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Roncz Spreadsheets v2.1 - Wordpress Wordpress Powered By Docstoc
					Version 2.3 (1 Nov 2010)
   The Roncz Spreadsheets (EAA, 1989-1991)
   With notes, formatting and some additions by Duncan Meyer, Brisbane, AU
   These are the original 1990 spreadsheets written by John Roncz which I have formatted for ease of use.Please read them in conjunction wi
     1 How this workbook is organised:
            I have taken the eight separate Roncz spreadsheets and placed them in this self-contained multi-page workbook, so they are now
            I have renamed the individual sheets to indicate which EAA article it is linked to
            Color codes used:                      Personal data. Either from drawings, measurements or wish-lists
                                                   "Static" data - drawn from expereince, rules-of-thumb, history etc.
                                                   Calculated cells - best not to fiddle with these...
     2 Summary of all sheets in this workbook
            Roncz1-Nov89: A convenient stand-alone spreadsheet, where you can enter different speeds, altitudes etc, and get various depen
            Roncz2-Jan: Sizing wings, using claps, Lift, Flat plate area
            Roncz3-April: Referenced in the April PDF "Tail Incidence part 3"
            Roncz4-CG-May: This is where you enter all your component weights and moment arms PDF="Forward Sweep and the Great Crisi
            Roncz6-June: A stand-alone worksheet
            Roncz7-MAIN-Aug: The main spreadsheet
            Roncz8-Jan91
     3 How to use these spreadsheets
            Read the first Roncz article (Nov '89), then examine the Roncz1-Nov89 spreadsheet
            Enter your data into the GREEN cells
            Note the results as they appear in the RED cells - you will need these in later sheets
            Continue to the next Roncz article (Jan '90), and refer to the JAN sheet (...etc)
            When you arrive at the final sheet (Roncz7-MAIN-Aug) you should have all the data you need.
     4 I have embedded quite a few Notes and Tips for using these sheets. Hold your cursor over these bright yellow "Readme"s . Like the e
     5      Readme
     6 I have added some behind-the-scenes calculations. These are completely optional, but they do make life a bit easier. They are clearly

   duncan.rtfm@gmail.com
   .
   NB Read Intro2 for a step-by-step guide to using the Roncz spreaddsheets
d for ease of use.Please read them in conjunction with his excellent series of articles.

elf-contained multi-page workbook, so they are now all in one conveninet location.

easurements or wish-lists
ules-of-thumb, history etc.


different speeds, altitudes etc, and get various dependent answers


ment arms PDF="Forward Sweep and the Great Crisis"




rsor over these bright yellow "Readme"s . Like the example below

l, but they do make life a bit easier. They are clearly identified.
Version 2.3 (1 Nov 2010)




A step-by-step guide to using the Roncz spreadsheets
Scenario: You want to design your own plane, but don't know where to start
Solution: The following notes refer to the new sheet, called "Basic Inputs" which I have created in order to bring together
all the inputs required to design your airplane. There will be some back-and-forth between the other sheets, but essentially
if you can provide all the inputs in the "Basic Inputs" sheet, you will be well on your way to designing your airplane. Follow

WING INPUTS
Step 1
Draw your plane as accurately as you can. Don't have high-end CAD software? Download a (free) copy of the Google
"Sketchup" software from google.com CAD doesn't get easier (or cheaper) than this. Spend the time (maybe an hour or so)
to learn how to use Sketchup. This is very much "entry level" CAD software, but it DOES allow you to draw accurate 2-D

Step 2
You need to make some basic choices.
Choice 1: Stall speed (Vs). The stall speed is dependent on a number of things - eg: Wing area, lifting capacity of the wing
(CL), and the weight of the aircraft. It's all a big trade-off. For example, the bigger the wing, the slower the stall, but your
aircraft will have more drag, so it will fly more slowly. The inputs in the "Basic Inputs" worksheet will show you these trade-
offs, and help you decide. Once you've chosen your stall speed, and you've estimated the weight of your airplane (flying
weight that is - including you, fuel baggage etc - the Max All-up Weight), all you need to do is choose an airfoil and read off
Choice 2: Wing Aspect Ratio (AR) The bigger the AR, the more efficiently your plane will fly. But as AR increases (for a given
Sw) the shorter the chord (the wing will be longer and skinnier). And this means that the wing will also be thinner. And
thinner means less height for your spar. And as spars become less deep, they lose strength very quickly, and you need to
build them stronger (ie heavier). So now you have a trade-off between efficient wing and heavy wing. Rule of thumb: aim
Choice3: Airfoil thickness percentage (t/c). Usually about 15% but can be as low as 12% and as high as 18%

Together these inputs will feed into the "feedback" calculations in column E. Don't worry if these numbers don't make
sense at the moment - they will. But you will need to make quite a few more entries before it all begins to come together.
Change the stall speed and see how this affects the wing area. Change the MAUW and see what difference that makes. See
how these changes affect the max speed, glide, slimb rates etc. Play with this till you're reasonably happy with your

Step 3
Probably one of the more critical choices you need to make is WHERE to place the wing. Too far forward will affect how
On the "Basic Inputs" sheet, you will see a yellow highlighted cell for this input. It is measured in INCHES rearward from
your DATUM. I have used the prop bulkhead as my datum, but you can choose any datum you wish. Some people use the
tip of the spinner - but then you can't change your spinner without having to recalculate your centre of gravity. Some

To begin with, you will need to enter a number in this cell based on the eye-ball technique. Select a wing position which
looks right - you will DEFINITELY be changing this as you progress, so it doesn't really matter what you choose now. But it

Step 4
Enter the tail moment arm. This should also be taken from your drawings. You measure the tail moment arm from wing
MAC/4 to tail MAC/4 In English this means (1) calculate the wing Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC). On a rectangular, non-
swept wing it is easy. Your MAC is your chord. For a swept wing or a tapered wing, things get a little more complex, but
Roncz has provided the calculations to do this for you. You can find it on the Roncz3-April sheet (cell E19). (2) Now that you
have your MAC, measure back 25% from the leading edge. ie if your chord is 48in, a quarter of 48 is 12, so mark 12 inches
back from the wing leading edge. (3) Now do the same for the horisontal stabiliser.. (4) Finally, measure the distance

Step 5
The following three inputs (Design lift coefficient, Wing Drag Coefficient and CM of MAC Airfoil at the Design CL) need to be
entered using data from the published data of your chosen airfoil. Which airfoil to use? This is very much a personal choice -
but you really can't go wrong with using one of the Riblett airfoils. You will need to buy his little booklet (the only source of

CENTRE OF GRAVITY inputs
Step 6
Jump to the Roncz4-CG-May spreadsheet, and fill in the Fuselage Station (FS) and Waterline (WL) as well as the weights for
all the listed items. Remember, the FS numbers are in INCHES back (ie tailwards) from your chosen datum. The WL
measurements are from an arbitrary line also (most people use a line drawn horisontally through the propshaft. When you
have filled in all FS and WL measurements, and estimated as best you can each of the weights, you will end up with two
significant numbers: the CG of your aircraft as measured horisontally (B25), and vertically (C25) These numbers will

PROPELLER inputs
Step 7
If you know what prop you're going to use, take your inputs directly from your prop. You will need to work out the cruise

ENGINE inputs
Step 8
Enter your engine HP, and the BSFC. Generally speaking a BSFC of about .45 is a good estimate for a modern engine. But if
you have the exact numbers, enter them here

TAIL inputs
Step 9
The first input (Horizontal Tail dCL/dAlpha) is not something you can guess. In fact, notice that it is in a RED cell - meaning
that it is calculated elsewhere, and copied into this cell. Actually, now would be a good time to jump to another worksheet,
and fill in the inputs there. Go to the Roncz3-April sheet, and copy into the green cells, the values you have decided on

The following four inputs (lines 36 to 39) can all be understood by reference to the original Roncz articles, which are
referenced in the notes attached to each of the cells. Go off and read the articles, come back and fill in the four cells with

Airplane angle of attack) should be zero or nearly so. It makes sense (to me at least) to want your plane to fly level, not nose
down or nose up. Hence I suggest zero is a good number…)

OTHER INPUTS
Some of the Roncz spreadsheets are little more than stand-alone calculators to work out various things. However, the
Roncz2-Jan sheet, Roncz3-April sheet and the Roncz4-CG-May sheet are critical. Take values you have already selected in

The Roncz4-CG-May sheet
This sheet allows you to calculate the CG as well as the weight of your airplane. Don't worry too much about being 100%
accurate with the weights and positioning of each item. Give it your best shot, however, to ensure as accurate a result as
possible. Don't worry too much about the weight of the cowl. I didn't. I simply included it in the weight of the fuselage

The Roncz2-Jan sheet
This is a very important, and most interesting sheet. You should have most of the GREEN cell inputs already - except for
those in cells D56 to D61 (the wetted areas). This in turn leads on to being able to calculate your equivalent Flat Plate Area,
which has a number of important effects on how fast your plane will fly. I have included quite extensive notes at the
The Rancz3-April sheet
Again, easy inputs (you should have all of them worked out by now) leading to some critical calculated cells culminating in
the recommended vertical and horisontal tail sizes. Bigger than this is OK, but not smaller.

FINALLY
You are now in a position to go to the main sheet - the Roncz7-MAIN-Aug sheet.

First, there are some inputs at the top of the sheet to calculate the Aerodynamic Center Along the MAC.
Second, you will need to enter the inputs to calculate the Pitching Moments due to the Fuselage/Wing Combination. Read
the "Readme" note for directions to the Roncz article dealing with these inputs.

And that's it. Your goal is to see sensible numbers in the "Power on Neutral Point" section - rows 142 to 154. I have
highlighted the critical lines in red. Bottom line, your Static Margin needs to be between about 5% and 20%. 5% will result
in a very responsive, sporty plane. 20% will result in a stable, no-surprises aircraft. Anything less than 5% is probably going

If your Static Margin falls outside these broad limits, you're in trouble, and it's back to the drawing board. So retun to the
Basic Inputs sheet, and start fiddling. Notice that I have placed a number of calculated fields in col E. Of particular interest
is the Static Margin and the Dynamic Stability Ratio. Fiddle with your aspect ratio, and the HS positioning of your wing.
Both will alter these two numbers. Remember, if your Static Margin is too low, you won't be able to fly the plane. Too high

Good luck
Duncan Meyer
duncan.rtfm@gmail.com
.
A step-by-step guide to using the Roncz spreadsheets
Scenario: You want to design your own plane, but don't know where to star


Solution: Follow these easy steps…


Step 1


Draw your plane as accurately as you can. Don't have high-end CAD softwar
ut don't know where to start




have high-end CAD software? Download a (free) copy of the Google "Sketchup" software from google.com CAD doesn't get easier (or cheaper) than thi
easier (or cheaper) than this. Spend th
Aircraft Data Input sheet
This is your main sheet for inputting data, which will act as inputs on other sheets
Input all values in the green cells
On the right (column E) are some calculated values, based on your inputs. Use these as a sanity check on the values you input

