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Surat Perjanjian Kerja Project Ti - PDF - PDF

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					       EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI EMERGENCY SUPPORT
       PROJECT [ ETESP]



IRRIGATION
COMPONENT




                     WATER USER
                     ASSOCIATION
                     EMPOWERMENT
    INTRODUCTION
                   The Project
                         i d
                   comprised
                   three main
                   components
                       p


Irrigation scheme rehabilitation
& reconstruction
Water User Association
Empowerment
Strengthening of Implementation
  dC    di ti A        i
and Coordination Agencies
                   INTRODUCTION
The EMPOWERMENT of

Water User Associations [ WUAs ]

also known locally as

“P k     l P t iP       k i Ai ”
“Perkumpulan Petani Pemakai Air” [ P3A ]

and the introduction of the process of
participatory construction in the ETESP
Irrigation Component involved
BUILDING RAPPORT
   Informal & Formal
   Meetings to :
 • Initiate a public awareness
   campaign among
   Community Members

 • Inform Communities of
   project possibilities &
   limitations

 • Build trust

 • Listen and understand the
   Communities’ needs
                PLENARY MEETING 1
Problem Identification
Election of Community y
Representatives to
participate in system
walkthrough
walkthrough.
Identification of Existing
Local Institutions
Establish Focus Group
Discussions:
  Social Aspects
  Environmental Aspects
  Agricultural Practices
                      PARTICIPATORY SYSTEM
                              WALKTHROUGH
                                     Communities know
                                     what they need !

                                     Joint walkthroughs and
                                     field inspections with
                                     the community formed
                                     the basis for
                                     identification and
                                     selection of main
Continuous involvement &
                                     rehabilitation and
participation of local communities
is essential to ensure agreement     reconstruction options
on scheme rehabilitation and
reconstruction requirements
                             PARTICIPATORY SYSTEM
                                     WALKTHROUGH
    Discussions
    with Community
    to identify:
•   Infrastructure damage
    and malfunctions

•   Specific locations and
    causes of damage or
    malfunctions

•   Community experience
    with scheme Operation
    & Maintenance
                   FIELD DISCUSSION




Field discussion after completing the system
walkthrough to verify information and facts
identified
id tifi d
Agreement between Project Design Team &
Community on the technical p
           y                problems
identified
PLENARY MEETING 2
   • Outputs of the
     participatory system
        lkth
     walkthrough h
     presented and
     options discussed.
   • Agreement on
     identified priorities
     and infrastructure
     works selected for
     rehabilitation
   • Agreements made on
     follow up action
              p
     required
TRAINING of COMMUNITY ORGANISORS
 Training of community elected
 TPPs (Tenaga Pendamping Petani)
 in collaboration with National
 NGO (Bina Swadaya) including :

 Formal Training Courses in:
  – WUA formation including
    legalization
  – Participatory approaches and
    methods
  – Technical knowledge & skills
    requirements
  – Quality control of construction
    works
  – Contract Administration

 . . . Informal training

               g y      g
 . . . “Learning by doing”
                     WUA ESTABLISHMENT
                      AND DEVELOPMENT
  Revitalization of existing Water
  User Associations (WUAs) and
  Federations (WUAFs)

• Establishment of New WUAs
  (where necessary)

• Preparation and Development of
  WUA Constitutions and bye-laws

• Tax registration and legalization

  A total of 480 legalized and
    g
  registered WUAs were
  established or strengthened
  under the Project
WUA ESTABLISHMENT AND
         DEVELOPMENT
         p    y        g
       Capacity Building:
       • Local resources
         mobilization
       • Simple and applicable
         book-keeping
       • Basic technical
         knowledge & skills
       • Contract Administration
         & Budget Preparation
       • Reporting
                    TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
                                 Provision of
                                 routine support
                                 and technical
                                 assistance by
                                 Consultants’
                                 Community
                                 Facilitators and
• Group                          Engineers
  Development
• Legalization
  process
• Book-keeping
        Member
• WUA M b
  Meetings
• Local Resources
  Mobilization
• Civil works
  construction
                  PLENARY MEETING 3
Preparation for
participatory
implementation :
Presentation by Project
Manager (PPK) of
partnership models and
options for Construction
of Civil Works
Discussion of options

Agreement & Decision on the Partnership Models:
   Joint Operation with Contractor - Kerjasama Operasional
   (KSO) , or
   Community Contracts with WUAs - Surat Perjanjian
   Pemberian Pekerjaan (SP3)
 SP3 CONTRACT PREPARATION
  Value of SP3 Contracts
  ranged from IRp. 50 ~ 300
  million
  TPPs & WUAs were
  p
  provided with assistance
  and support in :
• Understanding Design
  Drawings and Bills of
  Quantities
     p             q
• Preparation of required
  Budgets
• Preparation of Bid
  Documents
SP3 CONTRACT AWARD
       Administrative and Technical
       Guidance was provided by Project
       Management (PPK staff) before
       signing of SP3 Contracts by WUA
       (P3A) Officials




    A Total of 492 Community [SP3]
    Contracts with an overall value of
    IRp. 50.8        (~    5.1
    IRp 50 8 billion ( US$ 5 1 million)
    were awarded to, and successfully
    completed by WUAs in the period
    2006 ~ 2008
   ON-GOING TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
                                  After signing of SP3
                                  Contracts the focus of
                                        i t h i l
                                  on-going technical
                                  assistance provided to
                                  the WUAs was on:


How to read and understand
construction drawings
How to prepare and construct
civil works in the field
How to ensure the required
quality of civil works
How to complete the civil works
effectively
                               CONSTRUCTION
WUA members meetings
were held before starting
construction to inform
them on the agreed value
of the contracts in an open
and transparent manner

WUAs members
participated actively in the
     t   ti
construction worksk

Community leaders, such
   Geuchik
as Geuchik, Imum Mukim
were appointed as Internal
Inspectors to ensure the
q     y               p
quality of workmanship as
required
                                CONSTRUCTION
Construction of wire mesh
reinforced concrete canal
lining was a first experience
for WUA members

Each WUA member was g e
  ac    U    e be as given
their own responsibility

Internal Inspectors ensured
the quality of the work

Community “Social Control”
       dd i         t   ti
occurred during construction

“Learning by Doing” was the
most effective training
CONSTRUCTION
 Motivating all WUA
 members participation in
 the construction works
 increased their commitment
 to quality workmanship


 On going monitoring and
 On-going
 support by supervising
 Engineers increased the
 WUA members’ motivation
 and skills to :
 “do the right thing”
 and to
 “do things right”
                               CONSTRUCTION
The main focus of SP3
contracts was construction
of lining to tertiary canals
however the WUAs proved
themselves capable of
constructing more complex
works such as secondary
canal lining and minor
structures with highly
acceptable quality



                               “This is our asset and these
                               canals will provide us with
                               adequate water. Therefore it was
                               important for us to do the best
                               possible job”. (Head of WUA
                               p         j     (
                               Putra Barona)
                                  CONSTRAINTS
Internal Constraints :
• Lack of experience in the
  participatory process by the
  various stakeholders
• Initial reluctance of the
  Implementing Agency and
  Project Managers to commit
  to the participatory process
• Different perceptions on
  participatory processes on
  the part of the Project
  Managers and advisory
  Consultants
• Lack of institutional support
  for systematic application of
  p      p    y pp
  participatory approach
                                 CONSTRAINTS
External Constraints:
E t    lC    t i t
• Lack of precedent in
  NAD/Nias irrigation projects
• Lack of understanding of
  participatory implementation
  processes
• Lack of confidence and trust
  in WUAs’ capabilities and
  capacity
• Longer and more complex
  administrative processes
• Perception of Communities as
  recipients, not the “Owners”
      p     ,
  or “Implementers” of the
  project
• Communities’ perception of
  top-down "patron client
  top down "patron-client "
  oriented relationships
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE
                                      Participatory O&M of the
                                      irrigation schemes is the
                                      forthcoming challenge




         construction
 During construction, the future
 Operation and Maintenance of the
                                        Some WUAs have already used
 rehabilitated and reconstructed        their profits to purchase Concrete
 infrastructure was discussed and              ,               ,
                                        Mixers, Hand Tractors, and other
 agreed by all parties in annual        equipment for use in future O&M
 “Kenduri Blang” community meetings     operations
PHASING OUT . . . and FOLLOW UP
                                Economic and livelihood
                                E        i     d li lih d
                                activities will need to be the
                                focus of future technical
                                assistance and support to
                                communities / WUAs following
                                the successful completion of
                                the infrastructure rehabilitation
                                and reconstruction


 Developing and maintaining
 mutually beneficial linkages
 between Local Government
 coordinating agencies and
 WUAs is a prerequisite for
            p      p
 successful participatoryy
 processes
                                “In memoriam” Pak Totok Hartono . . .
SUMMING UP . . .

                    g         p     ,
Under the ETESP Irrigation Component, almost
   500 community participation contracts,
                       f
with a combined value of more than
   50 Billion Rupiah,,
                p
equivalent to approximately
   5   Million D ll
       Milli Dollars
were successfully implemented . . .
LESSONS LEARNED . . .
   from the ETESP experience with community contracting
in rehabilitation and reconstruction of irrigation schemes in Aceh
and Nias has shown that :

    considerable initial effort was required to convince Government
    partners of the benefits of community participation in
    construction,                   business-as-usual
    construction as opposed to “ business as usual ” arrangements
    with commercial contractors but subsequent experience has
    largely changed such ingrained attitudes;
    local communities and their Water Users Associations have
    proven to be both willing and capable of undertaking construction
    of irrigation infrastructure works of a relatively complex nature
    when provided with appropriate technical guidance and support ;
    the “Ownership” factor inherent in the process of construction
    with community participation tends to result in a better quality
    product than that delivered by purely commercial contractors ;
LESSONS LEARNED . . .
  given the option and the opportunity, communities in Aceh and Nias
  have demonstrated a strong preference for the self-managed “Surat
  Perjanjian Pemberian Pekerjaan” [SP3] type contracts over the
                  Kerja Sama Operasional
  alternative of “Kerja-Sama-Operasional” [KSO] joint operations with
  contractors ;

  the limit of IRp 50 million (~$5,000) placed on the maximum
                                                         contracts,
  permissible value for SP3 type direct appointment contracts under
  current Indonesian Government Regulations, is somewhat of a
  disincentive to adopt SP3 contracts by both implementing agencies
  and community organisations – ETESP has demonstrated that this
                                                 ( $30,000)
  limit can readily be raised to IRp 300 million (~$30 000) ;

  last but not least - the “ownership” factor in community based
  contracts in Aceh and Nias tended to make these less susceptible
  than commercial contracts to outside interference in the form of
  “enforced” sub-contracting of supply of labor and/or materials;
  and/or levies of unofficial “security” or “facilitation” fees.

				
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