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jordanian olive oil industrysummer2011

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					    Olive oil processing


            Professor Alsaed A.K.
             University of Jordan




1
    Jordan Map




2
     Jordanian olive oil industry
• Introduction
• Olive tree is considered the most important tree in
  Jordan.
• Total area cultivated with olives constitutes about 71%
  of the area planted with fruit trees and 26% of the total
  planted area.
• The total No. of olive trees in the country is about 12m,
  producing 250000 tone olive fruits where 30000 tone is
  used for pickling and the rest is used for oil pressing
  giving about 25000 to 30000 tone of olive oil
• The olive fruit average production per 1 donum is about
  205 kg which is considered relatively low.

3
• The country reached recently (year 2000) to self-
  sufficiency with regard to olive oil and a surplus of about
  7000 to 10000 tone/year is recorded

• Due to the new planting of olives in the last 15
  years(1990-2004) the olive cultivated area increased to
  about 177%

• 77% of the olive trees take their need of water from
  raining fall where as the rest (23%) are being irrigated

• Consumption of olive oil (per capita) in Jordan is
  considered low(4 kg/year) compared to 7 kg in Syria and
  20 kg in Greece
4
    ‫القيمة التغذوية والصحية لزيت الزيتون‬
        ‫• 2. رٛطً فو٠ك ؽجٟ اٍجبٟٔ ثؼل كهاٍبد َِزف١ؼخ أْ‬
        ‫اٍزقلاَ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ فٟ ؽٟٙ اٌطؼبَ لل ٠ّٕغ ٍوؽبْ‬
                                                   ‫األِؼبء،‬
    ‫• ٚ٠مٛي هئ١ٌ اٌفو٠ك اٌجوٚف١َٛه عبٍٛي أْ كهاٍبرُٙ أصجزذ‬
    ‫أْ اٌغناء اٌنٞ ٠ؾزٛٞ ػٍٝ 5 % ِٓ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ٠مٟ ِٓ‬
                ‫اإلطبثخ ثبٌَوؽبْ ِمبهٔخ ِغ اٌي٠ٛد األفوٜ،‬
          ‫• ٚػيٜ مٌه اٌٝ أْ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ٠ؼولً أٚ ٠ّٕغ رىْٛ‬
                                          ‫اٌّٛاك اٌَّوؽٕخ.‬


‫5‬
      ‫• 3. ٚعل ثبؽضْٛ ٠بثبٔ١ْٛ أْ رؼو٠غ اٌغٍل ٌي٠ذ ى٠زْٛ مٞ ٔٛػ١خ‬
          ‫ع١لح ثؼل اٌزؼوع ٌٍشٌّ ٠مًٍ ِٓ اؽزّبالد اإلطبثخ ثَوؽبْ‬
         ‫اٌغٍل، ٚلل فَوٚا مٌه ػٍٝ اػزجبه أْ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ غٕٟ ثبٌّٛاك‬
               ‫اٌّبٔؼخ ٌألوَلح اٌزٟ رّزض اٌزأص١واد اٌؼبهح ٌألشؼخ فٛق‬
                                                           ‫اٌجٕفَغ١خ.‬
     ‫• 4. رٛطً ثبؽضْٛ فٟ عبِؼخ أٚوَفٛهك اٌٝ أكٌخ عل٠لح رضجذ اٌفٛائل‬
     ‫اٌٛلبئ١خ ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ فٟ ػالط ٍوؽبْ األِؼبء ٚاٌَّزم١ُ ٚٚعلٚا‬
            ‫أْ فطو اإلطبثخ ثبٌَوؽبْ رمً ِغ رٕبٚي ٚعجبد غٕ١خ ثي٠ذ‬
    ‫اٌي٠زْٛ، ٚػيٚا مٌه اٌٝ اٌلٚه اٌُّٙ اٌنٞ ٠مَٛ ثٗ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ فٟ‬
        ‫ففغ اٌّبكح اٌؾّؼ١خ إٌبرغخ ػٓ رٕبٚي وّ١بد وج١وح ِٓ اٌٍؾَٛ‬
    ‫ٚونٌه ى٠بكح إفواى األٔي٠ُ اٌنٞ ٠ؾٛي كْٚ رىبصو اٌقال٠ب اٌَوؽبٔ١خ.‬


‫6‬
      ‫• 11. ٌقظذ اٌلوزٛهح اٌ١ياث١ش ٌ١ٕبهد ٚىِالئٙب فٟ‬
       ‫اٌفظً اٌنٞ رٕبٚي األِٛه اٌزغنٚ٠خ ٚاٌظؾ١خ ٌي٠ذ‬
          ‫اٌي٠زْٛ ٚاٌنٞ عبء ػّٓ اٌىزبة اٌّؼْٕٛ"ى٠ذ‬
          ‫اٌي٠زْٛ ِٓ اٌشغوح اٌٝ اٌّبئلح" ٌّؤٌفٗ اٌلوزٛه‬
                             ‫وو٠زَبو١ٌ ٚهفبلٗ ثّب ٠ٍٟ:‬
          ‫• ٠ّزبى غناء ٍىبْ اٌؼل٠ل ِٓ كٚي اٌجؾو األث١غ‬
    ‫اٌّزٍٛؾ ثبهرفبع َٔجخ اٌلْ٘ٛ ثٗ ٚ٠شىً ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ‬
                            ‫اٌغيء األوجو ِٓ رٍه اٌلْ٘ٛ‬
    ‫• ٚلل أؼىٌ مٌه ػٍٝ أقفبع َٔجخ اإلطبثخ ث١ٓ ٍىبْ‬
    ‫رٍه اٌلٚي ثأِواع اٌمٍت ٚرظٍت اٌشوا٠١ٓ ٍٚوؽبٟٔ‬
        ‫اٌضلٞ ٚاٌمٌْٛٛ إػبفخ اٌٝ أقفبع َٔجخ اٌٛف١بد‬
                                            ‫ثظفخ ػبِخ.‬
‫7‬
      ‫• وّب أْ ٕ٘بن ػلكا ِٓ اٌلهاٍبد اٌؼٍّ١خ اٌزٟ أشبهد اٌٝ‬
           ‫فٛائل ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ػٕل ِوػٝ اٌَىوٞ ٚاٌّظبث١ٓ‬
                                         ‫ثبهرفبع ػغؾ اٌلَ.‬
    ‫• فمل ث١ٕذ اؽلٜ اٌلهاٍبد اٌزٟ ٔفنرٙب عبِؼخ ٍزبٔفٛهك ػٍٝ‬
      ‫67 شقظب غ١و ِظبث١ٓ ثأ٠خ أِواع لٍج١خ ٌّؼوفخ رأص١و‬
      ‫ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ػٍٝ ػغؾ اٌلَ، ٚٚعل اٌجبؽضْٛ أْ ػغؾ‬
     ‫اٌلَ أقفغ ثشىً ٚاػؼ ػٕل اٌن٠ٓ رٕبٌٚٛا ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ‬
    ‫فٟ غنائُٙ اٌ١ِٟٛ، ٚوبْ أقفبع ػغؾ اٌلَ أشل ٚػٛؽب‬
          ‫ػٕل اٌن٠ٓ رٕبٌٚٛا04 عواِب ِٓ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ٠ِٛ١ب".‬
    ‫• ٘نا غ١غ ِٓ ف١غ ف١ّب ٠زؼٍك ثبألّ٘١خ اٌغنائ١خ ٚاٌظؾ١خ‬
                                               ‫ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ.‬
‫8‬
    Drawbacks of the Jordanian olive sector

• The Jordanian olive sector faces some drawbacks such
  as:
• A. The production cost is high due to the high cost for
  fertilizers, pesticides, employee and irrigation water
• B. The low productivity of the olive tree grown in
  Jordan(15-30kg)
• C. The low quality of a major part of the locally produced
  olive oil due to some incorrect practices such as rough
  handling and improper harvesting (methods and timing),
  unsuitable packing, transportation and storage of the
  olive fruit

9
• D. The research activities regarding the Jordanian olive
  sector are still in their infancy stage compared with other
  olive producing countries i.e. research institutes are not
  existing, limited number of specialized laboratories for
  quality characterizing of olive oil are available … etc
  E. The competitivety of the Jordanian olive oil in the
  international markets is low since major part of the
  quantity available for exporting does not comply with the
  international standards
• F. The other olive products like olive pickles and other
  olive by-products i.e olive meal or cake or olive water are
  not utilized efficiently

10
         Olive varieties grown in Jordan

• The number of common varieties cultivated in the
  country reaches to about 20.
• The most popular variety is Nabali where oil percentage
  reaches to about 34%
• Another two varieties having excellent olive flavor are
  Quanbeesi and Souri
• Nasohi gabaa2 is considered the best for green and
  black pickles purposes
• Ascolano, Santcatrine and Santaugastine are the best
  for pickled olive paste processing


11
• Raseeai variety (improved Nabali) is used for both oil
  production (olive percentage may reach to 28%) and
  pickling

• Nabali, Raseeai and Grossadi (Spain) are the varieties
  that can tolerate dry conditions whereas Nasohi gabaa2
  are suitable for high attitudes and high precipitation
  (rainfall) areas.