WING                                                                                  Use these to see effects of the green inputs
                                 Desired stall speed (kts)        45.0                      MaxCL (with flaps) - (From Roncz2)
                                   MAUW (from Roncz4)           718.60 327                                             Wing area
                                       Wing Aspect Ratio            8.5                                           Wing span (ft)
                                                 Airfoil t/c      0.15                                                 Chord (in)
                         Leading Edge of MAC is at FS (in)       43.00                                       Spar thickness (in)
                                    Design lift coefficient      0.300                  (Trade study) stability ratio - 2.5 to 3.5
                                   Wing Drag Coefficient:        0.006                     Distance from wing TE to AC of Tail:
                      CM of MAC Airfoil at the Design CL:        0.012                        Airplane Flate Plate Drag (sq. ft.):
                     Dynamic Pressure at Design Point (Q)           99                       Wing Lift Curve Slope dCL/dAlpha:
                                                                                                          Tail moment arm (in)
CG                                                                                                  FS of Center of Gravity (in):
                     Waterline of Aerodynamic Center (in):        0.00                      Waterline of Center of Gravity (in):
                       Waterline of Thrust at FS of CG (in)       0.00                           FS of Aerodynamic Center (in):
                                                                                                Static Margin is (% of the MAC)
PROP
                                            Propeller RPM:       3200                                            Best L/D (kts)
                                        Prop Diameter (in):         64                                                Best L/D
                                 Average Blade Width (in):           5                                       Min. Descent (kts)
                                 Airplane Max Speed (kts):      212.48                                       Descent (ft./min.)
                                         Number of Blades:           2                                        Max Speed (kts)
                             Distance from Prop to CG (in):          1                               Cruise speed (80% power)
                                      True Airspeed (mph):           ?                                      Landing speed (kts)

ENGINE
                                             Engine choice     Aerovee
                                              Horsepower:       100.00
                                                     BSFC        0.450

HORISONTAL TAIL
                            Leading edge of tail MAC is at       125.0   Readme                     Required H-stab Area:(ft^2)
                                             Tail MAC (in)        18.0   Readme                     Horizontal Tail dCL/dAlpha:
                                 Volume coefficient (ThC)         0.65   .45 to .65                            FS of Tail AC (in)
                 Power Off Dynamic Pressure Ratio at Tail:        0.80   Readme                      Required V-tail Area (ft^2)
                             Tail Incidence Selected (deg)       -1.30   Readme
                              Elevator Area/Tail Area (%)       100.00   Readme
                             Wing CL with Level Fuselage          0.30
                                  Airplane Angle of Attack        0.00

VERTICAL TAIL                                                                                            Vertical Tail Size (ft^2)
Lever arm, inches                                                79.37
Volume coefficient (TvC)                                         0.045 (Raymer: .035 to .065)
ffects of the green inputs                                                                                                    TRADE STUDIES
                               2.19 (Link to B85, B86, B87, B88 - depending on your flap type)                            Razorback              Luciole
                              47.96                                                                                       Metric     Imperial   Metric
                              20.19               Wing Loading         14.98                        Wing Span: (m/ft)                     20.19      6.9
                              28.50              Power loading          7.19                    Wing Area: (m^2/ft^2)                     47.96      4.6
                               4.28             rho at sea level 0.00237689                              Aspect Ratio:                     8.50   10.35
                               2.78                                                            Fuselage Length: (m/ft)                    10.05
                              58.00                                                                    Stall (mph/kts)                    45.00
                               0.93                                                                  Cruise (mph/kts)                   169.99
                               0.09                                                                          Weights:
                              79.37                                                            Empty Weight: (kg/lbs)                     186.00      97
                              45.65                                                     Max Take Off Weight: (kg/lbs)                     718.60    200
                               0.90                                                 Wing Loading: (kg/m^2 - lbs/ft^2)                      14.98   43.48
                              50.13                                                                     Stability Ratio                     2.78
                               7.5%                                                                        Engine:
                                                                                                                    HP                      100      25
                              86.38                                                                     Capacity: (CC)                      990     627
                              15.53                                                       Dry Weight (ex Exh): (kg/lbs)                     154      23
                              65.62                                                                Engine bits (kg/lbs)                     15.0      7
                             494.66 kph            mph
                             212.48 393.517276 244.520299                                                                 BK-1
                             169.99 314.813821 195.616239                                                                 Metric       Imperial
                              58.50                 51.7850753                                      Wing Span: (m/ft)                      19.40
                                                                                                Wing Area: (m^2/ft^2)
                                                                                                         Aspect Ratio:
                                                                                               Fuselage Length: (m/ft)                     15.40
                                                                                                       Stall (mph/kts)
                                                                                                     Cruise (mph/kts)         130.00
                                                                                                             Weights:
                                    (Span)                                                     Empty Weight: (kg/lbs)                        430
                              12.07 8.04457809                                          Max Take Off Weight: (kg/lbs)                        800
                               0.09 Readme                                          Wing Loading: (kg/m^2 - lbs/ft^2)                   #DIV/0!
                             129.50
                              11.20                                                                        Engine:
                                                                                            Two Cylinder, Four Stroke:                       60
                                                                                                        Capacity: (CC)
                                                                                          Dry Weight (ex Exh): (kg/lbs)
                                                                                                   Engine bits (kg/lbs)

                               6.59
          SD-1                Corby Starlet          Aerochia LT-1         Hummel                  B612
Imperial  Metric  Imperial    Metric     Imperial    Metric     Imperial   Metric     Imperial     Metric
    22.64             19.60                  18.60                  20.80                    19.40          6.9
    49.51             64.60                  68.50                                                          6.8
    10.35                                                   6.0        6.0
                      14.27                  14.90                  15.30                    15.40           4.8
                           34                     35                                                         40
               97                              113                                130                       150

     213                                                                                     430            175
     440      254      559                                                                   800            300
     8.89              8.65                  0.00              #DIV/0!                 #DIV/0!



      25                 28                    70                   60                        60
     627
     50.6
     15.4
Imperial
       22.30
       70.70

      15.50




       375
       662
       9.36



         80
Aerochia   Corby Starlet
Wing Span: 19 feet 4 inches
Length 15 feet 4 inches
Cockpit Width: 24 inches
Cockpit Height: 40 inches (curved canopy)
Leg Room: 50 inches (firewall to seat back bulkhead)
Fuel Capacity: 15 gallons
Empty Weight: 430 pounds
Gross Weight: 800 pounds
Fuel: 90 Pounds (15 Gallons)
Pilot Size: Up to 250 pounds - 6 foot 4 inches tall
Baggage 30 pounds with 250 pound pilot. More if lighter pilot (within CG limits)

Engine:

Great Plains 1835 Volkswagen Conversion - Rated Takeoff Horsepower: 60

Performance: (Prototype 1) Measured by hand held GPS, the space between runway lights with 250 pound pilot and full fuel.

Takeoff Distance: 700 feet
Landing Distance: 700 feet
Rate of Climb: 750 fpm @ 65 mph IAS (initial)
Max Continuous Cruise: 130 mph using 3.5 gallons per hour. Range 400 miles with reserves.
Economy Cruise: 100 mph using 2.5 gallons per hour. Range 500 miles with reserves.
Top Speed: 145 mph

Plans: CAD drawn plans, Step by Step Photo Builder's Manual and Video. Full size templates. Projected availability Oshkosh 2007

Build Cost: $7000 including new Great Plains VW 1835. Build Time: 1500-2000 hours, from plans, less with prefabricated parts.

Beta Builders Program: 9 Experienced builders are currently checking plans and constructing aircraft.

B612                                                                               http://www.flyingmachines.cz/_english/b612/

                                                                                                   Wing area: 6,8m2 / 70,7sq.ft.
                                                                                                   Length: 4,8m / 15,5 ft.
                                                                                                   Wing span: 6,9 m / 22,3 ft.
                                                                                                   Cocpit width: 0,6m / 24 in.
                                                                                                   Empty: 175 kg / 375 lb
                                                                                                   Gross: 300 kg / 662 lb.
                                                                                                   Stall: 65 km h-1 / 40 mph
                                                                                                   Vne: 270 km h -1 / 166 mph
                                                                                                   Cruise: 200 - 250 km h-1 / 123 - 15
                                                                                                   Rate of climb: 2 - 9 m s-1 / 387 -19
                                                                                                   Engine: accetable hp range is 28-
PIK-26
How is it built? The PIK-26 uses wood construction, made largely from pine and from the Finnish birch that the
country is famous for. I was once told that the reason it is so highly prized as a material is that the short summers
and cold winters make the trees grow slowly, giving a tight and strong pattern of growth rings. The skins of the PIK-
26 are made of birch plywood, with the thickness varying from 0.8 mm to 2.4 millimetres. The spars are made of
pine, sawn from planks. Metal parts are made of 2024T3 aluminium and 4130 steel. It is said that if you can build a
wooden model aircraft from plans, the PIK-26 is no problem. The wing ribs are made of 15 mm PVC foam, and use
the GAW-2 profile. The time to complete all the wing ribs is about 8 hours. The total build time for the prototype was
two years and 2,298 hours, and the 2nd PIK-26 took about 1,500 hours. The construction looks fairly typical for a
light wooden monocoque.

Top Speed, (kilometres/hour) 190
Cruise @ 3,000 rpm, (kilometres/hour) 170
Fuel Consumption (litres/hour) 7
Stall (km/h) with flaps 63
Rate of Climb, (m/s) 3.2
Take-off Distance, (m) 200
Landing Distance, (m) 250
Engine Used Mosler MMCB
HP 35
Fuel capacity (litres) 27
Empty Weight, (kg) 144
Gross Weight, (kg) 250
Useful Load, (kg) 106
Height, (m) 1.22
Length, (m) 4.33
Wing span, (m) 5.24
Wing area, (sq. m) 6
Wing loading, (kg./sq.m.) 41.6
No. Completed/Flown 4
Load limit, (g) +3.8, -1.5
Airfoil GAW-2




SD-1
Mike Arnold's AR-5 (213 mph on 65hp)
                                       WING DRAG:

                                       The aspect ratio eight, 55.125 square foot, low drag wing
                                       418 root airfoil, a NACA 65/2-215 tip airfoil, 50 percent sp
                                       percent span, 23 percent chord ailerons. The wing area e
                                       square feet, and its wetted area is 102.6 square feet. At 2
                                       number per foot of length is 1.94 million. The average cho
                                       number of 5.15 million. The low turbulence wind tunnel da
                                       0.0047 for the root and 0.0045 for the tip. The resulting dr
                                       square feet. The slight losses due to turbulent wedges at
                                       intersections, plus the slight discontinuity at the flap and a
                                       average profile drag coefficient to 0.005, giving an expose
                                       The wing loading is 12 pounds per square feet, the dynam
                                       coefficient of 0.109. The induced drag coefficient is 0.000
                                       feet.

