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					                   PUBLIC TRANSPORT POLICY & MEASURES

                                             A CASE STUDY

                                              Joseph Chahoud

General Framework: Transport Policy and Air Quality in Urban Areas

The E.U. “NAPOLI” (Negotiation and Application of Policies for Lowering Emissions)

          The Mediterranean Sea identifies, according to the E.U. Commission, the southern border of the
European Union. The 1995 Barcelona Conference has represented the starting point for the
implementation of a new programme of co-operation with the extra-EU countries located at the south and
east shores of the Mediterranean Sea. A substantial amount of financial resources has been devoted to this
purpose, with the aim at implementing and reinforcing its relations with the North African and Near
Eastern Countries.
          According to updated figures from Euro stat and other European statistical data, by 2020 the
population of the South Mediterranean Countries will reach a figure between 300 and 400 millions, with a
very young age structure; most of them will be badly looking for labour opportunity, to improve their
income and their quality of life. The economy will be concentrated in agriculture, raw materials and
manufacturing, as well as in services like transports and tourism. As a result, the urbanization process will
likely continue, with negative effects on the environment.
          On the contrary, the European population structure will be much older, averaging around
350/400 millions, with a growth rate close to zero. The economy will be mainly concentrated in the
tertiary sector: insurance, banking and financial services, advanced scientific and technological research,
etc.; in competition with North America and East Asia.
          According to this scenario, the E.U. policy is strongly addressed at developing the co-operation
and partnership with non-E.U. Mediterranean Countries, in a common effort to identify new forms of
socio-economic integration and collaboration in a variety of sectors like, for instance, education, training
and technology transfer.

    1) The “NAPOLI” Programme, a programme in view of clear messages to policy decision makers
       for transport strategies in cities and metropolitan areas, started with the signature of a contract
       between the E.U. and the “Istituto Motori CNR of Italy” on the 31st of March 1999.
       The programme, substantially demonstrative, joins the cities of Naples, Athens and Barcelona
       with their respective Regions, in the strain to improve mobility and air quality in those urban
       areas, in view to attract private and foreign investments and foster development of tourism. The
       programme included the identification of strategies for the implementation of realistic and
       successful collaborations amongst the Mediterranean Countries, starting from some of the E.U.
       specific projects.
       The basic interest is in controlled decentralization of public and economic activities based on
       reinforced public transport operations involving also rail, air and maritime services. This fits the
       framework principles on Urban Travel and Sustainable Transport, as have been elaborated by the
       European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT), and follows the final recommendations
       of EU Cost Action 616: mobile sources of urban air pollution.
       The main innovation of the Programme is represented by the opportunity for mutual exchange of
       know-how and of new technological solutions and experiences referring to the energy sector
       policies among the three abovementioned cities having some common features: congested road
       networks, high levels of air pollution, a relevant role of tourism, the presence of harbours and
       airports with heavy land-side traffic, etc.

   Naples provided its know-how about clean technologies for transport, telematics for mobility of
   public transport means in urban area, new techniques of pollutants monitoring, its experience in
   EU CENTAUR Project and in the national programme “Atena” (a pilot project of a
   demonstrative fleet of minimum environmental impact vehicles and a telematic system of
   supervising, monitoring and information of the traffic, studies on meteorology and
   environmental chemistry. Barcelona and Athens have, from their sides, provided similar
   experiences; the former had afforded the 1992 Olympic Games, the latter is organizing the 2004
   Olympic Games.
   Another important result comes from the coordination carried out by the “NAPOLI” Programme
   with other international initiatives and projects. In particular we mention here:
         The EU CENTAUR Project, in which the Italian cities involved were Bologna and
         The European thematic network EUROTRAC-2, where the group involved was
             GLOREAM (Global Regional Atmospheric Modelling).
         The activities of “Remote sensing and control of air quality in urban and industrial
             areas”, a Joint Project driven by CNR (Italian National Research Council) and by the
             Italian Ministry of University and of Scientific Research, with a financial support by
   The final act of the “NAPOLI” Programme has been the definition of a thematic network of
   R&D Centres specialized in issues related to Sustainable Development, Transport and Energy,
   addressed to end users and in particular to Regional and/or National Governments.

2) Mediterranean Dissemination and Co-operation:

   The first occasion for disseminating the information on the activities of the “NAPOLI”
   Programme was during the Third Mediterranean Exhibition of Technological Innovation
   (MEDITERINTEC III) held in Naples on the 10 th of December 1998. MEDITERINTEC
   provides academic and industrial researchers, producers, transformers, end users and market
   operators with a unique opportunity to mutually share their know-how and innovative
   technologies in order to identify and explore new perspectives aiming at an eco-sustainable
   development of the Mediterranean Countries. During the MEDITERINTEC III, each invited
   country introduced the state of art of transport policy and air quality in their urban areas, as a
   demonstration of their strong interest in the activities and the results of the “NAPOLI”
   Programme, and their availability and willingness for a direct co-operation. In this context, the
   representative of the Egyptian Authorities presented a document entitled “Reflections on the
   Egyptian vehicular natural gas programme”.

   A few words about the CENTAUR PROJECT: the CENTAUR (Clean and Efficient New
   Transport Approach for Urban Rationalization) Project has been put forward for financial
   support from the European Commission Directorate General XVII (Energy) under the JOULE-
   THERMIE programme in March 1996.
   The project was developed by a European Consortium including organizations from ten cities,
   namely: Barcelona, Bologna, Bristol/South Gloucestershire, Dublin, Graz, Las Palmas, Leipzig,
   Krakow, Naples and Toulouse.
   The overall aim of the Project is to demonstrate and evaluate “integrated packages” of measures
   in order to reduce transport related energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Within this,
   each of the abovementioned cities will have two main objectives:
     Encourage a shift towards the use of energy efficient and low pollution travel modes;
     Improve the energy and emission characteristics of public transport.
    These objectives will be met through a series of measures (CENTAUR strategies) that can be
    categorized into three main groups (CENTAUR levels):
     New public transport technologies and use of alternative fuels;
     Systems and equipment for a better quality of public transport services;
     Supporting planning, policy and infrastructure measures.
    The expected results are: demonstration of this urban transport operation scheme during two
    years in order to allow, on the one hand, the determination of real benefits, in energy and
    environmental terms, derived from the application of these innovative systems and equipment
    and, on the other hand, the evaluation of their operability and their interaction with the citizens.
    In the first case, and through the use of standardized methodologies for all the ten cities, the
    following environmental impacts are going to be quantified:
      Vehicles energy consumption and comparison for application zones;

              Vehicles pollutants emissions and comparison for application zones: CO2, CO, NOx, HC,
               Sox, PM;
              Acoustic pollution;
              Users and social acceptance of the innovative measures.