• On the other hand, Turkish origin varieties such as Ivolic,
  Jaker and Ormjek suit deserts and can be irrigated with
  salty water

12
               Insects and Diseases

• Insects infestation and diseases spreadibility are
  considered relatively low in Jordan compared with other
  olive producing countries

• Such decrease in diseases and pest infestation might be
  due mainly to the low relative humidity prevalent for
  several months in the olive cultivated areas

• In some years intensive infestation may occur for olive
  trees encountering water shortage and grown outside
  their suitable area
13
                  Olive harvesting

• Harvesting is conducted either manually or mechanically.
  Manual methods in spite of their advantages in having
  almost intact and sound fruits but they are costly and
  constitute about 40 % of the total production cost

• The mechanical harvesting is practiced widely in the
  developed countries and on small scale in the
  underdeveloped countries where it is characterized by
  being costly



14
• Improper harvesting is probably the most significant
  problem facing the olive sector either on national or
  international scale

• Sometimes incorrect practices are being used in olive
  harvesting such as using sticks or gathering and
  combining fallen and infested or diseased olive fruits with
  those harvested freshly from the trees




15
• It is well established that for olive oil production, fruits
  should be harvested according to the ripening equation
  which was developed by the Spanish olive research
  center
• By using this equation, the proper harvesting time is
  determined by computing the change in color of the olive
  fruits. Proper harvesting time is reached when this
  change in color is about 60 -70%
• Unfortunately, many of the Jordanian olive farmers are
  not familiar with this equation which affects significantly
  the quality of the produced olive oil

16
            Olive postharvest treatment

• Packing, transportation and storage of olive fruit
• The proper pack for olive fruit is the ventilated plastic
  box. Although it is used by some Jordanian olive
  farmers, major part of Jordanian farmers use the jute or
  plastic bag with inefficient ventilation
• Due to the short period of the olive season (4-6 weeks),
  sometimes the olive fruits are stored under unsuitable
  conditions (high temperature, low relative humidity,
  unsuitable packs, inefficient ventilation …etc leading to
  inferior olive oil quality) for a relatively long time (3-10
  days)

17
• Pressing
• According to the international olive oil standard, virgin
  olive oil is defined as the oil obtained from olives using
  mechanical or physical methods only and under specific
  conditions

• Pressing includes many steps such as feeding, washing,
  crushing and milling, paste mixing or malexation,
  separation of the phases, separation of the oil from the
  musty and filtration, filling and storage


18
• Three types of olive press are being used for olive oil
  production i.e the pressure process, centrifugation
  process, combined method or what is called sinolea or
  selective filtration or percolation method
• Total No. of olive press in Jordan is about 107, with a
  capacity of about 300 tone/hr. Part of these presses
  were established before 1990 and it is old and produce
  about 40% of the produced olive oil. The second part of
  presses was established between 1990 and 2000; they
  have new technology and press about 40% of the olive
  oil. The 3rd part of the presses was established after
  2001 and use highly sofisticated technology and produce
  about 20% of the olive oil
19
Table no. 1. Some sensory & chemical quality
properties of olive oil as is in the modified local
specification
                         Extra virgin   Virgin olive oil   Ordinary virgin   Lampanti virgin
                          olive oil                           olive oil         olive oil



          Some
     Sensory&chemical
        properties

     Defects(Average)        0.0            0.0 ≥               2.5 ≥         Average ≤ 6.0
                                         Average≥2.5         Average≥6.0



      Fruity (Average)      < 0.0            < 0.0



        Free acidity         0.8              2.0                3.3              < 3.3



       Peroxide No.           20              20                 20             unlimited


20
     ‫خذول رقم 2. حصىيف زيج السيخىن بىاء على المىاصفخيه المحليت والذوليت‬




‫12‬
     Table No. 2.Olive oil profile form used to evaluate the
         sensory properties (to be filled by the taster)
         Defects perception                            intensity

         Heated-up

         Mouldy

         Metalic

         Rancid

         Positive attribute perception

         Fruity

         Bitter

         Pungent

         Taster name                     Sample code    Date




22
     ‫خذول رقم 1. بعض صفاث الدىدة الحسيت والكيماويت لسيج السيخىن وكما خاءث في المىاصفت‬
                                      ‫المحليت المعذلت‬




‫32‬
24
                               ‫معايير الدىدة لسيج السيخىن‬   ‫•‬
     ‫ٌمل ٍبُ٘ رأٍ١ٌ اٌّغٌٍ اٌلٌٟٚ ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ فٟ ِله٠ل‬     ‫•‬
        ‫لجً ِب ٠ي٠ل ػٓ 05 ػبِب ػٍٝ اهٍبء ِؤشواد اٌغٛكح‬
           ‫ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ؽ١ش طلهد اٌؼل٠ل ِٓ اٌّٛاطفبد‬
                                   ‫اٌلٌٚ١خ ثٙنا اٌقظٛص.‬
           ‫ػٕل أزبط ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ رغوٜ اٌؼل٠ل ِٓ اٌفؾٛص‬      ‫•‬
                                 ‫ٌزؾل٠ل عٛكرٗ ٟٚ٘ رشًّ:‬
       ‫ا. الحمىضت: رؼزجو اٌؾّٛػخ ِٓ أُ٘ ِؤشواد اٌغٛكح‬       ‫•‬
              ‫ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ، ٚ٠ظٕف ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ثٕبء ػٍٝ‬
          ‫ؽّٛػزٗ اٌٝ ى٠ذ ى٠زْٛ طبٌؼ ٌالٍزٙالن اٌجشوٞ‬
         ‫ٚ٠غت أْ ال ري٠ل ؽّٛػزٗ ػٓ 3.3% ٚى٠ذ ى٠زْٛ‬
            ‫ٌألغواع اٌظٕبػ١خ ٚ٘ٛ ِب ىاكد ؽّٛػزٗ ػٓ‬
                                                  ‫3.3%.‬
‫52‬
      ‫• وّب رَزقلَ اٌؾّٛػخ ٌزظٕ١ف ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ، في٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ‬
      ‫اٌجىو اٌّّزبى ٠غت أْ ال ري٠ل ؽّٛػزٗ ػٓ 8, 0% أِب ى٠ذ‬
         ‫اٌي٠زْٛ اٌجىو اٌغ١ل ف١غت أْ ال ري٠ل ؽّٛػزٗ ػٓ 2%،‬
     ‫ٚى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌجىو اٌؼبكٞ ٠غت أْ ال ري٠ل ؽّٛػزٗ ػٓ 3,‬
                                           ‫3% (علٚي هلُ 1).‬
      ‫• 2.رقم البيروكسيذ: ٚ٠ؼوف ثأٔٗ ِغّٛع اٌٙ١لهٚث١وٚوَ١لاد‬
       ‫اٌّٛعٛكح فٟ اٌي٠ذ ٔز١غخ رأوَلٖ ثزؼوػٗ ٌألوَغ١ٓ. ٚفٟ‬
         ‫ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌجىو اٌّّزبى أٚ اٌغ١ل أٚ اٌؼبكٞ ٠غت أْ ال‬
                                   ‫٠ي٠ل هلُ اٌج١وٚوَ١ل ػٓ 02.‬

‫62‬
         ‫• 3.امخصاص األشعت فىق البىفسديت: ٚ٠ؼزجو ِؤشوا‬
             ‫ألوَلح اٌي٠ذ ٚرىْٛ ٔٛارظ األوَلح وبألٌل٘١لاد‬
          ‫ٚاٌى١زٛٔبد ٚاٌزٟ رّزض اٌؼٛء ػٕل ِٛعخ ػٛئ١خ‬
          ‫ؽٌٛٙب 072 أٚ 232 ٔبِٔٛ١زو ٚمٌه ثبٍزقلاَ عٙبى‬
        ‫اٌّط١بف اٌؼٛئٟ. ٚ٠َزقلَ ٘نا اٌفؾض ٌٍزفو٠ك ث١ٓ‬
      ‫ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌجىو ٚى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌّىوه ؽ١ش رورفغ‬
        ‫ل١ُ االِزظبص فٟ األف١و ػٕل ِٛعخ 072 ٔبِٔٛ١زو.‬
           ‫• 4.الخقييم الحسي: ٠ٕفوك ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌَّزقٍض‬
              ‫ثبٌطوق اٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ ثظفبد ؽَ١خ ِّ١يح وبٌطؼُ‬
     ‫ٚاٌوائؾخ ٚاٌٍْٛ ٚ٘نٖ رغؼٍٗ ِقزٍفب ػٓ اٌي٠ٛد إٌجبر١خ‬
                                                 ‫األفوٜ.‬
‫72‬
                               ‫ٚرمَُ اٌظفبد اٌؾَ١خ ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌٝ‬      ‫•‬
                                                  ‫طفبد ؽَ١خ ا٠غبث١خ‬     ‫‪‬‬
                                                 ‫ٚطفبد ؽَ١خ ٍٍج١خ.‬      ‫‪‬‬
     ‫ٚ٠ؼزجو اٌزم١١ُ اٌؾَٟ أُ٘ ِؤشو عٛكح ٠زُ االػزّبك ػٍ١ٗ ٌزم١١ُ عٛكح‬    ‫•‬
                                                         ‫ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ.‬
       ‫ٚ٠ج١ٓ اٌغلٚي هلُ 3 ّٔٛمط الٍزّبهح اٌزم١١ُ اٌؾَٟ اٌّؼزّلح ِٓ‬       ‫•‬
                                ‫لجً اٌّغٌٍ اٌلٌٟٚ ٌزم١١ُ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ.‬
      ‫ٚرزٛفو ِٛاطفبد كٌٚ١خ طبكهح ػٓ اٌّغٌٍ اٌلٌٟٚ ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ‬           ‫•‬
                                                      ‫ثٙنا اٌقظٛص،‬
       ‫وّب رؼوع اٌلوزٛه أ٠ٛة ٌٙنٖ اٌظفبد اٌؾَ١خ فٟ ٚهلزٗ اٌؼٍّ١خ‬         ‫•‬
            ‫اٌزٟ للِٙب فٟ اٌ١َٛ اٌؼٍّٟ ٌي٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ٚاٌنٞ ٔظّزٗ ٔمبثخ‬
         ‫إٌّٙلٍ١ٓ اٌيهاػ١١ٓ األهكٔ١خ فٟ 9 شٛاي ػبَ 4241 ٘غو٠خ.‬
‫82‬
          ‫ٚرشًّ اٌظفبد اٌؾَ١خ اال٠غبث١خ وال ِٓ اٌفبوٙ١خ ‪ٚ ،Fruity‬اٌطؼُ‬   ‫•‬
                                  ‫اٌالمع ‪ٚ ،Pungent‬اٌطؼُ اٌّو‪.Bitter‬‬
     ‫الفاكهيت: ٟٚ٘ ٔىٙخ شج١ٙخ ثوائؾخ صّبه اٌي٠زْٛ اٌطبىعخ اٌٍَ١ّخ ٚغ١و‬   ‫•‬
       ‫اٌّظبثخ ٚاٌزٟ عّؼذ فٟ اٌٛلذ إٌّبٍت ٚػٕل كهعخ إٌؼظ إٌّبٍجخ‬
        ‫ٚرُ ػظو٘ب فٟ اٌٛلذ إٌّبٍت ٚثطو٠مخ ِٕبٍجخ. وّب لل ٠ىْٛ ٌٍطؼُ‬
                                ‫اٌفبوٟٙ ػاللخ ثٕىٙبد ِفؼٍخ ٌضّبه أفوٜ.‬
         ‫الطعم الالرع: ٚ٘ٛ ػجبهح ػٓ اٌطؼُ إٌبرظ ػٓ صّبه ى٠زْٛ فؼواء‬     ‫•‬
                                                            ‫غ١و ٔبػغخ.‬
         ‫الطعم المر: ٚ٘ٛ ؽؼُ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌنٞ رُ اٌؾظٛي ػٍ١ٗ ِٓ صّبه‬     ‫•‬
                                           ‫غ١و ٔبػغخ ٚغٕ١خ ثبٌف١ٕٛالد.‬



