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					illegal immigration
     Mini-unit -- April 2006




    St. Luke Middle School
        San Antonio, Texas
Question….
• Whose fault is illegal immigration?
• Answer on your own. _______________
__________________________________
__________________________________

• Remember by illegal immigration, we
  are speaking of someone who enters
  another country (usually a more
  desirable place) through illegal means
  with the intention of staying, working, or
  using the new country.
Possible answers…

• Leaders in former country.
• Illegal immigrants themselves.
• Business owners willing to hire
  illegal immigrants.
• The fact that there are jobs that
  many do not want.
• Other reasons?
Mini-lesson objectives…

• Today, Congress and the general
  public debate are addressing illegal
  immigration. We think it is
  important for our students to
  understand this issue, as Catholics
  and as San Antonians.
  – Understand basics of debate
  – Analyze different solutions
  – Synthesize own view of issue

   All charts and data from The New York Times, 2 April 2006 unless otherwise stated.
The numbers…
•   300 million people U.S. population.
•   148 million people in the work force.
•   11 million illegal immigrants estimated.
•   7 million illegal immigrants in the work
    force.
The numbers…
Why do people come to U.S.?

• Not enough opportunity in home
  country
• Limited amount of legal immigration
  – Process is costly and time-consuming
  – Difficult procedure for some
  – Limited amount per year per country
• Family already in U.S.
• Other reasons?
Current immigration

• 50,000 Diversity Lottery
• 480,000 persons for family-based
  immigration
• 140,000 person for work based,
  with a cap of 9,800 per country.
  – H1B Visas for specialized labor
What jobs….
What do they add?

• Work jobs necessary to getting
  work done.
• Keep prices lower.
  – Working for lower wages allows
    businesses to keep prices low.
  – A group of workers always available
    when the need arises again allows
    wages to be kept lower.
• Spend money in our economy.
What do they take?

• Take jobs away from legal workers?
• Keep wages lower?
• No taxes paid, but government
  services given.
  – Healthcare, education, border
    security, and social services
• Encourages abuse and other illegal
  activities?
What is taken from them

• Abuse of illegal immigrants is
  impossible to fully monitor, but is a
  major problem.
  – Unsafe border crossings
  – Unsafe work environments
  – Stolen/unpaid wages
  – Forced illegal activities
Controversy …
• What jobs do illegal immigrants really
  take?
  – Earlier chart showed that in no category of
    work were illegal immigrants greater than
    24% of work force (farming, fishing, forestry),
    and for most these jobs have low desirability.
  – However, the unemployment rate among
    native born with less than a high school
    education was 14.3% in 2005. The rate was
    only 7.4% for the same group within illegal
    immigrant groups.
Controversy

              • Traditionally, this
              issue has been only
              truly felt by five states:
              Texas, Arizona, New
              Mexico, California,
              and Florida.
              • Now, states like
              Ohio, Iowa, Illinois,
              and New York are
              feeling the effects of
              illegal immigration.
Congress…

• The issue has now come to a boil
  because in December the House of
  Representatives passed a bill which
  would punish (with felonies)
  business owners who employed
  illegal immigrants.
• The Senate has to debate the bill
  and decide if they want to pass a
  similar bill or different bill.
The ideas…
• Conservative – Right
  – Traditional law-and-order kind of solution.
• Moderate – Center
  – Try to find the best of both sides of the issue
• Liberal/Progressive – Left
  – Tend to want to give more help and services


• How would you guess each group
  wants to deal with this issue?
Conservative ideas
• Build a fence.
• Employ more border guards.
• Arrest and deport more illegal
  immigrants caught.
• Deny all services to illegal
  immigrants.

• Prosecute employers who employ
  illegal workers?
S. 2454 – the Securing
America’s Borders Act
• Introduced by Senator Frist (R-TN)
• Bill would improve our border defenses
  through increased guards and
  technology and improve enforcement
  inside the U.S. by making it easier for
  employers to verify the immigration
  status of new hires (and criminalize
  hiring illegal immigrants).
  – Add nearly 15,000 additional border agents
    to the 20,000 Customs and Border
    Protection agents already on the job.