            For more details on what have been achieved, in this context, in the two participating Italian
           cities, namely Bologna and Naples, see Appendices 3 & 4.


Since 1978 the EU and Syria are linked by a cooperation agreement. More recently Syria was one of the
twelve Southern and South Eastern countries of the Mediterranean area to participate with the fifteen EU
countries at the Euro-Mediterranean Conference held in Barcelona in November 1995. All the
participants have adopted a Declaration: establishing a new partnership between the EU and the twelve
Southern and South Eastern Mediterranean Partners. The sustainable development objective and its
environmental dimension have been fully integrated in the new partnership. Participants emphasised their
interdependency with regard to environment, the need for a regional approach, the need of intense
cooperation, and better coordination between existing multilateral programmes. They recognised the
importance of reconciling economy development with environmental protection.
     The European Commission has been entrusted with coordinating the preparation of a Short- and
Medium-term-priority environmental Action Plan (SMAP). Aims and objectives of SMAP are:

(a) To help change of the current trend of environment degradation in the Region;
(b) To contribute to the sustainable development of the Region, to the protection of the Mediterranean
    environment, and to the improvement of the health and the welfare of the population;
(c) To contribute to the further integration of environmental concerns in all other policies;
(d) To contribute to create opportunities for new employment.

Some of the SMAP specific objectives in this context are:

    (i)       To become the common basis for environmental purposes (policy and funding) in the
    (ii)      To ensure a real positive impact through prevention, remedy and rehabilitation;
    (iii)     To offer a better chance of fundraising;
    (iv)      To increase the chances of getting more credit for the environment in the Region.

Pollution and environmental degradation is so far advanced that immediate action must be undertaken.
Partners are free, within a broad understanding of the concept, to designate one or several priority hot
spots (urgent problems in urban areas).

Syria is engaged to include in this framework its own environmental issues and/or development projects.
In fact, one of the priority development programmes of the Syrian Ministry of Transport concerns the
internal transport. The programme as proposed by the Ministry includes a project aiming to use
compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquid propane gas (LPG) in public transport vehicles, buses and taxis.
The project requires creating a joint venture with a view of studying, financing, implementing and
handling the entire project; specific demands are the building of pipelines, of fuelling stations and of

mechanical workshops for conversion of vehicles from gasoline/diesel to natural gas, for maintenance and
for repair, as well as the purchase of new buses designed to operate using CNG only.
The “Project” goes further foreseeing the set up of modern, well-equipped technical centres for the
periodical revision of motor vehicles and their conditions to fit with the standards. These centres should
have the capability to cover the needs of the Country. Moreover, the Ministry project foresees the
improvement of the already existing drive licensing schools and the institution of new ones and training
fields. Most importantly is that part which concerns the educational level, namely the creation of technical
schools whose scope is the formation of specialized staff to cover all the needs of the transport sector.

A full description of the project is presented here below.

Use of Compressed Natural Gas in Public Transport in Syria

Steps over the years
1) Following a directive of the Prime Minister, the Minister of Industry enacted a Decree (n°2250) to
    institute a special committee of representatives of the Ministries of Industry, of Oil, of Transport and
    other members of the Faculty of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, of the Centre of Scientific
    Studies and Research, and of the Laboratory of Industrial Research, in order to study the potentiality
    of using NG as an alternative fuel to gasoline.
2) The minutes of the Energy Panel n°25 explicitly bind the two Ministries of Transport and Oil to
    prepare a preliminary study concerning the use of NG as an alternative fuel in automobiles.
3) In 1990 the Prime Minister sent a special delegation of engineers to Algeria to study and take note of
    what is running there in that field. The delegation was composed of members from the Syrian
    Company of Oil, the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Planning.
4) In 1993 the Syrian Company of Oil signed a contract with the Austrian Company LMF to build an
    experimental station in the north east of Syria, which was realized in 1994. Five cars and one bus
    were converted to CNG, besides a small refuelling station. The success of the experimentation
    encouraged the Syrian Company to proceed to converting twenty more cars.
5) A decree of the Minister of Transport (n°1590/1994) subsequently set up a technical committee
    composed of representatives of the Ministries of Transport, of Oil, of Planning, plus a few members
    of the then denominated “General Commission of the Environmental Affairs”. Later on, experts from
    the University of Damascus and from the Centre of Scientific Studies and Research have been
    included. This Commission was appointed to study all technical, economical and environmental
    aspects of the use of NG in transport means, on the basis of the results obtained on field as mentioned
6) In 1997 a delegation of experts went to Egypt in order to gain knowledge of the Egyptian project
    concerning the use of CNG in internal transport.
7) In August 2000 a delegation of the World Bank put forward a proposal to try out twelve buses,
    designed for the use of CNG, in Damascus for two years. Unfortunately, the offer is still in standby
    owing to lack appropriate of infrastructures.


Air Quality
Limited monitoring indicates that air quality in major cities is generally poor. Pollution from vehicle
traffic is particularly critical in Damascus. Some measured daily values are significantly higher than
WHO guideline limits, up to 5 times higher in Damascus. It is estimated that 4.000 people over the whole
territory of Syria every year are in danger of dying prematurely due to high particulate concentrations

Global Environment
Energy consumption per capita and energy intensity in Syria are about the average for a middle-income
country in the Middle East, namely 930 kgoe/capita and 822 kgoe/USD of GDP. However, there are
many opportunities to increase energy efficiency and reduce liquid fuel consumption. To mention just
one, the current efficiency of thermo-power plants does not reach 50%. Increasing efficiency could
reduce CO2 emissions which is currently around 26.4 Mt/year. Syria does not produce any Montreal
Protocol controlled substances, and is implementing a national plan to phase out the use of Ozone
depleting substances within 10 years.