‫92‬
             ‫أِب اٌظفبد اٌؾَ١خ اٌٍَج١خ أٚ اٌؼ١ٛة ف١ّىٓ رمَ١ّٙب اٌٝ صالس‬        ‫•‬
                                                       ‫ِغّٛػبد وّب ٠ٍٟ:‬
               ‫المدمىعت األولى ٚرؼُ 6 طفبد ٍٍج١خ رٕزظ فٟ األغٍت ِٓ‬             ‫•‬
      ‫اٌّّبهٍبد اٌيهاػ١خ اٌَ١ئخ ٚونٌه اٌمطف ٚاٌقيْ غ١و إٌّبٍت ٌضّبه‬
                                               ‫اٌي٠زْٛ. ٚ٘نٖ اٌظفبد ٟ٘:‬
            ‫طعم مخخمر ‪ :Winey-Vinegary‬رزٛاعل ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ فٟ اٌي٠ذ‬               ‫•‬
           ‫اٌَّزقٍض ِٓ صّبه ى٠زْٛ رؼوػذ ٌٍزقّ١و ٚرىٛٔذ ٔز١غخ ٌنٌه‬
                                    ‫وّ١بد وج١وح َٔج١ب ِٓ اٌقً ٚاال٠ضبٔٛي.‬
        ‫طعم اإلصابت الحشريت ‪ ٟ٘ٚ :Grubby‬ؽؼُ فبص ٠ٕزظ ػٓ اطبثخ‬                  ‫•‬
                                                 ‫اٌضّبه ثنثبثخ صّبه اٌي٠زْٛ.‬
     ‫الطعم الخرابي أو األرضي ‪ ٛ٘ٚ :Earthy‬ؽؼُ ٔبرظ ػٓ ثمبء ثؼغ صّبه‬             ‫•‬
                              ‫ى٠زْٛ ػٍٝ األهع ٌّلح ؽٛ٠ٍخ لجً ػظو٘ب.‬


‫03‬
        ‫• الطعم الداف أو القشي ‪ :Dry/Hay-Wood‬رزٛاعل ٘نٖ‬
           ‫إٌىٙخ فٟ اٌي٠ذ اٌَّزقٍض ِٓ صّبه ى٠زْٛ رؼوػذ‬
                                      ‫ٌٍغفبف ثلهعخ وج١وح علا.‬
             ‫• الطعم العفه – الطعم الىاحح عه الخسخيه او الحرق‬
            ‫‪ :Fusty/Heated-up‬رزٛاعل ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ فٟ اٌي٠ذ‬
     ‫اٌَّزقٍض ِٓ صّبه ى٠زْٛ رُ رقي٠ٕٙب ٌّلح ؽٛ٠ٍخ فٟ أو١بً‬
                                   ‫ٚؽلس رقّو ال٘ٛائٟ ٌٍضّبه.‬
           ‫• الطعم العفه – الرطب ‪:Mouldy/Musty-Humid‬‬
      ‫رزٛاعل ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ فٟ اٌي٠ذ اٌَّزقٍض ِٓ صّبه ى٠زْٛ رُ‬
     ‫رقي٠ٕٙب ٌؼلح أ٠بَ فٟ أِبوٓ هؽجخ ِغ اٌزؼوع ٌّٕٛ اٌفطو٠بد‬
                                                     ‫ٚاٌجىز١و٠ب.‬

‫13‬
      ‫• المدمىعت الثاويت ِٓ اٌظفبد اٌٍَج١خ ٟٚ٘ أهثؼخ ػ١ٛة ٚرشًّ اٌطؼُ‬
       ‫اٌَّقٓ-اٌّطجٛؿ، ٚؽؼُ اٌمفف، ٚاٌطؼُ اٌّؼلٟٔ ٚؽؼُ اٌي٠جبه أٚ ِبء‬
     ‫اٌي٠زْٛ. ٚرٕزظ ٘نٖ اٌؼ١ٛة ٔز١غخ أفطبء فٟ ػٍّ١خ ػظو ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ.‬
            ‫• الطعم الىاحح عه الخسخيه أو الحرق أو المطبىخ ‪Heated or‬‬
           ‫‪ٕ٠ :Burnt‬زظ ِضً ٘نا اٌطؼُ اما رؼوػذ ػغ١ٕخ اٌي٠زْٛ ٌلهعبد‬
                     ‫ؽواهح ػبٌ١خ أٚ ٌّلح ؽٛ٠ٍخ فالي ػٍّ١خ اٌٙوً ٚاٌؼغٓ.‬
                                                                        ‫•‬
         ‫• طعم القفف ‪ٚ :Pressing Mat‬رٕزظ ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ ِٓ اٍزقلاَ اٌمفف‬
       ‫اٌّظٕؼخ ِٓ أٌ١بف عٛى إٌٙل ٌزؼجئخ اٌؼغ١ٕخ رّٙ١لا ٌؼظو٘ب ثبٍزقلاَ‬
             ‫اٌىجٌ اٌٙ١لهٌٚ١ىٟ ٚرؼزجو ٘نٖ اٌّشىٍخ فٟ ؽو٠مٙب ٌٍؾً ثؼل اْ‬
                              ‫اٍزجلٌذ أٌ١بف عٛى إٌٙل ثبٌق١ٛؽ اٌظٕبػ١خ.‬



‫23‬
     ‫الطعم المعذوي ‪٠ٚ :Metallic‬ظٙو ٘نا اٌطؼُ ػٕل اٍزقلاَ اٌّؼظوح ألٚي‬           ‫•‬
                 ‫ِوح أٚ ٔز١غخ ِالَِخ اٌي٠ذ ٌَطٛػ ِؼلٔ١خ طلئخ ٌّلح ؽٛ٠ٍخ.‬
     ‫طعم السيبار أو ماء السيخىن ‪ :Vegetable Water‬رظٙو ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ فٟ‬             ‫•‬
                      ‫اٌي٠ذ اٌنٞ ٠جمٝ ِزّبٍب ِغ ِبء اٌي٠زْٛ فزوح ؽٛ٠ٍخ َٔج١ب.‬
          ‫المدمىعت الثالثت ِٓ اٌظفبد اٌؾَ١خ اٌٍَج١خ:ٚرشًّ فمؾ 3 ؽؼَٛ أٚ‬         ‫•‬
        ‫ػ١ٛة ٟٚ٘ اٌطؼُ اٌّزئـ ٚاٌطؼُ اٌؼىو ٚؽؼُ اٌق١به، ٚعّ١ؼٙب رظٙو‬
                                                    ‫ٔز١غخ اٌقيْ اٌَٟء ٌٍي٠ذ.‬
       ‫طعم الخسود ‪ :Rancid‬رظٙو ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ فٟ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌنٞ رؼوع‬              ‫•‬
         ‫ٌألوَلح ثفؼً اوَغ١ٓ اٌٙٛاء ٚاٌؼٛء ٚرىٛٔذ ثٗ ٔز١غخ ٌنٌه أٌل٘١لاد‬
                                             ‫ٚو١زٛٔبد ماد هائؾخ غ١و ِمجٌٛخ.‬



‫33‬
     ‫طعم عكر أو حفلي ‪ :Muddy Sediment‬رظٙو ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ فٟ ى٠ذ‬                  ‫•‬
                              ‫اٌي٠زْٛ اٌنٞ ثمٟ ِالَِب ٌٍؼىبهح فزوح ؽٛ٠ٍخ.‬
       ‫طعم الخيار ‪ :Cucumber‬رظٙو ٘نٖ إٌىٙخ فٟ ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ اٌنٞ‬              ‫•‬
                              ‫٠قيْ فٟ اٌظفبئؼ اٌّؼلٔ١خ(رٕه) ٌفزوح ؽٛ٠ٍخ.‬
        ‫ٚوّب ٚهك فٟ وً ِٓ اٌّٛاطفخ اٌّؾٍ١خ ٚونٌه اٌلٌٚ١خ ٌي٠ذ‬                ‫•‬
      ‫اٌي٠زْٛ فٕٙبن ل١ُ ٠غت أْ رزؾمك ٌٍظفبد اٌؾَ١خ اإل٠غبث١خ أٚ اٌٍَج١خ‬
                ‫ٌىً ٔٛع ِٓ أٔٛاع ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ٚوّب ٠ظٙو فٟ اٌغلٚي 1.‬
          ‫ٌٚمل رُ رظٕ١ف ى٠ذ اٌي٠زْٛ ثٕبء ػٍٝ فٛاطٗ اٌؾَ١خ ٚاٌى١ّبٚ٠خ‬         ‫•‬
     ‫(علٚي هلُ 2) اٌٝ ى٠ذ ى٠زْٛ ثىو (ثىو ِّزبى ٚثىو ع١ل ٚثىو ػبكٞ‬
           ‫ٚثىو ٚلبكٞ) ٚى٠ذ ى٠زْٛ ِىوه ٚى٠ذ ى٠زْٛ ٚونٌه ى٠ذ رفً‬
                                                                  ‫اٌي٠زْٛ.‬



‫43‬
     ‫خذول رقم 3 ومىرج لالسخمارة المسخعملت في الخقييم الحسي لسيج السيخىن بىاء على المىاصفت الذوليت‬




‫53‬
Table no. 3. The area & production of olives & oil
production in the years between 1996- 2002
      Year     Total Area   Production of fruit   Production from oil
                (donom)            (Tone)          (Thousand Tone)

      1996      547821            88590                  14.2
      1997      616.170           57145                   9.1
      1998      626040           137549                   22
      1999      632599            38313                   5.2
      2000      637529           134285                  18.3
      2001      641010            65820                  10.5
      2002      644840           180900                  28.9
      2005      644840           250000                  34.9
     Average                     125898                  17.9


36
Table No.4.the Jordanian market of olive oil in the
years between(1996- 2002)

        Production      Imports     Consumption     Local Price
     ( Thousand Tone)   ( Tone)   (Thousand Tone)    (JD/ Kg)



         23              89.4           22            2.625

        14.1             2199           19            2.625

         21.             3438           19              2.5

         6.6             173            9               2.5

        27.2               -            20             2.25

        15.4               -            18             2.15

         (8)                           (23)            1.65




37
Table No.5. Evaluation of the local olive presses
     There are more than 107 presses of olive oil in Jordan classified into three categories:




       apresses established before         bpresses established between          c. presses established after
       1992                                1992 - 2002                           2001
       Press about 40% of annual          Press about 40% of annual                    Press about 20% of
       production.                         production.                                   annual production.