      From Senator Bill Frist, MD (R-TN), Senate Majority Leader’s web site.
S. 2454 – the Securing
America’s Borders Act
• The bill would also begin the
  process of building a 1,951-mile
  long virtual barrier across every
  inch of our border with Mexico.
  – Most high-traffic areas = walls and
    fences
  – Low traffic areas = monitored with
    sensors.
• Improve the database for checking
  immigration status of workers.
     From Senator Bill Frist, MD (R-TN), Senate Majority Leader’s web site.
HR 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and
Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005

• Bill passed by House in December.
• “Unlawful presence” would now be considered
  a crime and a felony, meaning that
  undocumented immigrants may have to serve
  jail time and could not enter into the country
  legally ever again.
• Anyone or any organization – church, business,
  or family member -- who “assists” an individual
  without documentation “to reside in or remain”
  in the United States knowingly or without
  checking would be liable for criminal penalties
  (a felony) and five years in prison
• The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
  would be required to build up to 700 miles of
  fencing along the Southwest border at points
  with the highest number of immigrant deaths.
           From www.immigrationreformnow.com, a project of the Republican National Hispanic Assembly.
HR 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and
Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005

•   The use of expedited removal, which would allow much
    faster deportation.
•   Asylum seekers and refugees who are convicted of a
    minor offense, such as petty theft, would be barred from
    permanent legal residence and eventual citizenship.
•   Nationals from countries who do not accept the return of
    aliens who commit crimes in this country would not be
    admitted to the United States. This would include
    countries such as China, Vietnam, and Cuba. They could
    remain jailed for an indeterminate amount of time in the
    U.S.
•   The diversity visa lottery program, which allows 50,000
    immigrants each year from countries around the world to
    permanently reside in the United States, is eliminated.




         From www.immigrationreformnow.com, a project of the Republican National Hispanic Assembly.
Moderate ideas
• DO NOTHING, or…
• Guest worker program
  – Different than Green Card, which
    leads to citizenship, this type of
    program would allow people to come
    to the U.S. to work for a set period of
    time, but not gain citizenship or
    permanent resident status.
  – Similar programs have always hit their
    ceiling limits.
Liberal-progressive ideas

• Amnesty Program, for those
  already here for more than two
  years.
  – Amnesty means forgiving a wrong
  – Similar program in 1986 with Reagan
    Administration, which granted legal
    status to nearly three million illegal
    immigrants.
S. 1033, or CIRA 2006
 Senate bill submitted by Sens. McCain (R-
   Arizona) and Kennedy (D-Massachusetts)
 For illegal immigrants who have been her
   for more than two years.
 • Pay $1,000.
 • Learn English.
 • Pay back taxes.
 • Criminal background check.
 • Work for six more years.
 • Then apply for Green Card.

    From www.immigrationreformnow.com, a project of the Republican National Hispanic Assembly.
Catholic perspective
“Whatever you did for one of these least
  brothers of mine, that you did for me.”
• We are measured by what we do with our
  resources.
  – Are we supporting life? The poor? The abused?
• USCCB has written in support of CIRA,
  because it is “humane, secure, and
  reflects the values upon which our nation
  - a nation of immigrants - was built.”

  Gospel passage from Matthew 25:40
  Quote from Bishop Gerald Barnes. Letter to the Senate. 3 April 2006. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.
Senate compromise
•    Compromise combined some of the ideas presented
     above.
•    The plan would create a temporary (guest) worker
     program that would allow 325,000 foreigners to fill jobs in
     the United States each year.
•    Under the Senate agreement, illegal immigrants who
     have lived in the United States for five years or more,
     about seven million people, would eventually be granted
     citizenship if they remained employed, had background
     checks, paid fines and back taxes and learned English.
•    Illegal immigrants who have lived here for two to five
     years, about three million people, would have to travel to
     a U.S. border crossing and apply for a temporary work
     visa.
       – Eligible for permanent residency and citizenship over time,
         but they would have to wait several years longer for it.

Swarns, Rachelle. “Senate Deal on Immigration Falters.” The New York Times. On-line. www.nytimes.com. 7 April
     2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/07/washington/07immig.html?hp&ex=1144468800
     &en=36b51cc86c42a9a1&ei=5094&partner=homepage
Senate compromise
• Illegal immigrants who have been here less
  than two years, about one million people, would
  be required to leave the country altogether.
  They could apply for spots in the temporary
  (guest) worker program, but they would not be
  guaranteed positions.

• The compromise seemed close to approval;
  HOWEVER, the approaching two-week recess
  for Easter, and the amendments that were
  added by conservative groups, and bickering
  among Democrats and Republicans stopped
  the bill from getting a vote.
Swarns, Rachelle. “Senate Deal on Immigration Falters.” The New York Times. On-line.
    www.nytimes.com. 7 April 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/07/washington/
    07immig.html?hp&ex=1144468800 &en=36b51cc86c42a9a1&ei=5094&partner=homepage
Position paper
• Write an essay in which you present
  your position on the issue.
• You have to address why you believe
  this, and why you don’t agree with
  opposing ideas.
  – Organize your ideas in paragraphs.
  – 1 to 1.5 pages.
  – Use as many examples/facts from the
    PowerPoint as possible.
  – Create an interesting introduction.
  – Rough drafts: ______; Final drafts: _______

				
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