                                       FUSELAGE DRAG:

                                       The 14.5 foot long, 23 inch wide, 35 inch deep fuselage h
                                       6 and a frontal area of 5 square feet. Mike figured the wet
                                       from measurements that Mike, my son Doug, and I made
                                       within 1/3 of one percent of Mike's figure of 83 square fee
                                       protrudes 9.55 inches above the forebody.
Corby Starlet
ghts with 250 pound pilot and full fuel.




erves.



plates. Projected availability Oshkosh 2007

 rom plans, less with prefabricated parts.

ucting aircraft.

ww.flyingmachines.cz/_english/b612/

         Wing area: 6,8m2 / 70,7sq.ft.
         Length: 4,8m / 15,5 ft.
         Wing span: 6,9 m / 22,3 ft.
         Cocpit width: 0,6m / 24 in.
         Empty: 175 kg / 375 lb
         Gross: 300 kg / 662 lb.
         Stall: 65 km h-1 / 40 mph
         Vne: 270 km h -1 / 166 mph
         Cruise: 200 - 250 km h-1 / 123 - 151 mph
         Rate of climb: 2 - 9 m s-1 / 387 -1935 fpm
         Engine: accetable hp range is 28- 80 hp.B-612 is originaly designed for Rotax 503 [50hp]
 e Finnish birch that the
 is that the short summers
 rings. The skins of the PIK-
s. The spars are made of
s said that if you can build a
 15 mm PVC foam, and use
ld time for the prototype was
on looks fairly typical for a
tio eight, 55.125 square foot, low drag wing has a taper ratio of 0.78, a NACA 65/3-
  , a NACA 65/2-215 tip airfoil, 50 percent span, 25 percent chord, flaps, and 44
  23 percent chord ailerons. The wing area exposed outside the fuselage is 49.6
nd its wetted area is 102.6 square feet. At 207 mph at sea level the Reynolds
 ot of length is 1.94 million. The average chord is 2.7 yielding a wing Reynolds
5 million. The low turbulence wind tunnel data (1) gives a profile drag coefficient of
  root and 0.0045 for the tip. The resulting drag area for the exposed wing is 0.228
he slight losses due to turbulent wedges at the tips, roots and landing gear
plus the slight discontinuity at the flap and aileron hinge lines will probably raise the
e drag coefficient to 0.005, giving an exposed wing drag area of 0.248 square feet.
 ing is 12 pounds per square feet, the dynamic pressure is 109.6 psf, giving a lift
0.109. The induced drag coefficient is 0.00053, or induced drag area of 0.029 square


RAG:

long, 23 inch wide, 35 inch deep fuselage has a length to effective diameter ratio of
l area of 5 square feet. Mike figured the wetted area from the plans and I figured it
 ments that Mike, my son Doug, and I made during the inspection. I cross-checked to
ne percent of Mike's figure of 83 square feet. The canopy is 19.1 inches wide and
5 inches above the forebody.
                                          75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Weight and Balance
Sport Aviation, May 1990                      Readme
                                                                                                                         KG
Description                              FS        WL    Weight FS Moments WL Moments                    Engine dry
Engine                                   12          0   156.00     1943.76       0.00           MZ202            40
Wing skins                               64         29    35.00     2240.00    1027.60          Big Twin          51
Spar                                     64         29     5.00      320.00     146.80          AE-50-R         24.5
Fuselage                                 68          0    22.00     1496.00       0.00               K75          80
Redrive                                   2          0        0        0.00       0.00          Aerovee           66
Prop                                     -1          0       15      -15.00       0.00        Revmaster           77
Vertical Tail                          129          29        8     1032.00     230.56                       Engine
Horizontal Tail                        129          29        6      774.00     172.92           Choice:    Aerovee
Engine mount                             24          0        6      144.00       0.00
PAX                                      68          0    175.0    11900.00       0.00                          350
Main Landing Gear                        38        -33       30     1140.00    -975.00
Baggage                                  90          6       10      900.00      60.00
Instruments and Radios                   45          5        6      270.00      30.00                   Readme
Fuel                                     37          0   135.60     5017.20       0.00 To estimate fuel weight:
Controls                                 48          0        8      384.00       0.00                HP     100.00
Seats                                    75          0        4      300.00       0.00              BSFC        0.45
Battery                                  28          0       15      420.00       0.00 Endurance (hrs)             4
Extra                                     0          0        8        0.00       0.00                       135.60
Strongback                               55          0     0.00        0.00       0.00
Radiator                                 96          6        0        0.00       0.00
Spinner                                  -2          0        1       -2.00       0.00
Paint                                 68.00          0       15     1020.00       0.00                    152.72727
Tail Gear                              155         -11        8     1240.00     -88.00

                                  45.65     0.90 668.60            30523.96       604.88           84.55 kg Aircraft fuse only
                                Readme Readme Readme                                              186.00 lbs
                                                                                                  348.00 lbs Aircraft with engine



Big Twin engine weights part II....

1. Valley Engineering Stock Redrive = 11.73 lbs
a. Prop crush plate 6.1 oz
b. Drive Belts (2.6 oz each X 2) 5.2 oz
C. Mounting Hardware 6.0 oz
d. Taper Bushing & hardware 5.35 oz
e. small pulley 13.4 oz
f. Idler arm w/pulley 26.65 oz
g. prop hub extension 15.1 oz
h. prop drive shaft w/washer/nut 22.6 oz
i. belt tensioner cam plate 10.85 oz
j. large pulley w/ bearing 62.05 oz
k. prop bolts 12.8 oz
l. shaft shim washers 1.55 oz



2. Stock pulse fuel pump 4.65 oz

3. Complete intake w/carb 88.25 oz

4. Alternator magnets 32 oz




                                                           Page 38
                                        75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls




Other...

Engine block without flywheel, alternator, carb/intake. Starter installed =
70.2 lbs

Engine block without flywheel, alternator, carb/intake, starter = 62.15 lbs



Notes... I have managed to literally carve the engine weight down to 100 lbs,
which was my goal to keep my aircraft 103 weight compliant with the Big Twin
from Valley Engineering. I know I could
take quite a bit further, but for now I've met goal. Elimination of the starter
and implenting an ignition system to allow hand proping will be next on my list,
but for now I am out of time to further experiment. Some of the things I did
were...

1. Drilled lightening holes in big pulley
2. Drilled lightening holes in idler arm
3. Drilled lightening holes in belt tension cam
4. Carved excess material from redrive mount plate
5. Ground off all casting marks, cooling tin mounts, valve cover lettering,
etc....
6. Removed alternator magnets, coils and wiring/hardware.
7. Drilled lightening holes in flywheel (yes, I rebalanced)
8. Removed stock pulse pump - don't need it, my airframe has sufficient
gravity feed system.

I plan to use a lipo battery as used in RC aircraft to start the engine using
the stock starter system. Lipo batteries are VERY light weight and have the
punch to kick the starter right over... a 10 oz lipo should give many, many
reliable starts, be quick disconnect also.... AND for less than the price of a
standard lead acid battery...

Just my 2 cents folks, take it for what its worth to you. My modifications are
truely EXPERIMENTAL and I do not suggest or imply that anyone try what I have
until I have some significant time put on this engine/modifications. If you do
try any of my modifications, you accept FULL responsibility for your own
actions.

Sincerely,
Doug Hart




Part I ........

Hi Folks,

Here's some very good numbers on the weights of various parts on the Generac.
I used a precision digital scale, calibration checked just before weights were
taken.



Cooling tin:




                                                               Page 39
                                       75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls




1. Rh Cylinder top 4.55 oz
2. LH Cylinder top 4.4 oz
3. RH Cylinder - middle 8.2 oz
4. LH Cylinder - Middle 8.1 oz
5. Fan Cover 4.9 oz
6. Fan Guard 16.5 oz
7. Fan 16.65 oz
8. Lower Center, aft 13.7 oz
9. Aft Outer cover 46.7 oz
10. Attach Hardware-all 8.75 oz

Total: 132.45 oz or 8.278 lbs

Starter, attach hardware and associated wiring: 128.8 oz or 8.05 lbs

Flywheel (with ignition magnets and alternator magnets) 18 lbs

Alternator coil,attach hardware and associated wiring: 4.64 lbs



Some observations and other findings....

The ignition has a come-in speed of 300 rpm. It IS IMPOSSIBLE to hand prop
the engine to this speed. A different ignition system will have to be used in
order to eliminate the electric start or to be able to hand prop start. I am
VERY interested in this option! I don't mind hand proping when I can save 8 lbs
on a starter and probably another 8 to 10lbs for a battery!

The alternator coils/hardware would be very easy to remove, but then no
electrical for the aircraft. As it is, it is a 30 amp alternator, which is
WAAAY more than I will ever need. I'm looking at reducing this to a 3 or 5 amp. I
believe 2 or so lbs could be saved with this option.

The flywheel is Very heavy... the starter gear ring is cast in as part of the
flywheel. I do think that some weight could be removed by the use of
"lightening" holes on the face of the flywheel. Using 1" diameter holes, evenly
spaced, I estimate at least 6 lbs weight
savings, but this will require a machine shop (or someone with the right tools)
to complete and rebalance the flywheel. If ignition system could be upgraded
for hand proping, the ring gear
could be cut off also. Of course, the best, and probably most expensive
solution would be an aluminum machined flywheel, I'd bet with proper design,
could get all up weight to around 9 or 10 lbs…

The Stock carb that comes on the engine is ABSOLUTELY no good for aircraft
use. It does not have an accelerator pump and will hesitate, even stall the
engine if sudden power demand is input!

The stock fuel pump (pulse type) is adequate for maybe a 12 inch lift, but
absolutely no more. The Fuel tank should be kept in line or higher than the
engine. Another option is to use electric pump to be ableto place tank anywhere
you want.

I think the best place to start mods/lightening would be with the starter and
ignition systems.




                                                             Page 40
                                        75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls




I currently have my oldest Generac (with just under 350 hours total time) down
to 112 lbs w/electric start and alternator still on.

I would really like to loose at least 10 more lbs so that my aircraft can have
some extra useful load! I believe 20 lbs would be possible, but I think cost
will really start going up at this point.

It's good to get back to this discussion. I had been looking at the
new B&S 810cc vertical as a possible way to get more cc's for the same
weight as the B&S 26 hp. Because of the difference in weight between
the Generac "Big Twin" and the small block B&S, I had assumed the
Generac was a "big block" as well. Sooooo I went to visit a small
engine builder/supplier, who happens to be an automotive engineer. I
came armed with my checkbook and intended to to buy an 810cc block and
try to stroke it somehow. I came home with a lot of information and a
Generac engine and parts.

First of all, he demystified the numbers on the Generac. They sell
two engines, both of which can be had vertical or horizontal:

The GTH 760 has a 90mm (3.54") bore and a 78mm (2.36") stroke.

The GTH 990 has a 90mm (3.54") bore and a 60mm (3.07") stroke!

But here is the secret. The GTH 990 has a dished piston to keep
it's compression low enough to not detonate on regular fuel. By using
the GTH760 engine with it's FLAT TOP piston and a GTH 990 crank, you get
a 998cc engine with a 9.5:1 compression ratio. This is the engine that
Generac sells for LP Gas, however, the Generac Engineers say that you
can run it on higher octane gasoline at 3800 RPM .................ALL
DAY! Guess what I took home.

Another little factoid, There are two standards to report engine
performance. J1955 is the standard that measures the engine torque and
HP with ALL the accessories attached as sold. J1940 is the measure of
performance with least restrictive intake and exhaust and no
accessories. EVERYONE uses J1940, therefore, our applied results may
vary and any comparison to real time measurement are skewed.

`The long stroke Generac GTH 990 with FLAT TOP pistons makes 44hp @ 3800
rpm continuous. It makes 66ft/lbs of torque at 3000 rpm. These are
J1940 figures. I believe this is the Valley Engineering "Big Twin".

Now to the issue of weight. There are three grades of SAE rating
for small engines. Consumer, Commercial, and Industrial.....The Generac
is Industrial. The above 998cc engine can safely be run at 4000rpm and
3800 continuous. The difference between the small block B&S and the
Generac, which has a very similar block, is in the components. I was
shown both crank and rods. The difference is startling. The heads had
bigger valves and "D" shaped intakes. These are all places where the
weight is worth the increase. The other big differences are in the
flywheel, fan, shroud.

I appreciate your work on weight reduction. I agree that the
starter and associated electricals are a great place to go. My interest




                                                               Page 41
                                      75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


in in the possibility that a redrive can be built with a dampener that
will allow the prop to be used as flywheel inertia and we can lose
another ten pounds. I am also going to try to mount the redrive on the
flywheel side. This will place the exhausts downstream, put all the
"flywheel" weight on one end. and allow us to cut a huge chunk of shaft
off the back.