Estimated Costs of Environmental Damage in Syria
Environmental degradation and shortage of environmental services affect public health, quality of life,
economic productivity and natural and cultural resources. Many such effects impose a direct economic

cost on the civil society, whilst the damage caused by most other factors can be estimated in monetary
terms using a variety of techniques. Due to air quality degradation, using as indicator the health effect of
PM10 particulates concentrations and urban SO2 concentrations, the cost estimated for the year 2005 is
around 200 millions USD, at net of mortality costs. The overall estimate of the annual cost to Syria of
environmental degradation was between 690-890 million USD in 1997, and is expected to increase to
between 1.2 to 1.7 billion USD by 2005 if no action is taken. These estimates exclude the costs of
mortality, which, from air pollution alone, ranged between 150 and 330 million USD in 1997 and will
go up to between 330 and 860 million USD in 2005. In 1995, the GDP of Syria was around 21 billion
USD; therefore the losses due to environmental damage represent a significant fraction of national
income. The low priority given to environmental issues and challenges in the past has led to lack of
investment in infrastructures and innovative technologies and, consequently, to a shortage of technical
and managerial resources.

The National Environmental Action Plan
The first steps for the NEAP (2001) to take are the building of a good management capability to regulate
the environment taking cross-sector linkages into account, the promoting of a campaign in order to
educate the population, the improvement of ability of environmental impact assessment to include
environmental goals in planning new development projects, and finally compliance with international
obligations and treaties.
          Within the areas of intervention of the NEAP priority is given to urban areas: improving air
quality as well as average vehicle speed in urban areas in order to reduce congestion is only one of the
targets of the overall NEAP programmes and investments.
          The targeted investments of the NEAP represent a cost-effective and efficient programme to
protect public health, to arrest the rate of degradation and to restore damaged assets. Full implementation
of the programme will require approximately doubling the current expense on environment over the next
10 years. Although it is not so easy to relate the costs of each specific investment directly to the value of
specific benefits, we might predict that the successful implementation of the ten-year programme, which
is strongly dependent on effective management and monitoring, is most likely to bring the damage down
to zero. In any case, the damage costs, if no action will be taken, would be much higher than the cost of
remedial actions. The example of poor air quality is, in this context, very significant: annual cost of
remedial action over the entire territory is around 55 million USD per year while the damage cost reaches
a factor of nearly ten times more. The total cost of the NEAP investment programme is estimated at
around 5 billion USD over the next ten years, and it is anticipated that some additional funding will be
provided through international aid flows. However, internal resources should be mobilised to make up
most of the shortfall.

Environmental Management

A Legislative Decree which goes back to 1991 has instituted the “General Commission for Environmental
Affairs”, but only very recently, and precisely on the 8 th of July 2002, the President of the Republic issued
the law 50/02, approved by the Parliament on the 26 th of June 2002, that defines the GCEA and contains
all comprehensive rules and regulations thereof, besides instituting the “Council for Environmental
Considering the extreme importance of this recent legal step towards the management of the Environment
in its all aspects, we would here briefly report some of the details of this law.
      A) As for the GCEA, it is defined as a body corporate (legal body) independent both financially and
           administratively, and refers to the Minister of State for the Environmental Affairs who acts as
           Chairman of the Board of Directors. The “Commission” undertakes, according to this law, every
           initiatives concerning research and development projects, regulations, financing, control of
           implementation and Regional and International co-operations with parties operating in fields of
           common interest. The Board of Directors is the effective manager of the Commission. It looks as
           if bilateral agreements should be agreed upon with this Legal Body.
      B) As for the “Council for Environmental Protection” it is stated that the Chairman is the Vice
           Prime Minister for Public Services, the Minister of State for Environmental Affairs is the Deputy
           Chairman, and members of the Council are many ministers whose offices are related, in one way
           or another, to environmental issues, plus, inter alia, the Director General of the GCEA; to this
           regard it is interesting to note the important role given to the membership of the Minister of

Local Environmental Committees are also instituted in the various Departments for the implementation of
environmental policies at local levels. These Committees are expected to identify local environmental

problems. However, the support services and the cultural climate needed for effective operation of the
environmental institutions are still insufficient. A significant example in the context of the present report
is the occasional research, conducted by a research centre in Damascus, concerning the air quality,
measuring dust, heavy metals, CO, CO2, SO3, O3, NOx.

Moreover, within the many commitments that the Law assigns to the “Commission”, two are worthwhile
to be mentioned, also for their technological content; one concerns the set up of a network covering the
whole territory for the monitoring of the all environmental conditions, and the other concerns the set up
of a data base system which manages, in real time, the fluxes of data.

Resources for Environmental Management
The financial provisions of the Law 50/2002 are stated as follows:
    i)       Allocation of funds within the annual State Budget;
    ii)      Funds available in a special account at the Central Bank of Syria in which flows in loans
             and grants from donor agencies;
    iii)     Any other revenues approved by the Prime Minister.

At this point it looks as if Syria is on a good basis, nothing more is needed, to start with the
implementation of already existing programmes and to go further on projects of international co-
operation, especially in the immediate framework of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.

Further information about air quality in major cities in Syria

Measurements of concentrations of air pollutants are limited. However, the results of modelling and
limited monitoring indicate that air pollution is generally in excess of the 1988 WHO guidelines for

    1) Suspended particulate matter: Two measures of suspended particulate matter were considered,
       namely, PM10 and TSP (total suspended particulates in the atmosphere). TSP values in
       Damascus, Aleppo and Homs are 4-5 times higher than the WHO guidelines. PM10 represents
       30-50% of TSP.
    2) Sulphur dioxide: limited sampling indicates that SO2 concentrations may reach 0.1 ppm as daily
       average in Damascus. This is twice as much the proposed Syrian standard. In addition,
       concentrations up to 100 times the standard have been measured around power plants and
       industrial sites.
    3) Carbon monoxide: the available data indicate concentrations in urban areas between 2-12 ppm as
       an 8 hour average, occasionally reach 35 ppm in Damascus.
    4) Nitrogen oxides: concentrations reach an average daily value of 0.3 ppm in Damascus and 0.5
       ppm in Aleppo. The draft standard is 0.1 ppm.
    5) Photochemical oxidants: surface ozone concentration could reach 0.07 ppm in Damascus as
       daily average. Such level value lead to irritation of the eyes often experienced by people who
       live and/or work in the city centre.
    6) Other pollutants: Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulphide and other harmful substances have been found
       in the atmosphere. Benzene is of particular concern since its concentration could reach values
       higher than the WHO guidelines. There is also some evidence on acid deposition in Damascus
       from measurements of pH of rainwater.

