EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI EMERGENCY SUPPORT PROJECT [ ETESP] IRRIGATION COMPONENT WATER USER ASSOCIATION EMPOWERMENT INTRODUCTION The Project i d comprised three main components p Irrigation scheme rehabilitation & reconstruction Water User Association Empowerment Strengthening of Implementation dC di ti A i and Coordination Agencies INTRODUCTION The EMPOWERMENT of Water User Associations [ WUAs ] also known locally as “P k l P t iP k i Ai ” “Perkumpulan Petani Pemakai Air” [ P3A ] and the introduction of the process of participatory construction in the ETESP Irrigation Component involved BUILDING RAPPORT Informal & Formal Meetings to : • Initiate a public awareness campaign among Community Members • Inform Communities of project possibilities & limitations • Build trust • Listen and understand the Communities’ needs PLENARY MEETING 1 Problem Identification Election of Community y Representatives to participate in system walkthrough walkthrough. Identification of Existing Local Institutions Establish Focus Group Discussions: Social Aspects Environmental Aspects Agricultural Practices PARTICIPATORY SYSTEM WALKTHROUGH Communities know what they need ! Joint walkthroughs and field inspections with the community formed the basis for identification and selection of main Continuous involvement & rehabilitation and participation of local communities is essential to ensure agreement reconstruction options on scheme rehabilitation and reconstruction requirements PARTICIPATORY SYSTEM WALKTHROUGH Discussions with Community to identify: • Infrastructure damage and malfunctions • Specific locations and causes of damage or malfunctions • Community experience with scheme Operation & Maintenance FIELD DISCUSSION Field discussion after completing the system walkthrough to verify information and facts identified id tifi d Agreement between Project Design Team & Community on the technical p y problems identified PLENARY MEETING 2 • Outputs of the participatory system lkth walkthrough h presented and options discussed. • Agreement on identified priorities and infrastructure works selected for rehabilitation • Agreements made on follow up action p required TRAINING of COMMUNITY ORGANISORS Training of community elected TPPs (Tenaga Pendamping Petani) in collaboration with National NGO (Bina Swadaya) including : Formal Training Courses in: – WUA formation including legalization – Participatory approaches and methods – Technical knowledge & skills requirements – Quality control of construction works – Contract Administration . . . Informal training g y g . . . “Learning by doing” WUA ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT Revitalization of existing Water User Associations (WUAs) and Federations (WUAFs) • Establishment of New WUAs (where necessary) • Preparation and Development of WUA Constitutions and bye-laws • Tax registration and legalization A total of 480 legalized and g registered WUAs were established or strengthened under the Project WUA ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT p y g Capacity Building: • Local resources mobilization • Simple and applicable book-keeping • Basic technical knowledge & skills • Contract Administration & Budget Preparation • Reporting TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Provision of routine support and technical assistance by Consultants’ Community Facilitators and • Group Engineers Development • Legalization process • Book-keeping Member • WUA M b Meetings • Local Resources Mobilization • Civil works construction PLENARY MEETING 3 Preparation for participatory implementation : Presentation by Project Manager (PPK) of partnership models and options for Construction of Civil Works Discussion of options Agreement & Decision on the Partnership Models: Joint Operation with Contractor - Kerjasama Operasional (KSO) , or Community Contracts with WUAs - Surat Perjanjian Pemberian Pekerjaan (SP3) SP3 CONTRACT PREPARATION Value of SP3 Contracts ranged from IRp. 50 ~ 300 million TPPs & WUAs were p provided with assistance and support in : • Understanding Design Drawings and Bills of Quantities p q • Preparation of required Budgets • Preparation of Bid Documents SP3 CONTRACT AWARD Administrative and Technical Guidance was provided by Project Management (PPK staff) before signing of SP3 Contracts by WUA (P3A) Officials A Total of 492 Community [SP3] Contracts with an overall value of IRp. 50.8 (~ 5.1 IRp 50 8 billion ( US$ 5 1 million) were awarded to, and successfully completed by WUAs in the period 2006 ~ 2008 ON-GOING TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE After signing of SP3 Contracts the focus of i t h i l on-going technical assistance provided to the WUAs was on: How to read and understand construction drawings How to prepare and construct civil works in the field How to ensure the required quality of civil works How to complete the civil works effectively CONSTRUCTION WUA members meetings were held before starting construction to inform them on the agreed value of the contracts in an open and transparent manner WUAs members participated actively in the t ti construction worksk Community leaders, such Geuchik as Geuchik, Imum