Big Twin numbers                                                                                                          KG
Description                         FS          WL      Weight FS Moments WL Moments                    Engine dry
Engine                             9.3          0.0      131.0      1215.7        0.0           Solo40           30
Wing skins                        63.0         29.4       15.0       945.6      440.4          Big Twin          51
Spar                              63.0         29.4        7.5       472.8      220.2         Aerotwin           42
Fuselage                          77.0          0.0       21.7      1670.9        0.0               K75          84
Redrive                            7.6          0.0        0.0         0.0        0.0          Aerovee           65
Prop                              -2.5          0.0        5.0       -12.5        0.0        Revmaster           77
Vertical Tail                    130.0         28.8        8.0      1040.0      230.6                       Engine
Horizontal Tail                  130.0         28.8        6.0       780.0      172.9           Choice:           0
Engine mount                      11.0          0.0        6.0        66.0        0.0
PAX                               73.0          0.0      185.0     13505.0        0.0                          370
Main Landing Gear                 36.0        -32.5        8.0       288.0     -260.0
Baggage                           98.0          6.0       10.0       980.0       60.0
Instruments and Radios            45.0          5.0        6.0       270.0       30.0                   Readme
Fuel                              38.0          0.0       67.8      2576.4        0.0 To estimate fuel weight:
Controls                          51.0          0.0       16.0       816.0        0.0                HP        50.0
Seats                             78.0          0.0        4.0       312.0        0.0              BSFC        0.45
Battery                           18.0          0.0        9.0       162.0        0.0 Endurance (hrs)          4.00
Extra                              0.0          0.0        8.0         0.0        0.0                          67.8
Strongback                        75.0          0.0        7.5       562.5        0.0
Radiator                           0.0          6.0        0.0         0.0        0.0
Spinner                           -4.0          0.0        3.0       -12.0        0.0
Paint                             77.0          0.0       15.0      1155.0        0.0                    152.72727
Tail Gear                        148.0        -11.0        8.0      1184.0      -88.0

                                 51.1     1.5   547.5                 27977.3     806.1             72 kg Aircraft only
                              Readme Readme Readme                                                157.7 lbs




                                                            Page 42
                                               75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls




               KG                    LBS
             Wet bits Engine wet         HP     Engine PSRU          Prop Freight Total
                     4        44    96.8     60 5850       0           350 2000      8200.00
                     4        55    121      50 5725       0             0 1000      6725.00
                  3.3        27.8  61.16     50 ???        0          1750 ???       1750.00
                     4        84   184.8     75 3500       0          1750      0    5250.00
                     4        70    154     100 7541       0          1750 1000 10291.48
                     4        81   178.2     85 7039       0           350 2000      9388.71
                   HP     Weight    Cost
              100.00      154.00 7541.48

                               88




             (Raymer Homebuilt, p18). Substitute with known value if you have it

             This number has been transferred to cell D15 for you…




kg Aircraft fuse only

lbs Aircraft with engine




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               KG                        LBS
             Wet bits Engine wet               HP
                     4        34       74.8         40
                     4        55       121          50
                     4        46      101.2         50
                     4        88      193.6         75
                     4        69      151.8         80
                     4        81      178.2         85
                   HP     Weight
               FALSE       FALSE




             (Raymer Homebuilt, p18). Substitute with known value if you have it

             This number has been transferred to cell D15 for you…




kg Aircraft only




                                                                  Page 47
Conversions
       Kt     mph        kph                         Enter kt            Mph             Kph
        1 1.150779     1.852                            160              184             296
 0.539957 0.621371         1
 0.868976        1 1.609344                     Enter Mph                  Kt            Kph
                                                       39                  34             63

                                                Enter Kph                 Kt             Mph
                                                      285                154             177

cc            cu in                             Enter CC
             1 0.061024                                 0                   0


  oz/ft^2      oz/yd^2     g/m^2                       oz/ft^2     oz/yd^2              g/m^2
    1                      305.15                          8.8       79.20            2685.32
 0.00328                     1
                                                       g/m^2       oz/yd^2             oz/ft^2        lbs/ft^2
                                                         265          7.82               0.87           0.054

                                                     oz/yd^2           oz/ft^2          g/m^2         lbs/ft^2
                                                          20             2.22          678.11           0.139

     sq ft       sq m                           ft^2             m^2
      1        0.092903                                    21            1.95

       ft          in         cm          m     ft               metre          mm
                                                                                 cm
       1          12        30.48     0.3048             31.9            9.72      9723.12
                                                                                       972.31
      in            ft       mm          cm     in        metre     cm          mm
       1       0.083333      25.4       2.54          4.5    0.1143       11.43     114.30
     mm           cm           in         ft    mm        cm        metre       ft
       1          0.1      0.03937   0.003281      97500 9750.00          97.50 319.882

 kg/m^3         lbs/ft^3
    1          0.062428

 kg/m^2         lbs/ft^2                        kg/m^3           lbs/ft^3
    1          0.204816                                    40           2.50

                                                kg/m^2    lbs/ft^2
                                                     0.51       0.104

      oz          lbs       gm         kg       oz               lbs             gm              kg
      1                    28.349                        0.75                          21.262
                                                gm
               oz
               lbs
               g
               kg




in
      382.80
ft
        0.38
in
     3838.58
The Aerochia LT-1 - Single piece carbon wing skin
Spar calculations                                                                                                  (Need to apply load distribution to these calculat

Marske - struts version                                      Spar                   Struts
Data taken from Basic Inputs
                                       Gross weight (lbs)                  748.60      748.60
                                           Wing span (in)           242.2887963           43.5
                                           Wing sections                        2            1
                                  Wing panel length (in)            121.1443982           43.5
                               Distance to wing centroid            60.57219908         21.75
                                                   Max G                     10.5            4
                                   Bending Moment (M)               238057.8282      65128.2
                                       Spar thickness (in)                   4.28          2.5
                                       Load on spar caps              55677.125     26051.28
                           Rod cross section (.092x.220")                0.02024     0.02024
                        Compression strength of Graphlite                 275000      275000
                                       Each rod can carry                    5566        5566
                                     Safety factor of 50%           3710.666667     3710.667
                               Number of rods (per cap)                        16            8




Main Gear legs                                                                      Spar lengths
Length                                                                         4    2 x 8ft         6          8           48           96
Rods                                                                           8    2 x 12ft        5         12           60          120
Length                                                                        32    2 x 18ft        5         18           90          180
                                                                                                   16                                  396
Struts                                                                                                                                  32
Length                                                                         5                                                        40
Rods                                                                           8                        Total rod length reqd          468
Length                                                                        40



Optimal Finess ratio (Hoerner)                                              3.71




DIAB plank method (NZ)                                       http://www.diabgroup.com/americas/u_literature/u_pdf_files/u_bul_pdf/Strip_Plank_TB

ROM's build notes:                                           http://www.homebuiltairplanes.com/forums/composites/4128-strip-method-other.html
2" x 3/8" Divinycell H80 foam planks

Which rods?                                                                                                        Plywood
The .125 diam (3.16mm)                                                                                             0.13625lbs/ft^2 (Wicks) .8mm Birch )0.2725lbs/f
The .092x.220 (2.34x5.59mm)                                                                                        ie 32 ft^2 x 1/16 (1.5mm) = 5lbs
                                                                                                                   Therefore, wing skins = 4x5=20lbs
Epoxy                                                                                                              SD-1 wings weigh 54lbs
West System has HDT of only 128 deg F                                                                              Spar = 3.6lbs
Marske recommends Aeropoxy                                                                                         Ribs = 3lbs
Use Nitrile gloves, not latex                                                                                      Wings = 26.6lbs
Use multiple layers of gloves and peel them off
Wash hands with vinegar, then soap
Wash brushes in vinegar then add lots of detergent
Or wash brushes in acetone
Used brushes are best - they don't shed hair
Fillers: Cabosil
Good bonds - cotton flox - but best is sandwiching two glass tapes between the bonded parts
Molding - use playdough



Main gear calculations
Alpha degrees                                                            12
Alpha radians                                                   0.20943951
Tan (alpha)                                                    0.212556562
Height from CG (mm)                                                     968
Fwd from CG vertical (mm)                                      205.7547517
From datum (mm)                                                      953.85



CF vs Glass (Marske)                                                                          Carbon Fibre Monarch - some notes
5.7oz twill CF = 10oz glass 5.7oz/yd^2 = 193g/m^2, 10oz = 234g/m^2                            Materials: 5.7oz CF TWILL. 2x layers
Thickness of laminate = 2x its weight for CF, 1.5x weight for glass                           Ribs laid out over corrugated plastic
Weight of laminate = .015 x fabric weight                                                     D-tube mold - Laser-cut? Then fit in
eg: 1x lams 5.9oz CF = 5.9x.015 = .088lbs/ft^2 (1.4oz) or... 200g/m^2 = 3g/m^2                D-tube - drill out most of the flat are
CF lam = 2x strength of glass lam of same thickness                                           Phenolic bushings for all fibreglass to
CF lam = 4x stiffer than glass lam of same thickness                                          Layup of spar: CF on plastic sheet. A
20oz glass lam minimum (ie 2x 5.7oz CF is equivalent)                                          - then remove top layer plastic, lift a
                                                                                               - Vacuum bagging essential to get go
                                                                                              Ribs:
Aerochia LT-1                                                                                 Marske: 5.7oz CF + 6oz Glass, Basical
Weights:                                                                                      Razorback: Ditto. 2x 5.7oz LAMS @ .
Front                                                                   131
Left                                                                    308
Right                                                                   311
Total                                                                   750                   Marske: used 8-10in vacuum for the
                                                                                              Marske: main rib = .75oz
                                                                                              Marske: Ribs made from male foam
                                                                                              Marske: Cure vacuum bagged parts f



                                                                                              BeLite:
                                                                                              CF ribs in wooden style. Flat sheet cu
                                                                                              Perhaps the most
                                                                                              amazing fact is that
                                                                                              construction time is
                                                                                              considerably reduced
                                                                                              by utilizing this
                                                                                              process. When all of
                                                                                              the parts for the wing
                                                                                              are ready, the entire
                                                                                              wing can be set up,
                                                                                              bonded (glued) and
                                                                                              ready for covering in 3
                                                                                              days from start to
                                                                                              finish. Construction of

                                                                                              SC-1 Minisport
Two part wing uses GA
37U-A315 airfoil. It
consists of composite
main spar with carbon
caps on which are
glued ribs made of
extruded polystyren. It

Colomban's Luciole
Wooden spar + foam ribs
Mmmmm
A very slow plane... So maybe OK

Razorback:
Marske method: 3-D CF rib vacuum




How much static thrust is required?
    Orion:
  Norman:

    Orion:
Mike Arnold: AR-5 Video #2 "How its made"
Uses the Marske method for bonding bulkheads to the fuse, after micro under the bulkhead
Uses 36-grit/80-grit sanding board
Laminate = 2x UNI
Canopy = 1/10 inch plexiglass. Blown. Base = glass sandwich.
Flap gap = 1/16 to 1/32 inch gap
Uses styrofoam, 2lbs/cu ft
Video = 1:20 - the good stuff
Flap control bellcrank is inside the body, behind an inspection panel
Hardpoints = plywood with nuts and washers on the back side. Bonded to the foam core
Central foot or so of leading edge of flap removed
Hard points bonded, then false spar added. Then foam replaced, leaving hard point area free
Aluminium angle bonded to foam cores as base for hinges
Rudder: 1.28.01
Ailerons: cable operated (3/32 inch wire) to am aileron bellcrank and pushrod
1:31:40 Main landing gear. Bolted (4 bolts) to the wing spar.
1:32:00 Landing gear
Wheels 4" diam 410/4.00 tyre Off BD-4
Urethane foam for the fuel tank - fuel resistant
Cover entire airframe with micro/epoxy, and sanded smooth
Then covered with polyester primer (sprayed on). Then sanded, and painted with Imron polyurethane