Causes of air pollution

The causes of air pollution are a combination of:
          Motor vehicle emissions, particularly the old fleet of cars (mainly used in public transport)
              and the poor traffic management resulting in taxis spending a significant portion of time
              running, with no passengers, along the roads;
          Industrial emissions mainly in hotspots around industrial sites;
          Domestic heaters, which are thought to contribute significantly to CO concentration.


We restrict the following statistical data to the city of Damascus (intended Big Damascus), updated to
year 2000.

1) Motor vehicles by type:
    Automobiles: 76.175 (a figure that amounts to more than 50% of the total park of the whole
      Country. More than 13.000 are public cars used for passengers transport (taxis).
    Buses: 1.720 (more than one third of Country total. About 600 buses are used for public
    Micro Buses: 11.370 (30% of the Country total). 9.600 micros are used for public transport.
    Good Vehicles: 31.000 (24% of the Country total). Almost 17.000 are used in public
    Tankers: 900 (22% of the Country total).
    Pick-ups: 61.500 (28% of the Country total).
    Motorcycles: 19.800 (21% of Country total).

2) Age of vehicles in Syria:

        Passenger cars: 60% are old more than 13 years, of which 26% are older than 24 years.
        Buses and Microbuses: 40% are older than 13 years, of which 9% are older than 24 years.
        Pick-ups: 57% are older than 13 years, of which 6% are older than 24 years.
        Trucks: 68% are older than 13 years, of which 19% are older than 24 years.

                                                            (Source: Ministry of Transport estimates, 1998)

Vehicles ownership is concentrated in the major cities – an estimated 1/3 of the total vehicle fleet operates
in Damascus, where, due to poor management of the traffic, the average speed drops to about 4-5 km/h,
which is far low with respect to international standards.
A modelling exercise carried out 7 years ago suggested that vehicle emissions were by far the greatest
contributors to air pollution. To consider Damascus, the exercise indicates that vehicles emissions
contribute by 99% to Nitrogen oxides, 99% to Particulates, 100% to Lead, 81% to SO2 and 100% to CO.
Data relative to year 1996 indicate that the transport sector consumption of fuel oil derivatives amounts to
2.365 million toe. No use of Natural Gas in this sector, not even of LPG.


The 2002 State Budget deserves about 44 million USD for internal transport in the 4 major cities of Syria.
2/3 of this investment programme is dedicated to Damascus. On schedule is the purchase of 600 new
buses, half of which big buses (85-100 passengers, among them 25-30 seated) and the other half medium
buses (40-50 passengers, among them 15-20 seated).

Natural Gas Programme in Syria

NG Reserves
Proven reserves of NG in Syria amount by now, as confirmed by the Ministry of Oil and Mineral
Resources, to about 500 billion cubic meters, to be found mainly in the central and north eastern regions
of the Country.
A pipeline brings actually natural gas from those far regions to nearby Damascus (50 Km to the East of
At Regional level the four Ministers of Oil and Energy of Syria, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon have recently
agreed upon the full implementation of the regional NG pipeline. They agreed to set up a joint venture
company denominated the “Arab Natural Gas Company” based in Damascus and a “Natural Gas
Commission” based in Beirut. These two intergovernmental bodies will manage for the thirty years to
come the whole business of Natural Gas. From the Banyas (Syria) harbour an under sea Gas pipeline
reaching Cyprus is under study; alternatively a liquefaction plant in Banyas is also under study.

On the basis of what said above and given all good promises we put forward the following


    1) To build pipelines to reach the peripheral areas of the city of Damascus. The estimated length of
       these pipelines is about 40-50 Km;
    2) To set up a minimum of five adequate fuelling stations on location;
    3) To set up an appropriate number of mechanical workshops in order to convert part of the
       existing vehicles from gasoline and oil/diesel to NG fuel and to guarantee maintenance and
    4) To purchase fifty new buses designed to operate only on CNG;
    5) To convert a minimum of 1,000 taxis from gasoline to CNG; taxis converted thanks to public
       expenditure may be marked as “Green Car” with due acknowledgement to the Ministry of
       Transport and to the Ministry of Environment; the point of the initiative is to increase public
       awareness of the issue and to encourage owners of private vehicles to do the same;
    6) To set up a joint venture authority to manage the whole project.

                       Estimated overall cost: 25 million USD in three years
                   Estimated NG demand: approx. 150,000 cubic metres per day
                   Estimated saving on liquid fuel: approx. 150,000 litres per day

    Considering that a viability study, conducted by the Ministry of Transport in the City of Damascus
    aiming to rationalize the public transport sector through the creation of privileged paths reserved to
    public transport means, is now running and is supposed to be accomplished within the year 2002, one
    might undertake a small pilot project limited to a central area in Damascus where the traffic
    congestion is particularly heavy. Install there a few fixed monitoring stations and utilizing one
    mobile station in order to control the air quality in that area and around it, one could foresee visible
    results within relatively short time period, thus contributing to the credibility of the overall project
    and encouraging government to commit itself further. The “High Institute of Laser Research and
    Applications” should be involved at the level of monitoring.

    The social, environmental and economic benefits of the use of Natural Gas in vehicles as
    applied to the case of Syria:

    a) Foreword

    The GDP of Syria has grown in the decade 1990-2000 at a pace of more than 5.5% per year, with a
    population of more than 16 millions. Given the well-known direct relationship between economic
    activities and transport demand, the high growth of the economy highlights the importance of
    identifying mechanisms, which might reduce the negative externalities of transport, and therefore
    improve the trade off between economic growth and environmental sustainability. This is particularly
    important in Syria where private transport by cars and lorries has steadily increased over time with a
    faster rate in recent years (about 9.5% a year between 1992 and 1996).
    The stock of registered motor vehicles is estimated, in year 2000, at more than 600.000, more than
    40% of which is private. Public, private and school buses and taxis constitute almost 8% of total;
    trucks, pick-up and tankers amount to almost 45% of total.

    b) Project objectives

This project aims at identifying and exploiting solutions based on innovative technologies and
strategies that can help the developing countries in the Mediterranean area pursuing an eco-
sustainable development and to affect positively the air quality reducing pollution in congested urban
Its feasibility is connected with the assessment of the social (and environmental), economic and
financial benefits produced by a policy directed at substituting old vehicles (public transport buses
and other public transport means, taxis, private cars, motorcycles, etc.) with vehicles characterized by
lower polluting emissions with the objective of:
   Exploiting the NG resources, which are already relatively abundant in Syria (about 500 billions
       cubic meters);
   Reducing the environmental impact of urban transport in city areas, disentangling the growth in
       urban economies from transport demand;
   Increasing the efficiency and the quality of public transport services.

