Written by by pengxiuhui

VIEWS: 337 PAGES: 177


2009-2010 UHS AP Psychology Unit Review

           Table of Contents

Written by: Matt Clemens

Table of Contents

                                              Unit 1: History and Approaches

  Psychology: the scientific study of behavior (outward actions) and mental process’s (internal subjective experiences)

I. Roots of Psychology

A. Physiology: the study of biological functions


  1. Hippocrates 4 Humors: blood, flem, yellow bile, black bile, ideas of balance

  2. Phrenology: 19th century science based off of structure of skull. Assumptions of brain specialization

B. Philosophy: the use of logic and speculation to understand reality

  1. Rene Descartes: I think therefore I am

  2. Dualism: distinction between mind and body

II. The Dawn of Psychology

Wilhelm Wundt developed first psychology lab in Germany

    A. Schools of Psychology
      1. Structuralism: attempt to identify basic psych elements and how they combine in mental structure
         -primary tool introspection, look within

          -inconsistent research

    2. Functionalism: Founded by William James idea of applying psychological

        To principles to reality

        -strongly influenced by Darwin

        -experimented with animals

    3. Gestalt Psychology: the idea of organizing individual parts into a whole

        -revealed human desire for symmetry, regularity, and simplicity

     4. Psychodynamic Theory: Developed from Freud, based on the notion that the mind is not a unitary construction,
that there is a deeper part of it.

        -sex and aggression are main human feelings suppressed into the unconscious

         By society

        -everything means something else

   5. Behaviorism: school of psychology focused on stimulus response

        -heavy emphasis on observational behaviors

        -lasting imprint on psychology through breakthroughs in learning

  B. Reactions to Schools

      1. Reactions to Behaviorism

       -humanistic psychology: emphasized growth potential of healthy people

       - Cognitive revolution

      2. Cognitive Revolution: idea to characterize the storing of info in brain

III. Contemporary Psych: Psychology’s Great Debate

  A. Nature Versus Nurture
        1. Biopsychological Approach: 3 levels of analysis in psych
            -bio influence

              -psych influence

              -social influence

        2. Research: Basic vs. Applied

           -basic research: increase over all knowledge

           -applied research: solve practical problems

IV. Professional Service

 A. Clinical Psychology
         1. studying assessing and treating people
         2. uses therapy techniques
 B. Psychiatry
         1. treats disorders using medication
 C. Counseling Psychologists
       1. help people with daily lives

Written by: Audrey Zeldin & Anthony DeGennaro

Table of Contents

                                      AP PSYCHOLOGY: UNIT 1

- scientific study of behaviors and mental processes

Behavior- any action we can observe or record

Mental processes- internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior



                 - believed the mind is separable from the body and continues on after death, and knowledge is innate


                 - soul is not separable and knowledge is not preexisting, but grows from experiences.


                 - the mind is entirely distinct from the body; was the first to conjecture about nerves controlling movement


                 - the mind looks to perceive patterns in random events


                 - the mind is a blank slate that grows with experience


                 - science relying on observation and experimentation


                 Wilhelm Wundt

                 - established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany


                 - used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

                Introspection- self-reflective looking inward


                - focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive,
                and flourish.

                William James/ Mary Calkins/ Margaret Floy Washburn

                Sigmund Freud

                - emotional responses to childhood experiences and unconscious


                - John Watson/ B.F. Skinner

                Humanistic psychology

                - emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; using personalized methods to foster personal growth

                Carl Rogers/ Abraham Maslow

Cognitive revolution

- focus on internal thought processes

Nature vs. nurture debate has raged for centuries. Plato thought it was inherited and inborn, while Aristotle thought
that the senses give everything to the mind. Locke thought people were blank slates to be written on, while
Descartes thought that some ideas were innate. Darwin's theory of natural selection incorporated animal behaviors
as well.

Different levels of analysis include biological, psychological, and social. With these three combined, there is the
biopsychosocial approach.

Psychology won't answer Tolstoy's existential questions, but it will help you understand why people do (and think
and feel) what they do (and think and feel).

There are many types of psychology, including biological, developmental, cognitive, personality, and social.
Biological explore the links between the thinking mind and the chemical brain. Developmental studies "womb to
tomb" changes. Cognitive attacks problems about how we attack problems. Personality is about traits etc. Social is
how we interact and see and feel about each other.

Basic research is pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. Applied research is a scientific
study that actually tries to solve a problem that exists.

Counseling psychology helps people with problems in living, and in achieving greater well-being. Clinical
psychology deals more with actual psychological disorders, and psychiatry can provide drugs.

Once an idea enters a mind, the mind can reject the idea, but it can never go back to never having had the idea.

Written by: Sergio Maitas and Stephanie Reyes

Table of Contents


        3 Types of research: Correlational, experimental, descriptive
             o Descriptive: describes who what where when why
             o Case study: extensive research on one particular person in depth
        Naturalistic observation: observing/recording behavior of organisms in natural environment, no intervention by
         researcher (Ex. Jane Goodall)
             o Difficult to be truly unobtrusive, ethical concerns
         Correlational Research: measurement of how closely related two variables are
        Each variable predictive of the other, change in 1 value predicts the change in the value of the other
        Measuring: Correlation coefficient: statistic that measures correlation ranging from -1 to 1, including direction
         (+/-) and size (# itself)
        Direction: Positive (between 0&1) an increase predicts increase in other
        Negative (0&-1) a decrease and increase in one
        Zero correlation: no relationship between variables
        Size: 1to-1: bigger correlations= more predictive, Smaller= less predictive
        Correlation does not imply causation
        Experimental research: determine casual relationship between two or more variables
        Predictive and explanatory (correlations=predictive)
        Confound: variable that varies besides ones of interest(Confounds Are BAD)
        Double blind design: both parties unaware or treatment and placebo
        Descriptive stats: Summarizing all properties of sets of #’s
        Inferential: reveal differences or patterns in measurements, significance
        Meta-analysis: combination of info from other studies on same topic
         Hypothesis: A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by
         further investigation.


                 IV: What is purposefully altered in the experiment

                 DV: What is measured to determine the effects of the IV

Types of Bias

       Response bias: is a type of cognitive bias which can affect the results of a statistical survey if respondents answer
questions in the way they think the questioner wants them to answer rather than according to their true beliefs.

         Sampling bias: causing some members of the population to be less likely to be included than others.

      Demand characteristics: n experimental artifact where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's
purpose and unconsciously change their behavior accordingly.

      Double-blind design: neither the individuals nor the researchers know who belongs to the control group and the
experimental group.


        Measures of central tendency:

             Mean: The average of values

             Median: The middle value

             Mode: The most repeated value

Unit 2 by Rachel Dunn and Carolina Hinds
Table of Contents

   I.  Research methods
          A. The scientific method: 5 steps to science
               1. Identify a problem
               2. Form a hypothesis about the relationship between variables
                  a. Hypothesis- a tentative explanation or prediction that is to be tested in an experiment
                  b. Variable- an aspect of a situation that can change or be measured
               3. Test the hypothesis by collecting data using operational definitions
                  a. Data- objective observation of an event
                       1. Usually but not always quantitative
                  b. Operational definition- a definition of a variable that specifies how it is measured or
                       manipulated in a particular experiment
               4. Formulate a theory
                  a. Theory- set of principles that explain a set of observations
               5. Test the theory by generating new hypotheses
   II. 3 major types of research
          A. Descriptive research (characterizes the who, what, when, where and how of a certain phenomenon or
                       1. There are 3 types
                           a. Case study (a research technique in which one person is studied in depth)
                               1. Pros (allows for detailed understanding of an individuals’ psychology, can suggest
                                   ideas for future research)
                               2. Cons (any given individual may be a typical, non representative of the general
                           b. Surveys (a set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes, preferences or behaviors in
                               which conclusions are drawn about a population based on a sample drawn from that
                               1. Population- the entire group of interest
                               2. Sample- a smaller subset of the population that participates in the research
                               3. Random sample- a sample that is representative of the population, because every
                                   member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion
                               4. Pros (inexpensive, easy to do quickly, random sample can be representative of
                               5. Cons (biased responses by social desirability, unintentional answers, or wording
                           c. Naturalistic observation (watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their
                               natural environment
                               1. Pros (observations of behavior in natural settings)
                               2. Cons ( difficulty to be truly unobtrusive, ethical concerns)
          B. Correlational research
                  1. correlation- a measure of how closely related two variables are (2 correlated variable are
                       predictive of each other)
                  2. pros (demonstrates covariation of variables, easy to do, low cost, when a variable cannot be
                  3. cons (correlation does not imply causation, third variable problem)
                  4. measuring correlations
                       a. correlation coefficient (r)- statistic that measures correlation, ranging from 1 to -1
                       b. direction

                                a. positive- between 0 and 1 means an increase in one variable predicts an increase in the
                                b. negative- between 0 and -1 means an increase in one variable predicts a decrease in the
                                c. zero correlation- no relationship between the variables
                            c. size
                                a. bigger correlations=more predictive
                                b. smaller correlations=less predictive
                                c. direction and size of correlations are independent, a correlation of -.65 is just as big as
               C. Experimental research (designed to determine the causal relationship between 2 or more variables)
                   1. Predictive and explanatory (correlations=predictive only)
                   2. Independent variable (IV)- the aspect of the experiment that is manipulated (intentionally varied)
                   3. Dependent variable (DV)- the aspect of the situation that is being measured; the outcome
                   4. 3 steps:
        a. Form a hypothesis about the causal relationship between two or more variables
                        b. Manipulate (vary) the IV, creating 2 or more groups (conditions)
                            1. Experimental condition- the condition of the experiment that exposes participants to the
                                version of the IV that is of theoretical interest
                            2. Control condition- the group that serves as the comparison to the experimental groups and
                                “controls” for all other possible factors
                        c. Measure the DV in all conditions, compare results
                            1. All groups (control, experimental) receive same dependent measures
                   5. Confound (confounding variable)- a variable that varies, besides with the one(s) of interest (this is
                        very bad)
                   6. Random assignment- assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
                            a. Random assignment and random sampling allow us to feel confident that IV caused the
                                change in the DV
    III. Being a critical consumer of psychology
               A. Psychologist strive to conduct research that is
                   1. Reliability (consistency) - finding same results in repeated experiments
                   2. Validity- the extent to which a test measures what it is suppose to
                        a. Internal validity- extent to which a study methodologically adequate
                        b. External validity – extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized to situations
                            outside the laboratory
           Bias free- research is subject to many types of bias (often unconditional)
           Response bias- a tendency to respond in a particular way regardless of respondent’s       actual knowledge or
           Sampling bias- occurs when participants are not chosen at random

           B. Demand characteristics- effects that occur when a research’s expectations lead him or her (consciously
                or unconsciously) to treat participants in a way that encourages them to produce the expected results
           C. Placebo effect- any effect on thought or behavior caused by an inert substance that is assumed to be
           D. Double blind design- participant and experimenter is “blind” to the condition assigned to the participant
   IV. Statistics
         A. Statistics- a number that summarizes or indicate differences or patterns or differences in measurements
                  1. Descriptive statistics- concise ways of summarizing properties of sets of numbers (describe things)
                       a. Central tendency (what is typical of the sample?)
                              1) Measures of central tendency- clustering of the most characteristic values for a group
                                   (mean, median, and mode)

                  b. Variability (everyone in the sample the same?)
                           1) Measures of variability -tell us how similar or different the individual scores are from
                               one another (range, standard deviation)
            2. Inferential statistics- the results of tests, that reveal whether differences or patterns in
                 measurements reflect the differences or patterns versus just chance
     B. Statistical significance- a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
            1. considered significant if odds of getting the result by chance are less then 5%
     C. Meta analysis- a statistical technique that allows researchers to combine results from different studies on
        the same topic; can determine weather a relationship exists among variable that transcend any one study
V. Research ethics
        A. Nazi medical experiments
                 a. Nuremberg trials
        B. Informed consent- a potential participant in a study must be told what he or she is expected to do and
            possible problems and benefits of the study before agree to take part
        C. Debriefing- an interview after a study that ensures the participant has no negative reactions to the
            study and understands why the study was conducted
        D. Stanley Milgram’s research on obedience to authority
                 a. Development of institutional review boards(IRB) – group at each research institution that
                      reviews every research study for ethical violations before allowing it to be conducted
                            1. deception is ok but needs to be approved

Written by: David Fan
Table of Contents

Unit 2 - Critical Thinking
Intuition and common sense are limited. Common sense sayings often contradict each other.

Hindsight bias - I-knew-it-all-along bias

Scientific Method

theory (explains, organizes, predicts behavior) -> hypotheses -> test predictions with experiment.

To check validity, experiments must be repeatable. Operational definitions are used to define
research variables, so one can replicate another’s experiment.

Research Methods
Scientists use research methods to gather evidence.

 Descriptive
 Case study - in depth observation of an individual (often perculiar) in search of basic principles.
 Surveys measure self-reported attitudes, often by questionnaire. However, one should be wary of
  wording effects, where changing the wording of a question leads to a different outcome.

For surveys, but also other data, it is important that the sample taken is representative for the
population being tested, so random sampling, where “every person in the entire group has an equal
chance of participating,” is used.

 Naturalistic observation - watching and recording behavior in natural environment

 Correlation
relates the occurrence of two variables. The correlation coefficient measures from -1 to 1, perfect
negative to perfect positive correlation, where closer to zero signifies no relationship.
 Positive correlation - more x, more y
 Negative correlation - more x, less y

Correlation does not prove causation.

 Experiment
isolates cause and effect
Independent variable (IV) varies a control condition with an experimental condition. The result of
each condition is called the Dependent variable (DV).

 Double-blind procedure - neither the researcher who administers a treatment or subject knows
  whether they are part of the control or experimental groups. This prevents the researchers
  enthusiasm from affecting a subject and measures if the treatment is better than a placebo, a sugar

  pill. The placebo effect describes how a patient that perceives a sugar pill as treatment often
  experiences reduced pain, depression, and anxiety.
 Random assignment - randomly assigning people to the control and experimental groups, so the
  two groups are similar to each other.

 Data
Measures of Central Tendency, mean, median, and more, and measures of variation, range and
standard deviation, all describe data. Data has statistical significance “when the sample averages
are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large.” If the chance that differences
between the control and experimental groups could have caused the result are less than 5%, then the
result is statistically significant.

Written by: Shayla McCaffrey and Susan Keyl
Table of Contents
                                         Unit 3

neuron-a nerve cell, basic unit of nervous system

        sensory neuron-responds to input from sensory organs

        motor neuron-sends signals to muscles to control movement

        interneuron-communicates between sensory and motor neurons

glial cell-fills gap, facilitates communication between neurons

cell body/soma-central part of neuron, contains nucleus, regulates cell functioning

dendrites-branching parts of neurons that receive messages from other neurons and conduct the information to the cell

axon-long, cable-like extension that delivers messages to other neurons; axons speak, dendrites listen!

myelin sheath-insulates axons, helps speed communication

terminal button-structure at end of axon’s branches, releases chemicals into space between neurons when neuron is

resting potential-the neuron is “off”; has negative charge

action potential-messages from other neurons are excitatory(gas) or inhibitory(brakes)

threshold-level of stimulation to trigger a neural impulse

“all-or-none law”-neurons either fire or they don’t

neural impulse-the change in electrical charge that moves down axon to terminal button

synaptic cleft-gap between axon and dendrite across which neural transmission occurs; needs special chemical reaction
to reuptake neurotransmitters into vescicles

neurotransmitter-a chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another over the synaptic cleft. Examples include
acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA, glutamate (p. 58).

endorphins- natural opiates released in response to pain or exercise

agonists-chemicals that mimic neurotransmitters due to similar structure; excitatory Ex: morphine acts as endorphins

antagonist-inhibits neurotransmitter’s release, or occupies receptor site and blocks path for neurotransmitter but does
not stimulate receptor


The Nervous System-the body’s electrochemical communication network. Works quickly and is fundamentally
comprised of neurons. There are two main branches: central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

Central nervous system-composed of spinal cord and brain

reflex-automatic response to a sensory stimulus

reflex arc-sensory neuron detects stimulus » sends signal to inter-neurons in spinal cord » signal to motor neuron. You
can control your reflexes and it allows the brain to prevent reflex responses when appropriate.

Peripheral nervous system-comprised of skeletal and autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is
comprised of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

skeletal nervous system-allows for voluntary control of skeletal muscles

autonomic nervous system-controls many of the self-regulatory functions of the body

example: digestion. Focused on glands and control of internal organs

sympathetic nervous system-excites bodily function, prepares for defensive actions against threat. Controls fight or flight

parasympathetic nervous system-(like parachute that slows you down) counteracts effects of sympathetic nervous
system and calms us down. Acts as energy conservation system


The Endocrine System-the body’s chemical communication system, works slowly. Endocrine organs secrete hormones.

hormones-chemical messengers that are created by one organ and another via bloodstream. acts as neurotransmitter,
except slower because it’s in the bloodstream

pituitary gland-most influential gland in the endocrine system. Tiny structure in the interior of the brain controlled by
the hypothalamus. Regulates human growth hormone (HGH) and releases hormones that regulate other endocrine
glands. The Master Gland!


Mapping Brain Functions

Phineas Gage- railroad worker whose frontal lobe was damaged. Marked personality differences, trouble with social
interactions. Case studies like this show that different parts of the brain have different functions.

EEG-amplified recording of pulses of electrical activity, or brainwaves. that sweep across the brain’s surface. Monitors
brain function

CAT scan-produces 3D image of brain structure using x-rays. monitors brain structure

PET scan-uses small amounts of radioactive glucose to track energy consumption in the brain. monitors brain function

MRI-uses magnetic properties of atoms to take sharp pictures of structure of brain and other soft tissue

fMRI-detects amount of bloodflow in different regions of the brain. monitors function


The Brain

old brain-lower level structures, responsible for basic survival mechanisms

new brain-higher level structures, responsible for more advanced human faculties

3 regions- hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain

hindbrain-older brain region comprised of brainstem and cerebellum. Responsible for mostly autonomic functions

midbrain-comprised primarily of thalamus. Aids in communication between hindbrain and forebrain

forebrain-newer brain region. Comprised of limbic system and cerebrum. Works on higher level mental faculties such as
personality, moral judgment, planning, etc.

brainstem-made up of medulla, pons, and reticular formation. Communicates between brain and spinal cord

medulla-where spinal cord swells, connects with brain. Controls heartbeat, breathing, swallowing

pons-bridge from brainstem to cerebellum, controls sleep, coordination of motor movement, posture, control of facial

reticular formation-regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system

thalamus-brain’s sensory switchboard

cerebellum-coordinates posture, physical movement, and balance. Integrates sensory information, contributes to
estimating time and paying attention.

The cerebellum and other lower brain structures work without conscious effort.

The Limbic System-involved in basics of emotion and motivation: fighting, feeding, fleeing, and sex. Comprised of
amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus

amygdala-critical in anger and fear

hypothalamus-motivation-eating and drinking; regulates body temperature and blood pressure. Controls pituitary gland
and hormone production

hippocampus-creates new memories, does not store memories but triggers processes that do store memories

H.M.-epileptic, had hippocampus removed to control seizures. Seizures reduced, but unable to form new long-term
memories (anterograde amnesia). Was able to form long-term procedural memories, not able to remember how he
formed them. Shows that there are different kinds of memories.

retrograde amnesia-not being able to recall old memories

The Visible Brain

cerebral cortex-surface of brain, where high level mental processes occur

cerebral hemispheres-the two halves of cerebral cortex, control opposite sides of the body, connected by corpus
collosum, which transmits messages between hemispheres

left brain-logical, rational, language, math analysis. “interpreter”-slow, deliberate decisions

right brain-creativity, music, art, imagination. Quick, intuitive responses. The two halves work together except for
language, which is controlled almost entirely by the left hemisphere.

Split-brain patients- corpus collosum has been severed so that neural impulses no longer pass from one hemisphere to
the other. Designed to control epilepsy. If a split brain patient sees an object with his left eye, he cannot name it.

Alien Hand Syndrome-disorder in which a hand takes on a life of its own. Most often seen in split-brain patients.

cerebral cortex-thin surface layer of neural cells covering hemispheres. Highest level of control and information
processing center.

sulci-creases in brain

gyri-bulges between sulci

frontal lobe-controls planning, reasoning, emotions, memory, sophisticated motor control

motor cortex-controls fine movements, backmost gyrus of frontal lobe

parietal lobe-controls spatial location, attention, motor control, math

sensory cortex-registers sensation of body

temporal lobe-auditory processing, memory, language

occipital lobe-controls vision; separate areas are specified for visual properties such as shape, color, and motion

association areas-areas of the cerebral cortex that are not directly involved in motor control or sensory processing (75%
of the brain)

plasticity-brain’s ability to modify its self

neuroprosthetics-field devoted to developing artificial aids/replacements for impaired nervous system

Written by: David Cable and Tyler Connel
Table of Contents

Unit 3 Review

I. Neurons
          A. Dendrite Fibers
                   1. Located at the cell body side of the neuron.
                   2. Function in the reception of neurotransmitters and the continuation of a neural signal.
          B. Cell Body
                   1. The largest part of the neuron.
                   2. Conducts messages from the dendrites to the axon.
          C. Axon
                   1.         Insulated by myelin sheaths. Myelin sheaths are fatty pockets that
                       speed the action potential of the nerve. The nodes between each sheath are called the
                       nodes of renvier.
                   2.         The action potential travels down the axon through the
                         depolarization of the axon.
                   3. Ions repolarize the neuron's axon to give it an electric potential.
                   3.         Before the nerve fires the positive charge is on the outside of the
                       axon and the negative charge is on the inside of the axon. When the axon potential fires
                       the location of the ions shifts.
                   4.         A neural signal fires like dominoes. The charge travels along the
                        axon triggering more depolarization.
                   6. The nerve will not fire unless it reaches a threshold.
          D. Synapse
                   1.         The area between the terminal branches of the axon and the
                        dendrites of the receiving cell.
                   2.         Vesicles containing neurotransmitters are secreted from the terminal branch of the
                        axon when the neural signal reaches the terminal branch.
                   3.         Neurotransmitters move from the terminal branch of the axon into
                        the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron.
                   4.         After neurotransmitters have bound to the receptor sites on the
                       receiving neuron and the signal has been transferred the excess neurotransmitters in the
                       synaptic gap are "reuptaken" and absorbed back into the terminal branch of the sending
II. Neurotransmitters
          A. Acetylcholine
                   1. Enables muscle action
                   2. Deficiency can cause Alzheimer's disease.
                   3. Endorphins and morphine are painkillers in that they elevate mood
                       and alleviate pain sensations.
          B. Dopamine
                   1. Influences attention, learning, and emotion.
                   2. Excess dopamine leads to schizophrenia marked by hallucinations
                       and distorted thinking. Deficiency can lead to Parkinson’s marked by tremors and
                       decreased mobility
          C. Serotonin

                    1. Affects mood and arousal
                    2. Deficiency can lead to depression. Serotonin deficiencies can be treated by SSRI's.
          D. Norepinephrine
                    1. Helps enhance alertness and arousal
                    2. Undersupply can depress mood.
                    3. Induces a flight or fight response
          E. GABA
                    1. Inhibitory neurotransmitter
                    2. Undersupply linked to seizures
          F. Glutamate
                    1. Excitatory neurotransmitter
                    2. Oversupply can induce seizures or tremors
          G. Agonist
                    1. Mimics a neurotransmitter and is sufficient to cause the signal to fire.
                    2. Is neither exactly like the actual neurotransmitter nor unlike it
          H. Antagonist
                1. Binds to a receptor protein in a dendrite and prevents the receiving nerve from firing.
III. The Nervous System
          A. Peripheral: The neural system that travels throughout the body and connects the body with the
          central nervous system.
                    1. Autonomic: The subset of the peripheral system that controls self regulated action of
                    internal organs and glands.
                               i. Sympathetic: The type of autonomic nervous system that activates when the body
                               is under stress. It responds to stess by increasing heart rate, breathing rate, blood
                               sugar and other biological changes.
                               ii. Parasympathetic: The type of autonimoc nervous system that deactivates the
                               sympathetic nervous system when the body is at rest. It causes a decrease in heart
                               rate, breathing rate, and other biological changes.
                    2. Somatic: The subset of the peripheral system that controls voluntary muscle movement.
          B. Central: The brain and spinal cord. Controls voluntary and involuntary actions and thoughts.
          Directs the body.
          C. Sensory Neurons: Neurons that transmit information from tissues to the processing centers of the
          D. Motor Neurons: Neurons that go from the central nervous system to the body and control
          E. Interneurons: Neurons between sensory and motor neurons that pass along neural messages.
          F. Reflex responses are interactions between the peripheral nervous system and the spinal chord. In a
          reflex information from the peripheral nerves is sent to the spinal chord through sensory neurons.
          Then motor neurons from the spinal chord send information to the muscles telling them to move.
                    1. Reflexes are not controlled by the conscious mind.
                    2. They are much faster than regular neural responses that must go from the peripheral
                    nervous system, through the spinal chord, to the brain and then through motor neurons back
                    to the muscles.
          G. Neural Networks
                    1. Neurons that are associated cluster into work groups called neural clusters.
                    2. The brain is an enormous neural network.
                    3. The brain learns by modifying connections in a neural network.
IV. The Endocrine System
          A. Glands of the Endocrine System
                    1. Hypothalamus

                              i. The bridge between the nervous and endocrine system.
                              ii. Controls the pituitary gland.
                              iii.It is a small area of the brain's limbic system.
                   2. Pituitary Gland
                              i. Secretes many hormones that can interact with other glands in the endocrine
                              ii. Often called the master gland because its secretions affect the secretions of other
                              iii. Pea sized structure located in the brain.
                   3. Thyroid Gland
                              i. Affects metabolism and other stuff.
                              ii. Located in the throat.
                              iii. Within the thryroid gland are parathyroids that control calcium levels in the
                   4. Adrenal Glands
                             i. Control the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline and
                             noradrenalin) in times where the body is in distress.
                             ii. Located above the kidneys
                   5. Pancreas
                             i. Regulates the blood's sugar level
                             ii. Located next to the stomach.
                   6. Ovary
                             i. Secretes female sex hormones
                   7. Testes
                             i. Secrete male sex hormones.
V. The Brain
        A. Methods for Studying the Brain
                 1. Lesion: The destruction of targeted portions of the brain.
                 2. EEG (electroencephalogram): Tracks the electrical activity of the brain. Good because it
                 tracks brain activity, bad because the brain can be operating at an elevated rate for any given
                 3. PET Scan (positron emission technology): Tracks glucose consumption in the brain. Good
                 because it helps scientists track brain functioning. Bad because the brain is constantly
                 consuming glucose.
                 4. MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging): Provides a structural image of the brain by firing
                 magnetic waves toward the brain and tracking the atomic disposition afterwards. Good
                 because it provides scientists with an accurate image of the brain. Bad because it's fairly
                 5. fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging): Tracks blood flow in the brain. Where
                 there is more blood there is more activity. Good because it shows scientists where the brain
                 is active.
        B. Older Brain Structures (hindbrain)
                 1. The brainstem
                            i. The portion of the brain where the spinal cord and brain connect.
                            ii. Contains the medulla, pons and reticular formation.
                            iii. The medulla
                                      a. Controls breathing and heartrate.
                                      b. The oldest brain structure.
                            iv. The pons
                                      a. Controls sleep and motor functioning

                                        b. Located above the medulla
                             v. Reticular formation
                                       a. Regulates what information enters the upper regions of the brain.
                                       b. runs through the brainstem into the midbrain and forebrain.
                             i. The "sensory switchboard" between the hindbrain and forebrain.
                             ii. Receives information from all senses except for smell.
                   3. Cerebellum
                             i. The "little brain" located in the back of your head
                             ii. Responsible for nonverbal learning, memory, judgement of time, and coordinate
                             voluntary movement.
          C. The Limbic System (midbrain)
                   1. Includes the amygdala, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and hippocampus.
                   2. The amygdala
                             i. Portion of the limbic system that influences fear and aggression.
                             ii. Lesion leads to a completely non-aggressive subject.
                             iii. Stimulation leads to increased fear or aggression
                   3. The Hypothalamus
                             i. Influences hunger, thirst, body temperature and sexual behaviors.
                             ii. Regulates the adjacent pituitary gland.
                             iii. When stimulated a subject will feel pleasure so the hypothalamus is often called
                             the pleasure center or reward center.
                   4. Hippocampus
                             i. Functions in storing memories
                             ii. Located adjacent to the amygdala.

Cerebral Cortex “bark” of brain.

             Control and information processing center
Structure of Cortex

               20-23 billion nerve cells
               9 times as many glial cells. Nannies for neurons

              very wrinkly, to increase surface area
              each hemisphere has four lobes. Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal.

Functions of Cortex

      Every action involves multiple parts of brain.
      Motor Functions: motor cortex arch on back of frontal lobe controls movement.
           o Left hemisphere controls right side of body and vice versa
           o Parts of the body that need more dexterous movement have bigger cortical areas in motor cortex
        Sensory functions: Sensory cortex just behind motor cortex receives input from body.
               o More sensitive areas have larger parts of the

          Visual cortex in occipital lobe receives visual information from eyes
          Sound processed in auditory areas of temporal lobe
          Association areas are the other 75% of cortex not involved in receiving or outputting.
               o Harder to define what they control

                o Interpret, integrate, and act on input from other areas
                o Frontal lobe association areas involved in planning and personality
                o Parietal lobe association areas enable math and spatial reasoning
                o Temporal lobe association areas do facial recognition
         Language.
                o Multiple ways to impair language (aphasia)
                o Broca’s area in left frontal lobe controls language expression, muscle movement in speech
                o Wernicke’s area in left temporal lobe controls language comprehension and expression
                o Reading language out loud begins in visual cortex, goes to angular gyrus where it is turned into an
                   auditory code for Wernicke’s area. Then Broca’s area which tells the motor cortex what movements
                   to make the mouth lips and tongue do
                o The brain does something similar to this for most mental functions. Most of what we think of as
                   instant thought is actually multistep complicated processes that we are unaware of
         Plasticity
                o The brain’s ability to modify itself
                o Severed neurons don’t regenerate
                o Some neural tissue can reorganize if damaged
                o Most “plastic” when young
                o Example: the visual cortex in a blind person will instead be used to help interpret Braille
The Divided Brain

       The right hemisphere controls our left side, the left controls our right side
       The left hemisphere deals with reading, writing, arithmetic, understanding etc.
       The right hemisphere deals with emotion, artistic, creative, etc.
       The corpus callosum is a band of neural fibers bridging the two hemispheres.
       Severing the corpus callosum can restrict seizures in an epileptic to only one hemisphere. Also makes them split
     Images on the left half of our field of vision go to the right hemisphere and vice versa.
     Split brained people can report seeing a word on their right visual field (left hemisphere) and draw a picture of a
        word seen on their left visual field (right hemisphere)
     Some split brained patients have alien hand syndrome
            o The left hand, controlled by the right hemisphere acts on its own accord, unbuttoning shirts, etc.
     The left hemisphere will do mental gymnastics to rationalize the right hemisphere’s independent actions.
Brain Organization and Handedness

    o   Nearly 90% of people are right handed.
    o   Most right handers process speech mostly in the left hemisphere
    o   50% of left handers process speech in left hemisphere.
    o   25% of left handers process speech in right hemisphere, 25% use both
    o   Human, chimpanzees and gorillas as species are mostly righties
    o   Lefties more likely to have reading disabilities, allergies, migraines.
    o   Lefties also more common in musicians, mathematicians, professional baseball players, architects, and artists.
    o   The percentage of lefties declines with age. 15% 10 yr olds, 5% 50 yr olds, 1% 80 yr olds are lefties
    o   Handedness rarely switches over lifetime.
    o   Lefties have more accidents, largely because of a right handed world. Also more headaches, joint problems,
        alcohol and tobacco use.
    o   Studies differ on life expectancy differences.