Wengine mounts. Brackets (4 bolts) on pilot side of firewall.
Firewall = 1/4" plywood, with extra 1/8" plywood at the engine mount brackets
1:39:45
Bracket = 1/8" aluminum, four bolts sensibly within the perimiter at the corners
Fuel tank 1:41:00
1/4" clark foam. Top: glass one side, bend in place glass 2nd side
KX99 Bendix King radio
Stick Controls: 1:44:30
Wing construction: 1:46:00
4x ribs used

Orion re: Balsa
balsa is a firewall material sandwiched between triaxial glass and protected with a Silica fire blanket
to apply load distribution to these calculations)




df_files/u_bul_pdf/Strip_Plank_TB.pdf

es/4128-strip-method-other.html



5lbs/ft^2 (Wicks) .8mm Birch )0.2725lbs/ft^2) 1.6mm laminate
^2 x 1/16 (1.5mm) = 5lbs
ore, wing skins = 4x5=20lbs
Carbon Fibre Monarch - some notes
Materials: 5.7oz CF TWILL. 2x layers
Ribs laid out over corrugated plastic (flat with narrow risers)
D-tube mold - Laser-cut? Then fit in 1x CF Twill and 1x Glass twill vacuum bag. Difficulty getting CF to conform to mold - hence the glassfibre
D-tube - drill out most of the flat area. Smaller hole at front, larger at rear almost to edges, maybe 1/2inch between them
Phenolic bushings for all fibreglass to CF fittings
Layup of spar: CF on plastic sheet. Add resin. Add 2nd plastic sheet. Work with squeegee till saturated.
 - then remove top layer plastic, lift and turn upside down into spar mold.
 - Vacuum bagging essential to get good carbon fit.

Marske: 5.7oz CF + 6oz Glass, Basically solid flat sheet with 3-D depressions. Vacuum bagged in laser cut (CNC) molds
Razorback: Ditto. 2x 5.7oz LAMS @ .65 ft^2 each = 0.115lbs/rib. Ribs @ 9", so, 22 ribs Total weight: 2.53lbs
            Metric:



Marske: used 8-10in vacuum for the ribs. Lip folded over for extra stiffness
Marske: main rib = .75oz
Marske: Ribs made from male foam molds, a layer of epoxy, polished and PVA - then covered with CF and vacuum bagged
Marske: Cure vacuum bagged parts for 1 week before removing from mold




CF ribs in wooden style. Flat sheet cut in water cutter
Perhaps the most
amazing fact is that
construction time is
considerably reduced
by utilizing this
process. When all of
the parts for the wing
are ready, the entire
wing can be set up,
bonded (glued) and
ready for covering in 3
days from start to
finish. Construction of

SC-1 Minisport
Two part wing uses GA
37U-A315 airfoil. It
consists of composite
main spar with carbon
caps on which are
glued ribs made of
extruded polystyren. It

Colomban's Luciole
Wooden spar + foam ribs

A very slow plane... So maybe OK



Marske method: 3-D CF rib vacuum bagged in mold, with stiffening strips. Aiming for 15g per rib = 300g




How much static thrust is required?
          Several
          fixed pitch
          Typically
          general
          aviation
          If you
          want to do
Control linkages - various sources
Side stick http://www.homebuiltairplanes.com/forums/aircraft-design-aerodynamics-new-technology/8873-side-mounted-stick.h




I used a side stick on my Sgian Dubh with a gate bolt action to a steering column knuckle straight to the elevator horn. Since it is
aileron controls were atached to this tube by a short lever. The leg room is much more comfortable and the nose is better stream
http://www.homebuiltairplanes.com/forums/aircraft-design-aerodynamics-new-technology/8873-side-mounted-stick.html
From Autoreply (post #12)         http://www.homebuiltairplanes.com/forums/aircraft-design-aerodynamics-new-technology/887
For my design I'm (for the moment) also using a sidestick. This has several advantages:
*Less wide fuselage (you need at least 5" between your knees, compared to none for a sidestick)
*Much easier setup.
*No mechanisms under your seat. Gliders typically have a mess of wires, push-pull tubes and other stuff running under the seat
(crunch-able foam) makes a lot of sense to me from the crash-worthiness perspective.

I'm aiming for a single (carbon) tube on the right side, mounted in a tunnel. It should slide forward and aft and rotate for roll. The
this is that it's not only simply, but it's fairly simple to make an adjustable stick too (it's just an extension to the carbon tube). Tha
single arm length greatly varies between individuals and sidestick can be VERY critical to that.

As for control feel; I've flown various gliders with parallelogram steering (the stick doesn't rotate, put only "slides" forward and af
you don't have G-induced pull-up. As for roll, during thermalling I usually flew those gliders with two fingers above/around the sti
thus rotating your fist results in roll. Very comfortable and much more natural, compared to moving your whole hand. Low stick f
though.

From Wsimpson (BillSki)              http://www.homebuiltairplanes.com/forums/aircraft-design-aerodynamics-new-technology/887
Side sticks are sexy, but to make the control throws short enough and forces low enough, you have to work with really small con
nice flying birds with side sticks, well, they have pretty small control surface chords and high aspect ratio surfaces and foils. Get
check it out. Flap chord is squared. On the other end of the scale, the Unlimited acrobatic birds, with great big balance horns on
elevators and huge spades on the ailerons still use center sticks and big throws.

Start with your desired control throws and stick forces, work through the mechanical advantage to your control surfaces, and tha
necessary control surface moments. Then you have to play with your control surface area and chord to get to reasonable contro
coefficients. Yes, you can work with balance horns and pivot the surfaces fairly well aft on the surface (both place area ahead of
moments) but if you play near or beyond 75% aero balance, you are also playing near aileron snatch. So there are practical limit
can get your moments... Which might drive you right back to a center stick.
HotWings: Quickie system
873-side-mounted-stick.html




e elevator horn. Since it is a flying wing the
d the nose is better streamlined.
ounted-stick.html
mics-new-technology/8873-side-mounted-stick.html



 ff running under the seat. Making it massive


aft and rotate for roll. The nice thing about
 to the carbon tube). That's a great feature


 ly "slides" forward and aft). Feels great and
gers above/around the stick and two below,
 r whole hand. Low stick forces are required



mics-new-technology/8873-side-mounted-stick.html
work with really small control moments. The
o surfaces and foils. Get out TOWS, and
eat big balance horns on the rudder and


 control surfaces, and that will give you your
  get to reasonable control surface moment
 both place area ahead of the pivot to reduce
So there are practical limits on how low you
                                        75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Spreadsheet #2                                                             Readme
From Sport Aviation
1/90 JGR

To Calculate Best Range Speed, Minimum Descent Speed and Top Speed
                                                                           Readme
Span (ft.)                                                                             20.19      Weight (lbs)
Altitude (ft.)                                                                          3000      E:
Wetted Area (ft^2)                                                                     193.5      Horsepower:
Drag per ft^2                                                                         0.0048      Prop Efficiency:
                                                                                                  Prop type
rho (Based on cruise altitude)                                                  0.002175131       Flat Plate Area:
Best L/D (MPH)                                                                         99.51 =                  86.4
Best L/D                                                                               15.53
Min. Descent (MPH)                                                                     75.60 =                  65.6
Descent (ft./min.)                                                                    494.66
Max Speed (MPH)                                                                       244.78 =                 212.5

To Calculate Drag Area Using Published Performance Data

Horsepower                                                                                80         Prop Efficiency:
Altitude                                                                                3000                     Rho:

Top Speed (mph)                                                                          241 =                 209.2
Flat plate area (total)                                                               0.7787
Wetted Area (ft^2)                                                                      243.0
Drag counts per ft^2                                                                 0.00320

To calculate wing area besed on type of flaps used

Gross Weight (lbs)                                                                       675                  Rho:
Altitude (ft)                                                                           3000                    Q:
Speed (mph)                                                                              206 =                 179
Type of flap                                                               CL max                 Wing Area Required:
None                                                                                     1.50                 5.77
Plain                                                                                    2.30                 4.05
Split                                                                                    2.50                 3.72
Slotted                                                                                  2.60                 3.58
Fowler                                                                                   3.00                 3.10

How to calculate your airplane's total wetted area, and its equivalent flat plate area. This is a "bonus" section - but drawn from the Roncz artic
                                                                                                     Wing wetted area table (Roncz approximation
     You will need to calculate your airplane's wetted area.                                           Airfoil thickness
     Roncz (see "Sizing Wings", pg4, col1 bottom ) gives you a                                                      12%
     great method on how to estimate the FUSE wetted area.                                                          13%
     Eter your fuse wetted area in cell D56 below.                                                                  14%
                                                                                                                    15%
     What this section on the right does is to ease the pain of                                                     16%
     working out the rest of the plane's wetted area. Enter your                                                    17%
     best guess for the H-stab and Vertical tail areas in cells D57                                                 18%
     and D58.
                                                                                                     Undercarriage wetted area
     The WING's wetted area is based on the airfoil % thickness,                                     Tricycle
     span and MAC. Select your airfoil % thickness (cell D59),                                       Tailwheel
     enter the span and the MAC, and your WING's wetted area
     appears in cell D66                                                  Fuse wetted area (ft^2)                   61.2




                                                            Page 78
                                       75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


                                                                         V-tail wetted area (ft^2)            8.5
     Finally, based on trike or tail dragger undercarriage, enter        H-tail wetted area (ft^2)            0.0
     the wetted area for the undercarriage in cell D63.                   Wing airfoil % thickness           15%
                                                                                   Wing span (ft)           20.19
     Your aircraft's total wetted area now appears in cell D64                     Wing MAC (in)            28.50
                                                                                Wing wetted area            98.80
     Now, depending on your construction type, you're able to           Landing gear wetted area               25
     calculate your equivalent flat plate area. Simply multiply                         TOTAL              193.53
     your total wetted area by the drag counts per square foot,
     based on the table on the right.
                                                                                                Drag counts per ft^2
                                                                                              Metal - round rivets
                                                                                                Metal - flush rivets
                                                                                              Composite - general
                                                                                         Composite - above average
                                                                                            Composite - very clean


Calculating wing Clmax with flaps
                                                              Clmax clean                1.50
                                                  Correction for tip losses              1.43
                                                      Flap span (% span)                 0.50
                                                  Flap chord (% of chord)                0.30
                                                     Flap ext (% of chord)               0.30
                                                        Delta Cl-max plain                 0.9
                                                     Delta Cl-max slotted                  1.3
                                                     Delta Cl-max Fowler                 1.69
                                                   Delta Cl-max Zap Flap                 1.69
                                                       Clmax flapped Zap                 2.19
                                                    Clmax flapped Fowler                 2.19
                                                   Clmax flapped Slotted                 2.01
                                                      Clmax flapped Plain                1.83




                                                            Page 79
                                                                 75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls




                                     668.60    From roncz4-CG worksheet
                                         0.7   Readme
                                        100    Readme
                                       0.85    Readme
                                           3   1=Constant speed; 2=Fixed pitch cruise; 3=Fixed pitch climb
                                      0.929
                      Knots