       Old, their equipments &            Considered new, some                 Was build & equipped to go
       building were not established on    developing was made to walk           with national requirement;
       the national specifications.        with the great revolution occur in    production, storage, packaging.
                                           this section.                         Now, these companies try to
       Equipment & Building should                                              enter international markets by
       be m modernized, converted into     A presses of great capabilities      selling their special products.
       the cold pressing, Increase the     was established with the
       efficiency of management &          investment transform from small       Many local & foreign sponsors
       storage, for the production of      family into a large                   held a field studies on the state of
       fine olive oil that meet the        manufacturing.                        presses and put the required
       national specification.                                                   recommendations to develop this
                                           This phase helped in the             section.
                                           production of Jordanian olive oil
                                           of fine quality.




38
Figure 1. The manual picking of olives




39
Figure 2. The using of combs for the picking
of olives




40
Figure 3. The using of mechanical combs for
olives picking




41
Figure 4. The using of mechanical combs for
olives picking




42
Figure 5. The using of ladders for olives
picking




43
Figure 6. The using of ladders for olives
picking




44
Figure 7. The mechanical harvesting of olives




45
Figure 8. The mechanical harvesting of olives




46
Figure 9. The using of stick for olives picking




47
Figure 10. Steps of the extraction of olive oil by pressing method




48
     Figure 11. Steps for the extraction of olive oil by centrifuging
                                method




49
Figure 12. Steps for the extraction of olive oil by senolla method




50
Figure14. The main producers of olive oil


                         Main Producers

       Other countries
              18%
                                          Spain
                                           42%

          Greece
           17%
                            Italy
                             23%




51
52
             0
                             150
                                   300
                                               600
                                                     750
                                                           900




                                         450
                                               •
                                                                 1050
                        Thousand Tons




             •
                             •
                                   •
                                               •
                                                     •
                                                           •




                                         •
                                                                  •
                                                                 1020
     Spain   •
                                                                 •




                                               558
     Italy   •




                                               •



                                         410
  Yemen      •




                                         •




                         103
     Syria   •




                         •
                        60
     Tunis   •




                        •
                        60
  Turkey     •




                     •
                     50
 Morocco     •


                    •
                    45
 Portugal    •
                    •
                    40
  Algeria    •
                    •
                    35



  Jordan     •
                 •
                 30




Argentina    •
                 •8




Palestine    •
                 •7




     Libya   •
                 6
                 • .5




  Cyprus     •
                 •• •
                    5
                                                                        Productive countries of olive oil




 Lebanon     •
                 •
Figure 15. The main importer countries of
olive oil

                                      The main Importers

                   300
     Million Ton




                   200


                   100


                    0
                         USA European Brazil   Australia Japan   Canada
                               Union


53
Figure 16. Exports & imports of the 3 main
producers of olive oil

                                  The case of Italy
                                                      Imports + Production
               1000                                    Exports+ Consumption
     Thousand Ton




                    500




                      0
                          Spain           Italy         Greece




54
Figure 17. The main exporters of olive oils


                                 The Main Exporters

                    300
      Million Ton




                    200


                    100

                     0
                     European Union Tunisia   Turkey   Syria




55
Figure 18. Quantities of olive oil consumed all
over the world

                                   Global Consumption
                      3000
      Thousand Tons




                      2000




                      1000




                         0
                             Consumption in 1991   Consumption in 2002




56
Figure 19. The Countries that form the
untraditional market of olive oil


                The Untraditional Markets
     200
                            Consumption in 1991
     150                    Consumption in 2002

     100

     50

      0
           ِِ        Australia France Germany
                Canada                      Britain




57
Figure 20. The Global & local prices of olive
oil
                        Global & Local Prices of Olive Oils
                       Local Price      Global Price

           3
     Individu




           2
     JD/

     al




           1



           0
                1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002*
58
Figure 21. Consumption from olive oil &
other vegetable oils


                            Consumption from olive oil & other
                                  vegetable oils
                       16
      Kg/ Individual




                       12

                        8

                        4

                        0

                              olive oil           vegetable oils


59
Figure 22. The Jordanian exports of olive oil

                    100
                      0
     Thousand Ton




                                  Exp           Mean
                                  orts          Value
                     50
                      0




                      0
                          1994   1995    1996   1997    1998   1999   2000   2001




60
Figure 23. The main market of the Jordanian
olive oil exports
                  Ukraine Sudanٍ
               USA    4%   0.23%
       Qatar   9.6%
       0.21%
 UAE
     11%


                                   Saudi Arabia
                                     53.2%
      Kuwait
       21.8%




61
                    iooc@internationaloIiveoil.Org-
http://www.intenationaloliveoil.org/SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL
                              STANDARD



     • GLASS FOR OIL TASTING

       1. PURPOSE
       The purpose of this standard is to describe the
       characteristics of the glass intended for use in
       the organoleptic analysis of edible oils (odor,
       taste, flavor).
     • In addition, it describes the adapted heating
       unit needed to reach and maintain the right
       temperature for this analysis.
     62
        2. DESCRIPTION OF The GLASS

• The drawing in Figure 1 attempts to establish the
  optimum characteristics desirable in a piece of
  apparatus of this kind, which can be specified as
  follows:
  a) Maximum steadiness, to prevent the glass
  from tilting and the oil from being spilled.
  b) A base which easily fits the indentations of the
  heating unit so that the bottom of the glass is
  evenly heated.

63
         DESCRIPTION OF The GLASS

• c) A narrow mouth which helps to concentrate
  the odors and facilitates their identification.
• d) Made of dark-colored glass to prevent the
  taster from perceiving the colour of the oil,
  thus eliminating any prejudices and impeding
  the possible formation of biases or tendencies
  that might affect the objectiveness of the
  determination.

64
                   2.1. Dimensions

•
  The glass is sketched in Figure 1, and has the
  following dimensions:
• Each glass shall be equipped with a watch-glass, the
  diameter of which shall be 10 mm larger than the
  mouth of the glass.
• This watch-glass shall be used as a cover to prevent
  the loss of aroma and the entry of dust.



65
     TASTING GLASS




66
     2.1 Dimentions




67
       2.2. Manufacturing characteristics

•
  The glass shall be made of resistant glass;
• it shall be dark-colored so that the color of its
  contents cannot be discerned, and shall be free
  from scratches or bubbles.
  The rim shall be even, smooth and flanged.
• The glass shall be annealed so that it stands the
  temperature changes it has to undergo in the
  tests

68
             2.3. Instructions for use

• The glasses shall be cleaned using un-perfumed
  soap or detergent and shall then be rinsed
  repeatedly until the cleaning agent has been
  totally eliminated.
• The final rinse shall be with distilled water, after
  which the glasses shall be left to drain and then
  dried in a desiccation stove.
• Neither concentrated acids nor chromic acid
  mixtures shall be used.



69
             Instructions for use

• The glasses shall be kept in the stove until
  required for use or
• shall be kept in a cupboard in which they
  shall be protected from contamination from
  any extraneous odors.




70
             Instructions for use

• Before use, each glass shall be smelled to
  ensure that no extraneous odor is present.
• When the test is being prepared care
  shall be taken to record the code of each
  glass and the oil it contains.
• The panel supervisor shall be the only
  person to know this code/oil relation.


71
     3. DEVICE FOR HEATING SAMPLES

•
  The samples shall be organoleptically
  examined at a set temperature which, in
  the case of edible oils, shall be 28 ± 2°C.
• For this purpose, a heating device (see
  Figure 2) shall be installed in each booth
  within the taster’s reach.


72
     HEATING DEVICE




73
• It comprises an aluminium block immersed
  in a thermostatically-controlled water bath
  so as to keep a uniform temperature.
• This block has a series of indentations into
  which fit the bottoms of the glasses.
• The temperature difference between the
  heating device and the oil contained in the
  glasses inserted in the indentations of the
  various blocks shall not be more than ±2°
  C.

74
           INTERNATIONAL OIVE OIL COUNCIL

             COIJT.20/Doc.no.6 18 June 1987




• SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL STANDARD
• GUIDE FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A TEST ROOM
• 1. INTRODUCTION
• The test room is designed to provide the panel
  participating in the sensory tests with
• a suitable, comfortable, standardised
  environment
• which facilitates work and helps to improve the
  repeatability and reproducibility of the results.

75
                  2. PURPOSE

•
     The purpose of this standard is to specify
     the basic conditions that have to be met
     when installing a test room.




76
 3. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR INSTALLATION


• The premises, however large they are,
  shall meet the following specifications:
• They shall be pleasant and suitably lighted
  but neutral in style.
• For this purpose, a soothing, plain, light
  color is recommended for the walls so that
  a relaxed atmosphere is created.
• The color scheme of the room and its
  lighting can affect the results of the
  sensory analysis.
77
• The premises shall be such that they are easily
  cleaned and shall be separated from any source
  of noise;
• consequently, they shall preferably be sound
  proofed.
• They shall also be kept free from extraneous
  odors for which purpose, if possible, they shall
  be fitted with an effective ventilation device.
• If the fluctuations in ambient temperature so
  warrant, the test room shall be equipped with air
  conditioning to keep the atmosphere close to 20-
  22° C.

78
                 3.1. Dimensions
• The dimensions of the premises often depend
  upon the possibilities of the laboratories or
  companies.
• Generally, they should be sufficiently spacious to
  permit the installation of ten booths and an area
  for preparing the samples.
• However, it is obvious that the larger the area
  set aside for the installations, the better, since
  auxiliary areas can then be provided, for
  instance, for cleaning apparatus, arranging food
  preparations and assembling open panels.


79
                  3.2. Lighting

• General lighting, whether from sunlight or
  lamps (for instance, strip lighting) shall be
  uniform, controllable and diffuse.