Written by: Lyric Peate and Tiffany Lee

Table of Contents

                         Unit 3: Biological Basis of Behavior Study Guide

Neuron: a nerve cells, the basic unit of the nervous system

        Glial cell: a nerve cell that fills gaps between neurons, facilitates communication between neurons and helps in
        the care and upkeep of neurons

Types of neurons:

    1) Sensory neurons: respond to input from sensory organs
    2) Motor neurons: send signals to muscles to control movement
    3) Inner neurons: connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons (most common)

Cell body (soma): the central part of the neuron which contains the nucleus (regulates functioning)

Dendrites: the branching parts of the neuron that receives messages from other neurons and relay them to the soma

Axon: the long, cable-like extension that delivers messages to other neurons

Myelin sheath: layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon and helps speed up message transmission (multiple sclerosis
is the deterioration of myelin which leads to slowed communication with muscles and impaired sensation in limbs)

Terminal button: the structure at the end of the axon’s branches which releases chemicals into the space between

Synaptic cleft: the gap between the axon and the dendrite/cell body across which neutral transmission occurs

Neurotransmitter: a chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another over the synaptic cleft

        -   Binds to receptors on the cell membrane for the next neuron
        -   Each receptor can only bind to one kind of neurotransmitter

Resting potential: the negative charge maintained within the neurons that are at rest

      - Sodium ions (Na+) build up outside neuron
      - Potassium ions (K-) build up inside neuron
Remains in this state until triggered to fire by adjacent neuron

Messages can be excitatory (gas petal) or inhibitory (the brakes)

Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

Action potential: the neural impulse (the shifting charge down the axon to terminal buttons)

Important Neurotransmitters:

Agonists: may mimic neurotransmitter effects due to similar structure (eg: Morphine and endorphin)

Antagonists: may be similar enough to occupy receptor and block a real neurotransmitter, but are not similar enough to
activate next neuron

The Nervous System:


Spinal chord: bundle of neural fibers that connects the brain to the rest of the body

Reflex: an automatic response to a sensory stimulus, message does not reach brain


Skeletal nervous system: allows or voluntary control of skeletal muscles

Autonomic nervous system: controls many of the self-regulatory functions of the body

          -   Sympathetic nervous system: fight or flight response
          -   Parasympathetic nervous system: counteracts effects of sympathetic nervous system

The Endocrine System:

Hormones: chemical messengers that are created by one organ and affect another via bloodstream

Pituitary gland: most influential gland in endocrine system, s tiny structure in the brain, controlled by the hypothalamus

Gigantism: excessive growth and above-average height

Neuroimaging techniques:

EEG: an amplified recording of the pulses of electrical activity that sweeps across brain’s surface

CT scan: produces 3D image of the brain structure using x-rays

PET Scan: uses small amounts of radioactive glucose to track energy consumption in the brain

MRI: uses magnets to obtain clear images of the structure of the brain

fMRI: detects amount of blood flow to different regions of the brain

The Brain:

Hindbrain: brainstem and cerebellum-life sustaining and automatic processes

Midbrain: thalamus, communication between hindbrain and forebrain

Forebrain: limbic system and cerebrum- personality and decision making

Brainstem: communication between spinal cord and brain

       Medulla: heartbeat, breathing, swallowing

       Pons: sleep, motor movements, posture, facial muscles

       Reticular Formation: alertness and autonomic nervous system

Thalamus: sensory switchboard (not smell)

Cerebellum: physical movement, posture, balance, integrates sensory information, occurs without conscious effort

The Limbic System: emotion and motivation comprised of…

       Amygdala: anger and fear, stimulation leads to anger

       Hypothalamus: eating, drinking, temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate, controls hormone production
(through pituitary gland)

        Hippocampus: creates new memories,

                 Anterograde amnesia: unable to form new memories

                 Retrograde amnesia: unable to retrieve old memories

The Cerebral Cortex:

        Left and right hemispheres control opposite sides of the body, also divided into lobes

        Hemispheres connected by corpus callosum

Hemisphere specialization: Left: analytical and verbal, interpreter

                              Right: intuitive and perceptual, quick responses

Split Brain Patients: to treat epilepsy, sensory information confined to hemisphere that receives it, Alien Hand Syndrome

Sulcus: creases in brain

Gyrus: bulges b/w sulci

Frontal Lobe: planning, memory search, higher motor control, reasoning, emotions, decisions, contains motor cortex
(controls fine movements, organized by body part)

Parietal Lobe: spatial location, attention, motor control, arithmetic, contains sensory cortex (senses organized by body

Temporal Lobe: processes sound, commits information in memory, understanding language

Occipital Lobe: vision (by shape, color, motion)

Association Areas in between lobes

The Brain’s Flexibility:

Plasticity: brain’s ability to modify itself, such as after damage, most plastic in childhood

Neuroprosthetics: artificial aids or replacements for impaired nervous systems such as cochlear implant

Handedness: Division of Labor Theory: most efficient for one hand/hemisphere to control both

Written by: Gaby Lacy and Katie Draper
Table of Contents

The Neuron:

      3 types of neuron: motor, sensory, and
 interneurons (most common, connect sensory and
 motor neurons)
      Glial cell- fills the gap in between neurons; helps
 communication and upkeep of neurons
      Neurons take in, process, and send out signals to
 the rest of the body
    Nucleus-regulates cell functioning
    Dendrites-recieve messages and give them to cell body
    Axon-delivers message to other neurons
    Myelin sheath-insulates and helps messages be speedy (lack=multiple sclerosis-slower communication
     w/ muscles and reduced sensation in limbs
    Terminal buttons- let out the chemicals into the space between the neurons
    Synapse- between neurons; where neural transmission happens
    Vesicles- hold neurotransmitters and spit them out into the synaps
      Resting potential- the negative charge maintained w/in neurons at rest
      Exitatory neurons- gas pedal
       Inhibitory neurons- breaks
      Action potential- the neural impulse
      Neurotransmitters are the things that send signals and tell the body what to do

     Agonists excite (black widow)
     Antagonists inhibit (botox)
     Central Nervous System- the spinal cord and brain talk about sensory information and motor control
 except for reflexes which bypass the brain
     Peripheral Nervous System- links central nervous system to the organs

           Autonomic nervous system controls the automatic stuff
          sympathetic (fight or flight)
          parasympathetic (calming); like parachute
           Endocrine system:
          Hormones- chemical messengers that are created by one organ and affect another via bloodstream; can
          be identical to certain neurotransmitters
          pituitary gland- controlled by hypothalamus; regulates body growth and releases hormones that regulate
          other endocrine glands
           Phineas Gage- that guy who got a pole blasted through the front of his head and lived but turned from a
       super nice guy into a flakey/impulsive/socially weird jerk
          EEG-function (hat)                                    CT-structural (xray of the brain)

      PET-function (inject glucose)            MRI structure           FMRI functional (measures blood use)

                                                   Brain Structure:

                                                     ◦      Brainstem-the                                                set of
neural structures at the base of the brain, including the medulla, the pons, and the reticular formation. Facilities communication
between the brain and spinal cord
               -medulla: spot where spinal cord slightly swells, connects with brain-controls heartbeat, breathing, and

      -pons: bridge from brainstem to cerebellum-controls sleep, coordination of motor movements, posture, and facial muscles

              -reticular formation: regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system activity

             Thalamus: the brains sensory switchboard(except for smell…)-receives signals from the sensory neurons and
relays them to the appropriate parts of the brain-also receives signals from higher brain structures, relays them to medulla and
             Cerebellum: ―little brain‖-extending from rear of brainstem-coordinates physical movement, posture and
balance-integration of sensory info-contributes to estimating time and paying attention.***Occurs without conscious effort
along with other lower level brain structures***

             The Limbic System-―limbus‖-latin for border, system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and
cerebral hemispheres, involved in the basics of emotion and motivations(fighting, fleeing, feeding and sex-the emotional brain)
                      Amygdala-almond shaped structures that play a critical role in anger and fear

                      Hypothalamus-lies below the thalamus-directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body
      temp) and helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland-linked to emotion. ―pleasure center‖

                       Hippocampus- responsible for storing new experiences in memory (and probably new info too)-triggers
      processes that store memories

                     ex)HM suffered epilepsy therefore had hippocampus removed. Was not able to form new memories
      (anterograde amnesia). Could form procedural memories.

      Visible Brain:

      Cerebral Cortex-outer surface where most higher-level mental processes take place, divided into two halves(cerebral
      hemispheres-which control opposite sides of the body)

                 Cortex has wrinkles to increase surface area
              -sulcus(sulci)-crease in the brain

              -gyrus(gyri)-a bulge between sulci in the cerebral cortex

                  Corpus collosum- is a large band of neural fibers that transmit messages between hemispheres
                  Evidence of hemisphere specialization
              -left brain-written language, spoken language, number kills, reasoning (analytical and verbal)

              -right brain-insight, art, awareness, imagination, creativity, music awareness (intuitive and perceptual)

             Split brain patients-have severed corpus collosum. Since left half of both eyes field of vision sent to right
hemispheres and right half sent to left hemisphere. Info is confined to the hemisphere that receives it so since the left brain
controls language they can only describe things they see to the right.
             Left hemisphere-more active with slow, deliberate decisions
             Right hemisphere –quick intuitive responses-better at recognizing faces, interpreting emotion and expressing
             Alien Hand Syndrome- hand takes life of own. Often in split brain patients and in non-dominant hand.
             Frontal Lobe-directly behind forehead
              -the seat of planning, memory search, sophisticated motor control, reasoning, emotion, decisions, and many other
      high-level functions

              -makes us uniquely human

              -motor cortex-the backmost gyrus of the frontal lobe that controls fine movements and is organized by body part

                 Parietal Lobe-at the top and center/rear of the head
              -involved in registering special location, attention, and motor control, and arithmetic

             -sensory cortex-the frontmost gyrus of the parietal lobe that registers sensation on the body and is organized by
      body part

                 Temporal Lobe- under the temples, infront of the ears-many functions including processing sounds,
committing info to memory and comprehending language
                 Occipital Lobe- at the back of head-responsible for vision, separate areas specify visual properties such as
shape color and emotion
                 Association Areas-areas of cerebral cortex not involved in motor control, sensory processing-75% of human

      Plasticity: the brains ability to modify itself

             Most evident in brain reorganization following damage
             Most plastic brain during childhood

Written by: Eli Johnson

Table of Contents

                                           Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior

-the neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system consisting of an individual nerve cell.

-there are an average of 100 billion neurons within the human body and more than 10x as many glial cells.

3 Functions of the Neuron:

         1) Receive signals from other neurons or sensory organs

         2) Process signals

         3) Sends the signals to other neurons, muscles, or bodily organs

Glial Cells

-cells that fill the gaps between neurons, facilitate the communication and help care for and the upkeep of the neurons.

3 basic types of Neurons

1) Sensory Neurons: respond to the input from sensory organs such as the eyes, skin, mouth, etc.

2) Motor Neurons: send signals to and from muscles in order to control the function of movement and motor control.

3) Interneurons: connect the sensory neurons and motor neurons, often the most common type found through the

Structure of a Neuron

   Cell body (soma): central part of the neuron containing the nucleus regulates cell function.
    Dendrites: the branching part of the neuron that receives messages from other neurons
   Myelin Sheath: layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon and helps speed up message transmission.
   Schwann cell: each individual segment cell that makes up the axon.
   Nodes of Ranvier: the gaps between each Schwann cell on the axon.
   Terminal Button: structure at the end of one of the axons branches.
    -releases chemicals into the space between neurons when the neuron is fired.

How does the Neuron Work?

1) Resting Potential: the negative charge maintained within neurons that are at rest.
   -sodium ions (Na+) build up on the outside while potassium (K-) builds up on the inside of the neuron. Each
neuron remains at resting potential until an adjacent neuron is fired causing it to trigger.

2) Action Potential: the neural impulse release when a neuron is fired.

    -the action potential is the shifting of electrical charge down an axon and passed onto another neuron through
the terminal buttons. These messages are either excitatory or inhibitory.

    -threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse, the “all or nothing law”

Synaptic Cleft: the gap between the axon and the dendrite/ cell body of another neuron through which
neurotransmitters are released creating neural transmission

-   A chemical that sends signals from one neuron to the next across the synaptic cleft.

    -   Stored in vesicles in the terminal buttons until released. These neurotransmitters are blind to the receptors on
        the membrane of the next neuron. Excess neurotransmitter is left in the synaptic cleft until a special chemical is
        released in order to reuptake (absorb) the extra neurotransmitter back into the vesicle.
    Pert & Snyder (1973)

    -   Discovered that Morphine acts as a pain killer when testing the mood-elevating effects of opiate drugs.
    -   Injected rats with morphine, and radioactive tracers to track the morphine.
    -   Discovered that morphine mimics the neurotransmitter known as endorphins in areas of the brain linked to
        pain, mood.
    -   Creates what is known as a “Runners High”

Altering Neurotransmitters: Drugs and Chemicals

2 classes of drugs/ chemicals the influence neurotransmission

1) Agonist: excites

        -mimics effects neurotransmitter effects due to similar structure

        -or may block reuptake of the neurotransmitter

2) Antagonist: inhibits

        -may be similar enough to occupy the receptor, but not similar enough to activate the next neuron.

        -or may prevent the release of any more neurotransmitter

Nervous System
-The body’s electrochemical communication network. Works very quickly and is comprised of neurons stretching
throughout the body.

2 Main Branches

Central Nervous System                        Peripheral Nervous System
-controls the brain and spinal cord.          -links central nervous system to the organs.
-spinal cord: bundles of neural fibers that                ↓                               ↓
connect the brain to the rest of the body.
     -sensory info from body → brain.
     -motor control info from body→ brain     Autonomic Nervous System                           Skeletal NS
     -enclosed in the vertebral column        -Controls any of the self-regulatory functions     -allows for
-Reflex: an automatic response to a sensory   of the body.                                       voluntary
stimulus.                                     - Focused on glands, control of internal organs.   control of
  -reflex: sensory neuron detects stimulus                ↓             ↓                        skeletal
then→ sends signal to interneuron in spinal                                                      muscles

cord → sends signal to motor neuron              Sympathetic NS       Parasympathetic NS
-Brain is not involved until after the reflex,   - excites bodily     - counteracts effects of
feels automatic                                  functioning,         sympathetic nervous
-Interneurons allow brain to prevent reflex      prepares us for      system.
from firing.                                     defensive actions    -calms us down
                                                 against threats.     -acts as the energy
                                                 - ―fight or flight   conservation system

The Endocrine System
-The nervous system sends electrical messages to control and coordinate the body. The endocrine system has a similar
job, but uses chemicals to “communicate”.

-uses chemicals are known as hormones.

-hormone: a specific messenger molecule synthesized and secreted by a group of specialized cells called an endocrine
gland. These glands are ductless, which means that their secretions (hormones) are released directly into the
bloodstream and travel to elsewhere in the body to target organs, upon which they act.

3 Classes of hormones

         1) steroid hormones including prostaglandins which function especially in a variety of female functions (aspirin
inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins, some of which cause “cramps”) and the sex hormones all of which are lipids made
from cholesterol,

         2) Amino acid derivatives (like epinephrine) which are derived from amino acids, especially tyrosine

         3) Peptide hormones (like insulin) which is the most numerous/diverse group of hormones.

6 Major Endocrine System Glands

1) Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
        -The pituitary gland is called the “master gland” but it is under the control of the hypothalamus. Together, they
control many other endocrine functions.

2) Thyroid gland
        -Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, therefore body temperature and weight.

3) Pancreas
        -This organ has two functions. It serves as a ducted gland, secreting digestive enzymes into the small intestine.
The pancreas also serves as a ductless gland in that the islets of Langerhans secrete insulin and glucagon to regulate the
blood sugar level.

4) Adrenal glands
        -These sit on top of the kidneys. They consist of two parts, the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The medulla
secretes epinephrine (= adrenaline) and other similar hormones in response to stressors such as fright, anger, caffeine,
or low blood sugar.

5) Pineal gland

         -Melatonin promotes sleep (makes you feel sleepy). It also affects reproductive functions by depressing the
activity of the gonads.

6) Gonads or sex organs
       -In addition to producing gametes, the female ovaries and male testes (singular = testis) also secrete hormones.
Therefore, these hormones are called sex hormones.

The Brain Structure
The human brain is comprised of “older” and “newer” parts

    - “Older”: lower level structures, responsible for basic survival mechanisms
    - “Newer”: higher level structures, responsible for more advanced human facilities.
3 regions of the brain

1) Hindbrain: “older” brain region comprised of the brain stem and cerebellum

        -responsible for life-sustaining, mostly automatic bodily processes.

2) Midbrain: Brain region comprised primarily of the thalamus

        -aids communication between hindbrain and forebrain.

3) Forebrain: “newer” brain region comprised of the limbic system and the cerebellum.

        -higher level mental facilities such as personality, decision making, moral judgment, planning and projecting self,

Brainstem: the set of neural structures at the base of the brain including the medulla, the pons, and the reticular

       Medulla: spot where the spinal cord slightly swells, connects with brain
        -controls heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing

       Pons: bridge from brainstem to the cerebellum
        -controls sleep, coordination of motor movements, posture, and control of facial movements.

       Reticular Formation: regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system activity, the bundle of nerves that runs
        though the middle of the brain.
       Thalamus: the brains sensory switchboard( except for smell)
                -Receives signals from the sensory neurons, relays them to the appropriate parts of the brain.

                - Also receives signals from higher brain structures, relays them to the medulla and cerebellum.

       Cerebellum: the “little” brain extending from the rear of the brainstem.
        -coordinates physical movements, posture, and balance.

        -integration of sensory information

        -contributes to estimating time and paying attention.

        -cerebellum and other lower level brain structures function without conscious effort.

        -much of our brains activity occurs outside of our conscious awareness.

The Limbic System

-system of the neural structures at the boarder of the brainstem and central hemisphere

-involved in the basics of emotions and motivation: fighting, fleeing, feeding and sex

-comprised primarily of the amygdale and the hypothalamus and the hypo campus.

       Amygdale: a pair of almond shaped structures that play a critical role in danger and fear.
        -Kluver & Bucy (1939): What happens when you lesion the amygdale?

        -lesioning the amygdale of the rhesus monkeys turns them into a docile mellow “un-angerable creature”

       Hypothalamus: brain structure that sits under the thalamus (hypo)
        -motivations: plays a central role in controlling eating and drinking

        -regulates the bodies temperature, blood pressure and heart rate.

        -pleasure/ reward center of the brain

       Hippocampus: from the Greek for Seahorse( hippo: horse, campus: sea monster)
        -pair of brain structures primarily responsible for storing new experiences in memory.

        -but hippocampus does not store memories itself

        -triggers processes that store: memories, facts, and events throughout the brain.

The Visible Brain

Cerebral Cortex: the convoluted pinkish-gray surface of the brain, where most high-level mental processes occur.

    -the brain is divided into two halves (cerebral hemispheres) separated by a deep fissure.

    -hemispheres control opposite sides of the body.

    -cerebral hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum

    Corpus Collosum: a large band of neural fibers that transmit messages between hemispheres.

        -has more than 200 million nerve fibers

        -can transmit more than a billion bits of information per second

    -thin surface layer of neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres, containing roughly 300 billion neurons and 300
    trillion synaptic connections.

    - The cortex has wrinkles to increase surface area, while keeping it compact

        -Sulcus (plural=sulci): a crease in the brain

        -Gyrus (plural=gyri): a bulge between sulci in the cerebral cortex.

    - The cerebral cortex is divided into lobes or regions of the brain.

Lobes/Regions of the Brain

     1) Frontal Lobe: the brain lobe located directly behind the forehead.
       -the seat of planning, memory search, sophisticated motor control, reasoning, emotions, decisions, and many
    other higher level functions.

        -motor cortex: the back most gyrus of the frontal lobe: controls fine movements and organized by body part.

    2) Parietal Lobe: brain lobe (at the top and center of the head

        -involved in registering spatial location, attention and motor control.

        -also involved in arithmetic.

        -sensory cortex: the foremost gyrus of the Parietal lobe: responsible for registering sensation on the body and is
    organized by intensity or body part.

     3) Temporal Lobe: the brain lobe under the temples in front of the ears.

        -many functions, including processing sound, committing information to memory and comprehending language.

    4) Occipital lobe: brain lobe at the back of the head

        -responsible primarily for vision

        -separate areas specify visual properties such as shape, color and etc.

    Association Areas: areas of the cerebral cortex not directly involved in motor control, sensory processing, etc.
    consisting of 75% of the human brain.

Mapping Brain Functions

-Neural impulses: electrical impulses

    1) Electroencephalogram (EEG): an amplified recording of the pulses of electrical activity (“brainwaves”) that
       sweep across the brains surface.
       -monitors brains Function

        -brain is constantly working; EEG looks for spikes/ differences in activity.

         -Advantages: it tracks electrical activity responsible to a specific stimulus over time, higher temporal resolution (l

        -Drawbacks: electrodes on scalp do not demonstrate precise location of the electrical current.

Neuromapping Techniques

-brain scanning technique that produces a picture of the structure of function neurons.

    2) Computer assisted tomography (CT scan): the oldest neuroimaging technique (1971 prototype) produces a 3d
    image of the brain structure using x-rays.

    3) Positional Emission Tomography (PET scan): neruoimaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive
glucose to track energy consumptions in the brain.

    -measures brain Functioning.

    4) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): a technique that uses magnetic properties of atoms to take sharp pictures of
the Structure of the brain (and other soft tissues)

    5) Functioning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): a type of MRI that details the amount of blood flow in different
regions of the brain

    - Measures brain Function.

Hemispheric Specialization

-left brain: written language, spoken language, number skills, reasoning (analytical and verbal)

-right brain: insight, art, awareness, imagination/creativity, musical awareness (intuitive and perceptual)

-both continually work together on most tasks, except language

Split-brain Patients: people whose corpus collosum was cut for medical procedures. So that neural impulses no longer
pass between hemispheres.

    -   Used to treat severe epilepsy: a disease that results in massive amounts of uncontrolled neural firing, leading to

The Brains Flexibility

Plasticity: the brains ability to modify itself

-happens in all people, to some extent

-often most evident in brain reorganization following damage

-brain most plastic in childhood, easier to recover from brain damage

-sensory cortex for blind person’s Braille finger expands as a sense of touch takes over visual cortex.

-temporal lobe gets no auditory signals, eventually seeks out signal from other systems (particularly vision); deaf people
often have enhanced peripheral vision.


-close to 90% of all people are right-handed

-close to 10% are left-handed (more common in men then women)

- A small number are ambidextrous, most are mixed handed

- Long history of disparaging left-handers

-right-handed tendencies show before the effects of culture are present

        -more than 9/10 fetuses suck the right hand thumb in the womb

-right-handers:95% process language primarily in the left hemisphere

-left-handers: 50% primarily in the left hemisphere

                25% primarily in the right hemisphere

                25% in both


Suffered from Epilepsy

-age 20: hippocampus was removed from both sides of the brain to prevent seizures

-seizures were reduced but unable to form new memories (antergrade amnesia)

-short-term memory intact, but unable to commit information to long-term memory

-as opposed to retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve old memories

-Could not remember most of 3-4 days before operation, some events up to 11 years before operation

-was able to form memories procedural memories (how to do things) but could remember learning the procedures. He
could do them but not explain how he knew how to.

Written by: Audrey Roberts and Alexandra Elias

Table of Contents

Unit3: Biological Bases of Behavior

Biopsychology: Studies the link between biology, behaviors and mental processes.

Neuron: a neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system. The average human brain has about 100 billion neurons. There
are three types of neurons.

        1. Sensory Neurons: respond to input from sensory organs (skin, eyes, etc.)
        2. Motor Neurons: send signals to muscles to control movement.
        3. Interneurons: connect the sensory neurons and motor neurons.
Structure of the Neuron

        Cell body: The central part that contains the nucleus.
        Dendrites: branching parts of the neuron. Receive messages from other neurons/ relay them to cell body.
        Axon: the long, cable –like extension that delivers messages to other neurons.
        Myelin Sheath: layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon and helps speed up message transmission.
         (segments= Schwann cells. Gaps= Nodes of Ranvier)
Resting potential: when the neuron remains in a resting state until triggered to fire by adjacent neuron. (Na+ outside, K+

Action Potential: messages from other neurons are either excitatory, or inhibitory.

Synaptic Cleft: the gap between the axon and the dendrite/cell body across which neural transmission occurs.

Neurotransmitter: chemical the sends signals from one neuron to another over the synaptic cleft.

     Acetylcholine: enables muscle action, learning, memory
     Dopamine: influences movement, learning, attention, emotion
     Serotonin: mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
     GABA: inhibitory
     Glutamate: excitatory, involved in memory
Clinical Depression often treated with Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which allows more serotonin to
be taken up by receptors.

Drugs/Chemicals that influence neurotransmission:

        1. Agonists: excite/mimic neurotransmitter effects.

        2. Antagonists: inhibit/block receptor.

The Nervous System: the body’s electrochemical communication network.

       Central Nervous System: contains brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord controls sensory information from the
        body to the brain and Motor control information from brain to body. It is enclosed in the vertebral column.
       Peripheral Nervous System: links central nervous system to organs. It is comprised of the Autonomic and
        Skeletal Nervous systems.
            o Skeletal Nervous System: Muscles connected to the skeleton, allows for voluntary control of skeletal
            o Autonomic: Controls many of the self-regulatory functions of the body. Focused on glands and control
                of internal organs. Two components of Autonomic System.
                      Sympathetic: flight or fight/ excites bodily functioning (e.g. increases blood sugar, slowed
                         digestion, dilated pupils to allow greater light sensitivity
                      Parasympathetic: calms us down, counteracts effects of sympathetic nervous system. (e.g.
                         decreasing heart rate/blood sugar levels.)

The Endocrine System: works slowly/endocrine organs secret hormones. Hormones take longer to work than
neurotransmitters. *epinephrine=adrenalin.

Pituitary Gland: regulates bodily growth with HGH. The pituitary gland is also called the “master gland.”


EEG: amplified recording of the pulses of electrical activity; monitors brain function

              Advantages: tracks activity in response to specific stimulus over time, high temporal resolution, non-
             Drawbacks: does not demonstrate precise location of the electrical current, low spatial resolution
CT scan: produces a 3D image of brain structure using X-rays

             Advantages: allows direct view of level of interest, high-contrast spatial resolution
             Drawbacks: potential for damage due to high levels of radiation
PET scan: uses small amounts of radioactive glucose to track energy consumption in the brain, measure brain

            Advantages: provides an estimate amount of glucose consumption in each part of the brain
            Drawbacks: radiation exposure, lengthy process, expensive
MRI: uses magnetic properties of atoms to take sharp pictures of the structure of the brain

fMRI: detects the amount of blood flow in different regions of the brain

               Advantages: non-invasive, quick, high spatial resolution
               Drawbacks: uncomfortable, brain is never off

Hindbrain: older, composed of the brainstem and cerebellum; responsible for life-sustaining, autonomic processes

Midbrain: mostly the thalamus; aids communication between the hindbrain and forebrain

Forebrain: limbic system and cerebrum; higher level mental faculties; personality, decision-making, planning

Brainstem and thalamus: structures at the base of the brain; facilitates communication between brain and spinal cord


            Medulla: spinal cord swells, connects with brain; controls heartbeat, breathing, swallowing
            Reticular formation: regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system activity
            Pons: controls sleep, coordination of motor movements, balance
Thalamus: brain’s sensory switchboard

Cerebellum: coordinates physical movement, posture, balance; integrates sensory info; contributes to estimating time
and paying attention

Limbic System: responsible for emotion and motivation

               Amygdala: anger and fear; lesioning in monkeys turned them into “unangerable” animals; stimulating in
                cats produced anger or fear
             Hypothalamus: regulates body’s temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, controls pituitary gland,
                hormone production; pleasure center
             Hippocampus: triggers processes that store memories; HM suffered epilepsy, hippocampus removed,
                unable to form new memories (anterograde amnesia)
Cerebral cortex: pinkish surface of the brain where most high-level mental processes take place

Cerebral hemispheres: control opposite sides of the body; separated by a deep fissure

Corpus callosum: connects the hemispheres; hemispheric specialization – left = analytical, language, reasoning; right =
insight, art awareness, imagination

Split-brain patients: corpus callosum severed to treat epilepsy; if object in right visual field, can name object; if object in
left visual field, can’t name object

Sulcus: crease in the brain

Gyrus: bulge between sulci in cerebral cortex

Cerebral cortex: neural cells covering cerebral hemispheres; highest level control center

Lobes of the brain: each responsible for different higher-level functions but all working together

                 Frontal lobe: makes us special; planning, memory search, reasoning, emotions
                      o Motor cortex: controls fine movements; organized by body part
               Parietal lobe: registers spatial location, attention, motor control, arithmetic
                      o Sensory cortex: registers sensation on the body; organized by body part
               Temporal lobe: processes sounds, commits info to memory, comprehends language
               Occipital lobe: vision
               Association areas: not directly involved in motor control or sensory processing; about 75% of the brain
Plasticity: brain’s ability to modify itself

           Blind: expanded sense of touch
           Dead: enhanced peripheral vision
Neuroprosthetics: develops artificial aids for impaired nervous systems; relies on plasticity to incorporate devices


   Language: right-handers – 95% process language in left hemisphere; left-handers – 50% left hemisphere,
    25% right, 25% evenly split
   Lefties: high achievers, more common among musicians, architects, artists
   Righties: society designed for righties, lefties more likely to experience allergies, migraines, reading

Written by: Brooke Conrardy and Rae Chiu

Table of Contents

Unit 4 Sensation and Perception


        *Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of a sensory stimulus needed to notice at least 50% of the     time
that the stimulus is there.

          *JND: the size of a difference in a stimulus property needed to notice that a change occurred.

          *Weber’s Law: size of a JND depends on overall magnitude of the stimulus.

Subliminal Sensation

          *Subliminal: below threshold. A sensation signal that is not register by the conscious awareness

          *Priming: the tendency for recently-used words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the
          interpretation of new information.

Signal Detection Theory: a theory explaining why people detect signals which are always embedded in noise in    some
situation but not others.

          People detect signal among noise when they expect the noise; it is important that the signal is detected ;
           stay alert. Experience matters too.
Sensory adaption: decreased sensitivity due to constant stimulation. Allows us to focus on changes in environment.

Transduction: transforming sensory input into neural impulse our bran can interpret.

Properties of light

Amplitude: the highest of the peak in a light wave

Wavelengths: the difference between peaks of high waves.

          Frequency: shorter wavelengths.

The Eye

Cornea: transparent covering of the eye

Pupil: small adjustable opening that allowed light to the centre of the eye.

          Iris: circular, coloured muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil.

Lens: transparent structure behind pupil that changes shapes to focus image on back of the eye.

          Cililary Muscles: controls curvature of lens to achieve focus.

Retina: light sensitive inner surface of the eye

          Rods: retina cells that detect black, white and gray. Necessary for peripheral vision

          Cones: retina cells that detect colours and fine details. Functions in daylight.

          Fovea: central part of the retina with highest density of cones.

Optical nerve: a bundle of nerve fibre that carry messages from retina to thalamus.


Schema: concept or framework that organises and interprets information.

          Deficit to one sense can result in increased sensitivity in another sense (plasticity)

Attention: the act of focusing on particular information.

Superior colliculus: brainstem structure beneath the thalamus. Activates by sudden changes in the   environment
that grab our attention. Temporal lobe also.


Sound wave received by ears transduced in to neural signals

Air molecules packed together can e made to vibrate against one another.

Sound wave created by a vibrating object.

