that
    the appraisal of the employees did not take into
    consideration the slump period and the salesmen were
    expected to maintain the same standards throughout.
    What dc you think would have gone wrong and how can
    the management win back its employees' confidence
    and commitment?
Appraising and
   Performance Appraisal is the systematic
    evaluation of the individual with respect to
    his or her performance on the job and his
    or her potential for development.
       Process of performance
   Setting performance standards
   Communicating standards
   Measuring performance
   Comparing with standards
   Discussing results
   Taking corrective actions

 Training  and development
 Identification of potential
 Promotion decision
 Compensation administration
 Work force planning
 Validation of selection procedure
       Methods of Appraisal
 1) Traditional Methods
 2) Modern Methods
        Traditional Methods
 1) Rating Scales
 2) Checklists
 3) Forced Distribution Method
 4) Critical incident method
 5) Field review method
 6) Annual confidential report
 7) Essay method
            Rating Scales
 A simple and popular technique.
 Consists of various job-related
  performance criterion which are to be
  rated on a scale of 1 to 5.
Graphic Rating Scale
   A checklist of statements on the traits of
    the employee is prepared in two columns-
    „YES‟ and „NO‟.
    Forced Distribution Method

 Based on the assumption that the
  employee performance levels conforms to
  a normal statistical distribution ( a bell-
  shaped curve).
 The rater is compelled to distribute the
  ratees on all points on the rating scale.
    Forced Distribution Example
Excellent                           Poor

   “No more than 5% of employees should
    receive a “5” rating.”
   “At least 50% of employees should
    receive a rating of “3” or lower.
        Critical Incidents Method
   It was developed following the research
    conducted by the armed forces in the United
    States during World War II.
   Employee‟s performance is measured in terms
    of certain „events‟ or „episodes‟ that occur in the
    performance of ratee‟s job.
   The critical incidents are discovered after a
    thorough study of the personnel working on the
    job. The collected incidents are then ranked in
    the order of frequency and importance.
       Field Review Method
 Someone outside the Supervisor‟s own
  deptt., usually someone from the HR
  deptt., interviews the line supervisor to
  evaluate their respective subordinates.
 He asks some specific questions which
  are prepared in advance to the supervisor
  about the subordinate‟s performance.
 The answers are noted and approved by
  the supervisor.
           Free essay method
   Supervisor makes a free form, open-ended
    appraisal of an employee in his own words and
    puts down his impressions about the employee.
   Usually the following factors are taken into
   1) Relations with fellow workers.
   2) General organization and planning ability.
   3) Job knowledge and potential.
   4) Employee characteristics and attitude.
   5) Understanding and application of company
    policies and procedures.
         Confidential Report
 A traditional form of appraisal used mostly
  in govt. organization.
 A report is prepared by the employee‟s
  immediate superior. It covers the
  strengths-weaknesses, achievements-
  failures, personality and behavior of the
 This report is kept confidential and is
  considered while making promotion
         Modern Methods
 Management by Objectives (MBO)
 Assessment Centers
 360-Degree Feedback
    Management by Objectives
 The concept of MBO was developed by
  PETER F. DRUCKER in 1954.
 Definition: MBO is a process whereby the
  superiors and subordinates of an
  organization jointly identify its common
  goals, define each individual‟s major areas
  of responsibility in terms of results
  expected of him and use these measures
  as guides for operating the unit and
  assessing the contribution of each
Management by Objectives

   The appraiser allows the single
    characteristics of the appraisee to
    dominate his judgment of the
   Eg, good communication
    skills/shoody dressing

   Recency effect- This occurs when the
    recent performance of appraisee
    dominates the appraisal
   Perceptual set- This is the tendency of the
    appraisers to have expectation of
    performance level , which might distort the
    perception and judgement of actual
   Fundamental Attribution error- When
    employee performance have been
    affected due to some external factors
    outside his control
     Possible PA