 The introduction of NG will certainly contribute to improving the air quality, reducing also noise
 production and exploiting a natural resource largely available in Syria.
 In the course of the analysis, the project will provide and measure the economic evaluation of
 environmental externalities, estimating the costs of the project implementation, on one side, and the
 benefits of substituting the current means of transport with new vehicles fuelled by NG on the other
 Given the complexities that a full implementation of the project might bring about at the country
 level in the Syrian context, it seems quite reasonable to identify a city as a case study. On this
 regard and for several reasons related to its importance, population, geographical location, etc,
 Damascus comes out as a good choice.

 c) The case of Damascus

 In the city of Damascus, as well as in most of the cities in the developing countries, the air and
 acoustic pollution due to motor vehicles emissions is a very serious issue. The Department of
 Health, in co-ordination with the Ministries of Health and of Environmental Affairs, is planning to
 supervise stations for the monitoring of air pollution in many Districts. The stations should identify
 pollutant types and determine the extent to which they are present in the air. In Syria there are also
 attempts to curb air pollution through mandatory vehicle inspections, the relocation of parking lots
 and public transport stops away from residential areas, and the sporadic monitoring of heavy traffic
 areas at peak hours in order to measure the concentrations of noxious gases.
 Nevertheless, Damascus has got in the past few years a dramatic growth in the number of private
 vehicles with obvious negative effects on traffic congestion. It has also an inadequate bus and
 tramway fleet, ineffective traffic management, especially in the central business districts and an
 acute shortage of parking spaces as well as secondary road network. The situation is getting much
 better in these last 2-3 years. Eventually, an important factor that spurred the growth of private
 transport is the heavily subsidised cost of fuel.
 In this context, the aim of the project is to assess the social, environmental and economic benefits
 produced by a policy directed at substituting old private cars, taxis and public transport buses with
 vehicles characterized by lower emissions, with the overall objective of reducing the environmental
 impact of urban transport.

 According to the proposed methodology, the working programme will include:
  The collection of all available data on urban transport (done above);
  The analysis of environmental issues such as, for example, type and amount of fuel
     consumption, emissions dispersion and concentrations for different types of vehicles and
     vehicle use in different days and year periods, etc.;
  Using the ExternE (a well known European project aiming at evaluating the effects of air
     pollution due to transport activities in urban areas) results to measure the economic evaluation
     of environmental externalities, the project will provide an estimate of the costs of the project
     implementation and the benefits of substituting the old means of transport by new ones; as
     regards costs, estimates will be provided of the related investment costs; examples of benefits
     are calculated in terms of the differential between the economic costs of each pollutant before
     and after the implementation of the substitution procedures or in terms of the reduction of the
     total amount of fuel consumption due to the use of more efficient transport means. The
     economic effects of the substitution programme will not only concern air pollution but also
     acoustic pollution as well as, to the extent that new buses would likely increase the efficiency

      of public transport versus private one, the congestion costs and the overall polluting emissions
      related to urban traffic.
     The final outcomes of the cost/benefit analysis will be the Net Present Value (NPV), which is
      calculated summing up the present values of net future benefits and the Internal Rate of Return
      (IRR), which is the discount rate that makes the NPV equal to zero ( in other words, the rate at
      which the present value of benefits equals the present value of costs). As it is well known, the
      project will be acceptable if IRR results greater than the social discount rate adopted;
     For the economic evaluation of benefits the ExternE results will be applied to the exposure-
      response functions that will emerge from the traffic flows evolution during the implementation
      of the substitution programme.

  The analysis of the results will help the local public authorities to make a choice between different
  alternative strategies of maximization of the urban quality of life. Such a kind of project will very
  likely have positive direct and indirect impacts on local urban economy by increasing the
  attractiveness of the city of Damascus in the tourism sector as well as in the industrial one,
  boosting thus the creation of new jobs in the local market.

  Some of these points are briefly discussed in the first part of this document.

                                           Appendix 1
                   The Italian technology for the use of Natural Gas in vehicles

     The Italian industry has been engaged since long time in the use of NG in road vehicles.
     Just before the 2nd World War, automobiles, trucks and even railway cars were converted for
use of natural gas as a fuel. At that time, the motivation was the shortage of oil, and no worry existed
to achieve the best possible engine performance, and no consideration was given to the
environmental issues connected to the fuel.
     The very first use of NG gave rise after the war to the first patents of small companies for
pressure regulators, valves and fittings besides other accessories for the gas installation on board.
With the expanding grid of NG distribution all over the country, the technology of the filling stations
included more and more the compression directly from the grid, taking thus full advantage of the
peculiar way of distribution.
     All the know-how acquired promoted the Italian industry as a leader worldwide, with very
important “daughter companies” in other countries, mainly in south and north America where, as in
the case of Argentina, the NG vehicles found a wide distribution.

     For several years this was the only way of using NG as a fuel until the appearance of OEM
(Original Equipment Manufacturer) NG cars.
This has been and still is a business of significant value; the conversion sector totalling in Italy some
50.000 vehicles per year, mainly on old and big cars. The technology of the conversion equipment,
fitted in the after market, has evolved from the very first carburettor-like solutions, with introduction
of catalysts and electronics under the pressure of stricter emission limits. Therefore, the gas
equipment has evolved to rather complex multiunit injection electronic systems that interfaces with
the gasoline electronic control unit, and that takes advantage of the same catalyst and guarantees
good performance of the engine, switching automatically the fuel from gas to gasoline. In this way,

    the NG loosed the image of a “poor fuel” gaining thus increasing popularity and incentives for its
    better environmental impacts.

        The Italian industry can now supply almost perfect systems for conversions of old cars and
    existing engines. It should, however, be noted that the conversion is valid only for gasoline engines.
    Diesel engines require so many modifications, so that the after market conversion is not viable, and
    might give rise to serious reliability problems.

    OEM vehicles: starting from the mid nineties, some of the major manufacturers, in particular FIAT,
    have developed and included in their catalogues the NG versions of some of their most popular cars.
    The great advantage of a car built for the use of NG is that the system is fully integrated: the
    cylinders are included in the car body. The integration of electronics for gasoline and gas operation is
    deeper, giving thus rise to better performance both in efficiency and in emissions, with a big potential
    for further improvements. The most modern injection system (electronic phased multiunit) is used,
    and the testing procedures of prototypes guarantee the best quality and reliability.
         As for what concerns heavy-duty vehicles, the OEM solution is the only viable one since no
    retrofitting or conversion is advisable in after market for diesel engines. By now a whole range of
    vehicles is available from the Italian industry, starting from the delivery vans to the urban buses and
    to the big garbage collection trucks.