Properties of Sound Waves

Amplitude: corresponds to volume.

          Larger amplitude= louder sound

          smaller amplitude= softer sounds

Wavelength: corresponds to pitch


          Sounds intensity is measured in decibels.

          Prolonged exposure above 65 decibels can cause hearing damage

The Ear

Tympanic membrane(eardrum): sound wave hits eardrum causes it to vibrate.

3 bones:

          Malleus, incus, stapes.

Basilar membrane: bones amplify sound and transmit to the basilar membrane, inside cochlear.

          Cilia: hair cells


Nerve deafness: occurs when the hair cells are destroyed.

        Tinnitus: constant ringing or noises in the ear

Conduction deafness: caused by physical impairment of the outer or middle ear.

Sensory interaction: one sense may influence another (e.g. flavour= taste +texture)

Selective attention: the process of picking out a particular quality, object, or event for relatively detailed analysis
Inattention blindness: failing to see visible when our attention is directed elsewhere
Gestalt psychology: focused on a tendency to group pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Visual cliff studies (Gibson & Walk, 1960): experiment devised using a miniature cliff with a glass covered drop-off. This
was used to determine if infants could perceive depth. When most infants refused to cross the visual cliff it was
concluded that they could indeed perceive depth.

Binocular cues: cues that must be perceived by both eyes working together to perceive depth
1. Convergence: the degree to which the eyes turn inward when looking at an object. The closer the object, the greater
the inward strain
2. Retinal disparity: the difference between images striking the retinas. More disparity = closer object.
Monocular cues:
1. Relative size: the larger the object, the closer we think it is
2. Interposition: objects that block the view of another are perceived as being closer
3. Relative clarity: hazy objects are perceived as being farther away than clear objects
4. Texture gradient: progressive changes in the texture of an object
5. Relative height: objects in field of vision appear farther away
6. Relative motion (motion parallax): as we move stationary objects sometimes seem to move too
7. Linear perspective: parallel lines appear to converge with distance
8. Light and shadow: nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes (dimmer objects seem further away)
Motion perception: we see motion that is actually there but our mind creates movement
- Phi phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when 2 or more lights blink on and off in quick succession
- Stethoscope movement: perception of movement in series of still images flashed in sequence
Perceptual constancy: perception of characteristics as unchanging even though the sensory information changes
1. Size constancy: seeing an object as being the same size when viewed at different distances
2. Shape constancy: seeing objects as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes
- size distance relationship is the explanation for Muller-Lyer illusion
Schema: concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Extrasensory Perception (ESP): the claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input.
- Telepathy: ability to perceive thoughts between people
- Clairvoyance: perceiving remote, far-away events
- Precognition: predicting the future

Written by: Alyssa Mort and Liz Herold
Table of Contents

Unit 4: Sensation and Perception
      Sensation- process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system create an awareness of the properties of
       an object/event in the environment.
      Perception-the act of organizing and interpreting sensory input
      Bottom-up processing- is initiated by stimulus input; begins with senses and works up to brains integration of
       sensory information.
      Top-down processing-guided my expectations and beliefs
      Absolute threshold- the smallest amt of a sensory stimulus needed to notice at least 50% of time that the
       stimulus is there.
      Just noticeable difference(JND)- the size of a difference in a stimulus property needed to notice that a change
       has occurred
      Weber’s law: size of JND depends on the overall magnitude of the stimulus; stimuli must differ by a constant
       minimum percentage, rather than a constant amt.
      Subliminal-below threshold
      Priming-the tendency for recently used words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation
       of a new info.-can affect not only perceptions but also our social behaviors-immediate, short term effect on
       simple judgments and actions
      Subliminal messages may have the potential to affect our short-term decisions, behaviors etc… but it may
       depend on motivation-not likely to have long-lasting effects
      Signal detection theory: ppl are quicker to detect a signal among noise when:
               -they expect it, its important that its detected or they are alert

     Sensory adaptation-decreased sensitivity due to constant stimulation
     Transduction-transforming sensory input(light/sound waves etc…) into neural impulses our brain can interpret
     Amplitude- the height of the peaks in a light wave-determines brightness so a larger amplitude =brighter colors
     Wavelength-the distance between peaks of a light wave –determines hue-shorter wavelength=higher
      frequency(the rate at which light waves move past a given pt.)

      Cornea-the transparent covering of the eye-protects the eye and bends light to provide focus
      Pupil-small adjustable opening that allows light to enter the eye
      Iris-circular colored muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil
      Lense-transparent structure behind pupil that changes shape to focus image on back of eye

            -ciliary muscles-control curvature of lens to achieve focus

   Retina-light sensitive inner surface of the eye. 2 Receptors in retina called…
            -rods-detect black, white, and gray. Necessary for peripheral and twilight          vision

            -cones-detect colors and fine detail, function in daylight and well light   conditions

            -rods and cones connected to ganglion cells and bipolar cells that transmit         visual info from light
receptors(rods and cones) to the brain

             -ganglion cells axons create the optic nerve: a bundle of nerve fibers that   carry messages from
the retina to the thalamus(no rods or cones where optic nerve leaves eye therefore there is a bind spot)

           -fovea-central part of the retina with highest density of cones and the      highest resolution(contains
almost no rods).point of clearest and most detailed vision

   Image projected upside down on retina once it passes through the lens
   Vision is constructed by brain rather than merely received.
   Feature detector neurons- nerve cells in visual cortex that respond to very specific features of a stimulus, such as
    shape, angle, and movement
   Parallel processing-processing several aspects of info simultaneously)visual sensory processing is parallel)
   Serial processing- processing of info step by step in a specific order
   Trichromatic theory of color vision-color vision = combinations of neural impulses from three different kinds of
    cones which respond to different wavelengths(long=red, medium=greenish yellow, short=blue)
   Opponent process theory of color vision-the presence of one color of a pair inhibits perception of the other
    color in the pair(red/green,yellow/blue, black/white)-creates after images
   Depth perception-the ability to see objects in 3D
   Binocular cues-both eyes working together-need to cross eyes to focus on something
             -retinal disparity-the difference between the images striking the retinas(more disparity=closer object)

   Monocular cues-one eye alone
          -relative size-the larger an object appears the closer we think it is

            - interposition- objects that block the view of another are perceived as being closer

            -relative clarity-hazy objects are perceived as being further away than     clear objects

            -texture gradient- progressive changes in the texture of an object(objects          further away appear
closer together and smaller)

            -relative height-objects higher in field of vision appear farther away

           -relative motion-as we move stationary objects seem to move too(if closer            than fixation pt appears
to go backwards, if farther than forwards)

            -linear perspective-parallel lines seem to converge with distance

            -light and shadow-nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes(dimmer objects seem farther away)

   Phi phenomenon-an illusion of movement created when 2 or more lights blink on and off in quick succession
   Stroboscopic movement- perception of movement in series of still images flashed quickly in sequence(movies)

   Perceptual constancy-perception of characteristics of objects remains the same even though the sensory info
 Size constancy-seeing an object as being the same size when viewed at different sizes
 Shape constancy- seeing objects as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes
 Cataract-cloudiness in the eyes that allows the eye to see only diffused and foggy light(in children leads to
    different methods of face recognition)
 Critical period-optimal period shortly after birth when exposure to certain stimuli /experiences leads to proper
 Schema-concept or framework that organizes and interprets info
 Selective attention- the process of picking out a particular quality, object, or event for detailed analysis(we
    attend to things when they grab our attention or when we purposely search for then
 Pop-out-occurs when a stimulus is sufficiently different from the ones around it, that is immediately evident
 Superior colliculus-activated by sudden changes in our environment that grab our attention, automatic reflexive
    redirection of attention
 Change blindness- failure to detect large changes in a visual scene
 Hearing-sound waves received by ears transduced into neural signals, air molecules packed together can be
    made to vibrate against one another
 Hearing sound waves-amplitude correlates to volume(larger amplitude=louder) and wavelength correlates to
    pitch(longer wavelength=lower pitch)
 Exposure to sound over 85 decibels can cause damage
The Ear

   Pinna-visble ear-funnel for sound waves
   Sound waves enter the ear and strike the eardrum(tympanic membrane) which move three tiny bones in the
   Bones amplify sound and transmit it to the basilar membrane-inside the cochlea-lined with cilia(hair cells) which
    trigger neural impulses
   Cocktail party phenomenon- the effect of not being aware of the content of other peoples conversations until
    your name is mentioned, the suddenly hearing it.
   Nerve deafness-when hair cells are destroyed by loud sounds
   Conduction deafness-caused by physical impairment of the outer middle ear
   Sense and taste are chemical senses
   Sensory interaction- the principle that one sense may influence another
   Smell-odor molecules sensed by about 5 million receptor fibers on the roof of each nasal cavity
   Biological explanation for smell and memory link is that the neural tracts that deliver smell info go through
    thalamus to hippocampus(memory) and another through limbic system(emotion)

   Pheremones-chemical substance produced y the body that serve as a means of interpersonal communication
   Congenital analgesia- where a person is unable to feel physical pain
   Gate control theory of pain…combination of signals in 3 types of nerve fibers:
       - long-conduct mostly sensory info but not pain
       - two types of short fibers which conduct pain signals
           *fast, myelinated neurons-sudden intense pain

            *slower, unmyelinated neurons-soreness and chronic pain

        -long nerve fibers can interfere with short nerve fiber functioning potentially inhibiting pain

   Kinesthetic sense-registers the movement and position to the body(tendons triggered by tension, and muscles
    triggered by length of muscle)
   Vestibular Sense-provides info about he body orientation relative to gravity-relies on semi-circular canals in the
    inner ear that are filled with fluid an cilia
   Magnetic Sense-navigate using earths magnetic field
   ESP- perception that occurs without sensory input
   Synesthesia-stimulation in one sensory pathway leads to automatic experiences in a second sensory pathway
    -grapheme-letters or numbers associated with colors

    -music-tones or songs associated with color

    -lexical-glustatory –individual words and sounds associated with tastes

    -Number-form-numbers, days of week etc… occupy positions in space

    -Ordinal-Linguistic-sequences associated with personality traits

Written by: Andy Hayt and Thomas Logan

Table of Contents

                                         Unit 4

                                    SENSATION ≠ PERCEPTION

Sensation—the process by which you detect physical energy from you environment and encode it as neural signals

Psychophysics—the study of the relationship between physical energy and psychological experiences

Stimulus—a change in the environment that can be detected by sensory receptors

Absolute threshold—the weakest level of a stimulus that can be correctly detected at least half of the time

Signal detection theory—the minimum threshold varies from one person to another based on attention or
environmental factors; there is no uniform absolute threshold

Difference threshold—minimum difference between any two simuli that a person can detect ½ of the time

Just noticeable difference (JND)—experience of the difference threshold

Weber’s Law—difference thresholds increase in proportion to the size of the stimulus; in other words, it’s easy to tell if
you add a single rock to a pile of 3 rocks as opposed to one rock to 1,000

Subliminal stimulation—receiving messages below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness

Transduction—transformation of stimulus energy to the electrochemical energy of neural impulses

Perception—the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensations, enabling you to recognize meaningful
objects and events


Cornea—transparent, curved layer in front of the eye

Iris—colored muscle surrounding the pupil and regulates the pupil’s intake of light

Lens—structure behind the pupil that changes shape in order to focus. It relays light to the retina

Accommodation—process of changing the curvature of the lens to focus light rays on the retina

Retina—light sensitive surface in the back of the eye, has rods and cones to detect shades and colors as well as bipolar
and ganglion cells

Fovea—small area of the retina where cones are most concentrated

Photoreceptors—modified neurons such as rods and cones used to convert light energy into neural impulses

Rods—detect black white and gray shades as well as movement, often used in dull light

Cones—detect color and fine detail in daylight

Optic nerve—formed by ganglion cells and carries the neural impulses from the eye to the thalamus

Acuity—the ability to detect fine details

Normal vision—rays of light form a clear image on the retina of the eye

Nearsighted—too much curvature of cornea/lens so near objects are easier to see than far

Farsighted—too little curvature, far things are easier to see

Dark adaptation—increased visual sensitivity that develops as it gets darker

Bipolar cells—second layer of neurons in retina that transmit impulses from cones to ganglion cells

Ganglion cells—layer of neurons whose axons come together and form the optic nerve

Blind spot—region of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye so there are no receptor cells

Feature detectors—individual neurons in the occipital lobes that respond to specific stimulus

Inversion of Images- Image projected upside down on the retina once if passes through the lens. Vision is constructed be
the brain, rather than just received.

Parallel processing—simulataneously processing different elements of sensor information like brightness and texture

Trichromatic theory—proposes that three types of cones are sensitive to lights of different wavelengths

Opponent process theory—opposing processes for

Sensory adaptation—temporary decrease in sensitivity to s stimulus when stimulation is unchanging

                Example: eventually tuning out the sound of a neighbor’s dog constantly barking

Attention—choosing among various stimuli to be further processed

Motion Perception – detected by occipital lobe

       -Phi Phenomenon- Allusion of movement caused by blinking of lights in quick succession

       -Stroboscopic movement- Perception of movement caused by pictures flashed in quick succession


Audition—the sense of hearing

               Amplitude: determines volume

Frequency—number of wavelengths through a given point, inversely proportional to wavelength, either determines the
pitch of a sound

Pitch—highness/lowness of a sound, short wavelength is high pitch, long is low

Timbre—quality of a sound determined by the purity of a waveform (why notes of the same pitch sound different on
different instruments)

Sound localization—the ability to determine the location of a sound

Three ear bones—incus, malleus, stapes

Cochlea—snail shaped fluid filled inner tube of the ear which has small hairs on the basilar membrane which transducer
the sound waves to electric impulses

Auditory nerve—axons of neurons in the cochlea converge and relay the sound messages to the brain

Place theory—the position of the basilar membrane at which waves reach their peak depends on the frequency of a

Frequency theory—rate that neural impulses travel matches the frequency of a tone (how we sense pitch)

Conduction deafness—loss of hearing due to a punctured eardrum

Nerve deafness—loss of hearing due to damage to the cochlea or hair cells or auditory neurons (sometimes solved by a
cochlear implant)

                                                      Other Senses

Somatosensation—sense of touch, pressure, warmth cold, pain

Gate-control theory—pain is experienced only if they pass through a gate in the spinal cord on the way to the brain

        -   Long nerve fibers conduct sensory information, but not pain
        -   Short nerve fibers conduct pain

Kinesthesis—body sense that provides info about the position and movement of other parts of the body

Vestibular sense—equilibrium and balance sense

Gustation—chemical sense of taste in which molecules bind to receptors on the tongue and such

        Tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami (glutamate)

                        -   umami is present in MSG and is described as a “savory” or “meaty” flavor

Olfaction—chemical sense of smell, works like taste in the way the molecules bind to receptors

Magnetic Sense- Animals’ innate use of earth’s magnetic field to navagate.

                                                  Perceptual processes

Selective attention—focused awareness of only a limited aspect of all possible stimuli

Bottom-up processing—begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory info to
construct perceptions; basically, data driven

Top-down processing—info processing guided by your preexisting knowledge or expectations to construct perceptions;
basically, concept driven

Perceptual constancy—perceiving an object as unchanging even when the immediate sensation of the object changes

Change Blindness- Failure to detect changes in a visual scene due to the presence of bottom up processing.

Visual capture—visual sense dominates when there is a conflict between senses

Depth Perception- ability to see objects in three dimensions, at least partially innate.

Monocular cues—distance clues based on the image from one eye

        Overlap, relative size, relative clarity, texture gradient, relative height, linear perspective, relative brightness,
        motion parallax, accommodation

Binocular clues—using 2 eyes: retinal disparity and convergence

Optical illusions—difference between perceived and reality

                Visual cliff—tests depth perception in babies

Schemas—like file folders in computers that are frameworks for organizing and interpreting information

ESP (extrasensory perception)—like mind reading, the claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input

Parapsychology—study of paranormal events that investigates ESP like telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, telekinesis
and psychokinesis

Cocktail Party Phenomenon- Effect of not being aware of other people’s conversations until something self- relevant is
heard. Bottom up processing.

Pheromones- chemical substances produced by the body that serve as a means of interpersonal communication.

Synesthesia- Stimulation of one sensory pathway leads to automatic experiences in a second sensory pathway.
Essentially a mix up of sensation and perception.

        -Grapheme- colour synesthesia: Letters/numbers associated with coulours

        -Music- Colour: Specific tones associated with colours

        - Lexical-gustatory synesthesia: Words/ sounds experience specific tastes

Written by: April McCormick and Lorelyne Miravite

Table of Contents

                                                      Unit 5: States of Consciousness

-The difficulty of studying consciousness turned psychologists to study behaviorism until 1960 when more advantages in
neuroscience were made.

-“Consciousness brings varied information to the surface, enabling us to reflect and plan.” (Myers)

-Types of Biological Rhythms                                                                                          Annual cycles-
when geese migrate, grizzly bears hibernate, and when humans have a change in appetite, sleep, and mood when the season
changes. (seasonal affective disorder)                                                  Ninety-minute cycles- the 5 stages of sleep
comes in 90 minute cycles for humans but for smaller animals it’s shorter (rats 9 mins) for big animals, longer (elephants 100 or
more mins).

-The Circadian rhythm is sensitive to external cues of dark and light but also to cultural cues to time. Without these cues people end
up living a 24.9 hour day.

- Disruptions to the circadian rhythm like jet lag cause fatigue, irritability, loss of appetite, disorientation, nausea.

-Stages of Sleep

Stage 1: Lasts for 5 minutes, the transition form wakefulness to sleep. When Alpha waves occur. Can be easily awakened during this

Stage 2: Lasts for 20 minutes, marked by sleep spindles and K-complexes. Relatively easily awakened.

Stage 3 and 4: When Delta waves occur, lowest points of heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and body temperature.

Rapid Eye Movement (REM): After stages 1-4 it reverses backwards and instead of going to stage one you enter REM. Brain activity
like stage 1, irregular rapid breathing and heart rate and quick bursts of eye movements. Most likely to remember dreams during
this stage.

Stages 3-4 get shorter as night progresses and REM gets longer (20-25% of nights sleep)

-Restorative Theory- the theory of sleep that states that we sleep in order to replenish the processes of our minds and bodies that
are depleted during the course of everyday life.

-"Second Wind Phenomenon," the fact that people’s sleepiness disappears when they have not slept counters the restorative

-The Evolutionary Theory- suggests that sleep and inactivity at night have survival value

-Cognitive Theory- helps consolidate memories

-Freud’s Dream Theory is that dreams are used to express the unconscious that is unacceptable in the real world. The manifest
content in a dream is the symbol for the latent content.

-Activation synthesis: dreams are a product of random bursts of neural activity.

-Parasomnias are more common in children than adults, positively correlated with stress anxiety.

-Sleep Disorders (definitions in Vocab area)
Insomnia, Narcolepsy, Sleep Apnea, Night Terrors

-Fraz Mesmer proposed animal magnetism to cure physical ailment.

-Trance Theory- a person experiences a true altered state.

-Sociocognitive Theory- a person expects hypnosis to work and enacts the role of a hypnotized person.

-Uses for Hypnosis

        Reduce anxiety, fears, decrease compulsive habits, treat medical conditions (asthma), reduce pain and stress.

-Near Death Experience is usually experienced after a person has been declared clinically dead.

        Siegel (1980)- NDE’s are hallucinatory activity of the brain.

- Sleep: naturally recurrent experience during which normal consciousness is suspended; essential to survival
- Circadian rhythm: the biological clock, regular bodily rhythms that occur within a roughly 24 hour cycle
- Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): light sensitive portion of the hypothalamus that receives info about time of day, seasons from light
receptors in eyes via the optic nerve
- Pineal gland: endocrine gland that secretes the hormone melatonin
- Melatonin: hormone that makes us sleepy; “hormone of darkness”
- Jet lag: disruption of the circadian rhythm as a result of rapid travel between time zones
- Alpha-waves: relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state; become less regular, lower amplitude (stage 1 of sleep)
- Hypnic jerk: violent, sudden bodily jerk during stage 1 sleep
- Sleep spindles: brief bursts of rapid rhythmic brain activity (stage 2 of sleep)
- K-complexes: single high- amplitude waves (stage 2 of sleep)
- Delta-waves: slow high high-amplitude waves associated with deep sleep (stages 3 and 4 of sleep)
- REM dreams: emotional, story-like, rich, vivid dreams
- Manifest content: the obvious, memorable content of a dream
- Latent content: the symbolic content and meaning of a dream
- Parasomnias: sleep disorders involving transitions of sleep
- Sleepwalking (somnambulism): moving around in your sleep
- Sleep talking (somniloquy): talking out loud during sleep
- Insomnia: repeated difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early
- Narcolepsy: uncontrollable overwhelming sleep attacks that last 5-20 minutes
- Hypocretin: a neurotransmitter that keeps us awake
- Sleep apnea: person temporarily stops breathing during sleep
- Night terrors: vivid and extremely frightening experience while sleeping
- Hypnotic induction: process of obtaining a hypnotic state
- Absorption: the capacity to concentrate totally on material outside oneself
- Dissociation- a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
- Psychoactive drugs: chemicals that alter perceptions and/or moods
- Substance abuse: pattern of use that leads to distress or difficulty functioning in major areas of life
- Tolerance: the condition of requiring more and more of a substance to achieve the same effect
- Withdrawal: discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing use of an addictive drug
- Depressants: class of substances that reduce central nervous system activity; slow bodily functions and awareness
- Stimulants- stimulate the central nervous system and speed up bodily functions

- Barbiturates- tranquilizers
- Opiates- opium and its derivatives (morphine, codeine, heroine)
- MDMA- ecstasy- leads to emotional elevation
- Hallucinogen: distort perception and can evoke sensory images
- Cannabanoids- neurotransmitters involved in appetite regulation, memory, and pain                                              -
Near Death Experience- altered state of consciousness sometimes reported aftera close brush with death.
- Franz Mesmer:
o Patients drank solution with trace amount of iron. Magnets (and later just his hands) were waved over portions of the body as a
mode of pain relief
o “artificial tide” running through body
- Kosslyn et al. 2000:
o Highly hypnotizable people see a picture in color when instructed to, even if the picture is in black and white
o PET scans: area of the brain for color vision (de)activates with suggestion
o Outside of our conscious control; suggests that hypnosis is indeed real (altered state of consciousness)
- Mehl (1994):
o 100 pregnant women with babies in feet-first position (about to give birth)
o IV: women- hypnotized/ not hypnotized
Hypnotized: relax and let nature take its course
o DV: % of babies that re-oriented to head-first position
o Not hypnotized: 48%
o Hypnotized: 81%
- Kinseher (2006):
o Experience of impending death is a completely novel one for the mind
Brain scans memory bank for comparable information (“seeing life flash before your eyes”)
Out of body experience created by mind, like dreams (unusual synthesis of sensory input and top-down processing)

Written by: Dari Zwart and Chathu Wijeratne

Table of Contents

Unit 5 States of Consciousness

Modern definition of consciousness: a person’s awareness of his/her own existence, sensations, cognitions, and

Consciousness is not merely perception

Consciousness of action lags slightly behind the brain that evokes it

Sleep: a naturally recurrent experience during which normal consciousness is suspended

Rhythms of sleep determined by circadian rhythm: the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur within a
(roughly) 24 hour cycle (cycles in blood pressure, body temperature, metabolism, etc.), regulation ebbs and flows in
daily rhythm

Circadian rhythm regulated by suprachiasmatic nucleus: light sensitive portion of the hypothalamus that receives
information about time of day/seasons from light receptors in eyes

Our 24 hour schedule, dictated by daily rotation of Earth, is not natural but maintained by exposure to light-dark cycles
and artificial cues like clocks and radios; people deprived of such cues live 24.9 hour day

Disruption of circadian rhythm as a result of rapid travel between time zones: jet lag; more disruptive going west to east
because you lose an hour and shorten 24 hour cycle

Stages of Sleep

        After about 1 hour of sleep (stages 1-4) you reverse the cycle and move backwards through stages 3 and 2—
instead of cycling all the way to stage 1, you enter REM sleep

        Stages 3-4 get shorter, disappear; REM longer

Stage 1 lasts 5 minutes, transition from wakefulness to sleep

        Alpha waves: slow brain waves of relaxed, awake state

Stage 2 lasts 20 minutes

        Sleep spindles: brief bursts of rapid brain activity

        K-complexes: single high amplitude waves

Stages 3 & 4 last 30 minutes

         Delta waves: slow, high amplitude; associated with deep sleep

         Decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep

         Brain activity similar to stage 1

         Rapid, irregular breathing and heart rate, quick burst of eye movement behind closed lids

         Dreams you’ll remember: REM dreams, emotional, story like, vivid

Why do we sleep?

         Sleep deprivation: cognitive, emotional, and physical difficulties; increased impatience

         Restorative theory: help body recover after wear and tear of day’s events

         Evolutionary theory: poor night vision makes people susceptible to danger, so sleep keeps us out of trouble

         Cognitive theory: consolidates memories


Dream: sequence of images, emotions, thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind

According to Freud, dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious”

         Manifest content: obvious, memorable content of dreams

         Latent content: symbolic content and meaning of dreams

Activation-synthesis theory: dreams are a product of random bursts of neural activity

Dreams may help consolidate memories

Parasomnias: sleep disorders involving transitions in and out of sleep, or between sleep stages

         Sleepwalking: moving around, sometimes performing other actions, as of awake even though the person is

         Sleep talking: talking out loud during sleep

Sleep Disorders

Insomnia: repeated difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early

       Medication: sedatives that depress central nervous system activity; sleeping pills can be problematic as they
suppress REM sleep, are addictive, and toleration develops

        Treatment without medication: stimulus control: create associations between bed and sleep by using bed for
sleep only; restrict sleeping hours to same schedule every night

Narcolepsy: uncontrollable overwhelming sleep attacks, slip into REM within minutes; possibly due to lack of
neurotransmitter hypocretin that keeps us alert

Sleep apnea: person temporarily stops breathing during sleep, loud snoring; due to airway muscles relaxing and
narrowing passage to lungs; person typically doesn’t remember but decreased oxygen in blood wakes sleeper up to 400
times per night

        CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine: directs stream of air down airway via mask; keeps airway
open, allows unrestricted breathing

Night terrors: vivid and extremely frightening experiences while sleeping

   Hypnosis
       o Inducing a state of mind characterized by:
                Increased focused awareness of vivid, imagined experiences
                Increased suggestibility
                Decreased awareness of external environment
       o Hypnosis induction: process of attaining a hypnotic state
       o Is hypnosis “real”?
                Trance theory: a hypnotized person experiences a true altered state of consciousness and is
                   susceptible to suggestions
                Sociocognitive theory: a hypnotized person expects hypnosis to work and thus enacts the role of a
                   hypnotized person
                Some people more hypnotizable than others
                Moderately correlated with absorption: the capacity to concentrate totally on material outside
       o Applications
                Behavioral, medical uses
                        Reduce anxiety, fear
                        Decrease compulsive habits
                        Treat medical conditions
                        Reduce pain and stress
                Hypnotized person experiences plain stimulus, but not pain
                        May work due to dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows thoughts and behaviors
                           to occur simultaneously with others
   Drugs and Consciousness
       o Psychoactive drugs: chemicals that alter perceptions and/or moods
       o Substance abuse: pattern on use that leads to distress or difficulty functioning in major areas of life, can lead
                Addiction: compulsive drug craving and use, physical and/or psychological dependence
                Tolerance: the condition of requiring more and more of a substance to achieve the same effect

                Withdrawal: discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
       o   3 classes of psychoactive drugs
                Depressants: class of substance that reduce central nervous system activity, slows bodily functions
                   and awareness
                          Alcohol: causes reduce in inhibitory conflict which is a behavior that is both strongly
                            instigated and inhibited
                          Barbituates (tranquilizers): drugs that mimic the effects of alcohol by depressing nervous
                            system activity, cause sedation and drowsiness, often used as sleep aids and anti-anxiety
                            medication, can be lethal alone or especially in combination with alcohol
                          Opiates: opium and its derivatives, can alleviate physical pain and anxiety but highly
                            addictive, activate dopamine-based reward pathway and mimics endorphins
                Stimulants: class of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system and speed up bodily functions,
                   increase heart rate and breathing, cause pupil dilation, and increase energy
                          Cocaine: leads to 15-30 minute euphoric rush, depletes supply of dopamine, serotonin, and
                            norepinephrine, results in a depressive crash after drugs wears off
                          MDMA (ecstasy): leads to emotional elevation and feelings of social connectedness, triggers
                            release of dopamine and serotonin
                Hallucinogens: class of drugs that distort perceptions and can evoke sensory images (hallucinations),
                   can lead to distortions in perception
                          Marijuana: main ingredient is THC
                                 o THC similar to cannabanoids: neurotransmitter involved in appetite regulation,
                                     memory, and pain
   Near-Death Experiences: altered states of consciousness sometimes reported after a close brush with death
       o Usually experienced after person has been declared clinically dead, sometimes interpreted as a window to
           the afterlife
       o Typical progression of NDEs: unpleasant/uncomfortable sound, experiences of pleasant emotions, out-of-
           body experience, moving toward bright light through long tunnel, meeting the dead/religious figures,
           encountering a “being of light” (life review), reunified with body
       o Description of NDEs similar to hallucinogenic experiences and to those suffering temporal lobe seizures

Written by: Julie Fagg and Zach Wojtowicz

Table of Contents

Unit 5

Consciousness: the awareness of one’s own experiences, sensations, cognitions, and environment.

Circadian rhythm: An approximately 23 hour cycle that steers our appetite, sleep schedule, mood, etc…

Sleep Stages

Stage 1: Approximately five minutes long. The transition into sleep from consciousness. During this stage some may
experience flashing lights, geometric patterns, etc. People in this state may report not ever having been asleep if woken.

Stage 2: Approximately twenty minutes long. This stage is marked by the appearance of “sleep spindles”, or brief bursts
of neural activity. Stage two also has “K complexes” which are single high amplitude waves.

Stage 3 & 4: Stage 3 begins with the appearance of delta waves – long slow waves. Approximately 20-50% of the
brainwaves are delta waves in Stage 3. Stage 4 begins when over 50% of the waves are delta waves. These stages
include lower heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and digestion.

REM (rapid eye movement): first REM cycle is 10 mins, and they get longer each time. Sporadic increases in breathing,
heart rate. When one wakes up during REM sleep they are much more likely to remember their dreams. The occipital/
temporal lobe are most active. In a night’s sleep, 20/25% is spent in REM.

An individual begins in stage one and moves sequentially through to stage fives. Then they go back through the stages in
reverse, except that REM replaces stage 1.

Sleep Deprivation

After 2 nights response time to visual quest decreases.

After 3 nights cognitive, emotional, and physical problems arise.

Anything less than 6 hours will result in increase impatience, decreased satisfaction with life.

 Sleep helps the body bounce back from physical damage, keeps people out of trouble (evolutionarily), and allows for
cognitive cementation.


Freud says that dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious”

      Manifest content: explicit, obvious, memorable content from dreams

        Latent content: symbolic/ implicit significance of a dream

Activation-synthesis theory: dreams are a product of random bursts of neural activity.

Memory consolidation: dreams are possibly the way that our brain changes memories from the short term into long
term. Increased exercise of neural pathways strengthens them.


Parasomnia: disorder involving transitioning between sleeping/waking

Sleepwalking: occurs during slow wave sleep, not likely that people are acting out dreams, positively correlated with
stress, no memories.

Somniloquy: sleep talking, usually happens during the transitions between non-REM sleep stages.

 Insomnia: difficulty in falling asleep, waking up too quickly. Can be treated with sedatives for the nervous system or by
keeping a sleep schedule or through stimulus control (conditioning)

Narcolepsy: uncontrollable sleep attacks. Atypical sleep stages can go directly into REM w/in ten minuets. Possibly
caused by a deficiency in hypocretin, which is an alertness hormone.