   Supervisor
   Supervisor‟s supervisor
   Self
   Peer
   Subordinate
   Customer

   360 degree appraisal
          360° Feedback

The combination of peer,
subordinate, and self-review
             Case Incident 2
   An IT firm recruited fresh graduates from
    the campus. The Chief HR Manager
    assigned the task of training these
    employees to the Assistant Manager HR.
    Vipul Shah. What are the various areas in
    which these new recruits should be
        Training and Development
   Training
     Effort initiated by an organization to foster
      learning among its members.
     Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented
      toward short-term performance concerns.
   Development
       Effort that is oriented more toward broadening
        an individual‟s skills for the future
     Training Methods for Non
      managerial Employees
   On-the-Job Training Methods
   Apprenticeship Training
   Job instruction training
   Job rotation
   Committee Assignments
   Vestibule training
      Training Methods for Non
    managerial Employees (cont‟d)
   On-the-job training (OJT)
       Method by which employees are given hands-
        on experience with instructions from their
        supervisor or other trainer.
   Apprenticeship training
       System of training in which a worker entering
        the skilled trades is given thorough instruction
        and experience, both on and off the job, in the
        practical and theoretical aspects of the work.
      Training Methods for Non
    managerial Employees (cont‟d)
   Vestibule Training
     A special type of classroom facility is used to
      give instruction in the operation of
      equipment like that found in operating
     Committee Assignments – A group of
      employee are given an actual organization
      problem and are asked to find a solution
      Training Methods for
    Management Development
 Off-the-Job method of training
 Seminars and Conferences
 Case Studies
 GD
 In basket
 Management Games
 Role Playing
 Behavior Modeling
 1 The process of recording all pertinent
  information about specific job , including
  the task involved , the knowledge and skill
  sets required to perform the job is termed
 A Job Evaluation
 B Job specification
 C Job Analysis
 D Job design
    PROCESS of HRP . The first step he
    undertook was assessing current resources
    and making an inventory. What is the next step
    that the manager has to take in HRP
   A       Start recruiting to meet the requirement
   B       Forecasting
   C       Matching the inventory with future
   D       Developing an action plan to meet
            future requirement
   3 An HR Manager in a large multinational firm
    is involved in establishing an intentional
    structure of roles for people and assigning
    responsibilities. What is the managerial function
    that the HR manager is performing?
   A Managing
   B Staffing
   C Directing
   D Controlling
   4   The HR department of Magnus Textiles made sure
        that any vacancies in the organization first reached
        the prospective candidates in the organization.
        Candidates from the organization responded to job
        posting. What is the source of recruitment being
   A   Advertisement
   B   Internal Search
   C   Employee Referrals
   D   Campus Recruitment
   5 A software firm has a vacancy for the post of Vice
    president (Operations) which of the following methods of
    recruitment would you suggest
   A Employment Pages of a national daily or
        business magazine
   B Campus Placement
   C Advertisement in a local daily
   D Listing of the vacancy on a play card outside the
   6 In a process of selection, the step that
      follows Analyze the application Blank

A     Decision making interview
B     Preliminary Interview
C     Reference check
D     Induction
   7 A formal record of an individual appeal or
    intention for employment that in helps in
    gathering information about a prospective
    candidate is called
   A Application blank
   B Employee data
   C Employee blank
   D Data blank
   8 Mohan Krishna attended an interview and was very
    upset with the way it progressed . The interviewer
    repeatedly interrupted him, criticized his answers and
    asked him unrelated questions. What is the method of
    interview adopted?
   A Panel Interview
   B Stress Interview
   C In depth Interview
   D Group Interview
   9   Identify the correct sequence of interview process
   A   Closing The interview
   B   Evaluation
   C   Conduct of interview
   D   Reference check

   A   a,b,c,d
   B   C,A,B,D
   C   B,C,D,A
   D   d,c,b,a
   10 A new employee is being introduced to the
    organization , its business organizational culture,
    its value and belief? What is the procedure
    termed as?
   A Selection
   B Placement
   C Induction
   D Recruitment
 11 Clear and well defined goals, a definite
  time plan and an action plan to achieve
  these goals combined with timely
  feedback are characteristics of
 A Work standard approach
 B Management by objectives
 D Balanced Scorecard Method
 12 The method of appraisal where the
  appraisee makes a list of all the important
  situation and employee reaction/
  behaviour at that time is
 A Checklist method
 B Critical Incident method
 C Graphic rating Method
 D Work Standard Method
   13 Riana is a good salesman and works for an it
    company, but his performance in 2001-02 was
    affected because of the slump in the IT market .
    However his boss fails to acknowledge it and
    rates his performance as poor. This is an
    example of
   A Halo effect
   B Perceptual effect
   C Stereotyping
   D Fundamental attribution error
   14 Praveen is a new recruit in a
    manufacturing firm. His job entails
    operating and using expensive equipment.
    Therefore, he needs to first make himself
    comfortable with the various machines and
    their working. What is the method that the
    organization has to adopt to train him?

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