                      Knots

                      Knots
                      Cruise speed                   184 Based on 75% power
                                               Readme

                                       0.85 Readme
                                  0.002175

                      Knots
                                               Readme



                                               Readme

                                0.00217513
                                   99.32307
                     Knots
    Wing Area Required:                        CL max with 3-D effects of finite span, tip vortex etc taken into account
                                                     1.35
                                                     2.07               Readme
                                                     2.25
                                                     2.34
                                                     2.70

a "bonus" section - but drawn from the Roncz articles.
     Wing wetted area table (Roncz approximation)
                                  Multiplier
                                      2.042 See Roncz Sizing Wings PDF, pg4, bottom col1
                                      2.048 Interpolated results
                                      2.054 Interpolated results
                                       2.06 Interpolated results
                                      2.066 Interpolated results
                                      2.072 Interpolated results
                                      2.078 See Roncz Sizing Wings PDF, pg4, bottom col1

    Undercarriage wetted area
                                         25 Roncz estimate
                                         18 Duncan's extrapolation

                      A reasonable estimate can ge had by taking the average of the TOP and SIDE areas, and multiplying by 3.14




                                                                                     Page 80
                                                         75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


                  Approx 2.1*plan area
                  (Included in fuse area) Approx 2.1*plan area. Roncz suggests 25% of wing area as a ballpark figure




                  ft^2
                                                                                                                       0.8214286

Drag counts per ft^2                                                                                                   15.607143
                               0.0065 See Roncz Sizing Wings PDF, pg4, bottom col2
                                0.006
                                0.005
                               0.0048
                               0.0045




                                                                            Page 81
                                75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Spreadsheet #3 From Sport Aviation
2-90 JGR
                       Readme
          Speed (kts)           170 From roncz4-CG
         Speed (mph)             60 From Basic Inputs                                    Mach 1, MPH
             Altitude:         1000                                                      Mach Number

       Cruise Weight:          669    From Basic Inputs                                             rho
      Wing Area sq. ft.          48   From Basic Inputs                                              CL
        Wing Span, ft.           20   From Basic Inputs                                    Aspect Ratio
      Sweep, degrees            6.3                                                       Sweep Factor
              Max CL           2.19   From Basic Inputs                                            beta
                                                                                            dCL/dAlpha
                                                                                                Vs (kts)
       Chord @BL0 (in)         28.5 Remember, BL0 = the aircraft centreline                    CL@BL0
Angle for zero lift (deg)     -1.00 Get from published airfoil data                     Incidence (deg)

    Root Chord, inches         41.9                                                       Taper Ratio
     Tip Chord, inches         15.5                                                         MAC (in)
                                                                                        MAC@BL (in)

HORIZONTAL TAIL
    Lever arm, inches          79.4 From Basic Inputs                         Horisontal Tail Size (ft^2)
   Volume coefficient          0.65 Raymer recommends between .45 and .65

VERTICAL TAIL                                                                   Vertical Tail Size (ft^2)
     Lever arm, inches         79.4 From Basic Inputs
   Volume coefficient         0.045 Raymer recommends between .035 and .065




                                                    Page 82
                        75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls




   758.42 Readme
   0.0791

0.0023081
    1.5592
    8.5000
    0.1104
    0.9969
    0.0867
   44.0382
    1.9852
   21.9087

   0.3699
    30.72
    51.29


    12.07 Recommended


     6.59 Recommended




                                        Page 83
                                       75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Spreadsheet #7
From Sport Aviation, August, 1990                       Readme

***Calculation of the Aerodynamic Center Along the MAC***

Zero Lift Pitching Moment:                                                        0.02568 Readme
CL for Alpha=4:                                                                    0.7275
CM for Alpha=4:                                                                   0.03158

Aerodynamic Center:                                                                   24% Chord

***Pitching Moments due to the Fuselage/Wing Combination***

Strip Number                               Width (in) Height(in)            Distance (in)     Dist/Chord           dBeta/dAlpha
Strip in Front of Wing:
                                       1       36.111              15.000           57.250                 1.116           1.262
                                       2       42.762              18.000           40.750                 0.795           1.353
                                       3       45.829              18.000           22.589                 0.440           1.510
Strips just Ahead of Leading Edge:
                                       4       47.492              13.750            6.875                 0.134           4.313
Strips Behind Trailing Edge:
                                       5       42.897              21.410          10.705                  0.209           0.116
                                       6       29.640              26.000          34.410                  0.671           0.371
                                       7       20.021              28.000          61.410                  1.197           0.663
                                       8       13.884              30.000          90.410                  1.763           0.976
                                       9        9.118              29.828         120.324                  2.346           1.298

Chord in Fuselage:                                                                   51.29
Distance from Trailing Edge to AC of Tail:                                            58.0

Wing Root Chord (in):                                                                 28.5
Wing Tip Chord (in):                                                                  28.5
Wing Area (ft^2):                                                                     48.0
Wing Span (ft):                                                                      20.19
Distance from Wing AC to Tail AC (in):                                                79.4
Design Lift Coefficient:                                             ***             0.300
Wing Lift Curve Slope dCL/dAlpha:                                    ***             0.087 Get from Roncz3-April spreadsheet
Dynamic Pressure at Design Point (Q)                                 ***            99.323 Get from Roncz2-Jan spreadsheet (Q)

Mean Aerodynamic Chord (in):                                                           28.5
Downwash at Tail (degrees):                                                            1.30
dEpsilon/dAlpha:                                                                    0.3742

Pitching Moments due to Fuselage (ft-lbs)                                         1577.65 Foot-Pounds
dCM/dCL of Fuselage:                                                               0.4648

***Pitching Moments due to Wing Airfoil***

CM of MAC Airfoil at the Design CL:                                  ***             0.012
Pitching Moments due to Wing:                                                       135.78

***Pitching Moments due to Center of Gravity***

FS of Center of Gravity (in):                                        ***             45.65
Waterline of Center of Gravity (in):                                 ***              0.90
FS of Aerodynamic Center (in):                                                       50.13




                                                           Page 84
                                       75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Waterline of Aerodynamic Center (in):                                      0.00
Wing Drag Coefficient:                                        ***       0.0055

Wing Drag, Pounds:                                                       26.20
Wing Lift, Pounds:                                                     1429.08
Pitching Moments due to Wing Lift (ft-lbs)                             -532.64
Pitching Moments due to Wing Drag (ft-lbs)                                -1.98
Total Moments about the CG due to Wing (ft-lbs)                        -398.83
Moment Coefficient CM, cg wing:                                        -0.0352

***Propeller Normal Force***

Propeler RPM:                                                           3200.0
Prop Diameter (in):                                                       64.0
Average Blade Width (in):                                                   5.0
Airplane Flate Plate Drag (sq. ft.):                                     0.929
Airplane Max Speed (MPH):                                     ***        212.5
Number of Blades:                                                           2.0
Distance from Prop to CG (in):                                              1.0

Propeller Angle of Attack (deg)                                            3.93
Blade Pitch Angle at 75% Radius (deg)                                     29.44
Propeller Thrust (lbs)                                        ***         92.27
Rotation Speed (Radians/sec):                                            335.10
Tc Prime:                                                             0.019369 Readme
                                                                       0.00456
Coefficient of Propeller Normal Force:                                0.005276
Propeller Normal Force (lbs):                                             25.13
Pitching Moments due to Propeller (ft-lbs)                                 2.09

***Pitching Moments due to Propeller Thrust Line***

Waterline of Thrust at FS of CG (in)                                       0.0

Lever Arm of Thrust Line (in)                                             0.90
Pitching Moments due to Thrust (ft-lbs)                                   6.96

***Propeller Thrust for Other Conditions***

True Airspeed (mph):                                          ***        233.7
Horsepower:                                                   ***        100.0

Prop Efficiency (%)                                                      85.86
Thrust (lbs)                                                            137.73

***Airspeed at the Tail***

Tail Dynamic Pressure (Times Airplane Dyn. Pres.)                        1.042

***Power Off Neutral Point***

Horizontal Tail dCL/dAlpha:                                   ***      0.08666 Readme
Required tail Area:(ft^2)                                                 12.07
Fuselage Station of Tail Aerodynamic Center (in)                        129.50
Power Off Dynamic Pressure Ratio at Tail:                                  0.80 Readme




                                                       Page 85
                                   75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Uncorrected Power-Off Neutral Point is at FS (in)                      60.69
Correction for Fuselage (in)                                          -13.25
Power off Neutral Point with Fuselage (in aft of datum)                47.44


***Propeller Induced Downwash***

Thrust Coefficient:                                                  0.00408
Value of Ribner Curve "A":                                           0.00246
Value of Ribner Curve "B":                                           0.25311
dCNp/dAlpha for Zero Thrust:                                         0.00133
dEpsilon, prop/dAlpha:                                               0.00280
dCM/dCL Due to Propeller Downwash:                                   0.00060
Propeller Downwash Moves Neutral Point (in)                         -0.01709

***Normal Force Contribution***
dCM/dCL due to Normal Force:                                         0.00054
Propeller Normal Force Moves Neutral Point (in)                     -0.01549

***Thrust Line Offset Contribution***

Perkins and Hage "K" Factor:                                        0.00083
dCM/dCL due to Thrust Line Offset:                                  0.00219
Thrust Line Offset Moves Neutral Point (in)                            -0.06

***Propwash Over Tail Contribution***

Extra "Q" Over Tail Moves Neutral Point (in)                            0.44

***Power On Neutral Point***

Power Off Neutral Point (in)                                          47.44
Corrected for Propwash (in)                                           47.42
Corrected for Normal Force (in)                                       47.41
Corrected for Thrust Line Offset (in)                                 47.34
Corrected for Tail Dynamic Pressure due to Prop (in)                  47.78

Final Power On Neutral Point is At FS (in aft of datum)               47.78
Leading Edge of MAC is at FS (in)                                     43.00
Neutral Point is at (% of the MAC)                                    16.78
Center of Gravity is at (% of the MAC)                                 9.31
Static Margin is (% of the MAC)                                        7.47

***Total Pitching Moments About the CG***

Due to Fuselage                                                     1577.65
Due to Wing Airfoil Section                                          135.78
Due to Wing Lift vs CG Location                                     -532.64
Due to Wing Drag vs CG Location                                       -1.98
Due to Propeller Normal Force                                          2.09
Due to Thrust Line Offset                                              6.96

Total Moments About the CG (ft-lbs)                                 1187.87

***Tail Incidence for Zero Elevator***




                                                          Page 86
                                  75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Tail Lift Required (lbs)                                           170.01
Tail Lift Coefficient Required                                       0.17
Incidence Required for Zero Elevator (deg)                          3.260 Readme

***Elevator Required to Trim***

Tail Incidence Selected (deg)                                       -1.30 Readme
Elevator Area/Tail Area (%)                                        100.00 Readme
Wing CL with Level Fuselage                              ***        0.300

Airplane Angle of Attack                                              0.00
Tail CL per Degree of Elevator Deflection                        -88.2149
Tail CL at the Selected Incidence Angle                           -0.2249
Elevator Deflection Required to Trim (deg)                        -0.0045

***Ground Effect***

Tail CL in Ground Effect                                           -0.169
Elevator Trim Required to Trim in Ground Effect                    -0.004




                                                  Page 87
                                                     75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls




                      Contribution

                            14.280 Readme
                            25.771
                            33.029

                            77.414

                             2.634
                             4.908
                             4.304
                             3.265
                             1.863
                                     ORIGINAL RONCZ numbers
                                          56.84
                                         99.794