 Sleep Apnea: occurs when a person repeatedly stops breathing. This causes their brain to awaken them as a reaction to
oxygen deprivation. They usually don’t remember these episodes (hundreds a night sometimes) because they are so
short. Treated by a CPAP machine

 Night terrors: Vivid/ frightening experiences in the night. Often times focused on an object in the room. Common in
children, fades in frequency with age. Correlated with stress and anxiety

Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that a certain
perception, feeling, thought, or behavior will spontaneously occur.

Which people are more likely to experience/be able to be hypnotized? People with high hypnotic ability (ability to
become completely imaginatively absorbed in something)

Posthypnotic suggestions are suggestions made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no
longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

        These have been known to help people therapeutically with things such as headaches, asthma, and stress-
related skin disorders…however could be placebo or just effect of relaxing.

Dissociation is a split between different levels of consciousness

       Some psychologists suggest that hypnosis dissociates sensation of pain from emotional suffering that defines
our experience of pain…therefore, hypnosis can relieve pain.

Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that change perceptions and moods. People become addicted to many different drugs
and build up a higher tolerance to the drug as well as experiencing physical and psychological dependence so that when
they try to quit they experience withdrawal.

Some classes of drugs:

Depressants: alcohol, barbiturates (tranquilizers), and opiates that calm neural activity and slow body functions

Stimulants: caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, and meth that excite neural activity and arouse body

Hallucinogens: marijuana (THC) and LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in absence of sensory input
(they make you hallucinate ;))

Influences on drug use:

Biological: genetic tendencies, dopamine reward circuit

Psychological: lacking sense of purpose, significant stress, psychological disorders (i.e. depression)

Social-cultural: urban environment, belonging to a drug-using cultural group, peer pressure

Near-death experiences are an altered state of consciousness that is often reported after a close brush with death

        They are often characterized by replays of old memories, out-of-body sensations, and visions of tunnels or
funnels and bright lights or beings of light, all things that can be quite similar to the use of hallucinogenic drugs.

Things that come up when people are talking about near-death experiences:

Is the mind immaterial? Can it exist separate from the body?

Dualists: believe that the mind and body are 2 distinct entities that interact

Monists: believe that the mind and body are different aspects of the same thing

Written by: Sydney Warner

Table of Contents

                                                   UNIT 6: LEARNING

Learning: a relatively permanent change in thought/behavior that results from experience.

We learn largely by association: mentally pairing events together when they occur together

Conditioning Is the process of learning associations between events. Two types of conditioning are Classical conditioning
(Pairing 2 stimuli out in the world) and Operant conditioning (Pairing a behavior and its consequence)


Remember Pavlov’s Dogs. I van Pavlov noticed that dogs salivated when they ate and also- after repeated feedings- at
the sight of the food dish, the person who brought the food etc.


Unconditioned =Never learned or automatic

Unconditioned Stimulus (US)=a stimulus that automatically elicits a response, like food

Unconditioned Response (UR)=automatic response to US, like salivation

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)=originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through association with
US, like a bell being paired with food

Conditioned Response (CR)=learned response to previously neutral, but now conditioned, stimulus, Like salivating at the
ring of a bell


Forward Conditioning- procedure in which the CS (Tone) begins before the US (Food) is presented             (Both work
well, trace effective if there is a very short time interval between CS and US; .5 sec)

        Delayed Conditioning-CS occurs both before and during US

        Trace Conditioning- CS ends before US begins

Non-Forward Conditioning- Much less effective than Forward, the CS holds no predictive value

        Backward Conditioning- US (food) is presented before the CS (tone)

        Simultaneous Conditioning- US and CS are presented at the same time

Extinction- The process which a CR (salivation) is eliminated through repeated presentations of the CS (tone) without the
US (tone). The CS is no longer predictive of US. Extinction is not forgetting, but rather layering learning on top of old.
Spontaneous Recovery- the reappearance of an extinguished CR. Response not as strong as during initial acquisition but
happens immediately after CR is paired with US.

Stimulus Generalization- different tones would still elicit the same response (Salivation). Very adaptive.

Stimulus Discrimination- Ability to distinguish among similar stimuli and respond only to actual CS


To Pavlov, psychology = product of learned associations. This inspired John B. Watson, founder of Behaviorism

Attitude- An overall evaluation of an object ranging from positive to negative. (Can be the result of association)

Conditioned Emotional Response- An emotional response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus. This can lead to
Phobias- Irrational persistent fear of a specific object or situation.

LITTLE ALBERT- Case of conditioning Fear.

Loud Noise (US) White Rat (CS) Crying (UR) Crying when that white rat was near (CR).

He eventually generalized his fear to other furry white objects. Reconditioning never occurred =(

Biological Preparedness- Any natural response can be conditioned to any natural stimulus, but NOT with equal
effectiveness. There is a built in readiness for certain CS to elicit certain CR. It is easier to fear heights or snakes than it is
to fear a flower or fluffy white clouds. Taste Aversion is a classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food or taste that
makes a person sick. Typically occurs after a single CR-US pairing. (This has been used to try to treat alcoholism using


-A type of learning in which a specific behavior becomes associated with its consequence

B. F. Skinner- Most influential (and controversial) psychologist of the behaviorist movement. Developed principles
behind operant conditioning through use of the Skinner Box.

Shaping- the gradual process of reinforcing an organism for behavior that gets closer and closer to the desired behavior
(Successive approximations)

Reinforcer- Object or event that comes after behavior that increases the likelihood of engaging that behavior again.
Positive reinforcement means you add something. Negative Reinforcement means you take something away. Example:
Positive- “Good Job Billy” (Giving attention). Negative- “Do your chores and I’ll stop electrically shocking you.” The more
immediate the reinforcement, the higher probability of retaining that learned behavior.

Generalization, discrimination, extinction and spontaneous recovery are also relevant to operant conditioning as well as
classical conditioning.


Skinnerian experiments used continuous reinforcement-Reinforcing the desired behavior every time it occurs, like a
Vending machine. Continuous leads to faster learning, but partial reinforcement-reinforcement given intermittently, like
a Slot machine, is more resistant to extinction and happens more often in real life.

4 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement

        Interval Schedules- reinforcement given after a certain period of time                              Ratio
        Schedules- Reinforcement given after a specific number of desired behaviors.

        Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)- Reinforcement given for the behavior after a certain interval of time      A pellet
        becomes available every 10 minutes. For the first couple of minutes, the rats don’t do anything, but as the 10
        minute mark grows closer they start pushing the lever more and more.

        Variable Interval Schedule (VI)- Reinforcement given for desired response after a changing interval of time.
        FI=Lazy. VI creates a slow but steady response pattern. The rats don’t know when the next pellet is available so
        they continually press the lever. Like Pop Quizzes.

        Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)- Reinforcement after a set number of responses. A rat could receive a pellet after
        every 10th response, whether that takes 4 seconds or 4 days.

        Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)-Reinforcement after a variable number of responses. Slot Machine.


Positive- When the behavior leads to the introduction of an undesired consequence
Negative- Removal of a pleasant event or circumstance following a behavior.

Must be swift, consistent and sufficiently aversive without being SO aversive that it causes fear etc.
Problem- Teaches what NOT to do, rather than what to do


Latent Learning- Learning that is not immediately acted on, but stored for later.

Insight Learning- When an organism suddenly grasps the meaning of something and incorporates that new knowledge
into old knowledge. The “Aha!” moment.

Social learning Theory (Observational)- Learning occurs in a social context and is as much a product of watching others
as it is of making associations. Modeling- The process of observing and initiating a specific behavior. Bobo Doll-part of
understanding how to behave comes from watching others

Mirror Neurons- Neurons that fire when performing certain actions, or when observing someone else engaging in those
actions. Many possible functions. Understanding another’s intentions, Theory of mind- ability to infer someone else’s
mental state, Empathy, Language development.

Written by: Bekah Starks and Samiul Ahad

Table of Contents

Unit 6: Learning

    1. Learning: A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience, the book says. Basically,
       adapting once you go through an experience.

    2. How do we learn??

            a. Associative learning: linking two things those happen relatively close in time. Like when you listen to a
               CD and towards the end of one track you anticipate the beginning of the next one.

I. Classical Conditioning- THINK PAVLOV’S DOGS!

        A. Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1)should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviors (wow)
        without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree 1 and not 2.

        B. Classical conditioning: Pairing together two stimuli in the outside world

            1. Pavlov’s Experiments

                    a. Unconditioned response (UR): the unlearned response to a stimulus

                    b. Unconditioned stimulus (US): the thing that triggers the UR

                    c. Conditioned stimulus (CS): this is what is going to be trained, at first it is meaningless…but then it’s

                    d. Conditioned Response (CR): The response (no duh) to the CS once it is paired with the UR

                    e. But none of this makes sense so look at it this way……

                         i. The food(US), triggers the UR which is drooool. So, Pavlov rings a bell every time the dogs are
                      presented with food (actually it’s a little before). The smart dog soon learns that when the bell
                      rings (CS) that means he’s about to get some food. So then he drooools(CR) cause he wants food.
                      So the food means drool the bell means food therefore the bell means drool. GET IT? GOT IT?

            2. Acquisition

                    a. The initial learning process dependent on proximity in time between two stimuli

            3. Extinction

                    a. When the CS no longer signals the US; the paring of the two stimuli is weakened.

                         i. The bell doesn’t mean food so they don’t drooool when they hear the bell

            4. Spontaneous recovery!

                    a. The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response= the CS again signals the
                       US after it had stopped

                               i.   Relearning the pairing of the CS and US is faster but also weaker

                               j.   The dog once again drool when they hear the bell but not as much drool

            5. Generalization

                    a. The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for similar stimuli to the CS elicit similar

                               i.   Dogs don’t just drool at the bell, but other things that are bell like

            6. Discrimination

                    a. The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not sign an
                       unconditioned stimulus.

                               1. Ability to distinguish between a lion and a cat is very important for survival

C. Some More Fun Stuff

        1. Cognitive Process

                a. Classical conditioning is not forced behavior; it is anticipation for an event. If lightning is always
followed by thunder, but rain is sometimes followed by thunder, lightning is the better predictor and becomes the
better suited unconditioned stimulus.

                 b. Biological predisposition

                         i. Species are better prepared to be conditioned based on their ancestors. For example, humans
                      are scared of heights because biologically we are not fit to be in high places. However, birds would
                      be rather screwed if they were just as afraid of heights.

                        j. Taste aversion- a type of conditioning that happens especially quickly in humans. After you
                 eat something rotten that makes you sick, you start pairing the smell or sight of the food with nausea,
                 not necessarily the fact that it was rotten.

II. Operant Conditioning

       A. Operant Conditioning: A type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened if it is rewarded, or diminished if
the behavior is punished.

        B. Respondent behavior: this is classical conditioning, a response to an automatic thing that happens in the
exterior world.

       C. Operant behavior: this is operant conditioning, it is a behavior done on the environment that produces
rewards or punishments.

        D. Skinner’s Experiments

                1. Law of effect: When you reward a behavior that behavior is done more often, and vice-versa.

               2. Operant Chamber: AKA Skinner box. Skinner developed this for rats, and he would either reward
them with food or zap them if they pressed a lever

                  3. Shaping: the method used to do operant conditioning. Gradually, as an animal gets closer to a desired
behavior, it is rewarded. This way, the animal is taking incremental steps and realizes that the behavior provides rewards

        E. Types of Reinforcers

                1. Reinforcer: a reward to a behavior. The reward reinforces the behavior, thus the behavior is done

                   a. Positive reinforcement: adding a reward (give the dog food) for doing a behavior. This reinforces
                     the dog to do more of the behavior to keep getting food.

                   b. Negative reinforcement: take away a negative thing for doing a behavior. This is like how people
                     start relying on pain relief medicines for small headaches, because it always takes away headaches.

                   c. Primary reinforcers: immediate and innate rewards or reliefs due to a behavior. This is like food,
                      and the taking away of pain.

                   d. Conditioned reinforcers: are signals for a primary reinforcers. If in a skinner box a light represents
                     that food is coming, a rat will try to get the light to turn on. The light is the conditioned reinforcer
                     of the food, which is the primary reinforcer.

                   e. As with Classical Conditioning, if the reinforcers are given immediately after a behavior, it is paired
                     stronger than if there was a delay between the behavior and the reinforcement.

        F. Reinforcement Schedules

                 1.Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing the desired response EVERY time the behavior occurs. This
shows steady association of behavior, and the behavior is done sometimes (if the rat knows every time it pushes the
lever food will come out, it will only push the lever if it is hungry).

               2. Partial reinforcement: The behavior is only rewarded part of the time. This association takes longer to
develop, but has a lower risk of extinction. (If the rat gets food randomly, it might take a while for it to understand that
the lever means food, but once it understands it will keep thinking “maybe the next push will give me food”)

        G. Ratios: How many times does the behavior need to be done for reward?

                 1. Fixed ratio schedule: A behavior is only rewarded the “nth” time. So for every 5 pushes of the lever
the rat gets food. This results in the animal knowing how many times the behavior must be done, so it does it that many
times to get the reward, pauses, then continues behaving for that many times. This is paired quickly, but extinguished
quickly as well (every 5 pushes of lever is food, so if one time it doesn’t give me food after 5 pushes the lever must be

                 2. Variable ratio schedule: A behavior is rewarded depending on a random number of repeats. This
would be if the rat was randomly rewarded after the 3rd push, then the 7th push, then the 4th, then the 10th, etc. This
takes longer to associate, but is harder to extinguish too.

               3. Fixed interval schedule: A behavior is rewarded after a certain amount of time, every time. The rat
would get food only after 5 minutes if it pressed the lever. This again produces a quick association, but also extinguishes

                4. Variable interval schedule: A behavior is rewarded after a random amount of time.

        H. Punishment

                1. Punishment: an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

                         a. positive punishment: giving/adding something bad to stop a behavior from continuing

                                 i. spanking or a parking ticket

                         b. negative punishment: taking away something good to stop a behavior from continuing

                                 i. getting the car taken away

        I. Cognition and Operant Conditioning

                1. Latent Learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

                       a. rats explore mazes and learn the path but you cant tell until there is a reward that forces the
rat to show they know what they’re doing

                2. Cognitive map: a mental representation of the lay out of ones environment

                         a. rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of a maze after exploring it

                3. Intrinsic Motivation: a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

                         a. people work and play in search of enjoyment, interest and challenge

                4. Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of

        J. Some More Fun Stuff

                  1. Biological Predisposition- biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are
naturally adaptive. Training that attempts to override these tendencies will probably not endure because the animals
will revert to their biologically predisposed patterns

                         a. pigeons learn to flap their wings to keep from being shocked since its natural to flap them

III. Learning by Observation

        A. Observational learning: learning by observing others

        B. Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

       C. Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that fire when observing another in doing so. The brain’s mirroring of
another’s action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

D. Prosocial behavior: positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of anti social behavior

Written by: Hayley Hall and Stephen Robinson

Table of Contents

Unit 6: Chapter 8 - Learning

Learning – a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience

Associative learning – learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a behavior
and its consequence (operant conditioning)

Classical conditioning – a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an
unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also: Pavlovian or
respondent conditioning

Behaviorism – the view that psychology: should be an objective science; should study behavior without reference to mental processes.

Unconditioned response (UR) – in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus

Unconditioned stimulus (US) – in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a

Conditioned response (CR) – in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

Conditioned stimulus (CS) – in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned
stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

Acquisition – the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that
the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

Extinction – the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow
a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant condition when a response is no longer reinforced

Spontaneous recovery – the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

Generalization – the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar

Discrimination – in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal
an unconditioned stimulus

Operant conditioning – a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a

Respondent behavior – behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner’s term for behavior learned through
classical conditioning

Operant behavior – behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

Law of effect – Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors
followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

Operant chamber – a chamber also known as a skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or
water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research

Shaping – an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards closer and closer approximations of the
desired behavior

Reinforcer – in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

Positive reinforcement – increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that,
when presented after a response, strengthens the response

Negative reinforcement – increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when
removed after a response, strengthens the response (negative reinforcement ≠ punishment)

Primary reinforcer – an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

Conditioned reinforcer – a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. Also secondary

Continuous reinforcement – reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

Partial reinforcement – reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in lower acquisition but much greater resistance to
extinction than does continuous reinforcement

Fixed-ratio schedule – in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of

Variable-ratio schedule – in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of

Fixed-interval schedule – in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has

Variable-interval schedule – in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

Punishment – an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

Cognitive map – a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment

Latent learning – learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

Intrinsic motivation – a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

Extrinsic motivation – a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

Observational learning – learning by observing

Modeling – the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

Mirror neurons – frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so

Prosocial behavior – positive, constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936): In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prize-winning work on digestion.
While studying the role of saliva in dogs’ digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled “psychic reflexes.” While an
accidental discovery, he had the foresight to see the importance of it. Pavlov’s dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were
presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he
noticed that his dogs who begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler
or merely by a clicking noise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder.

Fascinated by this finding, Pavlov paired the meat powder with various stimuli such as the ringing of a bell. After the meat powder and
bell (auditory stimulus) were presented together several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlov’s dogs, as predicted, responded by
salivating to the sound of the bell (without the food). The bell began as a neutral stimulus (i.e. the bell itself did not produce the dogs’
salivation). However, by pairing the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to acquire the
ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the
basic building blocks of learning) are formed. He dedicated much of the rest of his career further exploring this finding.

John Watson: an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal
behavior. He also conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment which was conducted by placing Albert on a mattress on a table
in the middle of a room. A white laboratory rat was placed near Albert and he was allowed to play with it. At this point, the child showed
no fear of the rat. He began to reach out to the rat as it roamed around him. In later trials, Watson and Rayner made a loud sound
behind Albert's back by striking a suspended steel bar with a hammer when the baby touched the rat. Not surprisingly in these
occasions, Little Albert cried and showed fear as he heard the noise. After several such pairings of the two stimuli, Albert was again
presented with only the rat. Now, however, he became very distressed as the rat appeared in the room. He cried, turned away from the
rat, and tried to move away. Apparently, the baby boy had associated the white rat (original neutral stimulus, now conditioned stimulus)
with the loud noise (unconditioned stimulus) and was producing the fearful or emotional response of crying (originally the
unconditioned response to the noise, now the conditioned response to the rat). He was also afraid of other white and/or fuzzy objects,
which showed he had generalized his conditioning.

Edward Thorndike (1874-1949): American psychologist, among Thorndike's most notable contributions involved his research on how cats
learned to escape from puzzle boxes and his related formulation of the law of effect. The law of effect states that responses that are
closely followed by satisfying consequences become associated with the situation, and are more likely to recur when the situation is
subsequently encountered. If the responses are followed by aversive consequences, associations to the situation become weaker.

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): Skinner's particular brand of behaviorism he called "Radical" behaviorism which, unlike less austere
behaviorisms, does not accept private events such as thinking, personal perceptions, and unobservable emotions in a causal account of
an organism's behavior, presumably a self-aware one reporting such states as an observer of itself. Skinner saw that classical
conditioning didn't account for the behavior most of us are interested in, such as riding a bike or writing a book. His observations led him
to propose a theory about how these and similar behaviors, called operants, come about. Roughly speaking, in operant conditioning, an
operant is actively emitted and produces changes in the world (i.e., produces consequences) that alter the likelihood that the behavior
will occur again.

Wolfgang Kohler (1925): Köhler observed the manner in which chimpanzees solve problems, such as that of retrieving bananas when
positioned out of reach. He found that they stacked wooden crates to use as makeshift ladders, in order to retrieve the food. If the
bananas were placed on the ground outside of the cage, they used sticks to lengthen the reach of their arms. Köhler concluded that the
chimps had not arrived at these methods through trial-and-error (which American psychologist Edward Thorndike had claimed to be the
basis of all animal learning, through his law of effect), but rather that they had experienced an insight (also sometimes known as an “aha
experience”), in which, having realized the answer, they then proceeded to carry it out in a way that was very purposeful.

Written by: Lissette Ruiz-Ibarra and Tania Perez-Osuna

Table of Contents

Unit 6 : Learning
      Learning: a relatively permanent change in thought, behavior that results from experience
      How Do we Learn?
      Association: mentally pairing events together when they occur together
      Conditioning: the process of learning associations between events

                               Classical Conditioning:

          Always associate with Pavlov!!
          Passive learning
          Occurs when a neutral stimulus (A) becomes paired (associated) with a second stimulus (B)
          B causes a automatic, reflexive behavior
          Pavlov’s Dogs!!-Ivan Pavlov, Russian Psychologist, Nobel Prize winner
                        Pavlov :Psychology=product of learned associations.
                        Inspired by John B Watson – founder of behaviorism
          Unconditioned stimulus= not learned (food)
          Unconditioned response= (drool)
          Neutral stimulus= bell (before no response from the dogs)
          When conditioning- food presented with the neutral stimulus
          Then bell becomes CS (conditioned stimulus) acquires significance through repeated pairing with US.
          Conditioned response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral (salivation)
                               Parameters of Classical Conditioning

          Acquisition: initial learning of the association between a neutral stimulus and a US food
          Level depends on timing
          Forward conditioning: CS (tone) before the US (food)
          Delayed conditioning: CS before and during US
          Trace conditioning: CS ends before Us begins
           -Effective if short time between CS and US 5 sec

           -Delayed and trace work well

          Non forward conditioning: backward conditioning in which the US is presented before the CS
           -less effective, no predictive value

          Simultaneous conditioning: US and CS at the same time
                              Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery

          Extinction: The process by which a CR (salivation) is eliminated through repeated presentations of CS
           without the US(food)
               -CS no longer a good predictor of US

              - not forgetting, but new learning on top of old.
              - Reacquiring happens much faster the initial assoc.
            Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause of extinguished conditioned responses

                               Generalization and Discrimination
     Stimulus generalization: tendency for CR (salivation) to be elicited by neutral stimuli that are similar
    to but not identical to CS (tone)
                o The more closely the new stimulus resembles the CS the stronger the CR
     Stimulus Discrimination: ability to distinguish between stimuli and respond to only actual CS
     Acquisition of attitude: an overall evaluation of an object ranging from positive to negative
    Acquisition of emotions
                o conditioned emotional response: an emotional response eliated by a previous neutral
                o Little albert: not afraid of rats but afraid of loud noises.
                o Watson would make a loud sound whenever he petted the rat so then cried
                o Developed a phobia of rats
                o Loud noise: US, White rat:CS
                o Generalized fear to similar objects: fuzzy dogs, rabbit etc.
                    Biology and Conditioning
     Biological preparedness: A built in readiness for certain CS to elicit certain CR
     Taste aversion: classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food or taste that makes/made a person
     Apps of classical conditioning:
             Drug addiction & Overdoses: taking drugs repeatedly in a specific setting develops CR to
                that place
             Body compensates for expected drug, to counteract or dampen effects
             New setting: same amount has greater effect can cause overdose
             Therapy Techniques: behavior therapy technique relaxed in presence of feared object.
             Gradual exposure to stimulus
                                                Operant Conditioning
   Type of learning in which a specific behavior becomes associated with its consequences
   Typically within organisms control (active learning)
   This is different from Classical because that is passive learning and typically out of organisms control
    and is a automatic reflexive response
   Operant behavior is voluntary, operating in environment
   Thorndike’s Puzzle Box:
   Edward Thorndike created a puzzlebox: cage with latched door that opened by pressing a lever inside
   Once cats figured it out they became faster and faster
   Law of effect: rewarding behaviors are more likely to be repeated
   B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) : Psychologist of the behaviorist movement
   Shaping: gradual process of reinforcing an organism for behavior that gets closer and closer to desired
    behavior (successive approximations)*** A.P likes to ask this.
   Reinforcer: object or event that comes after a behvior that increases the likelihood of engaging in that
    behavior again
                                              Types of reinforcers
   Positive vs. Negative
   Positive means you add something and Negative is when you take something away
   Positive: occurs when a desired reinforcer is given after a behavior increasing the likelihood of a
    recurrence of that behavior
   Ex: skinner box gave a food pellet, money, approval

   Negative reinforcement: occurs when an unpleasant even or circumstance is removed following a
    desired behavior, increasing the likelihood of recurrence of that behavior
   Ex: taking asprin for headache, fastening seatbelt to stop from dying

Timing of Reinforcement
Amount of time between behaviour and consequence can have dramatic effects on conditioning
    i.e. yelling at a dog 6hrs after he peed on carpet isn’t learning
             1. Immediate reinforcement
             2. Delayed reinforcement
Self Control:
Choosing to wait= higher social competence and achievement in adolescence.
Ability to delay gratification for gigger reward later in life is greater happiness and key to life satisfaction

Concepts from Classical and Operant Conditioning
GENERALIZATION: ability to generalize from a learned behaviour or similar one.
DISCRIMINATION: ability to distinguish learned behaviour and a similar one
EXTINCTION: after w/drawl of reinforcement the fading out of a learned behaviour following an initial
burst of it
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: old responses reappear if there is a break after extinction

Scheduled of Reinforcement
Early Skinner experiments used CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT: reinforcing the desired behaviour
every time it occurs (vending machine)
PARTIAL REINFO.: reinfor. Given only intermittently (slot machines)
**4 Schedules of Reinforcement**
A. INTERVAL SCHEDULE (time): reinfor. Given after a specific time
B. RATIO: given after a specific # of desired behaviours.
        1. FIXED INTERVAL: giver for behaviour after a certain interval of time (every 10 min.)
        2. VARIABLE INTERVAL: reinfo. Given for desired response after changing interval of time (pop
        3. FIXED RATIO SCHEDILE: reinforcement after a set of number of responses (sweat shops)
        4. VARIABLE RATIO: after a variable # of responses (slot machines)

    Punishment: an unpleasant event that occurs as a consequence of behaviour. DECREASES likelihood
    of the behaviour in future!
            Not negative reinforcement tho!
    POSITIVE PUNISHMENT: when behaviour leads to the intro. Of an undesired consequence
    NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT: removal of a pleasant event or circumstance following behaviour (i.e.
    Taking cell phone away)

    3 Characteristics of Effective Punishment
    1. Must be swift, consistent, sufficiently aversive w/out being violent
    Punishment teaches hoe to AVOID getting caught.
    **Punishment should be to tell others what NOT to do, instead of what to do**
    should use punishment along with reinforcement to strengthen

    Observational Learning
    LATENT LEARNING: learning that is not immediately acted on but is stored for later use.
          Cognitive Map: used by rats in Tolman and Honzik experiment to get around a maze

          Mental Process such as expectation, memory, perception etc, involved in learning.
   INSIGHT LEARNING: when an organism suddenly grasps the meaning of something and incorporates
   that new knowledge into old knowledge.
          ―aha moment!!‖
   WOLFGANG KOHLER (1925) study: studied insight learning in chimpanzees.
          Chimps needed to think creatively, use tools, to reach an out-of-reach food item
                 Quickly demonstrated ―aha moment‖ after initial frustration.

   SOCIAL LEARNING THM: leaning focuses in a social context, and is as much a product of watching
   others as it is of making associations
   1. MODELING: observing and imitating a specific behaviour
   2. Bobo Doll Study (Albert Bandura 1691) kids watch adult video play with Bobo doll violently; kids
       do the same when given the doll

   Mirror Neurons: neurons that fire when performing certain actions, or when observing someone else
   engaging in those actions
          Heaviest concentration in frontal lobe, near motor cortex
          First discovered in macaque monkeys w/ tasks like grasping, holding and tearing

   Possible Functions of Mirror Neurons
Understanding other’s intentions
THEORY OF MIND: the ability to infer another’s mental state
   Mirror neurons for emotional experiences
   Stranger activation of mirror neuron system for women
Language Development
Connections to Autism

Written by: Lindsey Eisenberg and Gaby Rincon

Table of Contents

                                               Unit 7

1. Memory- the persistence of learning over time though the storage and retrieval of information
        a. Flashbulb memory- a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
2. Information Processing
        a. Encoding- processing of information into the memory system
                   i. Automatically process- unconscious encoding of info like space, time, and frequency
                   ii. Effortful processing- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
                   iii. Rehearsal- conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it or encode it
                   iv. Spacing effect- tendency for distributed study/practice to yield better long-term
                   v. Serial position affect- our tendency to recall best the last and first items in list
                   vi. Visual encoding- the encoding of pic. Images
                             1. imagery, mnemonics (memory aids esp. those that use imagery), chunking
                   (organizing into familiar units)
                   vii. Acoustic encoding- encoding of sound, esp. sound of words
                   viii. Semantic encoding- encoding of meaning, meaing of words
        b. Storage- the retention of encoded information over time
                   i. Iconic memory- momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
                   ii. Echoic memory- momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
                   iii. Long-term potentiation (LTP)- increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief rapid
                   iv. Amnesia- the loss of memory
                   v. Implicit memory- retention independent of conscious recollection
                   vi. Explicit memory- memory of facts and experience that one can consciously know and
                   vii. Hippocampus- neural center located in limbic system & helps process explicit
        memories for storage
                   viii. Cerebellum plays key role in implicit memories of classical conditioning
        c. Retrieval- process of getting information out of memory storage
                   i. Recall- measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier like on
        a fill in blank test
                   ii. Recognition- measure of memory in which person need only id info previously learned,
                   multiple choice test
                   iii. Relearning- memory measure assesses amount of time saved when learning material
        2nd time
                   iv. Priming- activation often unconsciously of particular associations in memory
                   v. Déjà vu- eerie sense of experiencing something before; cures from that event may
        trigger cues from a prior one
                   vi. Mood-congruent memory- tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s
        current good/bad mood

        d. Three stage processing
                 i. Sensory memory- immediate very brief recording of sensory info. In memory system
                          1. * a newer understanding of short t. memory that involves conscious, active
                 processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial info, and infor from
        long term memory
                 ii. Short-term memory- activated memory that holds a few items briefly, like the seven
        digits in a phone number while dialing
                 iii. Long-term memory- relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory
                 iv. * But…some info skips around**
3. Forgetting
        a. Forgetting- absent mindedness, transience, blocking,
        b. Distortion- misattribution, suggestibility, bias
        c. Intrusion- persistence
        d. Proactive interference- disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new info
        e. Retroactive interference- disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old info
        f. Repression- psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanism, that banishes anxiety arousing memory
        from consciousness
4. Memory Construction
        a. Misinformation effect- incorporating misleading info into one’s memory of an event
        b. Source amnesia- attributing to wrong source an event we have experienced or imagined
5. Improving Memory
        a. Study repeatedly
        b. Rehearse more
        c. Make material meaningful
        d. Use mnemonic devices
        e. Retrieval clues
        f. Recall when memories fresh
        g. Test your knowledge

6. Cognition- the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

       a. Concept- a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

       b. Prototype- a mental image or best example of a category

               i. matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including
       items in a category

7. Problem Solving

       a. Algorithm- a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

               i. this contrasts with the use of heuristics

       b. Heuristic- a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems

          c. Insight- a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

                  i. contrasts with strategy-based solutions

          d. Confirmation Bias- a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions

          e. Fixation- the inability to see a problem from a new perspective and an impediment to problem

          f. Mental Set- a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been
          successful in the past

          g. Functional Fixedness- the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions and
          an impediment to problem solving

8. Decision Making

          a. Representativeness Heuristic- judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to
          represent, or match, particular prototypes, but may lead one to ignore relevant information

          b. Availability Heuristic- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

          c. Overconfidence- the tendency to be more confident than correct; or to overestimate the accuracy
          of one’s beliefs and judgments

          d. Framing- the way an issue is posed, which can significantly affect decisions and judgments

9. Bias

          a. Belief Bias- the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes
          making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid

          b. Belief Perseverance- clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the bias on which they were
          formed has been discussed

10. Language and Language Development

          a. Language- our spoken, written, or signed words and they ways we combine them to
          communicate meaning

                  i. Phoneme- in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

                  ii. Morpheme- in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, and may be a word or
                  part of a word

                 iii. Grammar- in a language, a system of rules that enable us to communicate with and
          understand others

                  iv. Semantics- the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and
                  sentences in a given language; and the study of meaning

        v. Syntax- the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given

b. Development

        i. Babbling Stage- beginning at about four months, the stage of speech development in
which the infant spontaneously utters various sound at first unrelated in the
household language

        ii. One-Word Stage- the stage in speech development, from about age one to two, during
        which a child speaks mostly in single words

        iii. Two-Word Stage- beginning at about age two, the stage in speech development during
which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

        iv. Telegraphic Speech- early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using
mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words

c. Linguistic Determinism- Benjamin Lee Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we

Written by: Evan Keyes and Pascal Riel

Table of Contents


Cognitive Psychology type of study which is specific about internal mental processes such as memory/ thinking/problem

3 steps to memory

1. Encoding- taking info from sensation

2. Storage -maintenance of memories

3. Retrieval- taking info out

3 stage model to memory

1st Sensory memory—large amounts of perceptual input which are stored for very little time/ less then a second
        iconic memory- visual form of sensory memory

                                 Echoic memory- auditory *       *          *

2nd STM short term memory- working memory for a few seconds allows for conscious processing of info- 7 items of info
“magic 7”             1st and last info easiest to remember

Rehearsal- over repeating something into STM

Primacy effect increased memory for 1st few stimuli

Recency effect *          *      for Last few stimuli

Automatic Encoding—space/frequency/time of events

Effortful Encoding—through repetition/rehearsal

Types of memory          1st explicit facts experiences divided into episodic and semantic

Episodic events and their context

Semantic meaning of words concepts and general facts of the world

Semantic networks associated semantic memories

Spreading activation model where one thought triggers a seemingly irrelevant thought

Implicit non declarative and cannot be called to mind easily

Hippocampus lays down explicit memories

Cerebellum plays role in forming implicit memories

Emotional memories are easier to store then non emotional the increased noradrenalin is critical for the hippocampus a
subtype is flashbulb memories “9/11)”


Either encoding failure storage decay or retrieval failure

Repression a defense mechanism which banishes anxiety arousing thoughts and feelings from consciousness

Misinformation effect incorporates misleading info into ones memory of an event


Words to express thoughts         vs.      Thoughts to express words

Linguistic relativity hypothesis perceptions and thoughts determined by language “Whorfs”

Concepts mental groupings of similar groups

Typicality certain things represent more

Prototype most typical example of a catergory

Functional fixedness getting fixed on the wrong method think sets of numbers

Two ways to solve problems

1st algorithms methodical logical rules which guarantee correct answer

2nd Heuistics rule of thumb tricks which do not guarantee the answer merely a short cut

Decision making problems

1st logic Vs Heuristics

Availability heuristic if it’s easy to recall it must happen often

Representiveness heuristic if something has a certain characteristic it must belong to a certain category

Anchor and adjust heuristic reference points serve as anchors from which we adjust our judgments

2nd Human motivations

Fixiation inability to see problem from a new perspective

Confirmation Bias tendency o search for info hat confirms already held beliefs or ideas

Belief Perseverance clinging to beliefs eve in face of contrary evidence.