80
     3.3 Temperature and hygrometric conditions




• The premises shall be kept constantly at a
  pleasant temperature and under agreeable
  hygrometric conditions.
• Except in special circumstances,
  a temperature of 20 - 22 ° C and
  hygrometric conditions of 60 to 70%
  relative humidity are recommended.
81
           4. DESCRIPTION OF BOOTHS
              4.1. General characteristics

• The sensory analysis booths shall be placed
  alongside each other in the premises.
• They shall be identical and shall be separated
  by partitions which shall be sufficiently high and
  wide as to isolate the tasters when seated.
• The booths may be made of any appropriate
  material which is easily cleaned and looked after
  (for instance, wood, vitrified plywood, laminated
  panelling, etc).
• If paint is used, it must be completely odor-free
  when dry.

82
• The seats provided in the booths shall be
  comfortable and shall have an adjustable
  height device.
• Each booth shall also be provided with
  individual lighting, the direction and
  intensity of which may be adjusted.




83
• It is highly recommended that the booths
  be equipped with a button connected to an
  outside light which
• enables the taster to make known to the
  attendant outside that he has finished the
  test,
• requires further samples,
• is missing a piece of apparatus,
• has noticed some irregularity, or
• wishes information, etc. without distracting
  the other tasters.
84
                    4.2. Dimensions

•
  The booths shall be sufficiently large and comfortable.
• In general, they shall have the following dimensions:
  Width: 0.75 m (without sink)
         0.85 m (with sink)
  Length: 0.50 m (table)
          0.20 m excess for partition
  Height of partitions:
          0.60 m minimum from table
  Height of table:
          0.75 m.


85
               4.3. Arrangement

•
  The table surface shall be such that it is
  easily cleaned.
• Part of this surface shall be used for a
  sink provided with running, drinking water.
• However, if this is not practicable, this
  space may be used for a tray, spittoon or
  similar piece of equipment.

86
                Arrangement

• When the samples have to be kept during
  the test at a constant temperature that is
  above or below ambient temperature, it is
  advisable to have a suitable device for this
  purpose (bainmarie, hot plate, etc.).
• A shelf may also be set up at a height of
  approximately 1.10 meters from the floor
  for placing various accessories (glasses,
  small apparatus, etc.).

87
                       Arrangement
•    If the arrangement of the booths in the test room
     so permits, it is worthwhile installing a device to
     facilitate the presentation of the samples.
•    This may be in the form of a sliding hatch
     (Figure 1),
•    a revolving vertical device (Figure 2) suitable for
     glasses or cups (tall containers),
•    or a horizontally-opening hatch when the
     containers in which the samples are kept are
     small (Figure 3).
•    It is simply a question of ensuring that the
     opening is large enough for the trays and
     glasses containing the samples to pass through.
88
89
90
91
92
              COI/T.20/Doc. no. 6 page 4
            5. ADDITIONAL PREMISES

• If there is sufficient space, it is advisable to provide
  separate premises for preparing the samples (test
  kitchen if culinary or other tests are planned), shelves
  for arranging glasses or apparatus and rooms for
  holding discussions prior to or after the tests.
• If available, such premises shall be kept clean; in no
  way shall any smells, noise or conversations from
  these premises disturb the work of the assessors in the
  test room.
• See Figure 4 for an example of a test room and
  additional premises.
93
• Notes:
• Ideal conditions are described.
• However, if it were not possible to have such an
  installation solely for sensory analyses, the tests
  could be performed in premises that meet the
  minimum conditions described (lighting,
  temperature, noise, odors) by setting up mobile
  booths made up of folding elements in such a
  way that, at the very least, they isolate the
  tasters from each other.


94
INTERNATIONAL OLIVE OIL COUNCIL COI/T.20/Doc. no.13/Rev. 1
                    November 1996
       SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL STANDARD

     GENERAL METHODOLOGY FOR THE
       ORGANOLEPTIC ASSESSMENT OF
            VIRGIN OLIVE OIL

  1. PURPOSE
• The purpose of this standard is to stipulate the prior
  knowledge required to perform the sensory analysis
  of virgin olive oils,
• to standardize the conduct of, and procedure followed
  by, the tasters participating in such tests and

95
• to specify the duties of the panel
  supervisor.
• The panel supervisor shall be a suitably
  trained, knowledgeable person who is an
  expert on the kinds of oils which he will
  come across in the course of his work.




96
      2. DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR


• He is the key figure in the panel and is
  responsible for its organisation and
  running.
• He shall summon the tasters sufficiently in
  advance and shall answer any queries
  regarding the performance of the tests,
• but shall refrain from suggesting any
  opinion to them on the sample.

97
     DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR

• He shall be responsible for inventorying the
  apparatus,
• and for ensuring that it is properly cleaned,
• for preparing and coding the samples and
  presenting them to the tasters in accordance
  with the appropriate experimental design,



98
• as well as for assembling and statistically
  processing the data obtained.
• The work of the panel supervisor calls for
  sensory skill,
• meticulousness in the preparation of the tests,




99
      DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR

• flawless organization for their performance
  and skill and patience in the planning and
  execution of the tests.
• It is the duty of the panel supervisor to
  motivate the panel members by encouraging
  interest, curiosity and a competitive spirit
  among them.


100
      DUTIES OF THE PANEL SUPERVISOR

• He shall ensure that his opinion is not known
  and shall prevent possible leaders from
  asserting their criteria over the other tasters.
• He shall also be responsible for selecting,
  training and monitoring the tasters in order to
  ascertain their level of aptitude.



101
• To do so, he shall refer to the standard
  COJIT.20/Doc. no. 14, “Guide for the
  selection, training and monitoring of skilled
  virgin olive oil tasters”
• The oil sample for analysis shall be presented
  in standardized tasting glasses conforming to
  the standard COIIT.20/Doc. no. 5 “Glass for
  oil tasting”.



102
               3. TEST CONDITIONS
          3.1. Presentation of the sample

• The glass shall contain 15 ml of oil and shall
  be covered with a watch-glass.
• Each- glass and its attendant watch-glass shall
  be marked with the same randomly chosen
  code made up of digits or a combination of
  letters and digits.
• The code will be marked with an indelible,
  odorless pencil.

103
              3.2. Test temperature

• The oil samples intended for tasting shall be
  kept in the glasses at 28 C ± 2 C.
• This temperature has been chosen because it
  makes it easier to observe organoleptic
  differences than at ambient temperature, when
  oils are used as a condiment.



104
• Another factor that weighs in favor of this
  value is that at lower temperatures the
  aromatic compounds peculiar to these oils
  volatilize poorly while higher temperatures
  lead to the formation of volatile compounds
  peculiar to heated oils.
• The morning is the best time for tasting oils.




105
                   3.3. Test times


• It has been proved that there are optimum perception
  periods as regards taste and smell during the day.
• Meals are preceded by a period in which olfactory-
  gustatory sensitivity increases, whereas afterwards
  this perception decreases.
• However, this criterion should not be taken to the
  extreme where hunger may distract the tasters, thus
  decreasing their discriminatory capacity.


106
       4. TASTERS: GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT

      • People acting as tasters in the
        organoleptiC tests carried out on olive
        oils shall be selected and trained in
        accordance with their skills in
        distinguishing between similar samples;
      • it should be borne in mind that their
        accuracy will improve with training (see
        appropriate section).
      •
107
• 8-12 tasters are required for each test, although
  it is wise to keep some extra tasters in reserve
  to cover possible absences.
• The following recommendations apply to the
  conduct of the tasters during their work.




108
        GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT

• When called by the panel supervisor to
  participate in an organoleptic test, the taster
  should be able to attend at the time set
  beforehand and shall observe the following:
  4.1. He shall not smoke at least 30 minutes
  before the time set for the test.
  4.2. He shall not use any perfume, cosmetic
  or soap whose smell could linger until the
  time of the test.

109
• He shall use an unperfumed soap to wash
  his hands which he shall then rinse and
  dry as often as necessary to eliminate any
  smell.
• 4.3. He shall fast at least one hour before
  the tasting is carried out.




110
         GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT

• 4.4. Should he feel physically unwell, and in
  particular if his sense of smell or taste is affected, or
  if he is under any psychological effect that prevents
  him from concentrating on his work,
• the taster shall inform the panel supervisor
  accordingly with a view to being withdrawn from the
  test or to the appropriate decisions being taken,
• bearing in mind the possible deviation in the mean
  values for the rest of the panel.


111
        GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT
• 4.5. When he has complied with the above, the
  taster shall take up his place in the booth
  allotted to him in as orderly and quiet a
  manner as possible.
  4.6. He shall carefully read the instructions
  given on the profile sheet and shall not begin
  to examine the sample until absolutely sure
  about the task he has to perform.
• If any doubts should arise, he shall discuss the
  difficulties encountered privately with the
  panel supervisor.
112
113
        GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT


• 4.7. The taster shall pick up the glass, keeping
  it covered with the watch-glass, and shall bend
  it gently;
• he shall then rotate the glass fully in this
  position so as to wet the inside as much as
  possible.
• Once this stage is completed, he shall remove
  the watch- glass and smell the sample, taking
  slow deep breaths to evaluate the oil under
  assessment.
114
• Smelling shall not exceed 30 s.
• If no conclusion has been reached during this
  time, he shall take a short rest before trying
  again.
• When the olfactory test has been performed,
  the taster shall then evaluate the flavor (overall
  olfactory-gustatory- tactile sensation).
• To do so, he shall take a small sip of
  approximately 3 ml of oil.


115
        GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT

• It is very important to distribute the oil
  throughout the whole of the mouth cavity,
  from the front part of the mouth and tongue
  along the sides to the back part and to the
  palate support and throat,
• since it is a known fact that the perception of
  the four primary tastes (sweet, salty, acid and
  bitter) varies in intensity depending on the area
  of the tongue, palate and throat.

116
         GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT

• It should be stressed that it is essential for a sufficient
  amount of the oil to be spread very slowly over the
  back of the tongue towards the palate support and
  throat while the taster concentrates on the order in
  which the bitter and pungent stimuli appear;
• if this is not done, both of these stimuli may escape
  notice in some oils or else the bitter stimulus may be
  obscured by the pungent stimulus.