                                        58.838
                                            22
                                         97.41
                                        30.666
                                        150.76
                                         0.185
oncz3-April spreadsheet                 0.0909
oncz2-Jan spreadsheet (Q)               104.53

                                     43.216855
                                     0.9248666           Note: If Tail is more than 50% of MAC
                                     0.4544344           Above or Below Wing, Change =20 to =18

                                        992.929
                                     0.1463626



                                          0.012
                                     440.04557



                                       106.742
                                         -7.52
                                       106.893




                                                                      Page 88
             75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


  -16.239
   0.0055

 56.00247
1883.7195
-23.70347
-40.69046
375.65164
 0.010244



     2400
        78
         5
      1.95
      213
         2
        75

2.4768293
31.524532
 203.8335
251.32741
0.0200185
0.0015709
0.0021395
21.784685
136.15428



        0

     -7.52
-127.7357



      213
      117

85.114976
175.28502



1.0587649



 0.083636
     21.57
  257.653
       0.8




                             Page 89
            75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


120.31242
 -6.32533
113.98709




0.0057692
0.0034805
0.2531904
0.0008515
0.0036961
 0.029254
-1.264265


0.0164913
-0.712702



0.0024364
-0.020195
0.8727757



 0.788591



113.98709
112.72283
112.01012
 112.8829
113.67149

113.67149
       96
40.890273
24.856043
 16.03423



  992.929
440.04557
-23.70347
-40.69046
136.15428
-127.7357

1376.9993




                            Page 90
             75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


109.49494
0.0573342
1.6103867



       1.3
     0.35
    0.185

        0
0.0544755
0.0313747
0.4765357



0.0700507
-0.233437




                             Page 91
Spreadsheet for calculating basic lift parameters
from Sport Aviation                                       Readme
JGR 11-89
Given...
H (altitude)                 0.0       rho (density)      0.0023769
V (knots)                  42.0        V (ft./sec)            70.938
W (weight)                  675        V (MPH)                48.384

If you know this...                   Calculate this...
CL (lift coef)              2.34      S (wing area)          48.234

If you know this...                   Calculate this...
S (wing area)               50.0      CL (lift coef)       2.257339

If you know this...                   Calculate this...
S (wing area)               50.0      V (knots)              88.249
CL (lift coef)         0.511300
                                  75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Spreadsheet #6
From Sport Aviation, June, 1990
                       Readme

Altitude:                  3000.0
Wing Chord, inches:          33.0
Speed, MPH:                 206.0


Rho:                   0.0021751    Slugs per Cubic Foot
Mu:                    3.683E-07    LB-SEC/SQ. FT.
Temperature:            48.30152    Degrees F
Reynolds Number:       4.9078148    Million




                                                     Page 93
                                        75a17a30-ff7a-4dae-a08b-5893c25d3f79.xls


Sport Aviation January, 1991

Root Chord (in)                 36.0
Root Buttline (in)              36.0
Root LE @FS (in)               101.8
1/4 Chord @ FS (in)            110.8

Tip Chord (in)                   36.0
Tip Buttline (in)                36.0
Tip LE @ FS (in)                 77.2
1/4 Chord @ FS (in)              86.2

Wing Span (ft)                   20.0
Taper Ratio                       1.0
1/4 Chord of MAC (in)       #DIV/0!
Buttline of MAC (in)             36.0
Panel Area (ft^2)                 0.0


Panel #                   Panel Area BL of MAC    1/4 Chord BL Moment       1/4 Chord Moment
                      1           19.1       12.3       115.8         233.9             2210.9
                      2           10.9       31.7       115.1         344.2             1248.6
                      3           66.1       97.1       100.5       6420.1              6648.1

Wing Area (ft^2)               96.07
Average Chord (in)             57.64
BL of MAC at (in)              72.84
1/4 Chord @ FS (in)           105.21
LE MAC @FS (in)                90.80




                                                        Page 94
                                               Raymer's spreadsheet - enhanced and customised by Duncan Meyer
                                               NOTES:
                                               Green cells: Enter own values                                              Datum = rear surface of firewall
                                               Yellow cells: Calculated - don't fiddle                                    NB Engine power and weight are tied together for my chosen eng
                                               Blue cells: Constants - don't fiddle                                       Ignore my calculations in D14 and enter own values as required.

                                                                               Inputs                                                     Calculated Values
      Loading




                                               Stall speed                               (kts)                      42    Stall speed            (ft/sec)
      Wing




                                               Takeoff air density (rho)                 (slugs/ft^3)        0.002377     Dynamic pressure       (psf) (q)
                                               Wing CLmax                                                         2.41    Wing loading (W/S)     (psf)
                                               power loading                             (lb/hp)                  9.70    Cruise speed           (ft/sec)
                                                                                                                          Dynamic pressure         (psf) (q)
                                                                                                                          Wing loading (Cruise)
Wo -
kno
wn




                                               Engine Power                              (hp -each)                  75   Wo                       (lb)
                                               Number of Engines                                                      1   Wing Area                (sq ft)
                                               Engine weight                                        185 Target weight of landing gear (20% Wo)
                                               Swet/Sref                                                         4.659 Aircraft empty weight             359.0
 Wo Sizing to a range requirement (engine is




                                               Cfe                                                              0.0055 Cdo
                                               Aspect ratio (Awing)                                                   8 K (=1/piAe)
                                               Cruise air density                        (slugs/ft^3)         0.00218 W/S cruise
                                               Cruise velocity                           (kts)                      155 Cruise velocity         (ft/sec)
                                               Drag due to lift (K)                                              0.071 Dynamic pressure         (psf)
               not yet selected)




                                                                                                                           L/D cruise
                                                                                         (lb/hour
                                               Engine SFC                                /bhp)                     0.45 Engine SFC              (lb/sec /bhp)
                                               Prop Efficiency (cruise)                                            0.78
                                               Range                                     (nmi)                      150 Range                   (ft)
                                                                                                                           Breguet Exponent
                                                                                                                           Wf/Wo
                                               Fuel allowance                            (%)                          6 Wf/Wo with allow.
                                               Empty Weight constant "a"                                 0.926034782
                                               Weight - crew                                       81.8             180
                                               Weight - Passengers                                   0.0              0
                                               Weight - payload                                      4.5             10 See Sizing Graph sheet for Wo Results
 Geometry




                                               Wing taper ratio                                                   0.5                Wing Span               6127.6
  Wing




                                               Wing LE (ft from datum pt)                       582.3            1.91                Root Chord              1021.3
                                               CG as % of MAC                                    FWD             28%                  Tip Chord               510.6
                                                                                                REAR             29%          Mean Chord (C-bar)              794.4
                                               H-Stab LE from datum                           2461.00            8.07                Spar depth              1838.3
                                               H-Stab chord                                    685.50            2.25
                                               H-Stab quarter chord                             171.5            0.56
                                               H-Stab 1/4 chord from datum (Xtail)             2632.5            8.64     Stability numbers
                                               H-Stab tail arm                                 1794.9            5.89     Spar position (from datum)
             Aerodynamics




                                               H-Stab span                                     2423.0            7.95     Sht (h-stab)             (sq ft)
                                               Wing 1/4 chord from datum (Xwing)                837.6            2.75     Svt (tail)               (sq ft)
                                               Wing LE to H-Stab LE                            1878.7            6.16     AR (h-stab)
                                               Cht (volume coeff)                                                 0.8                          CG            32.0
                                               Vertical tail arm                                1794.9           5.89                   % of MAC             28%
                                               Cvt (volume coeff)                                                0.05                Static Margin          Front
                                               Tip of spinner to datum                        1291.00            4.24                                      #REF!
                                               Wfuselage                                       609.50            2.00     Main gear pos from datum (12%)
                                               Lfuselage                                      4745.00           15.57     CG movement (full/empty gas)
                                               Kdownwash                                                          0.5     Average CG
                                                                                                                          L/D cruise
                                               Clmax clean                                            1.5 GA37A315
                                               Correction for tip losses                           1.425                  Approach speed                        55
                                               Flap span in % span                                    0.6                                                       63
             Wing data
            Flap chord % of chord       0.4                     101
            Flap ext in % of chord     40%              Stall    42
Wing data   Delta Cl-max plain          0.9   Plain              48
            Delta Cl-max slotted        1.3   Slotted            78
            Delta Cl-max Fowler        1.82   Fowler
            Delta Cl-max Zap Flap      1.82   Zap
            Clmax flapped Zap          2.41
            Clmax flapped Fowler       2.41
            Clmax flapped Slotted      2.13
            Clmax flapped Plain        1.91

            Prop diameter 2-blade       5.4
Prop




            Prop diameter 3-blade       4.4
            Estimated power loading   12.15
                                                                NB It all boils down to the Stability Numbers (F42)
wer and weight are tied together for my chosen engines          If these are wrong, the plane won't fly
ulations in D14 and enter own values as required.

   Calculated Values                                    Other Factors Used                                          Equations (from book)             Misc Useful Calcs
                                    70.9
                                                                                                                    1
                                    5.98                          S(exposed)                                  q=      rVStall 2
                                   14.40    Airframe top                  16 S(wet)   Foam area                     2
                                  261.80    Airframe side                 23    61.23       62.8             W
                                 0.00218
                                                                                                               = qC L
                                                                                                             S
                                    74.53   Wings                         50.52 120.027
                                  727.50    H-stab                        17.89 37.5616
                                                                                                                            S wet
                                    50.52   Rudder                         3.84 (incl in tail)               C D 0 = C fe
                                  36.375    Tail                        4.04       16.548                                   S ref
                                   163.2    Swet                       235.4
                                  0.0256    Sref                        50.5
                                  0.0531                        Swet/Sref               4.66                            1      0.424
                                                                                                              K=             =
                                     14.1
                                                                                                                     0.75p A     A
                                   261.8
                                     74.5                                                                     L            1
                                     6.88                                                                       =
                                                                                                                         + (W / S )
                                                                                                              D   qC D 0            K
                                0.000125                                                                          W /S              q
                                            e (Oswald)                                  0.75
                                 911400     Wcruise/Wo                                  0.98
                                                                                                                                                 - R cbhp
                                  0.0386
                                                                                                                                               500h p L / D
                                  0.0619
                                  0.0656
                                            Non-cruise weight allowance              0.975
                                                                                                             W f W0 = 1 - 0.975 e
                                            Empty Weight exponent                    -0.09
                                                                                                                                    -0.09
                                                                                                              WE W0 = aW0
                                            Header tank                    30.0 (lbs)          Litres
ph sheet for Wo Results                                                     5.0 (gal)          22.5
                                   20.10    Wing tank                     120.0 (lbs)          Litres                   W people + W payload
                                                                                                              W0 =
                                   3.351                                   20.0 (gal)          90                     1 - WE W0 - WF W0
                                   1.675                                                       112.5
                                   2.606                                          @12l/hr               9.375 hrs
                                  6.0311



                          Designed          Metric (mm)
                                    2.95    900.00
                                   17.89
                                    8.62
                                    3.53
                                    33.0
                                    32%
                                      Aft
                                  #REF!
                                  620.5
                                     1.1
                                    32.5
                                    6.88

                          kts
                          mph
kph
kts
mph
kph
                 Misc Useful Calcs




            - R cbhp
          500h p L / D
0.975 e
                                             Climb, Cruise, & Max Speed Calculations for Simplified Aircraft Design for Ho
                                                      Use this sheet for performance calculations after you have drawn your design and measured its geo
                                                 Input
                                                 adjusted
                                                 values

                                       Advance Propeller        Total        Cruise     Dynamic
V kts                       V ft/sec   Ratio J   Efficiency     Thrust lbs   Thrust lbs pressure q        CL            CD                  Drag lbs
              50               84.45    0.440382         0.59     180.598     144.4784 7.7558352           1.856731      0.276222            72.15246
             100               168.9    0.880763          0.8    122.4393     97.95145 31.023341           0.464183      0.047613            49.74841
             150             253.35     1.321145         0.85    86.72785     69.38228 69.802517           0.206303      0.035383            83.18208
             200               337.8    1.761527         0.82    62.75015     50.20012 124.09336           0.116046      0.033325            139.2783
             250             422.25     2.201908          0.8    48.97573     39.18058 193.89588           0.074269      0.032763            213.9498

Read Cruise speed where cruise thrust line crosses drag line and enter in D32 on previous sheet

                                               Maximum & Cruise Speed                                                                                   Rate of Cl
                          300                                                             Total Thrust
                                                                                                                                3500
    Thrust or Drag -lbs




                                                                                          Cruise Thrust
                                                                                                                                3250




                                                                                                                      Climb - fpm
                          250                                                             Drag
                                                                                                                                3000
                                                                                                                                2750
                          200                                                                                                   2500
                                                                                                                                2250
                          150                                                                                                   2000
                                                                                                                                1750
                          100                                                                                                   1500
                                                                                                                                1250
                          50                                                                                                    1000
                                100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200                                                            50           70
                                                               Velocity - kts
ircraft Design for Homebuilders
esign and measured its geometry.