Written by: Vanessa Martinez & Sara Montijo
Table of Contents
                                   Unit 7 Cognition
Cognitive Psychology is the school that studies internal mental processes (memory,
thinking and problem solving, language.)

Memory: Process which information is retained for later use. It is not one single thing,
there are different memory stores which are sets of neurons that retain info over time.

The 3 Steps:

    Encoding (Put info in)
    Storage (Hold onto info)
    Retrieval (Access info)

Three Stage Model of Memory:

    Sensory Memory→ Short-Term Memory → Long-Term Memory

Sensory Memory: “lowest” level of memory system. Stores large amount of input for a short time.

      Iconic Memory: Visual form of sensory memory
      Echoic Memory: Auditory

Short-Term Memory (STM): holds little information for a few seconds. Allows conscious processing of info.

      The strategies for optimization:
        Rehearsal is the repetition of information over and over.
        Chunking: Grouping info and assigning meaning

Long-Term Memory (LTM): Holds huge amount of info for long periods of time.

      Includes
       ◦ Encoding which passes info from STM to LTM for storage

             ▪  Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding
                 Automatic- space, time, frequency of events
                 Effortful- rehearsal and repetition info is committed to LTM
                    ◦ Elaborative Repetition-think about info in a meaningful way & connect to previous
                         ▪ Self-Referent Effect- remember info better when relevant to self
                         ▪ Primacy Effect-increased memory for first stimuli
                         ▪ Recency Effect- increased memory for last stimuli
      ◦      Retrieval is the recovery of info from LTM for use by STM/working memory

      A fast presentation of stimuli = reduced primacy effect
      Counting Backward after hearing list= reduced recency effect
      Priming makes it easier to perform same or similar task in the future if you've just performed it.


      Explicit Memory- facts and experiences that can be retrieved at will and stored in LTM, used in STM
       ◦ Episodic memory-memories of events and their context- what happened to you
       ◦ Semantic memory- memories of the meanings of words, concepts, and general info
      Implicit Memory- memory that cannot be voluntary called to mind, but influential to memories

Storing Memories

      ◦ Explicit memories laid down by Hippocampus. Damage can lead to memory loss.
      ◦ Implicit involved with Cerebellum. Damage leads to failure to learn conditioned responses.
Amnesia: loss of memory

              Retrograde-disrupts previous memories
              Anterograde- leaves consolidated memories intact, prevents new learning
Long term Potentiation: increase synapse’s firing potential

                       Sending neuron-less excitory signal to release neurotransmitter
                       Receiving neuron- increased receptor sites

       1. Recall- bring info to awareness

       2. Relearning- amount of time saved when learning material a second time

       3. Recognition- encoding an input and matching it to a stored representation

                Retrieval Cues: stimuli that trigger or enhance remembering –responsible for déjà vu –
                 encoding specificity principle

Emotional Memories- increased noradrenalin production(critical for hippocampus functioning)

Flashbulb Memories- vivid memory of dramatic event

3 Reasons Why We Forget: encoding failure, storage decay, retrieval failure

      Repression: defense mechanism, banishes anxiety
          ▪ False memories
          ▪ Misinformation effect-incorporating misleading info to one’s memory
          ▪ Source amnesia-attributing event we have experienced to the wrong source
Improving memories

      Mnemonic devices-organization and integration- rhyming, acronyms, etc.
      Method of loci-place in familiar locations- walk through locations to remember items
      Pegwords- one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, four is a door

Whorf’s Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: perceptions and thoughts determined by language

          ▪   Different languages=different realities
          ▪   Thinking in images- activates mirror neurons
          ▪   Mental space: spatial extent, limited size, grain
          ▪   Thinking in concepts- grouping similar objects, events, ideas, or people
               Prototype- The most typical example of a category

Problem Solving: Representation problem-how to formulate nature of a problem

      Algorithms-methodical, logical rules that guarantee solving a problem
      Heuristics- rule of thumb, no guaranteed answer, shortcut
          ▪ Availability heuristic- if easy to recall, must happen a lot
          ▪ Representative heuristic-if has certain characteristic, must belong to category
          ▪ Anchor & Adjust heuristic- reference points are anchors to adjust judgments
Human motivations and biases

    Fixation-inability to see problem from a new perspective
    Confirmation bias- search for info that confirms ideas, beliefs, etc.
    Belief perseverance- cling to your beliefs, even with contrary evidence

      Phonemes-smallest distinctive sound unit- rat: r-a-t (3 phonemes)
      Morphemes-smallest language unit that conveys meaning
      Semantics- set of rules for deriving meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences
      Pragmatics- convey meaning indirectly, by implying rather than asserting
       Language development- controlled by broca’s area (left frontal lobe)

             Aphasia- disruption of language caused by brain damage
                 ▪ Broca’s aphasia-problems producing language
                 ▪ Wernicke’s aphasia- problems comprehending language

Nurture vs Nature

      Nurture(empiricism) language learned through conditioning
      Nature (nativism) vocab, grammar acquisition too complex to be learned.
           ▪ Language Acquisition Device (LAD): innate brain mechanism containing grammatical rules to
               all languages
      Stages of development
           ▪ Babbling(4 months)- utterances of sounds
           ▪ One-word stage (1-2)– single words
           ▪ Two word stage- two word statements
      Critical period- narrow window of time when learning language is possible

By: André Esquer-Ruiz & Gaby Brambila
Table of Contents

                                                      Unit 8

I. Motivation: A need or desire that energizes and directs our behavior
   A. Sources of Motivations
     1. Instincts - inherited tendency to produce unalterable responses to stimuli. (usually based off of
     2. Drives and Incentives - usually rewards, or external stimuli that we desire that motivates our behavior.
              a. Drive-Reduction Theory – psychological needs and the drive to meet those needs.
     3. Optimum Arousal – desire to avoid stimuli that are too boring or too arousing.
     4. Priorities among Needs – as presented by Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,must meet needs at
         bottom of pyramid before moving up the pyramid.
II. Types of Motivation:
   A. Hunger – the need to refuel our bodies using nutrients. We receive feedback from our stomachs to let us
know when our body needs fuel. Our brain also monitors glucose in the body, which is needed to function.
    1. Hypothalamus – Important in determining hunger.
            a. Lateral Hypothalumus – initiates hunger and signals when we are hungry. Stimulation makes
                 excessive hunger, and damaging it makes no interest in food.
            b. Venromedial Hypothalamus – suppresses hunger. Stimulation stops hunger, and damaging it
                 makes continuous eating.
    2. Eating Problems
        a. Overeating – continuing to eat when the body does not need any additional energy.
         Possible reasons:
                 o Personality – some people have a disposition to be obese (very little evidence)
                 o Genetics – an ob gene controls the release of leptin which maintains constant level of body
                     fat. When someone has a defective ob genes, someone becomes extremely obese.
                 o Environment – fast food restaurant chains increasing, and high cultural variability.
        b. Eating Disorders – a compulsion to eat or not in such a way that can be harmful and may disrupt
physical and/or mental health.
           1. Anorexia Nervosa (Anorexia) – refusal to maintain even a normal low weight and also fearing the
possibility of gaining weight. Own self body image distortion and always thinking about food and fearing it.
Trying to eat as little as possible.
                 - Most common amongst young women.
                 - Biology- High levels of serotonin. If one of two identical twins has it there is 56% chance that
the other will have it too.
           2. Bulimia Nervosa (Bulimia) – having episodes of binge eating, followed by an intense attempt to
remove the food from the body, associated with bouts of depression during the binge eating periods.
              - Purging Type – intentional vomiting or using laxatives
              - Non-Purging – fasting excessive exercise.
              - most common among young women mostly.
              - low serotonin is associated with bulimia. If one of two identical twins has bulimia there is a 23%
chance that the other will have it as well.
       3. Possible Explanations :
                a. Personality – a sense of perfection in the person drives them to try to perfect their body and
                    have the perfect body image.

               b. Family and Culture – the family of a person with either of these eating disorders is usually
                   controlling and always worried about others opinions of them. Also the pressure of what
                   young people are supposed to look like to be socially acceptable is depicted in our culture.
                   This is different in other cultures however.
   B. Sexual Motivations
     1. Physiology
        a. Androgens – male hormones (including testosterone) which cause male characteristics like beard
growth and low voices.
        b. Estrogens – female hormones which cause female characteristics like the bone structure of the female
      2. Evolutionary Perspective
        a. Men and women crave different things when it comes to relationships.
                o Men want to have their mate be faithful, to make sure to pass on their gene to survive. Do not
                    like sexual infidelity.
                o Women want to have their mate reliable and able to provide for her and her family,
                    conservative in a matter of selecting partners. Do not like emotional infidelity.
        b. Parental Investment – investment that increases the offspring chance of surviving and reproducing at
the cost of the parents’ ability to invest in another offspring.
           o Greater Investment – more choosing or discriminating about mating partners.
           o Less Investment – more competition for access to most desirable mating partners.
     3. Sexual Orientation: Active choice vs. Biological predisposition
        a. Genetics – Homosexual men tend to have more ridges on their right hand fingers. Also exposure to
        certain hormones in the womb can alter orientation.
        b. Environment – being raised by homosexual and being segregated by gender at an early age are not
            predictors. Also homosexual men recall going through puberty earlier than their peers. Reliable
            environmental factors they have not been found yet.

III. Need to Belong

A. Loneliness: sad emotional reaction to feeling deprived about existing social relations. Most common among
adolescents, early/mid 20s.

B. Shyness: feeling of being socially awkward, inhibited, reluctant to approach others. Often reject others at fear of
rejection themselves.

C.Social Exclusion: being shunned, avoided, receiving silent treatment, etc.

       -Cyberball studies: put a virtual cap on people, which shows hem playing catch with 2 other people. The other 2
people don’t throw the participant the ball and thus gets depressed, anxious, or sad.

D. Motivation at work:

o   Industrial organizational psychology: application of psychological concepts and methods to optimize human
    behavior in work places.
o   Flow: a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with characteristics being diminished awareness of self
    and time, and results from optimal engagement of one’s skills.


Emotion: a subjective positive or negative reaction to a perceived or remembered object, event, or circumstance,
includes physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.

A. Fear: it is a combination of both biological preparedness and experience. The amygdala plays a crucial role in fear.

B. Anger:

   Averill: most people mildly angry several times a week, some even several times a day.
   Williams (2000): angry people are 3 times more likely to have a hear attack.
   The good:
        o Anger is often healthier than pent-up anger
        o More likely to resolve the source of anger, reducing overall upset
 Catharsis: emotional release intended to relieve aggressive urges (“venting anger”)
        o can temporarily calm us, but expressing anger often leads to more anger.
 Handling Anger:
        o Wait it out; physiological arousal decreases with time
        o Calm yourself through distractions
        o Practice forgiveness
C. Happiness

   Impact bias: tendency to overestimate long-term impact of emotional events, underestimate the ability to adapt,
    basically things aren’t as good or bad as we think they will be.
 Money & happiness: some evidence for short-term link; mixed evidence for long-term link.
 Happiness related to: high self esteem, optimism, agreeableness, close friends, relationships, religion, healthy sleep
    and exercise patterns
 Happiness not related to: age, gender, education, parenthood, attractiveness
C. Theories of Emotion:

   James-Lange theory: emotion is the awareness of physiological state in response to emotion-arousing stimulus.
    Reactions lead to emotions.
   Cannon-Bard Theory: simultaneous experience of emotion and physiological arousal; one doesn’t cause the other.
        o Problems with James-Lange theory are that physiological responses are too similar to produce distinct
             emotions. Also responses are too slow to trigger sudden emotion.
   Two-Factor Theory: uses idea of James-Lange theory that emotions come from awareness of physiological arousal
    but like the Cannon-Bard theory it also says that emotions are physiologically similar thus they need to be
    consciously labeled.

Written by: AJ Basurto and Nicole Gastelum

Table of Contents


Part 1: Motivation:

I.     Motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs our behavior.
           a. Instincts: inherited tendency to produce unalterable responses to stimuli.
           b. Drives and Incentives:
                     i. Drive-Reduction Theory: physiological needs=> drive to meet those needs.
                             1. Intended to maintain homeostasis: tendency to maintain a balanced constant state (body
                                 temp, hunger, thirst, etc.)
                    ii. Incentives: external stimuli that motivate behavior (smell of food=>hunger)
           c. Optimum arousal: desire to avoid stimuli that are too boring or too arousing. Bets performance at
               intermediate level of arousal (aka: Yerkes-Dodson Law). Predicts preferences for patterns, art, music.
II.    Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base to top.
           a. Physiological Needs=>Safety/Security=>Love&Belonging=>Self Esteem=>Self Actualization
III.   Hunger Motivation:
           a. Physiology of Hunger:
                     i. Glucose: the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for
                        body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
                    ii. Lateral Hypothalamus: initiates hunger. Stimulation in well-fed animals=hunger. Lesioned= no
                        interest in food.
                   iii. Ventromedial Hypothalamus: suppresses hunger. Stimulation= stop eating. Lesioned= continuous
                        eating, increased fat production.
           b. Psychology of Hunger:
                     i. Set Point: the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body
                        falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the
                        lost weight.
                    ii. Basal Metabolic Rate: the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.
IV.    Eating Problems: Over Eating & Obesity
           a. “ob” gene controls release of leptin: hormone released by fat cells. More fat=more leptin in the
               bloodstream. May serve to maintain constant level of body fat (decreases food intake, increases energy
               expenditure). Extremely obese= defective ob gene.
           b. Obesity and environment? Encourage over eating, high cultural variability on obesity suggests important
               role of environment. (fast food, less exercise/transportation, sedentary amusements e.g tv, internent etc.)
V.     Eating Disorders: Compulsion to eat (or not eat) in a way that sidrupts physical and/or mental health. Anorexia
       Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa= most common types.
                     i. Anorexia Nervosa: Refusal to maintain even a low normal weigt and an intense fear of gaining
                        weight. Marked by body image distortion, obsessive thinking about food. Most common among
                        adolescents; 9 out of 10 cases are female.
                    ii. Bulimia Nervosa: Recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by some attempt to prevent weight
                        gain. Most common among women in late teens, early 20’s. Bouts of depression, particularly during
                        and after binges.
                             1. Purging Type: intentional vomiting, laxatives.
                             2. Non-Purging Type: Fasting, excessive exercise.

VI. Explaining Eating Disorders:
    Biological Influences:                                                 Psychological Influences:

               mid-hypothalmic centers in brain                                  Sight and smell of food
                monitoring appetite.                                              Variety of foods available
               Appetite hormones                                                 Memory of time elapsed since
               Stomach pangs                                                      last meal
               Set/settling point weight                                         mood
               Universal attraction to sweet and salty
               Adaptive wariness toward novel foods

                                                         Eating Behavior

                            Social-cultural Influence:

                                   Culturally learned taste preferences
                                   Learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness.

       a. Genetics & Neurobiology
                 i. 56% of identical twins likely to have anorexia if there co-twin did.
                ii. High levels of serotonin associated with anorexia, low levels with bulimia.
       b. Personality:
                 i. Perfectionists, low self-esteem. Irrational beliefs, expectations about body shape.
       c. Family & Culture:
                 i. Cultural Norms, “western culture” (models, advertisements)
                ii. More symptoms of eating disorders among U.S. Immigrants from less weight conscious cultures as
                    they assimilate.
               iii. Frederickson et al. (1998): cultural objectification of female form
                        1. IVs: men/women wore sweater/swim suit (in private) while taking math test.
                        2. DVs: self-report feelings about own body as compared to performance on math test.
                        3. Results: women in swim suits were the only group to increase in body shame.
PART 2: Sexual Motivation
  Biological Influences:                                              Psychological Influences:

             Sexual maturity                                                 Exposure to stimulating
             Sex hormones,                                                    conditions
              especially testosterone                                         Sexual fantasies
             Sexual orientation


                                    Social-cultural Influences:

I.   Physiology:
        a. Sexual Response Cycle: the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—
             excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
        b. Androgens: Male hormones (including testosterone) which cause male characteristics (beard growth, low
        c. Estrogens: Female hormones which cause female characteristics (bone structure of female pelvis).
             Relationship between hormones and sexual motivation? Varies with menstrual cycle.
II. Evolutionary Perspective:
        a. Parental Investment:
                   i. Greater= more choosy or discriminating about mating partners.
                  ii. Less= more competition for access to most desirable mating partners.
        b. Adaptive for men: to be “liberal” in mate selection. Interest: short-tern sex, less particular about mates.
        c. Adaptive for women: to be “conservative” in mate selection. Interests: resources, support, long-term.
        d. Romantic Jealousy? Men- sexual infidelity, Women= emotional infidelity.
III. Sexual Orientation:
        a. Homosexuality known in all cultures, at all times in history.
        b. Active choice vs. Predisposition
        c. Brain Structure: Portion of hypothalamus twice as small in homosexual men than heterosexuals.
        d. Genetics: mixed evidence for genetic component of orientation.
                   i. Homosexuality as maladaptive?
                  ii. Reallocation of resources to those who share genes, especially mother’s genes?
                 iii. Prenatal hormones: exposure to certain hormones in the womb can alter orienation.
                 iv. Finger print patterns: typically more ridges on right hand, difference between left and right smaller
                      for women and homosexual men.
        e. Environment: raised by homosexual parents= not a predictor.
Part 3: Need to belong, Job Attitude, Flow, and Achievement Motivation

Need to belong: an intrinsic motivation to affiliate with others and be socially accepted.

Loneliness: is a feeling in which people experience a strong sense of emptiness and solitude.

      Chronic loneliness associated with shyness(feeling of apprehension, lack of confidence, or awkwardness) an
       social exclusion (lack of participation in society; a.k.a. Cyberball studies)
Four Reasons for the Need to Belong:

   1. Survival- our ancestors historically relied upon each other to survive
   2. Ostracism (social exclusion)- some social exclusions foster violent acts as a consequence of being left out from
   the public
   3. we as humans naturally want to belong
   4. the need to belong also stems historically from the need to have and maintain relationships to cope with
Twenge et al.: participants met other “participants” and rated each other for likeability, took fake personality test

        IV: accepted/rejected by group members: playing a multiplayer video game that is set to blast noise at the losing
        DV: intensity and duration of noise

Industrial/organizational psychology: application f psychological concept and methods to optimizing human behavior in

     Inglehart et al. (1990), Wrzensniewski et al(1997, 2001), Csikszentmihalyi (1990,1999)
Flow: the mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of
energized focus

Achievement Motivation- the need to perform well or the striving for success

    Goleman (1980), Duckworth & Seligman (2005),Bloom (1985)
Four Reasons for the Need to Belong:

    1. Survival- our ancestors historically relied upon each other to survive
    2. Ostracism (social exclusion)- some social exclusions foster violent acts as a consequence of being left out from
       the public
    3. we as humans naturally want to belong
    4. the need to belong also stems historically from the need to have and maintain relationships to cope with

Part 4: Emotions, Part I

Emotion: a response of the whole organism involving:

    1. Physiological arousal (heart pounding)
    2. Expressive behaviors (quickened pace)
    3. Conscious experience (is this a kidnapping?)
Positive Emotion- express an attempt or an intention to include, bases on an underlying desire for enjoyment and unity

Negative Emotion- express an attempt or intention to exclude, based on an underlying fear of the unknown, a fear of
the actions of others, and a need to control them or stop them to avoid being harmed.

Types of Emotions

       Fear- a basic survival mechanism that illicits and emotional response to a perceived threat or danger
            o Key brain structure: Amygdala
                      Schacter (1996): Amygdala and Hippocampus damage and its effects on fear
     Anger- the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively, and physiologically when a person makes the
        conscious choice to take action to immediately stop a threatening behavior of another outside force.
            o Averill (1983), Williams et al. (200), Change et al. (2002)
            o Catharsis – “purging”; discharge of pent-up emotions so as to result in the alleviation of symptoms or
                the permanent relief of the condition.
                      Bushman (2002)
     Happiness- characterized by or indicative of pleasure, contentment, or joy
            o Impact Bias- is the tendency for people to overestimate the length or the intensity of future feeling
            o Short-term link between money & happiness
                      Burkholder (2005), Perkins (1991)
Part5: Emotions, Part II

Theories of Emotion

       James-Lange theory- experienced emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing
            o Larsen et al (1992)., Zajonc et al (1989)., Strack et el. (1988)

      Canon-Bard theory- emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the
       subjective experience of emotion
     Two-factor theory- Schachter-Singer’s theory that to experience emotion, one must be physically aroused and
       must cognitively label the arousal
           o Dutton & Aron (1974)
The polygraph- a machine, commonly used in detecting lies, that measures several of the physiological responses
accompanying emotion (perspiration, cardiovascular and breathing changes)

      Alternate between control questions (unrelated to the actial subject at hand to determine normal physiological
       workings) and Relevant questions (to the subject in question)
           o Kleinman & Szucko (1984)
      Problems with polygraph:
           o Sly criminals “beat the system” by augmenting their physiological responses to control questions
           o Physiological arousal measured by polygraph is much the same from one emotion to another

Written by: Harrison Alvarez and Lindsay Payne

Table of Contents

                                            Unit 9: Psychological Development

Prenatal Development:

   ~ Embryo- 2 weeks: develops major axis of body and organ development
   ~Fetus- 9 weeks: Organs are formed enough to survive prenatal birth, sensitive to light and sound.

    ~Teratogens: any chemical, virus, or type of radiation that can cause damge to zygote, embryo, or fetus.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:

     ~Alcohol during prenatal development can cause mental retardation, social deficits, poor memory, stunted growth,
epileptic seizures, and facial abnormalities.

    ~Primary mental deficits=cognitive, creative, artistic capabilities often intact.

Down Syndrome:

    ~ Genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome; prevents proper neuronal development.

    ~ Physical symptoms: heart, eye, and ear defects, sleep apnea, and poor muscle tone.

    ~ Life expectancy is around 49 years of age; no real treatment.

*****JEAN PIAGET (1896-1980)*****: cognitive development:

    ~ Swiss developmental psychologist, thought children think qualitatively different than adults

    ~ State like progression from simple reflex to abstract resonating.

    ~ Stages driven by struggle to understand experiences

    ~ Schema: concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

        1. Assimilation: interprets new experience in terms of existing schema.

        2. Accommodation: adapting schemas to incorporate new information.

   ~ Stages of cognitive development:

        1. Sensory motor (birth to 2): Object permanence, awareness that objects exist without perceiving them.

       2. Preoperational ( 2-7): learning language, mental representations. Difficulty in take others point of

        3. Concrete operational (7 -12): engage in concrete operations, emergence of logic.
        4. Formal operational ( 12 and up): expansion of logical capabilities.

Overall, understands that cognition evolves, but its continuous rather than stage development.

Kohlberg and Moral development in 3 stages:

   ~ 3 stage moral development: Hypothetical moral dilemmas.

       1. Per-conventional: morality of self interest

       2 .Conventional: Rules, good v. bad.
       3. Post-conventional: Broad abstract ideas.

Erik Erikson (1902-1994):

    ~ Influenced by Freudian idea, eight stage model of psychosocial development. Success leads to next stage, while
failure leads to psychosocial deficits.


Henry and Margaret Harlow (1950’s): Study in which learning in monkeys was observed. The separated monkeys from
parents in individual cages and noticed that they attached themselves to blankets/ nourishment rather than the wire

~Similar attachment traits in humans.

Four attachment styles:

1. Secure attachment: Active exploration when mother is present, may be visibly upset with separation., more outgoing
when mother is present.
2.Resistant attachment: Stay close to parent, little exploration. Distressed when parent departs. Wary of strangers, even
in parents presence.

3. Avoidant attachment: Little distress when separated. Sometimes sociable with strangers.

4. Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment: Most insecure. Combo of 2&3. “Deer in headlights”.

~Attachment style of child often predicts style of adult relationships.


Brain development disorder, typically evident from infancy. The three classes of symptoms:

1. Social interaction impairments: Impaired theory of mind, little eye contact. Not likely to approach others, little
nonverbal communication, does NOT mean a preference for solitude. However, they form close bonds with caregiver(s).
2. Communication Impairments: Delayed onset of babbling, decreased responsiveness, difficulty in understanding

3. Repetitive Behaviors: Movements, sameness, self injury, compulsive behaviors ( look for patterns)

Potential causes of autism:

~Vaccines NOT likely a cause of autism, there exists a huge lack of evidence.

~Genetics, however, explain 90% of autism cases

~Complex gene interaction, inability of brain regions to communicate properly.

Autistic Savants: Have both autism and savant syndrome: Severe mental deficits, but also extraordinary abilities not
displayed by most people.


~Progressive decline of cognitive functioning beyond that of normal aging. Disorientation in time, place, and person.

~Causes can stem from strokes, brain tumors, and alcoholism.

Alzheimer’s disease:

~Brain disorder that is progressive and irreversible.

~Gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical development.

~Deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine ( thus memory and thinking deficits)

Written by: Josh Frankle and Allie Healy
Table of Contents
                       Unit 9 – Developmental Psychology

    Prenatal Development: The Zygote
       zygote: a fertilized egg
          23 pairs of chromosomes; half of each pair from egg (X),
           half from sperm
(X or Y)

        If sperm contributes X chromosome (XX) = child is female
        If sperm contributes Y chromosome (XY) = child is male
      within 1 week mitosis occurs
        100 cell zygote
        cellular differentiation begins
      10-14 days after conception: zygote attaches to uterine wall
        outer layer forms placenta, inner layer becomes embryo

   Prenatal Development: The Embryo
     embryo: the developing human organism from about 2
       weeks after fertilization through the 2nd month
        major axis of body is present
        first signs or organ development

   Prenatal Development: The Fetus
     fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after
       conception to birth
        6th month: organs sufficiently formed to possibly allow survival
          of premature birth
        sensitive to both light and sound

   The Learning Fetus: The Cat in the Hat Study
     DeCasper & Fifer (1980): pregnant women read Cat in the Hat
       aloud twice daily for 6 weeks before giving birth
        few hours after birth: babies outfitted with headphones, pacifier-like device
        speed of pacifier sucking = hearing mother's voice vs. another woman
           chose speed that produced mom's voice
           chose speed that produced mom's Cat in the Hat storytelling opposed to other things
              that were talked about

 The Learning Fetus: The Impact of Music
   Lafuente et. Al (1997): fetal exposure to music
      IV: 172 pregnant women played/ did not play music to fetus for 2 months
      DV's: gross and fine motor control, linguistic development
      Results: music → better motor control, faster linguistic development

 Threats to Prenatal Development: Environment vs. Genetics
   role of the environment
      teratogens: any chemical, virus, or type of radiation that can cause damage to the
        zygote, embryo, or fetus
         e.g. hormones: mom's stress creates cortisol → causes a slowed operation of
         e.g. viruses: HIV and rubella
         e.g. drug abuse: heroin addiction, nicotine which lowers birth weight, and creates a
            greater risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and alcohol

 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
   physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by mother's heavy drinking during pregnancy,
      mental retardation
      social deficits
      poor memory, attention deficits
      stunted growth
      epileptic seizures
      facial abnormalities
   primary mental deficits = cognitive
      creative, artistic capabilities often interact

 Threats to Prenatal Development: Environment vs. Genetics
   role of genetics
      Down syndrome: genetic disorder caused by an extra chromosome; prevents proper
        neuronal development
         1 in every 800-1000 births on average
         1 in every 1500 births for women of ages in between 20-24 years old
         1 in every 60 births for women 40 years of age and older
         1 in every 11 births for women 49 years of age and older

 Down Syndrome
   physical symptoms: heart, eye, and ear defects, sleep apnea, poor muscle tone
   mental retardation: IQ = 45, life expectancy = 49 years old,
   no treatment, only able to treat the symptoms through surgery,
   can be detected with prenatal genetic screening

 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
   Jean Piaget: Swiss developmental psychologist

      children think qualitatively differently than adults
      stage-like progression from single reflexes → abstract reasoning
    stages driven by struggle to understand experiences
    schema: concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

 Schema Development
   2 processes of creating schemas:
      1. assimilation: interpreting one's new experience in terms of existing schemas
      2. accommodation: adapting one's schemas to incorporate new information

                          Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

                 Stage                                     Typical Age Range

              Sensorimotor                                       birth-2

             Preoperational                                        2-7

          Concrete operational                                    7-12

           Formal operational                                 12-adulthood

 1. Sensorimotor Stage
   birth – age 2
   world knowledge = simple sensory impressions, major activities
   at first lack object permanence: awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived
       8 months: begin demonstrating memory for things not seen

 2. Preoperational Stage
   ages 2 – 7
   learning language, ability to create mental representations
       still lack concrete logic (operations)
   lack concept of conservation: principle that quantity remains the same despite a change in shape
   egocentrism: preoperational child's difficulty taking another point of view
   assumes everyone sees what they see
   early development of theory of mind

 Theory of Mind
   people's ideas about their own and other;s mental states
      used to infer feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and behaviors

 3. Concrete Operational Stage
   ages 7 – 12
   ability to engage in concrete operations
       manipulation of mental representations of concrete objects
       emergence of logic, specifically reversibility (such as conservation)

 4. Formal Operational Stage
   ages 12 – adulthood
   expansion of logical capabilities
       concrete (actual experience) → abstract (imagined realities and symbols)
       “what is” versus “what could be”
       not necessarily reality-bound

 Autism
   brain development disorder, typically evident from infancy
   3 classes of symptoms:
       1. social interaction impairments
          impaired theory of mind
          little eye contact, smiling
          not likely to spontaneously approach others
          little nonverbal communication, emotional interchange
       2. communication impairments
          delayed onset of babbling
          decreased responsiveness
          echolalia
          difficulty understanding pointing
       3. repetitive behaviors
          stereotypy
          sameness
          restricted behaviors
          self injury (30% of autism patients)
          compulsive behaviors

 Potential Causes of Autism
   vaccines
      MMR vaccine
      Wakefield et. Al: onset of autism following MMR vaccination
          press conference: safer to give M-M-R vaccines separately?
      Critics: N = 12
          however, lack of supporting evidence
   genetics
      Freitag: genetics explain 90% of autism cases
      complex gene interaction; inability of brain regions to communicate properly
      autism = more than one affliction?
          3 core aspects: social impairment, impaired communication, repetitive behaviors
          distinct causes?