117
       GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT

• Taking short, successive breaths, drawing in
  air through the mouth, enables the taster not
  only to spread the sample extensively over the
  whole of the mouth but also to perceive the
  volatile aromatic compounds via the back of
  the nose.
• The tactile sensation of pungency shall be
  taken into consideration.


118
• 4.8. When organoleptically assessing a virgin oil, it is
  recommended that ONLY ONE SAMPLE be
  evaluated in each session with a maximum of three
  sessions per day,
• to avoid the contrast effect that could be produced by
  immediately tasting other samples.
• As successive tastings produce fatigue or loss of
  sensitivity, it is important to use a product that can
  eliminate the remains of the oil from the preceding
  tasting from the mouth.



119
• The use of a small slice of apple (about 15 g)
  is recommended which, after being chewed,
  can be spat out into the spittoon.
• Then rinse out the mouth with a little water at
  ambient temperature.
• At least 15 minutes shall lapse between the
  end of one tasting and the start of the next.




120
INTERNATIONAL COI/T.20/ Doe. no. 14/ Rev.
1,20 November 1996 OLIVE OIL COUNCIL

  • SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL
    STANDARD
    GUIDE FOR THE SELECTION, TRAINING
    AND MONITORING OF SKILLED VIRGIN
    OLIVE OIL TASTERS
  • 1. PURPOSE
    The purpose of this standard is to provide panel
    supervisors with essential rules for selecting,
    training and monitoring the selected tasters on their
    panel.

121
       2. SCREENiNG OF CANDIDATES

• Screening shall be carried out by the panel
  supervisor who shall personally interview the
  candidates to familiarise himself with their
  personality and surrounding environment.
• The physio-psychological conditions that have
  to be met are not very rigorous since,
  theoretically, any normal person should be
  able to perform this work.


122
• Factors such as sex, age, specific habits (smoking),
  etc. have been superseded nowadays by others such
  as health, personal interest and having time available
  for the work.
• During the interview, the panel supervisor shall
  explain the characteristics of his task to the candidate
  and approximately how much time it will take up.
• He shall then glean information from the candidate
  allowing him to assess his interest and motivation and
  how much real time he has available.
• The following questionnaire could help as a
  reference.


123
                 QUESTIONNAIRE

• Please answer the following questions: YES/NO
  1. Would you like to be involved in the work on this
  subject?
  2. Do you think this work could contribute to the
  quality improvement of foodstuffs on the domestic
  and international fronts?
  3. If so,why?
  4. You should be aware of the fact that you will have
  to taste oils when called upon to do so.
  Would you be prepared to do this?


124
                 QUESTIONNAIRE

• 5. Would you like to compare your olfactory-
  gustatory skill with that of your colleagues?
  6. Are you available time-wise?
  Are you independent enough to organise your daily
  work as you wish?
  7. If you are dependent upon a superior, do you think
  that if you had to absent yourself from your usual job
  for anything up to half an hour, on several
  occasions over a successive number of days, you
  would be allowed to do so?

125
                  QUESTIONNAIRE

• 8. Would you be able to make up for any time lost in
  your job due to your participation in the sensory
  analyses?
  9. Do you think you should be remunerated for this
  work?
  10. In what way?
  1/ Describe what could be gained from the
  organoleptic assessment of any foodstuff, or, if you
  wish, of olive oil.



126
• The supervisor shall use this information to
  screen the candidates and shall reject
those who show little interest in this kind of
  work,
are not readily available or
who are incapable of expressing themselves
  clearly.




127
3. DETERMiNATION OF THE MEAN THRESHOLD OF THE GROUP
OF CANDIDATES FOR CHARACTERISTIC ATTRIBUTES


• *The panel supervisor shall carefully choose four
  oils, one each of which is considered to be
  representative of one of the following attributes
 fusty,
 winey,
 rancid and
 bitter
• with as great and clear an intensity as possible.


128
      3. DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN THRESHOLD


• The panel supervisor shall prepare a series of samples
  of each of the oils at descending concentrations (1:2)
  by making successive dilutions in a medium (refined
  oil or paraffin).
• The series shall be considered completed when no
  difference can be detected between two successive
  samples of the series and the medium.
• The panel supervisor shall then choose the seven
  samples prior to these last two from the prepared
  series.

129
• Enough samples should be prepared for the number
  of candidates.
• paired comparison tests shall be carried out to
  establish the mean threshold of the group, up to a
  total of 8 pairs of samples per candidate which shall
  be randomly presented in successive, independent
  tastings.
• (the pairs comprise one each of the seven samples
  chosen and a blank medium, plus one pair of blank
  mediums).


130
• After each tasting, the candidates be asked whether
  the two samples are identical or different.
• Upon completion of the test, the panel supervisor
  shall note down the correct answers of the set of
  candidates for each concentration and shall express
  them as a percentage.




131
• He shall plot the concentrations tested along the x-
  axis and the percentages of correct answers along the
  y-axis and then, by interpolation of the curve, shall
  determine the detection which is the concentration
  corresponding to 75% correct answers.
• A practical example of this procedure is given in
  Figure 1.




132
• This “threshold concentration”, which may be
  different for each initial oil because it depends on the
  intensity of the attribute present, should be similar for
  the different groups of candidates to various panels; it
  is not linked to any habit or preference.
• Consequently, it is a point of reference common to
  any normal human group and may be used to
  homogenise the various panels on the basis of their
  olfactory-gustatory sensitivity.




134
• If the above procedure is repeated for the three
  remaining attributes on the basis of their respective
  thresholds which are also calculated as indicated
  above, scales with similar aromatic intensities for
  each stimulus will be obtained for all the laboratories,
  even though the defects of the initial oils may be
  perceptible at different intensities.
• This threshold concentration shall be C10 in the
  series of samples prepared to select tasters by the
  intensity rating method (section 4).



135
      4. SELECTION OF TASTERS BY THE
          INTENSITY RATING METHOD

• ln the selection procedure, there should be two
  to three times more candidates than those
  required for the panel so that the people with
  the best sensitivity or powers of discrimination
  can be picked out.
• It is always advisable to use the same product
  as the one that is to be subsequently analysed.


136
• When selecting the method, it should not be
  overlooked that,
• apart from being effective,
• the procedure adopted should be as economical
  as possible as regards
the quantity of oil,
the number of samples to be used and
the time spent on selection.


137
• The effectiveness of a selection procedure lies in the
  choice of the optimum levels of the following three
  dependent variables:
  a( “cost” determined by the number of tests,
  b( “proportion” of potentially suitable candidates who
  by chance have been unfortunately eliminated during
  screening and
• c( “proportion” of candidates who by chance have got
  through the selection process although unsuitable
  material.
• The selection procedure chosen is as described by F.
  Gutierrez Rosales et al.


138
                  Product Required

• Liquid paraffin (DAB, PhEur, BP, USP) or oily
  medium without taste or odour (recently refined olive
  oil or another similar oil).
  Oils: fusty, winey, rancid and bitter.
• 4.1. Procedure
  Start the selection process with 25 candidates, in
  accordance with the methodology described hereafter
  for each stimulus:
  1) On the basis of the threshold concentration
  obtained for the group, proceed as follows:


139
• prepare a series of 12 samples in such a way
  that the “threshold concentration” holds the
  10th place in this scale.
• Naturally, the 11th and 12th ones will be more
  diluted, as a result of which it will be more
  difficult to detect the presence of the oil
  possessing the selected attribute.




140
• * Taking the C10 concentration as the basis, the
  remaining samples can be prepared in accordance
  with the following formula:
           n
• C10 X a , where “a” is a constant, the dilution factor,
  which is equal to 1.5, and “n” is the exponent which
  varies between 9 and -2.
• Example: if the threshold obtained for rancid oil is
  0.39, then C10 = 0.39. Since “a” =1.5, the series of
  samples would have the following concentrations:




141
142
• 3) The supervisor shall then arrange the 12
  tasting glasses of each series in a row in
  descending order of concentration.
• The next step is to ask each candidate to
  perform the test on his own, in accordance
  with the following instructions:




143
         4.2. Instructions for Candidates.


• *The 12 tasting glasses lined up in front of the
  candidates contain dilutions of any one of the
  fusty, winey, rancid or bitter stimuli.
• *The distinguishing factor between the
  contents of the tasting glasses is their
  intensity.
• The glass with the greatest intensity is on the
  far left-hand side and the rest of the glasses
  are placed in descending order of intensity
  towards the right.
144
• The last tasting glass on the right may
  have such a weak intensity as to be
  impossible to detect.
• Proceed as follows: Become familiar with
  the odor and taste of each of the tasting
  glasses in the series.
• To do so, begin smelling and tasting at the
  right-hand side (no. 12) and try to retain
  the intensity of all the odors and tastes,
  without becoming overtired.


145
• When you feel that you have got used to
  the scale of concentrations of the odor
  and taste, leave the room.
• Meanwhile, the supervisor shall remove
  one of the tasting glasses from the
  series and shall place it on a level with
  the last one on the right-hand side (no
  12), moving all the others together so as
  to fill in the space left.
• Then return to the room and carry on
  with the test.

146
• The test involves the following:
• The tasting glass withdrawn from the series has
  to be put back in its exact place.
• To do so, smell and taste it and compare it with
  the others as often as wished, bearing in mind
  that if it is to be replaced correctly its intensity
  must be stronger than the sample on its
  immediate right and weaker than that on its left.
• This test will be repeated with three other
  glasses.
• Each candidate shall be issued a form, in
  addition to the instructions just described, in
  order to make the test and the collection of the
  replies easier.
147
148
        4.4. Statistical Scoring
               Procedure

•
  In this particular selection case, the tasting
  glasses that have to be replaced in their
  exact position shall be the same for all the
  candidates.
• According to the statistical calculations done
  for this purpose, they shall correspond to the
  following positions in the order of the series
  as regards each attribute:
149
150
• The number corresponding to the position
  of the glasses in the order of the series
  may not vary since the statistical
  calculations for this test have been done
  with an eye to the probability of the
  glasses being randomly replaced in their
  exact position.
• In order to make it extremely difficult for
  any information to be passed on from one
  candidate to another, the panel supervisor
  shall ensure that:

151
• 1) THERE IS NO POSSIBLE MEANS OF
  CONTACT BETWEEN THE CANDIDATES.
• DIFFERENT CODES SHALL BE USED FOR
  EACH CANDIDATE.
• 2) THERE IS NO WAY IN WHICH THE
  CANDIDATES CAN FIND OUT THE POSITION
  OF THE GLASSES WHICH HAVE BEEN
  WITHDRAWN.
• 3) EVEN THOUGH ALL THE CANDIDATES
  SHALL BE PRESENTED WITH THE SAME
  GLASSES INDICATED EARLIER ON, THE
  ORDER IN WHICH THEY ARE HANDED OVER
  TO EACH CANDIDATE SHALL VARY.