Mukim were appointed as Internal Inspectors to ensure the q y p quality of workmanship as required CONSTRUCTION Construction of wire mesh reinforced concrete canal lining was a first experience for WUA members Each WUA member was g e ac U e be as given their own responsibility Internal Inspectors ensured the quality of the work Community “Social Control” dd i t ti occurred during construction “Learning by Doing” was the most effective training CONSTRUCTION Motivating all WUA members participation in the construction works increased their commitment to quality workmanship On going monitoring and On-going support by supervising Engineers increased the WUA members’ motivation and skills to : “do the right thing” and to “do things right” CONSTRUCTION The main focus of SP3 contracts was construction of lining to tertiary canals however the WUAs proved themselves capable of constructing more complex works such as secondary canal lining and minor structures with highly acceptable quality “This is our asset and these canals will provide us with adequate water. Therefore it was important for us to do the best possible job”. (Head of WUA p j ( Putra Barona) CONSTRAINTS Internal Constraints : • Lack of experience in the participatory process by the various stakeholders • Initial reluctance of the Implementing Agency and Project Managers to commit to the participatory process • Different perceptions on participatory processes on the part of the Project Managers and advisory Consultants • Lack of institutional support for systematic application of p p y pp participatory approach CONSTRAINTS External Constraints: E t lC t i t • Lack of precedent in NAD/Nias irrigation projects • Lack of understanding of participatory implementation processes • Lack of confidence and trust in WUAs’ capabilities and capacity • Longer and more complex administrative processes • Perception of Communities as recipients, not the “Owners” p , or “Implementers” of the project • Communities’ perception of top-down "patron client top down "patron-client " oriented relationships OPERATION & MAINTENANCE Participatory O&M of the irrigation schemes is the forthcoming challenge construction During construction, the future Operation and Maintenance of the Some WUAs have already used rehabilitated and reconstructed their profits to purchase Concrete infrastructure was discussed and , , Mixers, Hand Tractors, and other agreed by all parties in annual equipment for use in future O&M “Kenduri Blang” community meetings operations PHASING OUT . . . and FOLLOW UP Economic and livelihood E i d li lih d activities will need to be the focus of future technical assistance and support to communities / WUAs following the successful completion of the infrastructure rehabilitation and reconstruction Developing and maintaining mutually beneficial linkages between Local Government coordinating agencies and WUAs is a prerequisite for p p successful participatoryy processes “In memoriam” Pak Totok Hartono . . . SUMMING UP . . . g p , Under the ETESP Irrigation Component, almost 500 community participation contracts, f with a combined value of more than 50 Billion Rupiah,, p equivalent to approximately 5 Million D ll Milli Dollars were successfully implemented . . . LESSONS LEARNED . . . from the ETESP experience with community contracting in rehabilitation and reconstruction of irrigation schemes in Aceh and Nias has shown that : considerable initial effort was required to convince Government partners of the benefits of community participation in construction, business-as-usual construction as opposed to “ business as usual ” arrangements with commercial contractors but subsequent experience has largely changed such ingrained attitudes; local communities and their Water Users Associations have proven to be both willing and capable of undertaking construction of irrigation infrastructure works of a relatively complex nature when provided with appropriate technical guidance and support ; the “Ownership” factor inherent in the process of construction with community participation tends to result in a better quality product than that delivered by purely commercial contractors ; LESSONS LEARNED . . . given the option and the opportunity, communities in Aceh and Nias have demonstrated a strong preference for the self-managed “Surat Perjanjian Pemberian Pekerjaan” [SP3] type contracts over the Kerja Sama Operasional alternative of “Kerja-Sama-Operasional” [KSO] joint operations with contractors ; the limit of IRp 50 million (~$5,000) placed on the maximum contracts, permissible value for SP3 type direct appointment contracts under current Indonesian Government Regulations, is somewhat of a disincentive to adopt SP3 contracts by both implementing agencies and community organisations – ETESP has demonstrated that this ( $30,000) limit can readily be raised to IRp 300 million (~$30 000) ; last but not least - the “ownership” factor in community based contracts in Aceh and Nias tended to make these less susceptible than commercial contracts to outside interference in the form of “enforced” sub-contracting of supply of labor and/or materials; and/or levies of unofficial “security” or “facilitation” fees.