 Autistic Savants
   have both autism and savant syndrome: severe mental deficits, but also extraordinary abilities not

          displayed by most people
         lower than average IQ, but very high intelligence in one or more narrow fields
         more common among men than women (6:1)

     Assessing Piaget's Theory
        The good:
           cross-cultural verification of how human cognition evolves through childhood
           understanding that cognition evolves through interactions with world
        The less good:
           continuous, rather than staged, development
           less emphasis today on formal logic as paragon of cognition
Attachment: An emotional tie to another person.

       We seek closeness to our caregivers, especially in distress and when separated.

Harry and Margret Harlow studied monkeys in the 1950’s. The studies separated baby monkeys from their mothers, and
doing so allowed the Harlow’s to discover that the babies grew attached to their blankets. Originally, it was thought that
we were only attached to who gave us nourishment. A study was conducted.

Nourishment v Body Contact –

       Monkey babies were given two “moms.” One was made of wire, one cloth.
       IV – Nourishment was provided by one of the two mothers.
       Results – there was a strong preference for the cloth mother, even without providing nourishment.
       This is similar with humans – Babies have stronger attachment when parents rock, pat, touch, and tickle them.

Origins of Attachment – Familiarity

We are attached to those we experience during the “critical period” – the optimal time is shortly after birth when
exposure to a stimulus produces the proper development. This is called imprinting.

       Example – Baby Ducks
       Baby Ducks are automatically attached to the first thing that they see.
       Konrad Lorenz (1937) experimented by making baby ducks imprint on himself and inanimate objects. It worked
        on anything that moved, but worked best on their mother.
       Human babies don’t imprint much, but still become very attached during the critical period.

Differences in Attachment –

       Ainsworth (1978) studied different kinds of attachment in children by using a “strange Situation.”
       The parents and the child came into a room full of toys the child had never seen. The parents then leave the
        room, and a stranger enters. Then, the parents return to the room.
       He distinguished four kinds of attachment:
                1. Secure Attachment - 65% of 1 year olds and infants. They actively explore when their parents are
        there, are sad when the parents leave and happy upon return (they touch them when they return) and are
        friendly and open with strangers, especially when with a parent.

                2. Restraint Attachment – 10% of 1 yr olds and infants. They stay very close to parents, and don’t leave
        their side. They are extremely upset when the parents leave, and are “fake angry” upon their return. They are
        very wary of strangers, even when with the parents.
                3. Avoidant Attachment – 20% of 1yr olds and infants. These kids could care less if their parents are
        there or not. They don’t care if they leave or return, and are sometimes sociable with strangers.
                4. Disorganized Attachment – 5-10% of 1 yr olds and infants. They are very stressed out by the situation
        and are “deer in headlights.” They are dazed, afraid, and don’t know what to do.

Attachment into Adulthood

The attachment style displayed when you’re young predicts your adult relationships.

Adolescence – the time in between childhood and adulthood, encompassing puberty and times of storm and stress.
During this time there is tension between physical and emotional changes.

Physical Development is marked by puberty.

Neural Development includes the pruning of the neural connection, where the unused connections get erased and the
ones used get refined by myelin sheath growth. The limbic system (containing emotion and motivation) grows myelin
sheath before the frontal lobe (control and reason), creating the “recklessness” that is teenager. The brain is fully
matured around age 25.

Cognitive and Moral Development: Is marked by egocentrism in early adulthood and the spotlight effect.

Gilovich conducted a study in 200 to test the spotlight effect. The IV: Each person was given a position of either target of
observer. The target wore a shirt depicting Barry Manilow. DV: How many people noticed the shirt? The target expected
at least 50%; however the real outcome was 20%.

Moral Development –

L. Kohlberg had a 3 stage system for moral development. The stage an individual was in depended on a hypothetical
question. The answer was secondary to the moral reasoning behind it the dilemma. The dilemma was stealing a drug to
save your spouse or not.

3 Stage Model:

    1) Pre conventional – Self Interest Stage.
       a. Steal – I’m happier if my spouse lives
       b. Don’t steal – My life in jail is worse than life without my spouse.
    2) Conventional – Follow the rules because they’re rules.
       a. Steal – Do anything for spouse (rules of marriage)
       b. Don’t Steal – Against the law
    3) Post Conventional – Broad, Abstract, better for mankind.
       a. Steal – Life is more meaningful than rules
       b. Don’t steal – The man worked for the drug and taking it away hurts him.

Moral Feelings –

Haidt (2001-2002) Moral feelings come before moral reasoning. Emotion is an instant response, but reasoning takes
convincing of oneself and others as to how you really feel.

Erik Erikson’s (influenced by Freud) Stage Model – 8 stage model of Psychological Development. Each stage has issues to
be resolved. If an issue is overcome, one moves onto the next stage. If an issue fails to be overcome, there are
psychological consequences.

Adulthood and Old Age –

“Old” is ambiguous. The oldest man recorded was 122. Life expectancy has increased. Men are more prone to dying. For
every 126 male embryos there is one female (Strickland 1992). There’s only 105:100 at birth. Male infant death rate is
25% higher in the first year. Worldwide women live 4 years longer.

Cross Cultural Consistency – Men are more likely to:

       Consume narcotics
       Commit suicide
       Be aggressive
       Be in the military
       Take risks

So are these reasons men live shorter lives? Or do smaller animals (women) live longer? Male hormones lead to shorter
life spans.

Old Age – Physical Changes –

       Senses deteriorate in early adulthood, but goes unnoticed until old age
       Changes in neural connections – sensory deprivation and dementia
       Disorientation

Alzheimer’s – A brain disorder that is progressive and irreversible. There is a gradual deterioration of memory,
reasoning, language, and lastly physical functioning. It was 1st documented by Alois Alzheimer’s. There are 5.1 million

The Disease today –7th most deadly disease in Americans. There are not clear causes. It isn’t inherited but has genetic
factors. It deteriorates neurons with acetylcholine (memory and thinking.) there are plaques at the neuron branches and

Brain Decay in Alzheimer’s – there is no cure other than drugs that block acetylcholine inhibitors.

Written by: Vicki Detwiler and Nico Lorenzen
Table of Contents
Developmental Psychology (Unit 9) Review

     Developmental Psychology: a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change
 throughout the lifespan.
     Three main issues:
     1. Nature vs. Nurture
     2. Continuity vs. Stages
     3. Stability vs. Change
     Prenatal Development and the Newborn
    Conception:
             sperm --> men start production at puberty
             eggs --> women born with all the eggs she’ll ever have
             Sperm and eggs join during sexual reproduction
     Prenatal Development:
             Three Stages:
             1. Zygote: fertilized egg; conception until 2 weeks
             2. Embryo: 2 weeks after conception- 2 months
             3. Fetus: 9 weeks after conception- birth
             Teratogen: Chemicals, viruses, etc., that can hurt the baby during both the embryo stage and the
        fetus stage.
             Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): physical/mental problems caused by a mother’s heavy
           i.e. facial disproportions, mental retardation
           Mothers that drink while pregnant=40% chance of having a child with FAS
    The Competent Newborn:
             Rooting reflex: A baby’s reflex to turn head when cheek is turned in search of food, and the
        tendency to cry if still hungry.
             Babies born with preferrence of social responsiveness (ie human voices, face-like images,
        images 8-12 inches away)
     Infancy and Childhood
    Physical Development
             Brain Development
           Born with almost all the brain cells you’ll ever have; the neural networks that allow you to walk,
            talk, etc, develop later.
           Neural network sprouts most rapidly in the frontal lobe from the ages of 3 to 6
           Maturation: Biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively
            uninfluenced by experience.
           ―Maturation sets the basic course of development; experience adjusts it‖ (Meyers)
             Motor Development
           Sequence of physical motor development is almost universal amongst all babies
           25% of babies in US walk by 11 months; 90% by 15 months (Frankenburg 1992)
             Maturation and Infant Memory
           ―Infantile amnesia‖- hardly anything before the age of 3.5 is remembered (Bauer 2002)
           Conscious mind doesn’t recognize things as much as the nervous system (Newcombe 2000)
    Cognitive Development

               Jean Piaget: Developmental psychologist that became interested in the early 1900s
               Childish mistakes taken as intelligence at work
               Schemas: an idea created by Piaget that is a concept or framework that organizes and interprets
               Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas
               Accommodation: Adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new
         Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking
             Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering &
             Stage 1: Birth-2 years--> Sensorimotor: experiencing the world through senses and actions
                      Object permeance: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
             Stage 2: 2- 6 or 7--> Preoperational: Representing things with words & images; intuition vs.
                      Conservation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume and numbers remain
the                    same despite changes in the forms of objects
           Egocentrism: a child’s difficulty of taking another’s view
                      Theory of mind: People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states (feelings,
                       perceptions, thoughts, behavior)
           Stage 3: 7-11--> Concrete operational: Thinking logically; performing simple math
           Stage 4: 12-adulthood--> Formal operational: abstract reasoning
    Social Development
           Infants develop an attraction to familiar faces as opposed to just humans in general
           Stranger Anxiety: fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning at about 8 months
           Attachment: an emotional tie with another person; seeks closeness to parents and is also a
source                         of nourishment for the child
           (Harlow & others 1971): researched monkeys; baby monkeys are more attached to the softer,
            cozier food dispenser, showing that they prefer getting food from the mother.
           Critical period: an optimal period shortly after birth when the baby’s exposure to certain stimuli
              or experiences produces proper development.
           Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very
            early in life
           Baby birds imprint best with their own species, but can still imprint with other moving things
           Mere-exposure effect--> merely knowing about it increases liking
           Three aspects of attachment:
                      1. Baby/parent interaction in presences of new toys
                      2. Parent leaves, stranger enters
                      3. Reunion between parent/baby
           Four attachment styles:
                      1. Secure attachment: about 65% of one year olds in America; active when parents
present;                                       visibly upset when parents leave; greets parents warmly; out going
with strangers while                                                  parent(s) present
                      2. Resistant attachment: about 10% of one year olds in America; stays close to parent,
little                         exploration; very distressed when parent leaves; upon return: ambivalence; wary
of strangers                                           all the time
                      3. Avoidant attachment- ―Eh‖: about 20% of one year olds in America; little distress
when                                   parents leave; ignore parents upon return; sometimes sociable with
strangers, but not usually

                 4. Disorganized/disoriented attachment: about 5-10% of one year olds in America; most
            insecure/confused; resistant and avoidant; reunion with mom=dazed and confused
 Adolescence
  All about transition, ―storm and stress‖
  Tension between biological maturity and social dependence
  Physical Development
   Marked by puberty (period of sexual maturation)
   Primary sex characteristics: needed for reproduction
   Secondary sex characteristics: non-reproductive changes
  Neural Development
   Pruning process of neural connections
   Growth of myelin
   The limbic system (emotions) develops before the frontal lobe (control, judgement)
Cognitive Development:

-egocentrism and the first sense of abstract thought appear in early adolescents

-teenagers begin to experience the imaginary audience: or spotlight effect, the belief that one is the main actor of life
with everyone else watching what they do intently

Moral Development:

-Piaget claims that it builds upon cognitive development, others agreed and built upon this theory such as Lawrence
Kohlberg and his stages of morality

Kohlberg’s 3 Stage Model of Morality:

    1. Preconventional Morality: age 1-9, obey rules for reward or to escape punishment with little grasp of greater
       consequences of actions
    2. Conventional Morality: early adolescence, obey rules to uphold laws simply because they are rules
    3. Postconventional Morality: obey or disobey rules by a set of ethics determined by abstract reasoning and thought
       based upon correct individual principles often in consideration to greater good

Moral Feeling:

-Jonathan Haidt study (2001-2002): social feelings and moral gut-instinct may drive moral development more than moral

-emotion: instantaneous response to situation or stimuli

-reasoning: convincing self and others of what the situation should bring about in terms of feeling and social response

Social Development:

-Erik Erikson stated that each stage of life is accompanied with a ―psychosocial task‖ that must be resolved before moving
on in life

Erik Erikson’s 8 Stage Model of social Development:

    1. Infancy (1 Year): trust vs. mistrust
    2. Toddlerhood (1-2 years): anatomy vs. shame and self doubt
    3. Preschooler (3-5 years): initiative vs. guilt

    4.   Elementary School (6-puberty): competence vs. inferiority
    5.   Adolescence (teens-early 20s): identity vs. role confusion
    6.   Young Adulthood (20s-40): Intimacy vs. isolation
    7.   Middle Adulthood (40s-60): generativity vs. stagnation
    8.   Late Adulthood (60 and up): integrity vs. despair
         -so Erikson defined by ―something vs. a negative attribute‖

More Terms on Social Development:

Identity: one’s self definition that unifies personality and actions of that person in a consistent and comfortable manner,
usually found during adolescence

Intimacy: the ability to form emotionally close relationships, also first characterized in adolescence

Adolescence: transition period from childhood to adulthood, spanning from sexual maturity to social independence

Physical Development and Aging:

-with aging past one’s mid-twenties there is a sharp decline in athleticism and physical capability although new studies
show that mental and psychological growth continue much longer than previously assumed

Menopause: the ending of the menstrual cycle, starting a few years around age 50

Alzheimer’s disease: a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory,
reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning.

Dementia: progressive decline of cognitive functioning beyond that of normal aging.

Cognitive Development:

Longitudinal testing: testing the same person multiple times throughout their lifetime to show development and aging

Crystallized Intelligence: one’s accumulated knowledge as reflected by vocabulary or more fact based tests, this
increases with old age

Fluid Intelligence: one’s ability to reason quickly and abstractly with complex logic problems, decreases slowly until age
75 then more rapidly throughout lifespan

Social Clock: the cultural perception for important social benchmarks such as leaving the home or getting married, it
varies between and often within a culture

Written by: Mozelle Weine and Saraya Wallen

Table of Contents

                                                     Unit 10 Handout


Free Association-a method of exploring the unconscious in which the patient relaxes and responds to a certain stimulus
with the first thing that comes to their mind

Psychoanalysis-Freud’s theories of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts

Unconscious-according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.

Id-unconscious psychic energy driven by sexual and aggressive urges. It acts on the pleasure principle, demanding
immediate gratification, disregarding societal norms.

Ego-mostly conscious, “executive” part of personality that mediates the id and superego. It contains the reality
principle, seeking ways to satisfy the id in ways that will bring about pleasure rather than pain.

Superego-represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and future aspirations. It is effectively
one’s conscience.

Fixation-occurs when a person gets “stuck” at a stage and causes lingering pleasure-seeking from that stage.

Psychosexual stages: childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which id’s pleasure-
seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

        Oral Stage: pleasure centers on mouth. Example: a child’s pacifier

                Fixation is evident with orally aggressive actions such as chewing pens or gum.

        Anal Stage: pleasure focuses on bladder and bowel elimination.

                 Fixation can go both ways. Anal retentive people are overly organized and neat. Anal expulsive people
are reckless, disorganized, and defiant.

        Phallic: Pleasure zone is the genital incestuous sexual feelings (see Oedipus Complex)

        Latency: Dormant sexual feelings.

        Genital: maturation of sexual interests.

                 Fixation is seen in one’s inability to have a satisfactory relationship.

Oedipus Complex: a boy’s sexual desires for his mother and feeling of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Typically
occurs during the phallic stage (ages 3-6)

Castration Anxiety-fear of becoming like a woman or being overcome.

Electra Complex-a girl’s feelings of inferiority and jealousy.

Penis Envy-a component of the electra complex, anger and regret over being a female

Defense Mechanisms: methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

        Repression: banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from the conscious.

       Regression: allows an individual to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy
remains fixated.

        Reaction Formation: ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites.

        Projection: people disguise their own acceptable impulses by attributing them to others.

        Rationalization: allows self justifying explanations in place of the real reasons for one’s actions.

        Displacement: shifts sexual aggressive impulses into a more acceptable object or person (as in redirecting

        Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy away from negative outlets toward positive outlets


Collective unconscious: inherited reservoir of memory that traces back to our ancestors.

Synchronicity: two or more events seemingly co-occur meaningfully, but are causally unrelated. All coincidences mean
something significant.


Self-actualization: the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and
self esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.


Unconditional positive regard: an attitude of total acceptance towards another person.

Self-concept: all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in an answer to the question “who am I?”


Gordon Allport: founder of modern personality psychology. Describes personality in terms of traits.

Trait: characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel and act a certain way. It describes rather than explaining

Projective Test: provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projections of one’s inner dynamics.

        Thematic Apperception Test: People express their inner feelings and interest through the stories they create
        about ambiguous scenes.

        Rorschach Inkblot Test: seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing people’s interpretations of
        ambiguous blots.

Situationism: A view of personality that regards behavior as mostly a function of the situation, not of internal traits. The
idea of multiple selves, situationally.

Interactionism: view of personality as product of both traits and situations.

The Trait Approach

        1. Lexical Approach

                Lexical hypothesis: all important individual differences have been
encoded within language over time; meaningful differences noticed equal words invented to discuss difference, like a
natural selection among words.

                2 Criteria for identifying important traits:

                        Synonym frequency

                        Cross-cultural universality

        2. Statistical Approach

               Statistical hypothesis: start with a pool of personality items like ones you would find through lexical
approach and then have a large number of people rate themselves on those traits.

                       Factor Analysis: Statistical procedure that indentifies groups of items that covary but do not
covary with other groups.

        3. Theoretical Approach

                Theories are taken into account when identifying personalities. For example, Maslow’s Theory of the
Hierarchy of Needs would play a part in personality. A person who was self-actualized would have a different
personality than one who is motivated by their survival instincts.


        Openness: distinguishes imaginative and creative people.

                High-creative, intellectual, preference for the new and exciting

                Low-preference for routine and habit

        Conscientiousness: how we control, direct, and regulate our lives

                High- organized, neat, practical, prompt, meticulous

                Low-disorganized, careless, impractical

        Extraversion: engagement with the outside, social world

                High-talkative, assertive, forward, outspoken

                Low-Shy, quiet, bashful, inhibitive

        Agreeableness: concern with cooperation and social harmony

                High-sympathetic, kind, warm, understanding, sincere

                Low-unsympathetic, unkind, harsh

        Neuroticism: tendency to experience strong negative emotions

                High-moody, anxious, insecure

                Low-calm, relaxed, emotionally stable

Birth Order and Personality

       Sulloway (1997): firstborns are more conscientious, more socially dominant, less agreeable, and less open to
new ideas.

Personal Control: a feeling that we control our lives rather than feeling helpless.

        Internal locus of control: the perception that you control things that happen to you

        External locus of control: the perception that chance and outside forces control the things that happen to you.
This can lead to learned helplessness.

               Learned Helplessness: hopeless and passive resignation learned when a person cannot avoid repeated
negative events.

Optimism: belief that things are more likely to go well than go badly.

        Optimistic Bias: the tendency to be overly optimistic about future outcomes. Leads to problems because of its
        unrealistic nature.

           Example: “I feel like you have this internal smile and the corners of your brain are always turned up.” –
Tiffany Lee

         Written by: Elizabeth Beatty

         Table of Contents

                                                                  Unit 10
                                                    Chapter 15: Personality

ersonality is defined as an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

gmund Freud developed the Psychoanalytic perspective of personality. He used free association to tap into the unconscious and
eveloped the id, the ego, and the superego.

                                                                       Free association- relaxed the patients and had them say
                                                                       whatever came to their mind, including anything
                                                                       embarrassing or private things.

                                                                       Unconscious- the “region” containing thoughts, wishes,
                                                                       feelings, and memories of which we are unaware.

                                                        Personality Structure:

 - constantly strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce and aggress. Operates on the pleasure principle: seeks
mmediate. An example of an id dominated person would be a new born.

go- largely conscious, mediates the demands of the id, superego and reality. Operates on the reality principle: gratifies the id in
ealistic ways.

uperego- internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment, focuses on how one ought to behave.

                                                     Personality Development:

                                                                                                  Freud also developed a theory of
                                                                                                  how personality development
                                                                                                  works, including the several
                                                                                                  stages listed to the left.

sychosexual stages- The childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct

edipus complex- A boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy towards his father.

 entification- the process in which children incorporate their parent’s values into developing their superegos.

xation- a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.

                                                      Defense Mechanisms:

 eud also developed a theory in which human’s egos use defense mechanisms unconsciously to distort reality.

st of Defense Mechanisms:

epression- A basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from the conscious.

egression- which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy
emains fixated.

eaction formation- the ego unconsciously makes unacceptable propositions, for example, “I hate him” becomes “I love him”

rojection- people disguise their own impulses by attributing them to others.

ationalization- self-justifying explanations in place of real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.

 isplacement- shifts sexual or aggression impulses towards a more acceptable or less threatening object or person as when
edirecting anger toward a safer outlet

arl Jung believed that the unconscious exerts a powerful influence but it contains more than repressed thoughts and feelings, he
elieved that we have a collective unconscious.

               “We can keep from a child all knowledge of earlier myths, but we cannot take from him the need for
                                        mythology.” (Symbols of Transformation,1912)

 ollective unconscious- the concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our specie’s history

                                                    Assessing Unconscious Process:

rojective test- Is a type of personality test that aims to provide a view by presenting an ambiguous stimulus and then asking the
est-takers to tell a story about it.

 hematic Apperception Test (TAT)- created by Henry Murray and is a test which gives                                people
 mbiguous pictures and then makes them tell a story about it, their answer is                                      presumed to be
 rojecting their own goals.

                                    Rorschach Inkblot Test- The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by
                                    Hermann Rorschach, seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations.

                                                        Humanistic Perspective:

 wo theorists that have pioneered the humanistic perspective are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Both men emphasized
 uman potential and seeing the world through another person’s eyes.

 braham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person:

We are motivated by a hierarchy of needs, and if our needs are met then we become concerned with personal safety, and then a
ense of security, then we seek love, then we seek self-esteem. Once all of those are achieved we ultimately seek self-actualization
 here we fulfill our potential

 elf-Actualization- the process of fulfilling our potential

 arl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective:

 eople are mostly good and are endowed with self-actualization tendencies. Except these tendencies can be prohibited if the are
  an environment that inhibits growth, and the perfect environment for growth would be one with genuineness, acceptance, and

 nconditional positive regard- an attitude of total acceptance
oward another person

 elf-concept- all our thoughts and feelings in response to the
 uestion- “Who am I?”

                       The Trait Perspective:

 rait research tries to define personality by stable behavior

 rait- a characteristic pattern of behavior of a disposition to feel                                                           and
 ct, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.

 ans and Sybil Eysenck created a diagram with the axis of
 troverted, extraverted, stable and unstable to describe
 ersonality variation.

 ersonality inventory- a questionnaire which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors.
 ’s used to assess selected personality traits.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)- the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.
 riginally developed to identify emotional disorders, its now used for many other screening purposes.

 mpirically derived- a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between the groups.

                                                   The “Big Five” Personality Factors

 Trait Dimension                                  Endpoints of the Dimension

                                Organized                          Disorganized

 Conscientiousness                 Careful                          Careless

                                Disciplined                        Impulsive

 Agreeableness                    Soft-hearted                    Ruthless

                                Trusting                          Suspicious

                                Helpful                           Uncooperative

 Neuroticism                     Anxious                           Calm

                                  Insecure                           Secure

                                 Self-satisfied                       Self-pitying

                                                    The Social-Cognitive Perspective:

ocial-cognitive perspective- was proposed by Albert Bandura and emphasizes the interaction of persons and their situations or
                              Imaginative                     Practical
ocial context.
                          Preference for variety                      Preference for routine
eciprocal determinism- the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
                             Independent                            Conforming
                                  Three Specific Ways Individuals and Environments Interact:

  1. Different people choose different environments. We choose the school we attend, the extracurricular programs we do,
      and the                                                     of the
 Extraversion music we listen to. All of these choices are a part Retiringenvironment we choose.
  2. Our personalities shape how we interpret and react. An example would be an anxious person is attuned to threatening
      events, therefore they perceive the world as threatening. Sober
  3. Our personalities help create situations to which we react. Studies have shown that how we treat people influences how
      we are treated in return.Affectionate                          Reserved

                                                   The Biopsychosocial Approach to Personality:

 Biological Influence:                                            Psychological Influence:

         Genetically determined temperament                             Learned responses
         Autonomic nervous system reactivity                            Unconscious thought process
         Brain activity                                                 Optimistic or pessimistic attributional style


                            Social-cultural influences:

                                    Childhood experiences
                                    Influence of the situation
                                    Cultural expectations
                                    Social support

Personal control- our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless.

External locus of control- the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s

Internal locus of control- the perception that one controls one’s own fate.

Learned helplessness- the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid
repeated aversive events.

Spotlight effect- overestimating others’ noticing and                                                evaluating our appearance,
performance, and blunders.

Self-esteem- ones’ feelings of high or low self worth.

Written by: Alicia Tharpe & Liz Powers

Table of Contents

Unit 10: Personality Psychology

       Personality: an individuals’ characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
       Traits: relatively consistent characteristics exhibited in different situations
       Situationism: a view of personality that regards behavior as mostly a function of the situation; not of internal

       Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Austrian neurologist; advocated use of cocaine early on… and then developed
        interest in nervous disorders.
            o Case of Anna O: Freud’s most famous patient, treated by Freud and Breuer. Experienced limb paralysis
                on right side of body, disruptions do vision, hearing, and speech; experienced hallucinations and random
                loss of consciousness.
                      Freud/Breuer used hypnosis, discussion, and clarification of memories and discovered that her
                         father died in her right side and she was retaining emotional anxieties from the experience.

        -The unconscious (Freud’s definition): a collection of unacceptable thoughts, desires, feelings, and
        -Psychoanalysis: theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts.
        The unconscious presents powerful influence (often in disguise) in almost everything. (i.e. Dreams)

        -   Pathways into this unconscious:
                o Free association: relaxed response to stimulus with the first thing that comes to mind-reverse flow
                  of unconscious thoughts.
                o Evaluation of dreams
                o Freudian slips

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory-3 Components of Personality

        1. Id: unconscious psychic energy driven by sexual/aggressive urges
                -Pleasure Principle: the id demands immediate gratification

        2. Superego: part of personality that represents internalized ideals and standard for judgment
        3. Ego: mostly conscious part of personality that mediates id vs. superego struggle
              -Reality principle: attempts to gratify id in ways acceptable to superego

More current ways to uncover the unconscious:

        Projective Tests:

                 Rorschach inkblot test: lots of clinicians administer it but it’s basically unreliable
                 Thematic Apperception Test: creating a story for 30 provocative but ambiguous pictures
Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development:


        1.   Oral stage- orally aggressive/ orally passive
        2.   Anal stage: anal retentive/ anal expulsive
        3.   Phallic stage: (Oedipus/Elektra complexes)
        4.   Latency
        5.   Genital (unsatisfactory relationships)

       Oedipus complex: from ages 3-6 years old, boys want their mom. Unconsciously. They develop jealousy and
        hatred for their father.
        >Castration anxiety: fear of becoming like a female (weak)

       Electra complex: a girl’s feelings of inferiority and jealousy (anxiety)
        >Penis envy: a girl’s feeling of anger toward the fact that they’re female

Freud’s Defense Mechanisms: methods of reducing anxiety unconsciously

       Repression: forcibly blocking unacceptable thoughts from conscious mind
       Projection: disguise own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
       Reaction formation: unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites (like when politicians
        cheat on their spouses and then get super mad at other cheaters in order to “cover up” their own
       Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy toward positive outlets-“socially useful”

Neo-Freudians: people supporting Freud’s ideas but with more emphasis on the conscious mind and didn’t target sex
and aggression as primary motives for personality.

-Carl Jung (1875-1961): Swiss psychiatrist; close friend of Freud and intrigued by his beliefs

        -    Collective unconscious: symbolism and representation of cultural meaning and knowledge
        -    Synchronicity: 2 or more events seemingly co-occur meaningfully, but casually unrelated- a meaningful

Negative Evaluations of Psychoanalysis:

        > Many of Freud’s ideas proven wrong by modern research

                    Scientific shortcomings of his theories; not really testable predictions

Positive Evaluations of Psychoanalysis:

        >Roots of modern study of:

                    Unconscious/ implicit processes
                    Self protective defenses
                    Sexuality as human motivation
                    Social well being
-Gordon Alport (1897-1967): founder of modern personality psychology. Thought psychoanalysis was too deep and
behaviorism was not deep enough.

        -Trait: Characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act a certain way; describing rather than
        explaining behavior

Lexical Approach

        >Lexical Hypothesis: All-important individual differences have been encoded within language over time.

                  Synonym frequency
                  Cross-cultural universality

Statistical approach

        > Start with pool of personality items and have large numbers of people rate self on traits

        >Factor Analysis: statistical procedure that identifies groups of items that co-vary, but do not co-vary with other
        groups. (Correlation in groups)

Theoretical approach

        >theory dictates which traits are important to measure

The Big Five

     Openness- vague trait; distinguishes imaginative creative people
     Conscientiousness- how we control, direct, and regulate our lives
     Extraversion-engagement with the outside social world

     Agreeableness-concern with cooperation and social harmony
     Neuroticism-tendency to experience strong negative emotions. Intense emotional reactions long lasting.

-Personal Control: a feeling we control our lives rather than feeling helpless

               External locus of control- perception that chance or outside forces control the things that happen to
                you. Can lead to learned helplessness
               Internal locus of control-perception that you control the things that happen to you
               Learned helplessness: hopeless and passive resignation learned when an animal can’t avoid repeated
                negative events

-Optimism: belief that things are more likely to go well than badly

                    o   Optimistic bias- tendency to be over optimistic about future outcomes

Written by: Alex Jacoby and Lyda Harris
Table of Contents
                                                  Unit 11 Review
Intelligence: mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to
adapt to new situations
Factor Analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify
different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score
General Intelligence (g): a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental
abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Multiple Intelligences: intelligence comes in different packages; Garner eight intelligences
Savant Syndrome: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such
as in computation or drawing
Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, manage, and use emotions
Creativity: The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Intelligence test: a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others,
using numerical scores
Mental Age: measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically
corresponds to a given level or performance.
Stanford-Binet: the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test
Intelligence quotient (IQ): defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
(thus IQ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score
of 100
Aptitude Test: a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
Achievement test: a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and
performance (nonverbal) subtests
Standardization: defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
Normal Curve: the symmetrical bell shaped curve that described the distribution of many physical and psychological
attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer scores lie near the extremes
Reliability; the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of
the test, or alternate forms of the test, or no retesting
Validity: the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Content validity: The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
Criterion: the behavior that a test is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has
predictive validity
Predictive validity: the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict it is assessed by
computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
Mental retardation: a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty
in adapting to the demands of life
Down Syndrome: a condition of retardation and association physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in ones
genetic makeup
Stereotype threat: a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
      In 1904 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon were commissioned to study the idea of intelligence, and they set out
          to measure a person’s mental age.
      Binet and Simon eventually came up with an intelligence test that was later modified by Lewis Therman, into the
          Stanford-Binet test.