                                        Equations (from book)

                                   D = qS (CD0 + KCL )
                                                            2


             Climb (fps)
              1156.0982                            W            1
              1549.8625
                                   C L -cruise =    S     q=      rV 2
              113.40053                            q            2
              -3263.354
              -8793.642                   éT   1 ù
                                   Vv = V ê -      ú
                                          ëW L / D û

            Rate of Climb - Sea Level




            70             90             110              130           150
                                                        Velocity - kts
                  Sizing Calculations

  Wo guess         We/Wo          We          Wo calculated
         200         0.2612            52.2           298.2
         250         0.2560            64.0           295.8
         300         0.2518            75.5           293.9
         350         0.2484            86.9           292.3
                                                                               400.0




                                                               Wo Calculated
                                                                               350.0
Pick Wo from graph, where the two lines cross. Enter this
value below to find the minimum horsepower engine for                          300.0
your power loading.

                                                                               250.0
   If sizing graph lines do not cross, change Wo-guess
                        values above.
                                                                               200.0
Enter Wo from graph         (lbs)                        295
Pick engine with horsepower of at least:                  92                   150.0
Now find a suitable engine of at least this horsepower and
                  enter its power below:                                       100.0

Power of Selected Engine:                        #REF!                          50.0
Calculated Power Loading:                           #REF!

 Now go to sheet 1 and enter the power of your selected                          0.0
  engine and the power loading calculated above in the
                    boxes this color.
                                                                                       0   100
      Sizing Graph




100       200        300              400
                           Wo Guess
Landing gear design spreadsheet
Written by Neal Willford 1/24/04 for Sport Aviation
Based on methods presented in "Design of Light Aircraft" by Richard Hiscocks, "The Landing Gear" by Herb Rawdon and "Ana
For SOLID, round tapered cantilever spring gear with single deflection
Gear drag load is accounted for in bending
This spreadsheet is for educational purposes only and may contain errors. Any attempt to use the results for actual design pur
Input required in yellow cells




            Maximum Vertical Speed Calculation                 Tire Geometry
            Landing weight:         718.60 lbs                 Tire outside diameter:        13.6   inches
            Wing area:                47.96 sq ft              Flat tire diameter:            8.2   inches
                                                               Tire width:                    4.9   inches
                                                               Tire pressure:                  36   psi
            Gear Geometry ( see Figure )
            Gear span:                                 21.58   inches
            Gear height:                               20.00   inches
            Gear side view depth (positive aft):        6.00   inches
            Dist. from leg bend to wheel C/L:           3.50   inches
            Leg length in mounting socket:              8.00   inches
            Gear diameter at side of fuselage:          1.38   inches
            Gear diameter at axle:                      0.77   inches
            Gear leg true length =                     30.03   inches
Landing Gear Capability. Margin of Safety should be at least 0.50 for Limit Energy Condition.
                                          Limit       Reserve Max vertical landing speed =
                                         Energy        Energy Max vertical landing speed =
                                        Condition     Condition Aft component of gear load, K =
Vertical gear load per wheel (lbs)        1468          1643     Tire deflection at limit energy condition
Gear drag load per wheel (lbs)             367           411     Tire deflection at limit energy =
Gear load factor (ng)                       4.1          4.6     Max. possible tire deflection =
Limit inertial load factor (n)              4.8          5.6
Tire + gear vertical deflection (in)        7.6          8.5
Combined Margin of Safety                  0.84         0.64
Drop height (inches)                       13.9         20.1
Effective weight for drop test (lbs)       550           505
% of load of on main wheels at gross weight and C.G. while a/c sitting on the ground:                  90
Main wheel tire + gear leg deflection while a/c sitting on the ground =                             1.67
Additional gear + tire deflection for reserve energy condition =                                    6.81




Background calculations
Gear leg deflection constant                        calculation assumes that the gear leg has constant area from end

    Section                             Local           area          I          slope       deflection
                         M           Dia (inches)      sq. in.      in^4         M/EI
       1               34.90             1.38           1.48       0.1755         199            0
       2               33.32             1.34           1.42       0.1598         209           322
       3               31.74             1.31           1.35       0.1451         219           660
       4               30.16             1.28           1.29       0.1316         229          1013
       5               28.58             1.25           1.22       0.1189         240          1385
       6               27.00             1.22           1.16       0.1073         252          1773
       7               25.42             1.18           1.10       0.0964         264          2180
       8               23.84             1.15           1.04       0.0865         276          2606
       9               22.25             1.12           0.99       0.0773         288          3052
      10               20.67             1.09           0.93       0.0689         300          3516
      11               19.09             1.06           0.88       0.0612         312          4000
      12               17.51             1.02           0.82       0.0541         324          4502
      13               15.93             0.99           0.77       0.0477         334          5022
      14               14.35             0.96           0.73       0.0419         343          5557
      15               12.77             0.93           0.68       0.0366         349          6103
      16               11.19             0.90           0.63       0.0318         352          6657
      17                9.61             0.87           0.59       0.0275         349          7211
      18                8.03             0.83           0.55       0.0237         339          7754
      19                6.45             0.80           0.50       0.0203         318          8273
      20                4.87             0.77           0.47       0.0173         282          8747
      21                 0               0.77           0.47       0.0173          0           9434
constants for E and load = 1
                                                                 Angle of gear leg from horizon =
Gear Leg Deflection constant =            164324                 Limit energy drop ht =
Gear Stub Deflection constant =              530                 Multiplier if drag load in bending =

Energy required and available calculations                                                 limit energy
Gear load factor (ng)                              0.9      3      5     4.1
Vertical load per wheel (lbs)                     323     1078   1797   1468
Tire deflection (inches)                          0.46    1.54   2.57   2.10
Load normal to gear leg (lbs)                     249      829   1381   1129
Deflection of gear normal to leg (inches)          1.4     4.7    7.8    6.4
Deflection due to gear stub (inches)               0.2     0.7    1.1    0.9
Total gear leg deflection (inches)                 1.6     5.4    9.0    7.3
FAR vertical sink speed (ft/sec)                   8.7     8.7    8.7    8.7
Energy due to sink speed (in-lbs)                5017     5017   5017   5017
Energy due to gear and tire stroke (in-lbs)       200      666   1110    907
Total limit energy of landing (in-lbs)           5217     5683   6127   5924
Reserve energy (in-lbs)                          7225     7225   7225   7225
Energy absorbed by tires (in-lbs)                  70      782   2173   1452
Energy absorbed by gear legs (in-lbs)             201     2231   6197   4140
Total energy provided by gear (in-lbs)            271     3013   8371   5592
Total gear + tire deflection                      1.67                  7.57
Torsion moment on gear leg due to sweep and drag load =                 4497
by Herb Rawdon and "Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures" by Bruhn


sults for actual design purposes are done at the user's own risk.




             Material properties of some materials used for gear legs
                                             Ultimate      Modulus     Material
                                             strength      Elasticity  Density
             Material                        Ftu (psi)      E (psi)   (lbs/in^3)
             4340, 5160 and 6150 Steel        220000      29000000      0.286
             2024-T3 Aluminum                  70000      10500000      0.098
             6AL-4V Titanium                  130000      16000000      0.160
             *** Steel Ftu are heat treated values ***
             Gear Leg Material Properties
             Modulus of elasticity, E:        29000000 psi
             Ultimate tensile strength, Ftu:     220000 psi
             Material density:                     0.286 lbs/in^3
             Approx gear weight =                   24.9 lbs
                           8.7 ft/sec (for limit energy)
                          10.4 ft/sec (for reserve energy)
                          0.25
rgy condition
                    2.10       inches
                    2.70       inches




                %
                inches
                inches




has constant area from end of leg to wheel center line       tapered gear slope =     0.02014769
             max Mr/I =         166         187189             209425                 Min M.S. =   0.84   0.64
               integrated                     L.E.               R.E.         L.E.        R.E.     L.E.   R.E.
               deflection       Mr/I          Mr/I               Mr/I         Tr/Ip       Tr/Ip    M.S.   M.S.
                     0          137         154377             172716         8811        9857     1.35   1.10
                    254         140         158119             176902         9452       10575     1.29   1.05
                   1030         143         161859             181087        10158       11364     1.23   1.00
                   2352         147         165570             185238        10935       12234     1.18   0.95
                   4247         150         169215             189316        11794       13195     1.13   0.90
                   6742         153         172749             193269        12745       14259     1.08   0.86
                   9867         156         176114             197034        13801       15441     1.04   0.82
                  13649         159         179239             200530        14977       16757     0.99   0.78
                  18121         161         182034             203658        16291       18226     0.96   0.75
                  23311         163         184387             206290        17763       19873     0.92   0.72
                  29250         165         186157             208270        19418       21725     0.89   0.69
                  35969         166         187165             209399        21285       23814     0.87   0.67
                  43496         166         187189             209425        23399       26179     0.85   0.65
                  51855         165         185943             208032        25803       28868     0.84   0.65
                  61069         162         183069             204816        28548       31939     0.84   0.64
                  71153         158         178106             199263        31696       35461     0.85   0.65
                  82111         151         170465             190715        35324       39520     0.87   0.67
                  93937         141         159387             178321        39528       44224     0.90   0.69
                 106601         127         143887             160979        44427       49704     0.94   0.73
                 120051         109         122676             137249        50169       56129     0.98   0.77
                 164324          0             0                  0          50169       56129     1.63   1.35

                         0.729 radians        Top view gear length =            22.40 inches
                          13.9 inches         front view gear angle =            0.75 radians
                          1.03                side view gear angle =             0.29 radians

                reserve energy
 4.6   limit energy slope =                              1.6
1643   limit intercept =                            -8120.7
2.35   gear energy slope =                              0.13
1263   gear energy intercept =                        673.7
 7.2   Energy where req'd limit & gear/tire match =    5924 in-lbs
 1.0
 8.2
 8.7
5017   Max allow. bending stress =                  366916 psi
1015   Estimated Fo =                               209880 psi
6032   approximate Fs =                             132000 psi
7225
1817
5182
7000
8.47
5031   in-lbs

				
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