    Refuelling stations: a full range of filling stations is now available in Italy, starting from the
    compressors to the ancillary equipment, fuel dispensers, automatic billing and so on.
    The technology of construction is based, today, on a modular structure that contains gas metering,
    electrical connections and monitoring system, gas storage that is fully assembled in the factory in the
    shape of a container (in steel or concrete according to local legislation) and is fully tested before
    shipment and can be assembled on place very easily, on a “turnkey” basis. The advantage is
    obviously the “modular structure”, which can be expanded according to needs.

    In particular, the group of Italian experts may co-operate in implementing:
       The creation of CNG fleets of buses, taxis and light duty vanes, fork lift, waste collection
          trucks, motorbikes, etc.;
       Innovative fleet depots, including refuelling infrastructures and maintenance facilities;
       Logistic and design of refuelling stations, with particular attention to uniform design and
          selection of standardized solutions, equipment to minimize installation, start up,
          commissioning time and to maximize inter-changeability with minimum component variety;
       Best practice in operation maintenance of the refuelling stations, with particular care to safety,
          upgraded and computerized diagnostics, to maximize efficiency;
       Best practices in fleet operation and maintenance;
       Training of operators (engineers, technicians, drivers, etc.).

    In conclusion, the Italian NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) industry, whose most significant companies
are grouped in the “NGV System Italy” Consortium, represents a leader in the NG vehicles field, and is
presently strongly expanding in various countries in the Middle East as well as in the Far East regions
(examples are: Iran, India and China).

   A full know-how is now available for complete designs of filling stations and car conversion
equipment, and a whole range of OEM vehicles is now available.
   A possible path to the introduction of natural gas in transport system could be:
                         A) Retrofitting of existing gasoline engines as far as practicable;
                         B) Introduction of OEM models for the new vehicles. This is mandatory for
                              heavy-duty vehicles, since in this case no transformation procedures are

                                                   Appendix 2

                   Security Issues Concerning the Use of Natural Gas in Motor Vehicles

        The contents of this addendum are addressed to Policy Decision Makers in order to ensure them
    about the safety issues concerning the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as a fuel in motor

         More than seventy years ago Italy has started a programme for the use of natural gas in
    transportation as a fuel for endothermic motors. But only in the nineties that international interest
    arose about the environmental benefits of the use of this fuel for its lowest emissions in the
         The intrinsic qualities of NG make it as the best – nowadays available – fuel to use in urban
    areas transports. On board of motor vehicles it is stockpiled generally as compressed gas and very
    rarely as liquefied (LNG).
         To this regard the security aspects, compared also to other types of fuels commonly used, play a
    prominent role both on technical and legislative fronts.
         Seven decades of long lasting experience in this field made of Italy not only the pioneering
    country but also the worldwide leader in this important application. Just to mention only a few
    statistical data: more than 27.000 km of distribution network of NG at high pressure, more than
    150.000 km of distribution network at low pressure; 5.000 municipalities, 4.000 industrial consumers
    and more than 300 plants for refuelling of compressed NG. Almost one third of the whole world
    motor vehicles fuelled by CNG circulate in Italy, and this figure is constantly growing up, especially
    in the public transport vehicles.

Chemical & Physical Characteristics of NG with regard to Security Issues:

         What follows illustrates the chemical and physical characteristics of NG that are relevant to
security and safety of its use in the above context. The potential factors of risks are the following:
    1) Fire risk or Flare up;
    2) Outburst or Explosion risk;
    3) Noxiousness.

    1) Fire Risk:
       On the average the calorific power of NG is about 34,3 MJ/S cubic meter, which corresponds to
       8.200 kcal/ S cubic meter; its specific weight is 0,7 kg/S cubic meter, and its density relative to
       that of air is 0,56. This last characteristic insures, in case of leakage from the plant, the flow up
       of the gas in the atmosphere. The velocity of this flow up is about 0,8-0,9 cm/sec. This aspect is
       one of the fundamental factors of security in using the compressed natural gas, particularly in
       non-confined environments in such that no accumulation of gas can occur near the ground,
       which could create dangerous concentrations. In fact, natural gas must reach a concentration of
       5% in air in order to burn while gasoline and diesel vapours burn at much lower concentrations,
       namely 1% and 0,5% respectively.
       The temperature of spontaneous combustion of the NG-Air mixture is about 540 °C, which is
       twice as much of that of gasoline and diesel.

        The dispersion modalities of the various fuels, in case of leakage out of the plants, are much
        different: natural gas flows out exclusively under the gaseous state and it flows up in the
        atmosphere with much less danger, gasoline and LPG diffuse both in the gaseous as well as in
        the liquid state forming thus stagnation at the ground level, easy to take fire. Diesel leakage
        occurs exclusively in the liquid state, badly vaporize, difficult to take fire and thus pollute the
        Moreover, it is worth mention that the quantities of fuel stockpiled on board of the vehicles are
        different according to the type of fuel: in case of liquid fuels, gasoline or diesel, the quantities are
        2 to 3 times more than the case of CNG.

        As for what concerns the possibilities of leakage we must underlie one important technical
        aspect, which is that the stockpile plants as well as those of the transport of NG are necessarily
        realized with perfect sealing at high pressure. What constitutes a decisive safety factor is the

    advanced material used normally and according to very high qualitative mechanical
    Moreover, the feeding system on board of the vehicles is sealed perfectly and supports very high
    pressures also during the refuelling operations. In the case of liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel, the
    systems under use, as it is well known, do not satisfy such requirements and so vapours are
    normally released in the atmosphere as well during the parking of the vehicles. In the case of
    green gasoline (no lead) the release of liquid fuel on the ground pollutes underground water due
    to MTBE.
    In case of heavy accident in which occurs a reversal (upsetting) of the vehicle with relevant
    deformation of the vehicle itself, then it assumes a particular importance the mechanical
    resistance as well as the resistance against overheating of the tanks.
    The on board tanks for CNG are normally realized in cylindrical form from high thickness
    “mannesman” tubes of steel without any welding; this technique guarantees elevate mechanical
    resistance, much higher than that of liquid fuel tanks. The risk of laceration of the tank during an
    accident, with the consequent release of gas is practically null. This was the object of a recent
    research conducted in the United States of America under the programme: Severe Abuse Tests of
    CNG Cylinder Corporation, of which we shall report shortly.
    During the operations of refuelling and maintenance in confined environment, in order to avoid
    the risk of formation of inflammable gas-air mixture, a natural and/or forced ventilation system
    is normally predisposed beforehand, appropriately calibrated and positioned near the roof of the
    building so as to dissipate in the outer atmosphere eventual loss of gas.
    Particularly important to this regard is also the electric plant, which must be realized according
    to specific norms, as for example the rules CEI 64-2.
    As for what concerns parking of motor vehicles fuelled by natural gas it is quite essential to
    mention that the intrinsic characteristics of NG permit the parking of the vehicles anywhere
    including underground parking areas. These latter are not permitted to LPG fuelled motor