   From tests like these William Stern derived the idea of the Intelligence Quotient, which is the mental age divided
    by the chronological age multiplied by 100.
   Modern day tests must adhere to standardization, which is statistical normality such that 68% of scores fall
    within 1 standard deviation of the mean, 95% fall within 2 standard deviations, 99.7% fall within 3 standard
   In studies, it has been shown that the IQ’s of kids as 11 year olds is highly correlated with their measured IQ’s as
    80 year olds.
   Intelligence is also highly genetic. Identical twins have virtually similar intelligence test scores as those of a
    person taking the same test twice.
   Identical twins also have very similar gray matter volume.
   Environments also have an effect on intelligence. Malnutrition, sensory deprivation and social isolation can
    retard normal brain development.
   Tests from different regions in the world yield different IQ’s. This might be due to the fact that questions don’t
    always translate well to other countries and cultures, leading to lowered scores.
   There are also gender differences in IQ, girls are better spellers and more verbally fluent. However, males seem
    have a higher percentage of the extreme intelligence areas, i.e. there are more boys with extremely low and
    extremely high intelligence compared to girls.
   Stereotype threat occurs when someone knows that they are supposed to do badly on a test and then
    subsequently do badly. For example, if someone is told that their race/gender is supposed to do worse on a test,
    then they generally will.

Written by: Jonathan Ferng and Salika Dunatunga

Table of Contents

Unit 11: Intelligence

Intelligence – the mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to
new situations.

Early Intelligence Theories

         Charles Spearman (1863-1945) helped develop factor analysis – a statistical
         procedure which helps identify clusters of test items that measure a common                                              ability
         – and also theorized general intelligence (g) – a factor that underlies the
         clusters of mental abilities, possibly measured by every part of an intelligence                                         test

                  Pros: different abilities do appear to have some tendency to correlate

                  Cons: abilities are too diverse to be completely defined within one
                  general intelligence factor
                                                                                                      Spearman’s g factor
                              Satoshi Kanazawa (2004) claims g evolved to cope with novel
                              problems; general intelligence scores correlate with ability to solve new problems but not with solving
                              evolutionarily familiar situations

         L. L. Thurstone (1887-1955) identified 7 clusters of primary mental abilities – word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial
         ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory

                  Pros: accounts of the diversity in human ability more clearly than a single factor

                  Cons: some clustering exists within these seven groups, suggesting an underlying factor

Contemporary Intelligence Theories

         Howard Gardener (1983, 1999) after studying savants – persons who oft score low on intelligence tests but have an island
         of brilliance – proposed multiple (eight) intelligences – linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalist, spatial, bodily-
         kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal (understanding others), interpersonal (understanding one’s self) – and suggested a ninth
         – existential

                  Pros: accounts for skills other than mathematical and verbal that are important to adaptability

                  Cons: all abilities may not be considered intelligences, but talents instead

         Robert Sternberg (1985, 2003) proposes a triarchic theory of intelligences – analytical (academic problem solving; for
         problems with one solution), creative (generating new ideas), and practical (for problems with multiple solutions)

                  Pros: the three aspects of intelligence may be reliably measured

                  Cons: may still have the underlying g factor, and prediction of success is yet to be proved

                                                   Nancy Cantor and John Kihlstrom (1987) distinguish academic intelligence from
                                                   social intelligence – the know-how involved in comprehending social situations
                                                   and managing oneself successfully

                                                   Peter Salovey and John Mayer call an aspect of social intelligence emotional
                                                   intelligence – the ability to perceive (recognition), understand (predict change
                                                   and blending), manage (expression), and use (adaptive, creative thinking)

                                                   Izard et al. (2001) found that 5-year-olds who most accurately recognized
                                                   emotions became 9-year-olds who easily made friends, cooperated with the
                                                   teacher, and managed their emotions


          Emotional intelligence                    Creativity – the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable; 5
                                                    components to creativity (Sternberg, 1988) – expertise (well developed base of
knowledge), imaginative thinking skills (recognize patters, make connections, and see things in a novel way), venturesome
personality (tolerant of ambiguity/risk, seeks new experiences), intrinsic motivation (motivated by challenge/satisfaction of the job,
not external forces), and a creative environment (surrounded by colleagues who mentor/challenge/support each other)

Brain Size and Speed

Moderate positive correlation between volume of brain and IQ score (approximately +0.40); post-mortem studies show highly
educated persons have approximately 17% more synaptic connections

         Haier et al. (2004) correlated IQ scores with brain scans (measured volume of gray matter [neural bodies] and white matter
         [axons and dendrites]); higher IQ correlated with more gray matter in areas involving memory, attention, and language

Moderate positive correlation between perceptual speed and IQ score (+0.40 to +0.50); highly intelligent persons have quicker brain
wave registration of simple stimuli

         Brody (1992, 2001) suspects a core information processing ability (similar to the idea of general ability)

         Vernon (1983) speculates faster cognitive processing means more acquired information

Early Intelligence Testing

Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Théodore Simon (1873-1961) developed the first intelligence tests to assess a mental age – the
chronological age typical of a given level or performance – based on the idea that intellectual development was the same, but some
developed more rapidly than others

         Lewis Terman (1877-1956) adopted and revised Binet and Simon’s test into the Stanford-Binet, used to identify the
         numerical measure of inherited intelligence

                    Intelligence quotient – first defined as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
                    (thus, ma/ca x 100) by German psychologist William Stern, used in concordance with tests like the Stanford-Binet

                            Modern intelligence test scores are based on the test-taker’s performance relative to the average
                            performance of others of the same age

Modern Intelligence Testing
                                                              The WAIS-III
Aptitude tests – intended to predict ability to learn a       composition
new skill

Achievement tests – intended to reflect what was

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – most
commonly used intelligence test today, comprised of 11
subtests; notable differences between subtest scores
may indicate learning disabilities or brain disorders; the
child-friendly version is called the Wechsler Intelligence
Scale for Children (WISC)

Test Construction

3 criteria for test construction:

         Standardization – defining meaningful scores relative to pretested groups, typically creating a normal distribution curve;
         the Stanford-Binet, WAIS, WSIC are periodically restandardized

                    James Flynn (1987, 1999) calculated the magnitude of the Flynn Effect – the global improvement of intelligence
                    test performance over the past 100 years documented in 20 countries, may be due to better nutrition, less
                    childhood disease, greater parental investment, and/or more stimulating environments

         Reliability – the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of
         the test (split-half), on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting (test-restest)

         Validity – the extent to which the test actually measures what it is supposed to measure or predicts what it is supposed to

                    Criterion validity – the test agrees with some other independent measure of what the test aims to assess

IQ and Achievement

Long search for markers of intelligence in infancy:

    1)   2-7 month-old babies who grow bored with a picture quickly tend to have higher intelligence scores and brain speed 11
         years later.
    2)   The intelligence tests of 4-year-old children tend to predict adolescent & adult scores.
    3)   Early readers tend to have higher IQ scores in adolescence.
    4)   After age 7, intelligence test scores are surprisingly stable.

    5)   Deary et al. (2004) was a long-term longitudinal study with intelligence tests given to 11-year-olds in Scotland in 1932 and
         re-administered to 542 survivors as 80-year-olds; r=+0.66 (after almost 70 years).

Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation

         3 main criteria for retardation – IQ score of 70 or below, significant limitations in everyday life (in 2 or more domains) and
         retardation present since childhood.

         Islands of Excellence – areas in which retarded people perform remarkably well (Williams syndrome and savants).

         Williams Syndrome – combination of mental retardation and islands of excellence. Patients often have a large vocabulary,
         detailed knowledge of facts, abnormal thickening of cortical areas involved with language, and difficulty understanding
         facts they seem to grasp.

Common Causes of Mental Retardation

        1) Down Syndrome = most common type.
        2) Fragile X Syndrome = repeating bit of DNA on X chromosome (2X as common in males because they only have one X
        3) Autism.
    Environmental Causes
        1) Problems during Pregnancy such as fetal alcohol syndrome, malnutrition, diabetes, etc.
        2) Problems at Birth such as pre-maturity or low birth weight.
        3) Problems after Birth such as childhood diseases or lead and mercury poisoning.

Extremes of Intelligence: The Gifted – People with an IQ of at least 135.
        Gifted Boys – lower testosterone levels than non-gifted boys.
        Gifted Girls – higher testosterone levels than non-gifted girls.

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
         Adoption Studies – IQ scores of identical twins are nearly as similar as test-retest reliability; fraternal twins have much less
         similar IQ scores.

Environment and Intelligence

Hunt (1982) – observation of poor Iranian orphanage. Many orphans did not sit up alone by age 2 and were not walking by age 4 and
displayed slow development. They were described as “glum lumps.”

Racial Differences in Intelligence

         The Bell Curve (Herrnstein & Murray, 1994) – For income, job performance, unwed pregnancy and crime, intelligence is a
         better predictor than SES and education level. Wealth and positive social outcomes are distributed more and more
         according to people’s intelligence. Public perception was that IQ differences between races were due to genetics.

Gender Differences in Intelligence?

         The female advantage – Better spellers, better verbal fluency, better memory for verbal info, better at locating objects and
         memory for picture associations, less likely to underachieve and slightly better at rapid mathematical computation.

The male advantage – better at mathematical problem solving and at spatial tasks

Bias in Intelligence Testing – Cultural Differences or Bias in IQ Test Administration

         Stereotype – socially shared belief about the attributes of a group and its individual members

         Stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) – cultural stereotypes “in the air” about all groups, many of which say that
         certain groups do poorly in a certain domain. These stereotypes may affect performance of stereotyped people in that
         domain (even without interacting with a biased person).

    Steps from stereotypes to performance:

         1) Awareness of stereotype causes self-threat.
         2) Self-threat causes increased concern (anxiety) about confirming the stereotype.
         3) Concern causes poorer performance.

Stereotype Threat Studies
         Steele & Aronson, 1995 – When black and white participants completed items from the GRE and the test was framed as
         diagnostic or not diagnostic of innate IQ, whites and blacks performed about the same without test framed as diagnostic
         while whites did a little better when the test was framed as diagnostic.

         Spencer, Steele, & Quinn (1997) – Men and women completed math tests that were said to produce or not produce gender
         differences. When told that there was no gender difference, both genders performed the same, but when told there was a
         gender difference women did worse.

         The “White Men Can’t Jump” Study (Stone, Perry, & Darley, 1997) – Participants listened to radio broadcasts of a
         basketball game that evaluated the performance of a “black or white player” (they evaluated the same player in actuality).
         Participants said that the black athletes had high athletic ability and low sports intelligence while white athletes had low
         athletic ability and high sports intelligence.

         Stone et al. (1999) – Black and white participants played laboratory golf. Their performance was framed as diagnostic of
         natural athletic ability/sports intelligence/sports psychology (control). If the performance was framed as diagnostic of
         sports IQ, whites did better. If framed as natural ability, blacks did better.

What can we do about Stereotype Threat?
         We can have positive role models, limited testing environment, limited testing instructions, etc.

         Johns, Schmader, & Martens (2005) – Does knowing about the stereotype threat make a difference? Men and women took
         a math test that was presented in three different ways: to measure problem solving (control), see if there were still gender
         differences when the stereotype threat was taught, or with teaching intervention. Knowing about the stereotype threat
         made a significant difference.

Written by: Davey Lyons

Table of Contents

Unit 11: Intelligence

What is intelligence?

       Intelligence is the ability to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new
       Some people however, believe intelligence is not merely on characteristic to be measured, thus there is a theory
        of multiple intelligences.
            o Supported by Howard Garner, he notes that some brain damage might not weaken one aspect of a
                 person but affect another aspect.
            o Savant syndrome is an example of this, where the person scores relatively low on intelligence tests, but
                 can have unbelievable and astounding skills in math and computing and art.
            o Garner does not see intelligence as one thing, and denounces general intelligence as a bad
                 measurement. Instead, he proposes 8 aspects of intelligence.
                          1) Linguistic
                          2) Logical-mathematical
                          3) Musical
                          4) Spatial
                          5) Bodily-kinesthetic
                          6) Intrapersonal
                          7) Interpersonal
                          8) Naturalist
        o Critics argue that it is incorrect to lump 8 different characteristics into intelligence, which does measure
            mental capacity.
       Factor analysis allows researchers to identify clusters of test items that measure a similar ability, which conform
        to the 8 intelligences
            o Charles Spearman who developed factor analysis, also believed in a general intelligence (g) which was a
                 factor that underlies that other factors.
       Robert Sternberg however believes in a triarhic theory, which distinguishes only 3 intelligences.
            o Analytical which is assessed by intelligence tests (single answer tests)
            o Creative which measures adaptation to new situations
            o Practical everyday tasks (multiple answers)
       Both Sternberg and Garner believe that multiple abilities contribute to success.
       Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
            o Linked to self awareness and outgoing attitude
            o *Note that this is not linked physically to general intelligence*
       Andrew Wiles invented the theorem for creativity – the ability to produce ideas that are new and valuable.
       However, intelligence tests and creativity tests seems to correlate slightly, but only on the lower levels of the
        scoring spectrum.
            o Creativity is derived from divergent thinking (thinking of multiple answers to a problem)

      People today see 5 components of creativity:
            o Expertise – a well developed base of knowledge
            o Imaginative thinking- seeing situations in new ways and to recognize patterns and make connections
            o Venturesome personality- a personality that tolerates ambiguity and risk, it perserveres in overcoming
                obstacles and seeks new experiences.
            o Intrinsic motivation- motivation by the self (self goals and pleasures), rather than extrinsic motives
                (deadlines, impressing others)
            o Creative environment- supports, sparks, and refines the entire process
      Intelligence is somewhat correlated to brain size and synapse count (~+.40). More grey matter also contributes
       to higher intelligence
      The frontal lobe of the brain is most responsible for solving intelligence problems (left brain for verbal questions,
       both sides for spatial questions)
      Eric Hunt found that people with higher intelligence scores also tend be quick witted, being able to retrieve
       memories and data easier and faster.

Assesing intelligence

      Intelligence tests are made to measure IQ (mental age/current age * 100) and these tests define intelligence as
       what they measure.
      Alfred Binet was the first to measure intelligence with a test, with his assistant Theodore Simon
           o This test measures mental age (the age the person is performing on)
           o This test only measured a student’s intelligence compared to other students at his/her age. The test did
                not explain causes for lesser intelligence
           o Lewis Terman adjusted this test into the Standford-Binet test, which was used to measure the
                intelligence of students as a means of labeling the less intelligent.
      Aptitude tests are meant to predict a person’s ability to learn a new skill
      Achievement tests reflect what the person has learned
      David Weschler then saw the “feeble minded” intelligence tests of American and made the most widely used
       test, the Weschler Adult Intelligence Test (WAIS) and its child counterpart
           o This test consists of 11 subtests that not only measure g, but also give separate scores for verbal
                comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed

Principals of tests

      Standardization is the process of defining meaningful scores relative to a pretested group
           o These tests for a normal distribution curve, known as a bell curve. The average score is a 100 and
                majority of people will fall within 15 points of the average
      A neat thing to know is tests have to be restandardized constantly, as people are growing smarter with new
       generations as compared to previous ones.
           o This is known as the Flynn effect
      Reliability refers to a test’s ability to yield predictable and consistent scores.
           o This is checked by retesting groups of people with a similar version of the test
      Validity defines whether the test actually measures the characteristic it claims to measure.
           o Content validity refers to the test’s ability to measure traits necessary for what the test measures

           o   Some tests are measured based on how they agree with criterion, an independent measure of what the
               test aims to assess
           o   Tests must also have predictive validity, which means they predict future achievement
           o   Most tests are good predictors early on in life, but become less accurate later on

Dynamics of Intelligence

      Children around age 4 can takes tests that would accurately reflect their future success. This correlation
       continues even up to age 11
      Mental retardation defines a person with a low test scores (<70 IQ) and demonstrates difficult in adapting to the
       demands of normal living
      Down syndrome is a disease casued by an extra chromosome and is related to mental retardation
      On the other hand, children who score very high on IQ tests tend to be successful later in life

Genetic influences on intelligence

      Intelligence has been linked to be a shared trait between twins
      This was true even if the twins were separated at an early age
      Baby grain development and intelligence is linked to the social intervention by the parents
          o J. McViker Hunt observed Iranian orphans and how simple vocal games by the parent resulted in great
              mental development as a baby
          o The same is true about environment, as poorer children tend to score lower due to numerous causes
      Races differ in scores and people who score better tend to make better livings
           o However, the race IQ gap as shrunk, but there are slight differences in averages for each race
           o Some also argue that environment plays a key role in why some races score worse (poor soil =
               poor growth)
      A Bias is some characteristic of a test that would cause a specific group of people to have less valid
       tests as compared to others for some reason.
      The stereotype threat is a bias that causes people of a specific group/gender/race to perform worse
       than normal due to knowledge of a stereotype
           o Such statements like “Women aren’t good at math” or “African Americans are better at
               athletics than whites” will cause the stereotype threat.
           o This is when the person becomes aware that they are within the stereotype, and then they
               perform below their average because they believe they will conform to the stereotype.
           o *Note that this can be nullified if the person knows about this concept*

Written by: Sarah Ochoa & Jasmin Fimbres

Table of Contents

                        Unit 12: Chapter 16 pg. #639-682 (Psychological Disorders)

Defining Psychological Disorders

       Psychological disorder: deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns

               -Deviant: Does the behavior violate rules that society defines as ―right‖ and


               -Statistical Rarity is another definition of deviance

               -Distressful: Is this person content with their life?

                        No distress  no disorder
                        Often major criteria in less severe disorders
                        Problem: lack of distress  harmless behavior
                                 -e.g. alcoholism

               -Dysfunctional: Do the behaviors in question disrupt everyday functioning?

Understanding Psychological Disorders

       Ancient Societies - supernatural vs. natural causes

               -4 humors: phlegm, blood, black bile, and yellow bile

               -Ancient Egypt

                   First known society known to prioritize mental health care
                   First known psychiatric text
                   First known mental hospital
                   First known mental physicians
       Mental Illness – Is it witchcraft?

               -maleus maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches): book that proves witches exist and explains how to
               diagnose a witch

       Mental Illness – Is it Evil Spirits?

               Trepanation: drilling holes in the skull to allow evil spirits to escape

               Exorcism: coaxing or forcing evil spirits out of their victims through prayers,

               loud noises, special potions etc.

       Advent of Asylums – Institutions offering shelter to mentally ill

               -often very poor living conditions

       Explaining Disorders: Medical Model vs. Biopsychosocial Approach

               -Medical Model: the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be

               diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological

               disorders, the medical model assumes that these mental illnesses can be

               diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may

               include treatment in a psychiatric hospital

                    Led to development of many psychiatric hospitals (replacing asylums)
                    Problem: nature (though critical) is not the whole story
               -Biopsychosocial Approach: how biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors interact to
               produce specific psychological disorders.

                      Biological influences: evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry
                      Psychological influences: stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood-related perceptions and
                    Social-Cultural influences: roles, expectations, definitions of normality and disorder
Classifying Psychological Disorders

       **DSM-IV**: the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders
       (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

               -The DSM: 5 Axes of Diagnosis (see pg 645 for detail on each axis)

                   Axis I: Is a clinical syndrome present?
                   Axis II: Is a personality disorder or mental retardation present?
                   Axis III: Is a general medical condition present?
                   Axis IV: Are psychosocial or environmental problems present?
                   Axis VI: What is the global assessment of this person’s functioning? (1-100 rating)
Labeling Psychological Disorders

       Rosenhan (1973): Rosenhan and 7 others went to mental hospital admissions offices saying they heard voices
       saying ―empty,‖ ―hollow,‖ and ―thud.‖

               -Though all were psychologically sane, all 8 were admitted; 7 diagnosed with schizophrenia and 1 with
               bipolar disorder

Anxiety Disorders

       Anxiety: state of fear, including: subjective reports of apprehension, tension, dread; behavioral responses and
       physiological responses

       Anxiety Disorders: psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive
       behaviors that reduce anxiety

               -Most common class of disorders

               -Generalized Anxiety Disorder: an anxiety disorder in which a person is

               continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system


               -Panic Disorder: an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long

               episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying

               chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

               -Phobia: an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent irrational fear and

               avoidance of a specific object or situation

                      Social Phobia vs. Agoraphobia
                           o Social Phobia                      Agoraphobia
                                    Afraid of social disapproval       Afraid of anxiety itself
                                    Comforted by avoiding others       Comforted by other
               -Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive
               thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)

                      2 common types
                           o 1. Cleaning rituals
                           o 2. Checking rituals
                    Compulsive  excessive, but rather means to relieve distress
               -Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories,
               nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a
               traumatic experience

                     “Incubation period”: symptom-free days or weeks after event, then onset
                     What traumatizes us?
                         o 1. War/Combat
                         o 2. Civilian exposure to combat/death
                         o 3. Personal trauma/abuse
                         o 4. Experiencing a natural disaster (survivor guilt)
Explaining Anxiety Disorders

       The Learning Perspective

               -1. Fear Conditioning

               -2. Learned Helplessness (e.g. ―Little Albert‖)

       The Biological Perspective

               -1. Biological Preparedness

                    The power of evolution
               -2. Genetics

                     Predisposition for anxious reactions
               -3. The Brain

                       OCD- hyperactivity in anterior cingulate cortex: brain region that monitors our actions, and
                        checks for mistakes
                            o Serotonin deficits
                       Panic Disorder- excess of norepinephrine
                            o Suffocation false alarm hypothesis: CNS monitors for Carbon Dioxide, hypersensitivity
                                to alarm system  panic attack
                       PTSD- high levels of norepinephrine, low levels of cortisol
Mood Disorders

        Mood: relatively lasting affective state

        Mood disorders: psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

                -Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): a mood disorder in which a person

                experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed
                moods, feelings or worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

                      Dysthymic Disorder: a down-in-the-dumps mood that fills most of the day, nearly every day, for
                       two years or more
                -Seasonal Affective Disorder: mood disorder characterized by depressive symptoms that arise only in

                     Light Therapy: exposure to bright artificial light for several hours
                -Suicide and Mental Health

                       Lifetime risk of suicide attempts among mood disorder patients  19%
                            o Depression  5x more likely to attempt suicide
Bipolar Disorder

        Mania: a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

                Basically, it is the opposite of depression.

        Bipolar Disorder: a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the

                Hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formally known as manic-
                depressive disorder)

        Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: History has given us many creative artists, composers, and writers with bipolar
disorder, including Walt Whitman, Virginia Woolf, Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), and Ernest Hemmingway.

Explaining Mood Disorders

       Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression: Depressed people are inactive and feel
unmotivated. They are sensitive to negative happenings, expect negative outcomes, and more often recall negative

        Depression is widespread: Its commonality suggests that its causes, too, must be common.

       Compared with men, women are nearly twice as vulnerable to major depression: In general, women are most
vulnerable to disorders involving internalized states.

       Most major depressive episodes self-terminate: therapy tends to speed recovery yet most people suffering
major depression eventually return to normal even without professional help.

          Stressful events related to work, marriage, and close relationships often precede depression.

         With each new generation, the rate of depression is increasing, and the disorder is striking earlier (now often
in the late teens).


      Each year some 1 million despairing people worldwide will say no to life by electing a permanent solution to
what may be a temporary problem. Comparing the suicide rate of different groups, researcher have found

        Nation differences: the suicide rates of England, Italy, and Spain are little more than half those of Canada,
Australia, and the United States; Austria and Finnish rates are about double.

          Racial differences: white Americans are nearly twice as likely to kill themselves

        Gender differences: Women are much more likely than men to attempt suicide. But men are two to four times
more likely to succeed.

          Age differences and trends: the suicide rate surges among older men.

         Other Group differences: Suicide rates are much higher among the rich, the nonreligious, and those who are
single, widowed, or divorced.

The Biological Perspective:

         Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in families. The risk of major depression and bipolar disorder increases
if you have a depressed parent or sibling. If one identical twin is diagnosed with MDD, the chances are about 1 in 2 that
at some time the other twin will be, too. If one identical twin has bipolar disorder, the chances are 7 in 10 that the other
twin will at some point, too.

       A search for the genes that put people at risk for depression is now under way. Gene-hunters’ pursuit of bipolar-
DNA links: Linkage studies seek to identify aberrant genes in family members suffering the disorder.

The Depressed Brain: Genes act by directing biochemical events that, down the line,

          influence behavior. The biochemical key is neurotransmitters. Norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that
          increases arousal and boost mood, is scarce during depression and overabundant during mania. A second
          neurotransmitter, Serotonin, is also scarce during depression.

The Social-Cognitive Perspective: Some people slide into depression for no obvious

           reason, even when life has been going well. Depressed people view life through dark glass. Their intensely
           negative assumptions about themselves, their situation, and their future lead them to magnify bad experiences
           and minimize good ones.

Negative Thoughts and Negative Moods Interact: self-defeating beliefs may arise from learned helplessness.

Depressed Mood

           Biological Influences: genetic predispositions, changes in brain chemistry, brain damage due to stress and other

           Psychological Influences: negative explanatory style, learned helplessness, gender differences

           Social-Cultural Influences: traumatic/negative events, cultural expectations, depression-evoked responses.

Depression’s Vicious Cycle: Cognitive therapist’s attempts to break this cycle by changing the way depressed people
process events. Psychiatrists attempt to alter with medication the biological roots of persistently depressed moods.

           1.   Stressful experiences
           2.   negative explanatory style
           3.   Depressed mood
           4.   cognitive and behavioral changes

Schizophrenia: A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed
perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.

           Symptoms of Schizophrenia

                   Disorganized Thinking

                           Delusions: false beliefs, often of persecution of grandeur that may

                                   accompany psychotic disorders

                   Disturbed Perceptions

                           A person with schizophrenia may perceive things that are not there. Such hallucinations are
                           usually auditory and often take the form of voices making insults or giving orders.

                   Inappropriate Emotions and Actions

                        The emotions of schizophrenia are often utterly inappropriate. Motor behavior may also be
                        inappropriate. The person may perform senseless compulsive acts such as continually rock or
                        rubbing an arm. Those who exhibit catatonia may remain motionless for hours.

Subtypes of Schizophrenia

       Paranoid: Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity

       Disorganized: Disorganized speech or behavior, or plat or inappropriate emotion.

       Catatonic: Immobility, (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrot like repeating
       of another’s speech or movements

       Undifferentiated: many and varied symptoms

       Residual: withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions has disappeared.

Understanding Schizophrenia

       Brain Abnormalities

               Dopamine Overactivity: researchers discovered that patients with

                        schizophrenia had an excess of receptors for dopamine.

               Abnormal Brain Activity and Anatomy: modern brain scanning

                        techniques reveal that many people with chronic schizophrenia have abnormal activity in
                        multiple brain areas.

               Genetic Contribution: the odds of developing schizophrenia are

                        approximately 1 in 100 in the general population; 1 in 10 if a family member has it; and 1 in 2 if
                        an identical twin has the disorder. Adoption studies show that an adopted child’s chances of
                        developing the disorder are greater if the biological parents have schizophrenia, but not if the
                        adopted parents have it. But 50% of those who identical twins have schizophrenia do not
                        develop the condition themselves, demonstrating that genetics is not the sole cause of this

               Psychological Factors: No environmental event can by itself trigger

                        schizophrenia, though some things may trigger the disorder in those genetically predisposed to

Personality Disorders

       Personality Disorders: psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and

                enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

        Antisocial Personality Disorder: a personality disorder in which the person

                exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be
                aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

Rates of Psychological Disorders

       Research indicates that about 1 in 6 people has, or has had, a psychotically disorder, usuacally by early
adulthood. Pvety is a predictor of mental ilnlness. Conditiond and experiences associated with povetty contribut e to the
development of mental disorders, but the converse is also true. Some mental disroberds can drive people into povertu.

Written by: Brittany Thrasher

Table of Contents

Chapter 16

   I.  450million People worldwide suffer from a psychology disorder
          a. Defining psychological disorders
                    i. Psychological disorders – persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions
                           1. Deviant – defined by cultural context and time
                                    a. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHA)
                                              i. Inattention – distractibility, forgetfulness, disorganization
                                             ii. Hyperactivity – fidgeting, restlessness and not staying seated at school,
                                                   excessive talking
                                           iii. Impulsivity – difficulty taking turns, interrupting, blurting out answers
                                                   while questions are being asked
                                           iv. Is normal rambunctiousness leading to over-diagnoses of ADHD?
                           2. Distress – the deviance must cause distress
                           3. Dysfunctional – the deviance and distress lead to an impaired life
                                    a. One may also become dangerous to oneself and not others
          b. Understanding Psychological Disorders
                    i. Medical model
                           1. “Moral treatment” – boosting patient’s morale, talking with them, gentleness, activity,
                               clean air and sunshine
                           2. Psychological disorders can be caused by physical causes giving the term “mental
                   ii. Biopsychosocial Approach
                           1. Interactions with Nature (genetic and physiological factors) and nature (past and
                               present experiences)
                                    a. Environment – bulimia/anorexia = western
          c. Classifying Psychological Disorders
                                                                      i. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
                                                                              Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV)
                                                     1.        Axis 1 – Is a clinical syndrome present?
                                                    2.        Axis 2 – Is a personality disorder or mental retardation
                                               3.         Axis 3 – Is a general medical condition also present?
                                          4.           Axis 4 – Are psychosocial or environmental problems also present?
                                          5.           Axis 5 – What is the global assessment of this persons functioning?
                                                d.        Labeling Psychological Disorders
                    i. Stereotypes
                           1. violent, when usually the victim
   II. Anxiety Disorders
          a. Anxiety disorders – marked by distressing, persistent anxiety of maladaptive behaviors that reduce
          b. Generalized anxiety disorder and Panic Disorder

                 i. Generalized anxiety disorder – an anxiety disorder in which a person in continually tense,
                    apprehensive, and in a state of automotive nervous system arousal
                        1. 2/3 women
                        2. Bad things will happen, muscular tension, agitation and sleeplessness
                        3. Cannot identify and thus deal with its causes
                ii. Panic Disorder – an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes – long episodes of
                    intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or
                    other frightening sensations
                        1. 1 in 75 people
                        2. Smokers 2-4x more likely “because nicotine is a stimulant, lighting up doesn’t mean
                             lighten up.”
                        3. Phobia – an anxiety disorder marked by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a
                             specific object, or situation
                                  a. Agoraphobia – fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult
                                      or help unavailable when panic strikes
                                  b. Social phobia – shyness to the extreme
                                  c. Avoid the stimulus
       c. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
                 i. OCD – an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or
                    actions (compulsions)
       d. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
                 i. PTSD – an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal,
                    jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for weeks or more after a traumatic experience
                        1. Combat veterans, accident and disaster survivors, sexual assault victims
                        2. learned helplessness
                        3. survivor resiliency, post-traumatic growth
       e. Explaining Anxiety Disorders
                 i. Conditioning fear – learning an anxiety when events happen unpredictably and uncontrollably
                        1. Stimulus generalization – attributing fears to something unrelated
                        2. Reinforcement – maintains fears
                ii. Observational learning – learning a fear after watching someone else display that fear
               iii. Biological perspective
                        1. A natural selection – biologically prepared to fear certain things
               iv. Genes – fearfulness in families
                v. The brain – over arousal of the brain
                        1. Anterior cingulated cortex – checks for mistakes
III. Mood Disorders
       a. Mood disorders – characterized by emotional extremes
       b. Major depressive disorder – a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of rugs or a
           medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and
           diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
                 i. Dysthymic disorder – step below MDD
       c. Bipolar Disorder – a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy
           of depression and the over excited state of mania
                 i. Mania – a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

                ii. Creativity and bipolar disorder
        d. Explaining mood disorders
                 i. Behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression
                        1. Sensitive to the negative, remember the negative, expect the negative
                ii. Depression is wide spread
               iii. Women are 2x more likely than men to be depressed
               iv. Stressful events often precede depression
                v. Genes – more likely to have it if a family member does
IV. Schizophrenia
        a. Schizophrenia – a group of severe disorders characterized by disordered and delusional thinking,
           disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions
                 i. Delusions – false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic
                ii. Disturbed perceptions – hallucinations
               iii. Inappropriate emotions and actions – wrong responses to situations, flat affect (the lack of
V. Personality Disorders
        a. Personality disorders – psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior
           patterns that impair social functioning
        b. Antisocial personality disorder – a personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience
           for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members, may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever
           con artist

Written by: Lisa Klein and Jesus Serrano
Table of Contents

Psychological disorders are persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. A behavior is labeled as
disordered when it is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
      Standards for deviant behavior vary by culture and time period (e.g. what was considered strange in
       the 1970s may be considered normal now)
      Distressful behavior major criteria in less severe disorders
      Dysfunctional- Does behavior disrupt everyday functioning?

   Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by
   age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
          o Inattention- distractibility, forgetfulness, disorganization
          o Hyperactivity- fidgeting, restlessness and not staying seated at school, excessive talking
          o Impulsivity- difficulty taking turns, tendency to interrupt
    Current debate about the labeling of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder

Understanding Psychological Disorders
       The Medical Model
              1800s- Assumption that psychological disorders are sicknesses; provided impetus for further
               reform as hospitals replaced asylums.
              Today- The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in
               most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that
               these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and be cured through
               therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
       The Biopsychosocial Approach
              Modern approach to mental illness
              All behavior, normal and disorder arises from interaction of nature (genetic and physiological)
               and nurture (past and present experiences, family, environment)
              Symptoms for illnesses vary between cultures; some disorder culture bound (e.g. Anorexia and
               bulimia occur mostly in western cultures)
              Biological Influences + Psychological influences + Social-cultural Influences= Psychological

Classifying Psychological Disorders
      Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) , or DSM-IV is a widely used
       system for classifying psychological disorders
      Based on assessments, interviews, and observations, clinicians diagnose by answering questions from
       the five levels, or axes, of the DSM-IV

               5 Axes of Diagnosis
                      Axis 1: Is a clinical syndrome present?
                      Axis 2: Is a personality disorder or mental retardation present?
                      Axis 3: Is a general medical condition, such as diabetes, also present?
                      Axis 4: Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems, such as school or housing issues,
                       also present?
                      Axis 5: What is the Global Assessment of this person’s functioning?
                           o Clinicians assign a code from 0-100

Labeling Psychological Disorders
      Labels create preconceptions that guider our perceptions and interpretations
      David Rosenhan (1973) On being insane in insane places
           o 8 healthy individuals admitted into insane asylum, all diagnosed with a psychological disorder
      Stewart Page (1977): called 180 people advertising rooms for rent
           o When she simply asked if the room was available, people answered yes
           o When she asked if room was available and mentioned that she had been released from mental hospital,
               most people said no.
      9 of 10 people with disorders pose no danger to self or others
           o Drugs and alcohol make people with disorders violent or dangerous

Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders: psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive
behaviors that reduce anxiety.
      Generalized anxiety disorder: an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive,
       and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
           o People with condition are usually tense, jittery, worried, feel muscular tension, agitation and
           o Individuals cannot identify the cause of their anxiety
      Panic Disorder: an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread
       in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening
           o Panic attack: sudden unpredictable periods of intense fear
                    Shortness of breath, heart palpitations sweating
                    World may seem unreal (Derealization), may seem unreal to themselves
           o last for a few minutes, feel exhausted afterwards
           o Agoraphobia- fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help
               unavailable when attack strikes.
                    Can be own disorder or as a development from Panic disorder

      Phobia: an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or
      Irrational fear that disrupts behavior
            o Social Phobia- intense fear of being scrutinized by others

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive
       thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
          o   Obsessions= repetitive thoughts
          o   Compulsions= repetitive behaviors

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
      Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories,
       nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more
       after a traumatic experience.
          o   Causes include war, civilian exposure to combat or death, personal trauma like sexual abuse, and
              experiencing a natural disaster (survivors guilt)

Explaining Anxiety Disorders

The learning Perspective
      Phobias
          o Fear conditioning
                 Stimulus Generalization
          o Observational learning
                 Learn to fear something by observing the fear in others

The Biological Perspective
      Biological preparedness
           o Hardwired to fear something
           o Passed down through human evolution
      Genetics
           o Predisposition for anxious reactions
                     People may share anxiety with relatives
                            Twins may share phobias even when they are not raised
      The Brain
           o Hyperactivity in anterior cingulated cortex among those with OCD
                     Anterior cingulated= brain region that monitors for mistakes
           o Seratonin deficit in OCD patients
           o Panic disorders: excess of norepinephrine

Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Disorders: disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from
previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or
     more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders: psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
   Major Depressive Disorder: a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or
     a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness,
     and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

          o  Dysthymia- depressed mood + two other symptoms of MDD for 2 or more years
    Bipolar Disorder: a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and
      lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive
          o Mania: a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
          o Bipolar I- one or more manic episodes
          o Bipolar II- cycling between mania and major depressive disorder
          o Cyclothymia- manic & depressive disorder episodes that do not meet DSM criiteria
          o Bipolar NOS-
                  NOS= not otherwise specified
                  Catch all diagnosis
Explaining Mood Disorders
   Summarized Facts:
      Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression
      Depression is widespread
      Women are twice as likely to get depression
      Most major depressive episodes self terminate
      Stressful events often precede depression
      With each new generation depression is increasing and striking earlier

Genetic Influences
      There is low brain activity during depression and high in mania. The frontal lobe, which is known for
       emotion, can sometimes be smaller but with medicine that boosts serotonin the hippocampus, which
       is the memory center, is boosted.
       Linkage analysis: They test families who have had the disease passed generation to generation. They
       draw blood from both affected and unaffected family members and compare the DNA
       Norepinephrine: a neurotransmitter that creates arousal and boost mood. Scarce during depression
       and overabundant in mania.
       Serotonin: second neurotransmitter scare during depression (pills such as Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil by
       blocking reuptake)
       “Good” Omega 3 Fatty Acid: also scarce during depression, increases brain functioning.

Social-Cognitive Beliefs
      Self defeating beliefs(due to learned helplessness) and negative explanatory styles

   Schizophrenia: class of disorders marked by severe distraction of perception, thought, mood, and bizarre

      Distorted thinking/language
       Delusions: thoughts with no basis in reality
       Word salad: jumping from one thought to the next
       Clanging: paring words of no relation

       Poverty of content: using many words all grammatically correct but conveying little meaning
       Neologisms: creating new words
      Disturbed Perceptions
       Hallucinations: sensory experience without sensory stimulation
      Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
       Flat affect: showing no emotion at all

Positive symptoms: hallucinations, talking in a distorted way, and exhibit inappropriate emotions

Negative Symptoms: toneless voices, expressionless faces or mute and rigid bodies

Understanding Schizophrenia
      Schizophrenia may be due to an over activity in dopamine which many create the positive symptoms of
       hallucinations and paranoia. Medicine that blocks dopamine receptors do little for the negative
      Abnormal activity in the frontal lobe, and shrinkage of cerebral tissue, and maternal virus during Mid-
       pregnancy are also common factors in schizophrenia

Dissociative Identity Disorder:
      Disorder in which person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
      Dissociation: separation of consciousness from previous memories, thoughts and feelings

Personality disorders
Personality disorder: disorder marked by inflexible long-lasting behaviors that impair social functioning

Ant-social Personality Disorder: disorder marked by lack of conscience for wrong doing even toward close ones

      Shown low brain activity in frontal lobe and while there is no gene that produces this disorder, genetic
       predisposition along with environment may encourage it

Border Line Personality Disorder: marked by emotional instability as well as instability in relationships self
image and behavior (hate vs. love in every aspect of life)

Written by: Steven Brener and Jahaziel Martinez

Table of Contents

                                                      Mental Disorders

Psychological Disorder- Persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions that are deviant, distressful, and

DSM-IV- the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders fourth edition. Used by psychologists to diagnose
patients in a consistent way.

Axis 1-Symptoms the patient is experiencing, and reason for the patient seeing a psychologist

Axis 2-Mental retardation and personality disorders

Axis 3- General medical information (asthma, headaches, etc.)

Axis 4-Social and environmental problems (divorce, lost job, etc.)

Axis 5-A rating from 0-100 of how well the patient functions

Rosenhan- did a study where he proved 8 healthy people could get themselves admitted into a mental hospital. I
showed how hard it can be to identify a mental disorder.

Anxiety Disorders- distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety, a constant state of fear.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder- unfocused out of control, negative feelings, always worried that something bad is about
to happen. Some symptoms are that the patient is tense, jittery, worried, agitated, and has trouble sleeping

Panic Disorder- Anxiety suddenly escalates to panic attack of intense fear without a cause.

Agoraphobia- Fear and avoidance of going out in public alone. Commonly connected with panic disorder. Patients
usually stay home and only go out with friends, but still stay close to home.

Phobia- Focused anxiety, and irrational fear. When exposed to the source of the phobia, the patient’s heart rate
increases, they sweat, shake, and it can cause a panic attack.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder- Obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors. The most common compulsions are cleaning
compulsions like hand washing, and checking compulsions like make sure the door is locked. Compulsions can be
defense mechanism for obsessions, patients obsessively think about germs, and compulsively clean to get rid of the
germs. There is also hyperactivity in the anterior cingulated.

PTSD- Haunting memories and nightmares caused by a traumatic event. Some symptoms are social withdrawal,
jumpiness, and insomnia.

     Mood Disorders
       Major Depressive Disorder
         Number one reason people seek mental health services
         Response to current or past loss

       a humans “low oil-pressure light”
       signs of depression (including lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in family and friends)
       Disthymic Disorder-watered down version of MDD
   Bipolar Disorder
       Alternation between depression and mania-euphoric, hyperactive, accelerated state
       mania
           over talkative, overactive, irrationally optimistic
           reckless investments, spending sprees, irresponsible activities
       after mania, usually plunge back into depression
 Explaining Mood Disorders
   Facts that must be explained
       many behavioral and cognitive changes
       depression is widespread
       women are twice as likely to have depression
       MDD episodes self-terminate
       Stressful events precede depression
       With new generations, MDD is more common and is striking earlier
   Biology
       Genetic influences
           identical twins-one has MDD, 50% chance other does too
           identical twins-one has bipolar disorder, 70% chance other does too
           fraternal twins-<20% chance
       The Brain
           low levels of Serotonin equal depression
           low levels of Norepinephrine equal depression-high levels equal mania
           also low omega-3 fatty acids
   Social-Cognitive
       self defeating beliefs
       negative explanatory style
       learned helplessness
       depressed people respond to to bad events in a self blaming way
 Schizophrenia- “Split mind”
   Symptoms
       Disorganized thinking
           delusions-fragmented, bizarre, distorted, false beliefs
           Word salad
       Disturbed Perceptions-Hallucinations
       Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
       flat affect
       inappropriate motor behaviors
   Subtypes
       Paranoid-delusions/hallucinations
       Disorganized-Disorganized speech, emotions,
       Catatonic-Immobility or excessive movement
       Undifferentiated-many and varied symptoms
       Residual-Withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
   Understanding Schizophrenia
       Brain Abnormalities-Biochemical
       Dopamine overactivity
       Abnormal Brain Activity
           low frontal lobe activity

          decline in synchronized firing of neurotransmitters
       Maternal Virus during Pregnancy
       Genetics
          50% chance in identical twins
          60% if in same placenta; 10% if in separate placentas
          real genetic link
       Psychological Factors
          few environmental factors, mostly genetic
          environment can worsen, but not induce
 Personality Disorders-inflexible and enduring patterns of behavior that impair one's social functioning
   Antisocial Personality Disorder-Socio- and Psychopaths
       lack of conscience, takes part in criminal behaviors
       unable to keep jobs, relationships, etc
       Understanding APD
          Biological
               reduced frontal lobe activities
          Nurture
               bad treatment as kids, etc

Written by: Michael Wagner and Alex Adams

Table of Contents

                                                               Unit 12
I. Psychological disorder: Distressful, deviant and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts or behavior
         Criteria:Violate rules of society, Content with one’s life, Does behavior disrupt day-to-day functioning?
II. Ancient Society’s And Evil Spirits
         -Hippocrates 4 humors: phlegm, blood, black and yellow bile
         -Egypt had the first psychological disorder book and hospital
         -Trepanation: Drilling holes in the skull to release the evil spirits within.
III. DSM-IV (Diagnostic Statistical Manual)
         -Axis- area of functioning to be examined.
                   -Axis 1: Labeling the disorder and recent criteria that supports
                   -Axis 2: Personality disorders or mental retardation
                   -Axis 3: General medical conditions
                   -Axis 4: Environmental problems (Ex. Divorce or death in family)
                   -Axis 5: Global assessment of performance in life (100 point test)
         -Pros and cons
                   -Standardized diagnosis
                   -Criteria causes labeling
IV. Anxiety Disorders
         -GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder)
                   -Persistent state of tension, restlessness, insomnia, irritable, easily tired
                   -Secondary anxiety: Anxiety about your anxiety controlling your life
                   -5% of population, 2/3 are female
         -PD (Panic Disorder)
                   -Described by Panic Attacks: Un-cued periods of intense fear and Anxiety
                   -Person has panic attack in public and then gains a fear of having another in public and not have someone to help
V. Phobias
         -Intense fear of a certain stimulus triggered by objects or situations.
         -Escalated heart rate, respiration, shaking
         -Social phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
                   -Avoid certain actions in front of public for fear of embarrassment
                   -Avoid public situations and have low self-esteem and blush sweat and tremble in the situations
VI. OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder)
         -Repetitive thoughts and behaviors that bring anxiety if not acted upon.
         -3 common obsessions: Germs, something terrible happening, symmetry and order
         -3 common compulsions: Grooming, repetitive rituals and re-checking
         -Those at risk: 2-3% of population
VII. PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)
         -Haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety
         -Symptoms must be present for 4 weeks following event
                   -Incubation period: Symptom free for a period and symptoms onset later
         -What traumatized Us: War And Combat, Exposure to death, Personal trauma
         -At risk: 5-8% of Americans. Certain professions. Women 2x as likely
         -Certain professions that see death and combat

                                                     Explaining Anxiety Disorders

Learning Perspective: Fear Conditioning; unpredictable, uncontrollable negative effects=anxiety (i.e. Little Albert)

Biological Perspective: Biological attributes which may make us prone to anxiety

1) Biological Preparedness: Those scared of the dark, heights, etc. were the ones to survive
2) Genetics: Predisposition to anxious reactions
3) The Brain
   a) OCD: hyperactivity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (brain region that monitors our actions, checks for mistakes)
       Serotonin deficiencies in OCD patients; SSRI’s inhibit OCD symptoms
   b) PD: Excess of norepinephrine in system from Locus Ceruleus (norepinephrine center): ―Fight or Flight‖ neurotransmitter
       Suffocation False Alarm Hypothesis—C.N.S. monitors CO2 levels; hypersensitivity=panic attack
   c) PTSD: High norepinephrine and low cortisol in animals facilitates learning; low cortisol=predisposition for PTSD?

                                                             Mood Disorders

Mood: Relatively lasting affective state; like an emotion, but less specific, less intense, more long-lasting

Mood Disorders: Psychological disorders marked by emotional extremes (Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, etc.)

Major Depressive Disorder (a.k.a. Depression): Mood Disorder marked by Depressive Episodes

         Depressive Episode: At least two weeks of low mood, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest in most activities

         Diagnostic criteria for M.D.D. (DSM-IV) = 5 or more of the following symptoms for at least 2 weeks:

             1.   Depressed mood most of the day, almost daily
             2.   Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in nearly all daily activities
             3.   Significant weight loss (not through diet)
             4.   Insomnia, hypersomnia
             5.   Intense restlessness, physical sluggishness
             6.   Fatigue, loss of energy
             7.   Feelings of worthlessness, or inappropriate or excessive guilt
             8.   Diminished ability to think or concentrate; indecisiveness
             9.   Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

         Dysthymia: Depressed mood + 2 other symptoms for 2 years (basically M.D.D. Lite)

         Depression vs. Anxiety: Opposites; anxiety is response to threat of future loss, depression is response to past loss

         Depression and Gender: Women 2.3x as likely to experience depression because men are more likely to distract themselves
         from the distress and women are more likely to ruminate (Rumination prolongs depression; Distraction relieves depression)

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Mood disorder marked by depressive symptoms that arise only in the winter (Winter Depression)

         Believed to be due to reduced light exposure (diminished vitamin D)

         Light Therapy: Exposure to bright artificial light for several hours (75% improve with light therapy)

Suicide: 1 million die each year of suicide (8x as many attempt; 3x more men than women are successful, except China)

         M.D.D.: 5x more likely to attempt suicide—55% of successful suicides were previously depressed

Bipolar Disorder (formerly Manic Depression): Mood disorder characterized by drastic swings in mood from high (mania) to low

         Mania: Medical condition characterized by extremely euphoric mood, hyperactivity, high energy levels (racing thoughts,
         short attention span, grandiosity, irritability, etc.)

         Manic Episode: Experiencing mania most of the day, nearly every day, for 1 week or longer

         4 Types of Bipolar Disorder:

             1.   Bipolar I – One or more Manic Episodes
             2.   Bipolar II – Cycling between mania and M.D.D.
             3.   Cyclothymia – Manic and Depressive episodes that do not meet DSM criteria (basically B.D. Lite)
             4.   Bipolar-NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) – Catch-all diagnosis

                                                    Why do Mood Disorders Happen?

Biological Influences

         Genes: Mood disorders run in families (if one identical twin has M.D.D. 50% chance other does; 70% for B.D.)

         The Brain: 2 key neurotransmitters

             1.   Serotonin: Too little leads to depression (SSRI’s and exercise boost serotonin levels)
             2.   Norepinephrine: ―Fight or Flight‖; boosts arousal, mood (too low=depression; too high=mania)

Biological/Environmental Influences

         Omega-3 Fatty Acid: A good fat (found in eggs, walnuts, and fish) that enhances brain funtioning
         Low levels in the depressed; cultures with Omega-3 in their diets have low levels of depression

Psychological Influences

    1.   Self-Defeating Beliefs: Negative assumptions about self, present, future (learned helplessness)
    2.   Explanatory Style: Internal (I suck), External (the world sucks); Internal=depression, External=successful coping

Social-Cultural Influences

         Cultural Expectations
         Traumatic (or even just negative) events

                                                       Stressful Experience

                                  Cognitive and                               Negative
                                  behavioral changes                          explanatory style

                                                        Depressed Mood


Psychoses: Class of psychological disorders in which contact with reality is impaired, disrupting everyday life

Schizophrenia: A group of psychoses marked by severe distortions of thoughts, perceptions, mood and bizarre behavior


             1.   Disorganized/Distorted Thought and Language
                      a. Delusions: Firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality (75% of Schizophrenics experience them)
                      b. Word Salad: Jumping from one idea to the next, sometimes within sentences
                      c. Clanging: Pairing of words that have no relation except that they rhyme or sound alike
                      d. Poverty of Content: Using many words, all grammatically correct, but conveying very little
                      e. Neologisms: Creating new words by combing two or more regular words (common words in new ways)
             2.   Disturbed Perceptions
                      a. Hallucinations: Sensory experience without sensory stimulation (70% of Schizophrenics, often auditory)
             3.   Inappropriate Emotions and Behaviors
                      a. Emotional reactions inappropriate to situation (i.e. laughing at a funeral)

                       b.   Reduced emotional responsiveness
                            Blunted Affect: Showing little emotion
                            Flat Affect: Showing no emotion at all

         Acute vs. Chronic Schizophrenia: Acute, rapid development, likely to recover; Chronic, gradual onset, recovery doubtful

         Positive vs. Negative Symptoms: Positive, presence of inappropriate behavior; Negative, absence of appropriate behavior

                                                Where Does Schizophrenia Come From?

Genetics: Genetic predisposition exists, but is not sufficient to develop schizophrenia

Brain Abnormalities

    1.   Dopamine Hypothesis: 6x as many dopamine receptors in schizophrenics (explains positive symptoms)
    2.   A Shrinking Brain: Schizophrenics have less brain mass

Psychosocial Factors: Low birth-weight, oxygen deprivation at birth, conception during famine all risk factors

                                                          Personality Disorders

Personality Disorder: Disorders marked by inflexible, long-lasting, behaviors that impair functioning (Axis II diagnosis)

Dissociative Identity Disorder (a.k.a. Multiple Personalities): Disorder in which person exhibits 2 or more distinct and altering
personalities (alters)

         Alters: Distinct histories, names, self images, mannerisms, ways of speaking, etc. (usually deny awareness of one another)

Antisocial Personality Disorder (A.P.D.): Disorder marked by lack of conscience for wrong doing, even toward close others

         Biological Causes of A.P.D.: Diminished Nervous System activity (fearless approach to life)

         Biopsychosocial Causes of A.P.D.: Social risk factors (childhood poverty)

Borderline Personality Disorder: Disorder marked by emotional instability

         Symptoms include being unstable in:

             1.   Relationships
             2.   Self-Image
             3.   Behavior

         DSM-IV Criteria

             1.   Efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
             2.   Unstable, intense relationships (idealization vs. devaluation)
             3.   Unstable identity, sense of self
             4.   Self-damaging impulsivity
             5.   Suicidal, self-destructive behavior
             6.   Instability of mood
             7.   Feelings of worthlessness
             8.   Difficulty controlling anger
             9.   Paranoia, delusions, dissociation

Written by: Derek Graybill

Table of Contents

Unit 13: Therapy

       Psychotherapy: A confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone suffering from psychological
       Biomedical therapy: the use of medications or medical procedures to help cure a patient’s nervous system.
       Eclectic approach: the combination of multiple types of treatment to treat a patient’s conditions.
       Psychoanalysis: Freudian ideology that by a therapist interpreting the observable parts of the subconscious the
        patient may receive insight into why they feel a certain way.
            o Resistence: blocking anxiety provoking material from the conscious mind
            o Free association: a method of letting the patient have a flowing stream of thoughts that the psychologist
                 could interpret
            o Transference: feelings in other relationships projected on the therapist by the patient
       Humanistic therapy: focus on positive growth
            o Carl Rogers: developed client-centered therapy based upon an accepting and open environment for
                 client growth. Focused on non-directive therapy (therapist is a mirror reflecting thoughts) and active
                 listening (empathy)
       Behavioral Therapy: application of learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviors
            o Counterconditioning: condition new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
            o Exposure therapies: behavior techniques that treat anxiety by exposing people to the stimuli that cause
                 the anxiety.
                       Systematic desensitization: counterconditioning that associates a relaxed state with an
                          increasing amount of anxiety-triggering stimuli
                       Aversive conditioning: association of an unpleasant state with an undesired behavior
                       Token economy: people earn tokens, which can be exchanged for rewards, for exhibiting a
                          desired behavior
       Cognitive Therapy: therapy that teaches people a new way of thinking
       Cognitive-behavioral therapy: combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies
       Four types of medications
            o Antipsychotic drugs: block dopamine receptors
            o Antianxiety drugs: depress sentral nervous system activity
            o Antidepressant drugs: SSRIs used to stimulate the brain into using more seratonin
            o Mood stabilizers: lithium used for bi-polar patients
       Alternative treatments
            o Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): induces seizures to alleviate severe depression
            o Implanted Electrodes: similar to a pacemaker for the brain
            o rTMS: Magnetic stimulation for depressed patients
            o EMDR: imagine traumatic memories while triggering eye movement to desensitize the brain to the
            o Light Exposure Therapy: people with Seasonal Affective Disorder sit in front of artificial light to mimic

o   Lobotomy: disconnect frontal lobe from emotional center of the inner brain, calms uncontrollable and
    violent patients

Written by: Matthew Schmit and Taylor Spevak

Table of Contents

2 Types of Therapy-

        Psychotherapy-“a planned, emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained, socially sanctioned
healer and a sufferer”. Your basic non-medical therapy. Used for learned disorders.

       Biomedical therapy- a prescribed medication or medical procedure that acts directly on nervous system. Eg. For

        Most therapists use an Eclectic approach, blending different types of therapy.

Types of Therapies-

Psychoanalysis-based on Freudian ideas.

        Assume people become healthier and less anxious when id-ego-superego conflicts are resolved. Use Free
Association, where the patient says aloud whatever comes to mind. Often focus on childhood. The therapist looks for
resistance , where a person pauses in their free association, possibly self-censoring, when a threatening subject arises,
hinting at problem areas for the therapist to look into. The interpret the resistance to show what the patient is avoiding.
Emotions felt towards therapist, with whom the patient has a close bond, are transference, where the patient transfers
strongest feelings towards previous close relationship to the therapist.

Con- psychodynamic analysis cannot be disproven.

Psychodynamic Therapy- Look for themes across relationships, inform the patient of their patterns. Less frequent than

       Interpersonal therapy- aims to help people get insights into the roots of their difficulties. Effective with

Humanistic Therapy- Focuses on patient’s inherent potential for self fulfillment. Focus more on present and future,
conscious thoughts, taking responsibility for your feelings/actions, promoting growth.

Client centered therapy- focus on the client, be a mirror of empathy, never judge, and encourage the client to use their
already present capacity for growth. Make clients feel unconditionally accepted, reflect what they feel so they can
better understand themselves.

         Active listening- listening to a patient, responding only by restating the patient has said, asking for clarification,
or reflecting their feelings. Humanistic therapy strategy.

Behavior Therapies- applies learning principles to eliminate troubling behavior. Condition patients classically, or use
Counterconditioning where the problematic response to a stimulus is replaced by an incompatible new response.

Exposure therapies- expose people to what they normally avoid, people become less anxiously responsive to the

        Systematic desensitization- pair states of extreme relaxation, generally achieved through progressive relaxation,
with anxiety-provoking stimuli.

Aversive Conditioning- associating a negative response with a harmful stimulus, eg. Alcohol and a nauseating drug.

Operant conditioning- behavior modification- reinforce desired behaviors, punish undesirable behaviors. Cons- needs
constant reinforcement, how ethical is it?

Cognitive Therapies- try to change the patient’s thought patterns in order to relive depression, etc. training people to
use different explanation methods. Good for depression.

Stress inoculation training- teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations.

Cognitive-behavior therapy- combination of the reversal of self-defeating thinking with efforts to modify behavior. OCD
patients learned to rationalize their urges, for example.

Group and family Therapies-

Family therapy- our actions are affected by those around us, that we grow in relation to others. Some problems arise
when need to differentiate from family and need to emotionally connect conflict and create stress. Try to get person to
see the role they play in the family.

How effective is psychotherapy?

      According to client’s testimonials 89% are at least “fairly well satisfied” but there is a tendency to overestimate
       the effectiveness of psychotherapy for three reasons:
    1. They tend to enter therapy in a crisis and when crisis passes they attribute it to the therapy.
    2. Clients may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort with the time and money they put into it.
    3. Clients generally like and speak kindly of their therapists and usually find something positive to say.
     Despite what clients say research has shown psychotherapy does not live up to their standards.
     Clinicians also overestimate the effectiveness of their treatments for reasons such as them leaving when they
       are less unhappy and usually stay in touch only when satisfied so most are not aware of their own failures.
     The placebo effect, belief treatment will work, and regression toward the mean, tendency for extreme or
       unusual scores to fall back toward the mean, contribute to the misconceptions clients and clinicians have about
       psychotherapies effectiveness
     To discover the how effective therapy really is psychologists look at patients who receive therapy and those who
       don’t and how much each group improves and using meta-analysis, a procedure for statistically combining the
       conclusions of a large number of different studies as if it was all one large study.
     While many of the outcome studies have varied they show that therapy does work and that while those who
       remain untreated often improve those who receive therapy are more likely to improve
     So which psychotherapy is most effective overall? Meta-analysis studies reveal no one type of therapy is more
       effective over the others although some therapies are suited to specific disorders:
       1. cognitive, interpersonal and behavioral therapy for depression
       2. cognitive, exposure, and stress inoculation training for anxiety
       3. cognitive-behavior therapy for bulimia
       4. behavior modification for bed wetting
       5. behavior conditioning therapy for phobias, compulsions, and sexual disorders

      How effective are alternative therapies? Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) have the
       therapist move their finger in front of someone’s eyes while they reprocess traumatic memories. Has not held
       up under scientific testing and success may be attributed to placebo.
      Seasonal affective disorder has been successfully treated with light exposure therapy, exposure to daily timed
       doses of light which a new perspective, and an empathetic, trusting, caring relationship. The therapeutic
       alliance, bond between therapist and client, is a key aspect of effective therapy.
      The bonds of trust between clinicians and clients may be difficult to form if there is a difference in personal
       beliefs, values or cultural backgrounds.

Biomedical Therapies

      Most widely used biomedical treatments are drug therapies owing to discoveries in psychopharmacology, study
       of drug effects on mind and behavior. To judge effectiveness of drugs researchers use double-blind studies to
       eliminate bias of expectations.
    Antipsychotic drugs dampen responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli. Have been used to treat positive symptoms of
       schizophrenia. Long-term use of some drugs may produce tardive dyskinesia, a neurotoxic effect which causes
       involuntary movements of facial muscles, tongue, arms, and legs. Newer drugs have less side-effects but seem
       to increase risk of obesity and diabetes.
    Antianxiety drugs depress central nervous system activity. Often used in combination with psychotherapy. Can
       produce psychological and physiological dependence on the drugs.
    Antidepressant drugs increase availability of norepinephrine or serotonin which elevates arousal and mood.
       Selective-Serotonin-Reuptake-Inhibitors (SSRI) are antidepressants which block reuptake of serotonin.
       Antidepressants are used to treat depression and anxiety disorders.
    Mood-stabilizing drugs, such as lithium, are used to treat bipolar disorders and have proven effective.
       Researchers not sure how they work.
    Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a biomedical therapy where an electric current is sent through the brain of an
       anesthetized patient. While how it works is unknown it has proven to be very effective in treating depression.
       There are also studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), where pulses of magnetic energy is
       sent through the skull to the cortex stimulate or dampen activity in various areas of the brain.
    Psychosurgery is surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue. The best-known example is lobotomy which was
       used to calm uncontrollably violent or emotional patients. Cut nerves that connect frontal lobes to the emotion-
       controlling centers of the inner brain. Often produced a permanently lethargic, immature, impulsive personality.
       After calming drugs were made available psychosurgery is largely abandoned and only used in extreme cases.
   Preventing Psychological Disorders

      Preventive mental health seeks to prevent psychological casualties by identifying and alleviating the conditions
       that cause them. Aim is to change oppressive, esteem-destroying environments into more benevolent, nurturing
       environments that foster individual growth and self-confidence.

To top