152
• Each candidate shall then be given a
  score, depending on his performance, in
  the following manner:
        i   i
  Let e 1, e 1, ... & be the 12 glasses with the
  12 corresponding concentrations of
  attribute “i”
• (i may be any one of the 4 attributes:
  fusty, winey, rancid and bitter) arranged in
  descending order of intensity.


153
• Let e’ be one of the glasses picked and K’
  the position it is allocated by the candidate
  when replaced in the series.
• Therefore, the values of K and K’ are
  whole numbers between 1 and 12
  inclusive, corresponding to the real place
  number of the glass chosen and that
  allocated by the candidate respectively.



154
INTERNATIONAL OLIVE COUNCIL

COI/T.20/Doc. No 1 5/Rev. 2 September 2007



• SENSORY ANALYSIS OF OLIVE OIL
   METHOD FOR THE ORGANOTEPTIC ASSESSMENT OF VIRGIN
   OLIVE OIL
 1. PURPOSE
• The purpose of this international method is to
  determine the procedure for assessing the
  organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil
• and to establish the method for its classification
  on the basis of those characteristics.


155
              2. FIElD OF APPlICATION


• The method described is only applicable to
  virgin olive oils and to the classification of such
  oils according to the intensity of the defects
  perceived and of the fruitiness, as determined by
  a group of tasters selected, trained and
  monitored as a panel.
• It also provides indications for optional labelling.
• 3. GENERAL BASIC VOCABULARY FOR SENSORY
  ANALYSTS
• Refer to the standard COIIT.20/Doc. no. 4
  “Sensory Analysis: General Basic Vocabulary”.
156
      4. SPECIFIC VOCABULARY FOR VIRGIN OLIVE OIL



• 4.1. Negative attributes
• Fusty/muddy sediment
• Characteristic flavor of oil obtained from olives
  piled or stored in such conditions as to have
  undergone an advanced stage of anaerobic
  fermentation,
• or of oil which has been left in contact with the
  sediment that settles in underground tanks and
  vats and which has also undergone a process of
  anaerobic fermentation.

157
 SPECIFIC VOCABULARY FOR VIRGIN OLIVE
                 OIL

• Musty- humid
• Characteristic flavor of oils obtained from
  fruit in which large numbers of fungi and
  yeasts have developed as a result of its
  being stored in humid conditions for
  several days.



158
• Winey- vinegary Acid-sour
  Characteristic flavor of certain oils
  reminiscent of wine or vinegar.
• This flavor is mainly due to a process of
  aerobic fermentation in the olives or in
  olive paste left on pressing mats which
  have not been properly cleaned and leads
  to the formation of acetic acid, ethyl
  acetate and ethanol.

159
  Metallic
• Flavor that is reminiscent of metals. It is
  characteristic of oil which has been in prolonged
  contact with metallic surfaces during crushing,
  mixing, pressing or storage.

  Rancid
• Flavor of oils which have undergone an intense
  process of oxidation.


160
4.2. Other negative attributes
  Heated or burnt
• Characteristic flavor of oils caused by
  excessive and/or prolonged heating during
  processing, particularly when the paste is
  thermally mixed, if this is done under
  unsuitable thermal conditions.


161
Hay—wood
• Characteristic flavor of certain oils produced from olives that have dried out.

      Rough
•     Thick, pasty mouthfeel sensation produced by certain old oils.

      Greasy
•     Flavor of oil reminiscent of that of diesel oil, grease or mineral oil.

      Vegetable Water
•     Flavor acquired by the oil as a result of prolonged contact with
      vegetable water which has undergone fermentation processes.
•
      Brine
•     Flavor of oil extracted from olives which have been preserved in brine.



162
• Esparto
• Characteristic flavor of oil obtained from olives
  pressed in new esparto mats. The flavor may
  differ depending on whether the mats are made
  of green esparto or dried esparto.

  Earthy
• Flavor of oil obtained from olives which have
  been collected with earth or mud on them and
  not washed.


163
• Grubby
• Flavor of oil obtained from olives which have been
  heavily attacked by the grubs of the olive fly (Bactrocera
  oleae).

  Cucumber
• Flavor produced when an oil is hermetically packed for
  too long, particularly in tin containers, and which is
  attributed to the formation of 2,6 nonadienal.

  Wet wood
• Characteristic flavor of oils extracted from olives which
  have been injured by frost while on the tree.

164
        4.3. Positive attributes
• Fruity Set of olfactory sensations characteristic
  of the oil which depends on the variety and
  comes from sound, fresh olives, either ripe or
  unripe. It is perceived directly and/or through the
  back of the nose.

  Bitter
• Characteristic primary taste of oil obtained from
  green olives or olives turning color. It is
  perceived in the circumvallate papillae on the “V”
  region of the tongue.

165
• Pungent
• Biting tactile sensation characteristic of
  oils produced at the start of the crop year,
  primarily from olives that are still unripe.
• It can be perceived throughout the whole
  of the mouth cavity, particularly in the
  throat.




166
      4.4. OPTIONAL TERMINOLOGY FOR LABELLING
                    PURPOSES

• Upon request, the panel leader may certify that
  the oils which have been assessed comply with
  the definitions and ranges corresponding to the
  following adjectives according to the intensity
  and perception of the attributes.
  Positive attributes (fruity, bitter and pungent):
  According to the intensity of perception:
• - Intense, when the median of the fruitiness is
  more than 6;

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  • - Medium, when the median of the fruitiness is between 3 and 6;
  • - Light, when the median of the fruitiness is less than 3.

  • Fruity
  • Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which
    depends on the variety of olive and comes from sound, fresh
    olives in which neither green nor ripe fruitiness predominates.
  • It is perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.




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• Greenly fruity
• Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which
  is reminiscent of green fruit, depends on the variety of
  olive and comes from green, sound, fresh olives. It is
  perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.

• Ripely fruity
• Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil which
  is reminiscent of ripe fruit, depends on the variety of olive
  and comes from sound, fresh olives, green or ripe. It is
  perceived directly and/or through the back of the nose.


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• Well balanced
• Oil which does not display a lack of balance, by
  which is meant the olfactory— gustatory and
  tactile sensation where the median of the bitter
  and/or pungent attributes is two points higher
  than the median of the fruitiness.

• Mild oil
• Oil for which the median of the bitter and
  pungent attributes is 2 or less.

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      GLASS FOR OIL TASTING AND TEST ROOM


• 5. GLASS FOR OIL TASTING
  Refer to the standard COI/T.20/Doc. no. 5,
  “Glass for Oil Tasting”.

• 6. TEST ROOM
  Refer to the standard COI/T.20/Doc. no. 6,
  “Guide for the Installation of a Test Room”.


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         7. ACCESSORIES
• The following accessories, which are
  required by tasters to perform their task
  properly, shall be supplied in each booth
  and shall be within easy reach:
  - glasses (standardised) containing the
  samples, code numbered, covered with a
  watch-glass and kept at 28 C ±2 C;


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• - profile sheet (see Figure 1) on hard copy, or
  on soft copy provided that the conditions of the
  profile sheet are met, together with the
  instructions for its use if necessary;
  - pen or indelible ink;
  - trays with slices of apple and/or carbonated
  water;
  - glass of water at ambient temperature;
  - sheet recalling the general rules listed in
  sections 9.4 and 10.1.1;
  - spittoons.


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174
           8. PANEL LEADER AND TASTERS
                   8.1. Panel leader
• The panel leader must be a suitably trained
  person with an expert knowledge of the kinds of
  oils which he or she will come across in the
  course of their work.
• They are the key figure in the panel and
  responsible for its organization and running.
• The work of the panel leader calls for basic
  training in the tools of sensory analysis, sensory
  skill, meticulousness in the preparation,
  organization and performance of the tests and
  skill and patience to plan and execute the tests in
  a scientific manner.


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• They are the sole person responsible for
  selecting, training and monitoring the tasters in
  order to ascertain their level of aptitude.
• They are thus responsible for the appraisal of
  the tasters, which must always be objective and
  for which they must develop specific procedures
  based on tests and solid acceptance and
  rejection criteria.
• See standard COL’T.20/Doc. no. 14, “Guide for
  the selection, training and monitoring of skilled
  virgin olive oil tasters”.
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• Panel leaders are responsible for the performance of
  the panel and hence for its evaluation, of which they
  must give reliable, objective proof.
• In any case, they must demonstrate at all times that
  the method and tasters are under control.
• They hold ultimate responsibility for keeping the
  records of the panel. These records must always be
  traceable.




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• They must comply with the assurance and
  quality requirements laid down in international
  sensory analysis standards and ensure the
  anonymity of the samples at all times.
• They shall be responsible for inventorying and
  ensuring that the apparatus and equipment
  needed to comply with the specifications of this
  method is properly cleaned and maintained and
  shall keep written proof thereof, as well as of the
  compliance with the test conditions.
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• They shall be in charge of the reception and
  storage of the samples upon their arrival at the
  laboratory as well as of their storage after being
  tested.
• When doing so, they shall ensure at all times
  that the samples remain anonymous and are
  properly stored, for which purpose they must
  develop written procedures in order to ensure
  that the entire process is traceable and affords
  guarantees.

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• In addition, they are responsible for preparing,
  coding and presenting the samples to the tasters
  according to an appropriate experimental design
  in line with pre-established protocols, as well as
  for assembling and statistically processing the
  data obtained by the tasters.
• They shall be in charge of developing and
  drafting any other procedures that might be
  necessary to complement this standard and to
  ensure that the panel functions properly.

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• They must seek ways of comparing the
  results of the panel with those obtained by
  other panels undertaking the analysis of
  virgin olive oil in order to ascertain whether
  the panel is working properly.
• It is the duty of the panel leader to
  motivate the panel members by
  encouraging interest, curiosity and a
  competitive spirit among them.