2) Outburst, Explosion Risk
   As said above the CNG tanks must support pressures as high as 200 bars during normal running.
   Actually the Italian standard requires a subdue of the tanks to hydraulic testing under pressures
   as high as 300 bars, not only at the first fabrication but also every five years. A research was
   conducted subduing tanks to destructive tests under pressures as high as 450 to 580 bars in order
   to study their behaviour defined as “ leak before burst” observing gas leakage out of fissures
   before reaching the complete settlement of the structure.
   Against the eventual event of fire on board of the vehicle, which may determine the explosion of
   the tank due to the rise of the pressure level inside the tank, as a consequence of overheating,
   over the fracture level of the structure, a safety system is normally adopted, which consists in
   introducing in the structure of the tank a tailpipe controlled by a metal of low fusion temperature
   and a breakage disk, which permits the control of the gas down-flow.

3) Noxiousness
   Natural gas does not show any characteristic of noxiousness. It is in fact not toxic either by
   inhalation or by contact with the epidermis.

4) The Practice
   Compressed Natural Gas may be used as a fuel in all endothermic motors working on Cycle
   The feeding system is composed of a tank under high pressure, a valve, a pressure reducer and a
   mixing device, which is simply composed of a venturi diffuser or electronic injectors. Some
   further equipment for the electronic control of ignition and carburetion are needed in case of
   conversion of already existing motor vehicles fuelled by gasoline. However, nowadays some
   firms started building up motor vehicles, designed in order to be fuelled by natural gas. This
   constitutes, of course, a great advantage both on efficiency and on emissions in the atmosphere.
   One has to consider that the design of a motor vehicle working with NG is certainly a further
   factor of security and safety.
   The adequacy of natural gas motor vehicles is ascertained at the origin by the homologation
   procedures either for cars originally designed or for those converted from gasoline to natural gas.

5) Distribution of Natural Gas
   Refuelling of motor vehicles requires a plant composed of what follows:
        Linking to the network of pipelines;

                   Cab equipped with instrument to measure the withdrawn gas quantities from the
                Reciprocating compressor operating with electric power;
                Eventual stockpile of small quantities of compressed gas;
                Demand system for the refuelling of the vehicles;
                Electronic equipment for the management.
         The instalment of the above mentioned items permit a realistic evaluation of the               security
factors at the distribution points and their environmental impacts:
               1. The continuity of the supply;
               2. No effects on the surface traffic since the distributor takes the gas directly from the
                    pipeline, no tank trucks are required for the transportation of the compressed NG, which
                    in turn means no risk of leakage;
               3. No stockpiles of CNG at the distribution points except for small amounts required
                    locally for the control of the reciprocating compressors. Moreover, an interception valve
                    is normally installed at an adequate distance from the compressors and which permit the
                    complete isolation of the distributor disconnecting it from the network. Consequently
                    only a limited amount of gas results in the distribution plant reducing thus the risk of its
                    involvement in hazardous accidents.
               All of these aspects have their relevance whenever the distribution plant is situated nearby
               built-up are, as is the case of plants that serve refuelling public transport buses which require
               great amounts of gas on each refuelling stop. Fifty years of long lasting experience of Italian
               technology in this field have proved the full reliability of this matter from the point of view
               of security. In fact is leading all other industrialized countries in the programme of defining
               of norms to be validated at international level (ECI, TC 326, WG1).
               To this aim and in support to the Natural Gas programmes a national association
               denominated NGV SYSTEM ITALIA has been created. Moreover, in order to keep constant
               interest in the security issues, a convention 2.10.1992 between SNAM, IVECO, ATM
               RAVENNA and the Italian Ministry of Transport is in act since ten years.

              International experimentation:

                  We shall here after report very briefly on what has gone in some of the major
              industrialized countries.

                  1.   USA Environment Protection Agency: has conducted a comparative study of all
                       security factors adopted with regard to the various fuels used in motor vehicles.
                       The results are published in the “SPECIAL REPORT OFFICE OF MOBILE
                       SOURCES”. CNG resulted as secure as gasoline. The “SOCIETY OF
                       AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS” has conducted a study on the break of the on board
                       tank at maximum pressure on a vehicle parked inside an area of 13.000 square
                       meters and the height of the roof was 5.5 meters. This study has been realized with
                       mathematical simulation using a high- speed computer. The results were very
                       satisfactory: the tank fractured but within ten minutes the risk of ignition was
                  2.   CO-NORDIC NATURAL GAS BUS PROJECT (1993): the Norwegian “Bureau
                       Veritas” in collaboration with ECOTRAFFIC, SWEDDISH STATE POWER
                       BOARD, ASPEN UTVECKLINGS AB and the COPENHAGEN CITY and
                       REGIONAL TRANSPORT have accomplished a thorough study reaching
                       analogous positive results as for what concerns the use of CNG. More details could
                       be furnished if required.
                  3.   CANADIAN GAS ASSOCIATION;
                  4.   BROOKLYN UNION GAS;
                  6.   GAS DE FRANCE, RENAULT;
                  7.   CNG CYLINDER CORPORATION (USA) conduced a severe abuse test.

                  All of these reached the same conclusion: the use of CNG as fuel for motor vehicles,
                  heavy or light, has no major risks than the best traditional liquid fuel. But its
                  environmental impact is much less.

                                            Appendix 3

    Telematic application of automatic vehicle monitoring in public transport management
                                     The case of Bologna

     The increasing mobility demand, in its various modal shifts, needs to give an answer to the
problems of network ability. No more single widening and dissemination of infrastructures, but
various modalities of management increasing the ability of use of the current networks. A useful
instrument that can contribute to find out effective solutions is telematics.
     The concept of telematics for the transport identifies the technologies, the systems and the
devices that concur – through the collection, communication, processing and distribution of
information – in order to improve the transport and mobility of persons and goods.
     The main benefits are related to the following elements: more efficiency of the transport, more
ability of the transport network, more safety of the passengers and better environmental impact.
     Since several years, the municipality urban transport system (ATC) of the city of Bologna, has
placed technological innovations of its operational support system – and in particular of management,
provisions of services and control of public transport – at the centre of its targets. This because of the
strategic role of the operational structure in a public transport company, from which follows the great
attention paid to research, planning and implementation of measures that are capable of supporting
and improving the business, by means of automatic procedures. Hence a localization system with
differential GPS integrated with odometer and gyroscope has been used in an information control
system, which is already innovative, in itself, from both technological and organizational point of
     Bologna ATC centralized operational system is able to receive and process all data concerning
the operation and running of its public transport network.
     The basic features of the system are:
   Improvement of the management capability and the quality of the service by monitoring in real
       time all running vehicles, their regularity or irregularity, passengers load, operating problems
       and, not less important, affording emergencies.
   Improvement, at project level, of the planning and set up of the service in the light of an overall
       analysis of the technical and management data collected on the proper vehicles and / or on the
       ground within specific time periods.

     The automatic vehicle localization is realized through GPS getting via radio and in real time all
information about the right position on road of the circulating vehicles. The system is managed in a
station where all operations are coordinated. The station asks periodically and automatically the
position of every bus and reproduces the instantaneous configuration on a cartographic map. This
information is at the base for the development of accessories system that permit the evaluation of the
time of arrival of the bus to a specific location (bus stop or crossing). This is carried out by an
algorithm software according to the position, the speed and the remaining running distance.
     The overall structure consists of four fundamental subsystems, each interacting with the others,
      Operation centre;
      Radio-communication system;
      On-board system;
      Localization system.
     The AVL information control system permits thus a better use of resources, a control of fuel
consumption, a reduction of dead time etc., with relevant benefit in terms of energy saving and
reduction of pollutants emissions.

    The strong points of the system are:
     Great advantages for the customer because, thanks to this control, it is possible to improve
        the regularity of the service;
     Today, the system is linked to information panels at the bus stops that give waiting users real
        time information on the arrival of the vehicle, moreover, the link to the traffic light control
        system allows priority to be given to public vehicles at appropriately equipped traffic lights;

       Using controlled vehicles it is possible to obtain enormous amounts of data about the
        scheduled and non-scheduled services. This brings considerable advantages for the planning
        and improvement of the service, besides bringing savings in the surveying, which previously
        were carried out by field observers.
       Thanks to this system, the ATC has succeeded in fitting all the fleet vehicles of the city and
        its metropolitan area with radio for voice communication. Many drivers have expressed
        gratitude to the Company for this initiative, which makes it possible to get continuous and
        co-ordinated support to them in all difficult circumstances that might arise during service on

                                             Appendix 4

                                 Public urban transport in Naples

    Three fundamental projects have been approved during the last five years by the Town Council
of Naples, concerning the mobility, namely, the urban traffic plan (PUT) and the transport plan
(PCT) in 1997, and recently in 1999 the urban parking plan (PUP).
    The main objective is:
   To provide good air quality levels through the reduction of traffic emissions, whilst obtaining
       a higher degree of mobility.
  The urban plans for Naples provide a methodological framework for mobility management
  measures aiming at limiting the use of private transport in favour of public transport and pedestrian
  facilities. Therefore, they have not been a matter of inventing new strategies or proposing new
  types of measures, but rather a strategy of reorganizing, restructuring, developing and
  implementing already known programmes.

  In urban traffic plan (PUT) the following measures have been taken:
   Zones with controlled access and limited traffic;
   Pedestrian areas;
   Expansion of the length of bus preferential lanes;
   Infrastructure for transport modal shift;
   Reorganization of private vehicles circulation.

  In urban transport plan (PCT) measures to be realized in a short-medium time period (5 to10 years)
  have been considered, namely:
    Integration and increasing the railway transport;
    Increase the efficiency of the actual public transit system;
    Increasing the public transport by the introduction of non traditional vehicles e.g. hybrid,
       electric and CNG fuelled;
    Fast and easy interchange between different transport companies.

   In urban parking plan (PUP) the realization of about 24.000 new parking lots is on schedule in
   three years through:
    Realization of interchange parking along the external perimeter of the Town and connected to
        the public transport stations;
    Reorganization of private vehicles parking;
    Increase the availability of parking for residents.

   Many works are in progress but some of them will be finished, hopefully, in 2005, and the control
   of air pollution is a priority. Transitory and permanent measures have been introduced to reach the
   air quality targets.

In Naples is active an automatic network for pollution control: 9 complete monitoring stations are
located in the town, plus 14 control points for the monitoring of benzene and 5 for PAH (Poly-
cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons). Moreover, the local Authority is under obligation to stop one or
more classes of vehicles whenever the air quality target is exceeded.

                                       The role of the
                              ISTITUTO MOTORI CNR, NAPLES

  The Italian National Council of Research has established since more than sixty years an Institute,
in Naples, denominated “ISTITUTO MOTORI” which is playing now a leadership role in the
“NAPOLI” Programme.
  As for what concerns the city of Naples, the Istituto Motori conducts, inter alia, the evaluation of
emissive behaviour in real use of traditional Diesel mini buses.
  To this purpose the Istituto Motori methodological approach has been:
    Definition of vehicles use;
    Measurement of average emissions and energy consumption;
    Evaluation of instantaneous local emissions.

  The definition of vehicles use has been realized by:
   Acquisition of vehicle driving parameters by on-road testing with bus equipped with an on-
      board instrumentation;
   Definition of the kinematics characteristics by statistical analysis of detected velocity
   Determination of typical and significant driving cycles performed on road.

  Measurement of average emissions and energy consumption has been performed by:
   Laboratory tests with Diesel bus on the dynamometer chassis using more relevant driving
      cycles detected on the road;
   Warm starting conditions of the engine;
   Global average emissions of CO, CO2, Nox, HC, Particulates.

  The evaluation of the instantaneous emission concentration during the performance of driving
  cycles, the determination of emission flow rate for each part of the bus route in the historical
  centre of the town and the definition of the critical areas are conducted too by the “Istituto