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• To do so, they are strongly recommended
  to ensure a smooth two-way flow of
  information with the panel members by
  keeping them informed about all the tasks
  they carry out and the results obtained.
• In addition, they shall ensure that their
  opinion is not known and shall prevent
  possible leaders from asserting their
  criteria over the other tasters.

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• They shall summon the tasters sufficiently in
  advance and shall answer any queries regarding
  the performance of the tests, but shall refrain
  from suggesting any opinion to them on the
  sample.
• The people acting as tasters in organoleptic
  tests carried out on olive oils must do so
  voluntarily, with all the ensuing consequences of
  such a voluntary act in terms of obligations and
  the absence of financial payment.
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              8.2. Tasters

• It is therefore advisable for candidates to
  submit an application in writing.
• Candidates shall be selected, trained and
  monitored by the panel leader in
  accordance with their skills in
  distinguishing between similar samples;


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• It should be borne in mind that their
  accuracy will improve with training.
• Tasters must act like real sensory
  observers, setting aside their personal
  tastes and solely reporting the sensations
  they perceive.



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• To do so, they must always work in silence, in a
  relaxed, unhurried manner, paying the fullest
  possible sensory attention to the sample they
  are tasting.
• Between 8 and 12 tasters are required for each
  test, although it is wise to keep some extra
  tasters in reserve to cover possible absences.


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               9. TEST CONDITIONS
           9.1. Presentation of the sample

• The oil sample for analysis shall be presented in
  standardized tasting glasses conforming to the
  standard COTJT.20/Doc. No 5 “Glass for oil
  tasting”.
• The glass shall contain 14—16 ml of oil, or
  between 12.8 and 14.6 g if the samples are to
  be weighed, and shall be covered with a watch-
  glass.



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 • Each glass shall be marked with a code
   made up of digits or a combination of
   letters and digits chosen at random.
 • The code will be marked by means of an
   odorfree system.




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           9.2. Test and sample temperature


• The oil samples intended for tasting shall be kept in the
  glasses at 28’C ±2 °C throughout the test.
• This temperature has been chosen because it makes it
  easier to observe organoleptic differences than at
  ambient temperature and because at lower temperatures
  the aromatic compounds peculiar to these oils volatilise
  poorly while higher temperatures lead to the formation of
  volatile compounds peculiar to heated oils.




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• See the standard COIJT.20/Doc. No 5
  “Glass for Oil Tasting” for the method
  which has to be used for heating the
  samples when in the glass.
• The test room must be at a temperature
  between 20 and 25 °C (see
  COIJT.20/Doc. No 6).


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           9.3. Test times
• The morning is the best time for tasting
  oils.
• It has been proved that there are optimum
  perception periods as regards taste and
  smell during the day.
• Meals are preceded by a period in which
  olfactory—gustatory sensitivity increases,
  whereas afterwards this perception
  decreases.
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  9.4. Tasters: general rules of conduct
• The following recommendations apply to the
  conduct of the tasters during their work.
• When called by the panel leader to participate in
  an organoleptic test, tasters should be able to
  attend at the time set beforehand and shall
  observe the following:
  • They shall not smoke or drink coffee at least 30
  minutes before the time set for the test.


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        Tasters: general rules of conduct

• They must not have used any fragrance,
   cosmetic or soap whose smell could linger until
   the time of the test.
• They must use an un-perfumed soap to wash
   their hands which they shall then rinse and dry
   as often as necessary to eliminate any smell.
• They shall fast at least one hour before the
   tasting is carried out.


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      Tasters: general rules of conduct

• Should they feel physically unwell, and in
   particular if their sense of smell or taste is
   affected, or if they are under any psychological
   effect that prevents them from concentrating on
   their work, the tasters shall refrain from tasting
   and shall inform the panel leader accordingly.
• When they have complied with the above, the
   tasters shall take up their place in the booth
   allotted to them in an orderly, quiet manner.

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      Tasters: general rules of conduct


• They shall carefully read the instructions
  given on the profile sheet and shall not
  begin to examine the sample until fully
  prepared for the task they have to
  perform (relaxed and unhurried).
• If any doubts should arise, they should
  consult the panel leader in private.

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10. PROCEDURE FOR THE ORGANOLEPTTC
ASSESSMENT AND CLASSIFICATION OF VIRGIN
OLIVE OIL

      •
          10.1. Tasting technique

      • 10.1.1. The tasters shall pick up the glass, keeping it covered
        with the watch-glass, and shall bend it gently;
      • they shall then rotate the glass fully in this position so as to
        wet the inside as much as possible.
      • Once this stage is completed, they shall remove the watch-
        glass and smell the sample, taking slow deep breaths to
        evaluate the oil.
      • Smelling should not exceed 30 s. If no conclusion has been
        reached during this time, they shall take a short rest before
        trying again.



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              Tasting technique

• When the olfactoiy test has been performed, the tasters
  shall then evaluate the buccal sensations (overall
  retronasal olfactory, gustatory and tactile sensations).
• To do so, they shall take a small sip of approximately 3
  ml of oil.
• It is very important to distribute the oil throughout the
  whole of the mouth cavity, from the front part of the
  mouth and tongue along the sides to the back part and
  to the palate support and throat,
• since it is a known fact that the perception of tastes and
  tactile sensations varies in intensity depending on the
  area of the tongue, palate and throat.


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           Tasting technique

• It should be stressed that it is essential for a
  sufficient amount of the oil to be spread very
  slowly over the back of the tongue towards the
  palate support and throat while the taster
  concentrates on the order in which the bitter and
  pungent stimuli appear.
• If this is not done, both of these stimuli may
  escape notice in some oils or else the bitter
  stimulus may be obscured by the pungent
  stimulus.

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           Tasting technique

• Taking short, successive breaths, drawing in air
  through the mouth, enables the taster not only to
  spread the sample extensively over the whole of
  the mouth but also to perceive the volatile
  aromatic compounds via the back of the nose by
  forcing the use of this channel.
• The tactile sensation of pungency should be
  taken into consideration. For this purpose it is
  advisable to ingest the oil.

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          Tasting technique

• 10.1.2. When organoleptically assessing a
  virgin olive oil, it is recommended that
  FOUR SAMPLES at the most be
  evaluated in each session with a
  maximum of three sessions per day, to
  avoid the contrast effect that could be
  produced by immediately tasting other
  samples.

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          Tasting technique

• As successive tastings produce fatigue or
  loss of sensitivity caused by the preceding
  samples, it is necessary to use a product
  that can eliminate the remains of the oil
  from the preceding tasting from the mouth.




201
• The use of a small slice of apple is
  recommended which, after being chewed,
  can be disposed of in the spittoon.
• Then rinse out the mouth with a little water
  at ambient temperature.
• At least 15 minutes shall lapse between
  the end of one session and the start of the
  next.
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  10.2. Use of the profile sheet by tasters

• The profile sheet intended for use by tasters is
  detailed in Figure 1 of this method.
• Each taster on the panel shall smell and then
  taste 1/the oil under consideration.
• They shall then enter the intensity with which
  they perceive each of the negative and positive
  attributes on the 10-cm scale shown in the
  profile sheet provided.


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      The old profile sheet




204
      The New profile sheet




205
      Use of the profile sheet by tasters

• Should the tasters perceive any negative
  attributes not listed in section 4, they shall record
  them under the “others” heading, using the term
  or terms that most accurately describes the
  attributes.

• 1/ They may refrain from tasting an oil when they
  notice any extremely intense negative attribute
  by direct olfactory means, in which case they
  shall record this exceptional circumstance in the
  profile sheet.
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10.3. Use of the data by the panel leaders



• The panel leader shall collect the profile
  sheets completed by each taster and shall
  review the intensities assigned to the
  different attributes.
• Should they find any anomaly, they shall
  invite the taster to revise his or her profile
  sheet and, if necessary, to repeat the test.
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      Use of the data by the panel leaders

• The panel leader shall enter the
  assessment data of each panel member in
  a computer program like that appended to
  this method with a view to statistically
  calculating the results of the analysis,
  based on the calculation of their median.
• See sections 10.4 and Annex 1 of this
  method.

208
      Use of the data by the panel leaders

• The data for a given sample shall be entered
  with the aid of a matrix comprising 9 columns
  representing the 9 sensory attributes and n lines
  representing the n panel members used.
• When a defect is perceived and entered under
  the “others” heading by at least 50% of the
  panel, the panel leader shall calculate the
  median of the defect and shall arrive at the
  corresponding classification.
• A method of calculation is illustrated in an
  example in the annex hereto.
209
        10.4. Classification of the oil


• The median of the defects means the median of
  the defect perceived with the greatest intensity.
• It is expressed to one decimal place and the
  value of the robust coefficient of variation which
  defines it shall be less than or equal to 20%.
• The oil is classified by comparing the median
  value of the defects predominantly perceived
  with the reference intervals listed below.

210
          Classification of the oil

• The error of the method has been taken
  into account when establishing the limits of
  these intervals, which are therefore
  considered to be absolute.
• When the appended optional computer
  program is applied, the classification is
  displayed in the table of statistical data
  and in graph form.

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          Classification of the oil

• Olive oil shall be classified:
• in the extra virgin category when the
  median of the defects is equal to 0 and the
  median of the fruity attribute is more than
  0;
• in the virgin category when the median of
  the defects is more than 0 and less than or
  equal to 3.5 and the median of the fruity
  attribute is more than 0;
212
          Classification of the oil

• in the ordinary virgin category when the
   median of the defects is more than 3.5 and
   less than or equal to 6.0 or when the
   median of the defects is less than or equal
   to 3.5 and the median of the fruity attribute
   is equal to 0;
• in the lampante virgin category when the
   median of the defects is more than 6.0.

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           Classification of the oil

• Note 1:When the median of the bitter and/or
  pungent attribute is more than 5.0, the panel
  leader shall state so on the test certificate.
• In the case of analyses intended to check for
  compliance with the standards, one test shall be
  performed.
• For appeal tests, the panel leader shall arrange
  for the analysis to be performed in duplicate.


214
          Classification of the oil


• In the event of confirmation analyses, the
  assessment must be carried out in
  triplicate.
• In these cases, the median of the
  attributes shall be calculated from the
  average of the medians.
• All the replicates of the analyses must be
  carried out in different sessions.
215
      Annex 1




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      • With an adequate number of
        replicates, it is possible for such
        residual or first-order carry-over
        effects to be balanced over the
        design as a whole, and their effects
        to be estimated if required.



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