Supply List for Grade 4Th, Lincoln by plf20903

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									Differentiation Revealed:
         A Systematic Approach for
            Addressing Critical
            Differences Among
                 Students


                  Jeanne H. Purcell, Ph.D
         Connecticut State Department of Education
              jeanne.purcell@po.state.ct .us


                                                1
       Curriculum Differentiation:
            Today’s Agenda
• Is curriculum differentiation something
  new?
• What are the goals for curriculum
  differentiation?
• What are the steps in the curriculum
  decision-making process?
• What is curriculum differentiation?
• How can we modify the 10 key
  curriculum components—either singly or
  in combination—to address critical
  learner differences?
• What does curriculum differentiation
  look like at different grade levels and in
  different content areas?
                                               2
   An Historical Perspective:
Is This a New Concept? A New
           Pedagogy?
            Fourth Wave of Interest Since
              1860:

            •   Tutors (Pre 1860)
            •   One Room Schoolhouse
            •   Grade Levels
            •   Individualization
            •   Special Education
            •   Gifted Education
            •   Differentiation
                                            3
    Why the Current Interest?
    Why the Present Initiative?
• International
  Comparisons
• Information Age
• Global Economy
• Standards Movement
• The Achievement
  Gap
• Prisoners of Time
• IDEA
                                  4
                   The Learning Gap
               Learning Gaps Persist In State
            Mastery Test Scores Edge Up, But Blacks,
                 Hispanics, Poor Lag Behind
                                   March 6, 2002
                       By ROBERT A. FRAHM, Courant Staff Writer

    Black and Hispanic children continue to make slow, steady gains in academic performance but
still lag far behind most Connecticut public school students, new test results show.
    Only 25 percent of black and Hispanic children reach the state's fourth-grade reading goal, for
example, compared with more than 70 percent of white students, according to Connecticut
Mastery Test scores being released today.
    Overall scores edged upward, but the test, which reached greater numbers of special education
and non-English speaking students this year, identifies one in five of Connecticut's fourth-graders
as a poor reader.
    Aside from the poor performance of many blacks and Hispanics, major learning gaps persist
among non-English speakers and the poor.
    And the latest scores show that boys lag well behind girls in writing skills on the annual exam,
the state's chief measure of academic progress.



                                                                                                5
What is the “Learning
GAP?”
• Rich and poor
• ESL and Native English
  speakers
• Special education and regular
  education
• Regular education and gifted
  education
• Culturally diverse and
  majority students
• Motivated and unmotivated
• Boys and girls
• College track and vocational    "The stakes for underdevelopment in
  education track                 2000 are much high than they were
• American students and their     in 1900."
  global counterparts (TIMSS)        —Edmund W. Gordon, professor6
                                           emeritus, Yale University
The GAP




          7
      Critical Student Differences
            We Can Attend
    ACADEMIC               SOC/EMOT              COGNITIVE
•   Prior knowledge   •   Interests         •   Developmental
•   Reading level     •   Learning styles       readiness
•   Core content      •   Motivation        •   Schemas
•   Concepts/skills   •   Self-efficacy     •   Working memory
                                            •   Thinking skills
                                            •   Learning rate




                                                             8
     One Line of Thinking…
                                 CONCLUSION:
                               Perhaps some of the
School                       lessons and units have
                               been ineffective and
             TASKS,                inefficient
            LESSONS,
            AND UNITS
                                        THE NEED FOR CURRICULUM
                                          REVISION BASED UPON:
                                             -BEST PRACTICES
                                                -RESEARCH
                                          -CHARACTERISTICS OF
                                         EXEMPLARY CURRICULUM




                                                                     HISTORY
            WRITING          READING       SCIENCE
                                                       MATHEMATICS
CONTENT   ASSMNTS
                    GRPG   INTRO   TCHG     LRNG      PROD   RES   EXT.   TIME


               KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS                                         9
One Way to Reduce the Gap…




                                     D
                                     E
                                     P
                                     T
                               BREADTH
   KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS
                                   10
 Why differentiate? What do we
 want? What goals are we trying
          to achieve?
• Increase academic learning;
  decrease learning gaps
• Improve student self-efficacy
  for learning
• Enhance intrinsic motivation
  for learning
• Promote self-directed
  learning behaviors
                                  11
 A Technical Definition of
Curriculum Differentiation
    Curriculum differentiation is a process teachers
use to enhance student learning by matching various
curriculum components to characteristics shared by
subgroups of learners in the classroom (e.g., learning
style preferences, interests, prior knowledge, learning
rate).
     The most effective and efficient differentiation practices
involve proactive changes in the depth or breadth of student
learning. Differentiation is enhanced with the use of appropriate
classroom orientation and management, varied pedagogy,
preassessment, flexible small groups, access to professional
development opportunities and related support personnel, and the
availability of appropriate resources.                          12
THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
                                CONTENT
                                INTRODUCTION
                                INITIAL INSTRUCTION
                                PREASSESSMENT
                                DIAGNOSIS


          What are the CRITICAL DIFFERENCES in my students?
How can I MODIFY one or more of the 10 curriculum components to address difference?




              CHOICE
                                                              TIERING
         ALTERNATIVES
        Adjusting the Breadth                            Adjusting the Depth

                 MANAGEMENT OF FLEXIBLE, SMALL GROUPS
                                   POST ASSESSMENT
                 MEASURE THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENTIATION                         13
The 10 Curriculum Components:
     An Advance Organizer
 • CONTENT
                      • Learning Activities
 • ASSESSMENT
                      •   Products
 • Grouping
                      • Resources
 • Introduction
                      • Extensions
 • Teaching Methods
                      • Time            14
                        Content
                   Knowledge/Standards
Definition:   Broad statements about the knowledge that
              we want all students to acquire

Purpose:      To communicate learning expectations and
              the lesson’s focal point to teachers, students,
              and interested others; to promote academic
              achievement; to ensure equity

Characteristics:
              Clear, powerful, developmentally
              appropriate, authentic, aligned with other
              curriculum components                             15
    The traditional approach for
      creating content goals:
• Follow the textbook guide
• Use Bloom’s taxonomy
• Bloom’s Priority: Develop a
  system to improve communication
  between test designers,
  psychometricians, and curriculum
  developers
• Categorize the behavior or
  performance (VERBS)
                                     16
Bloom’s
Taxonomy:
One
technique       Evaluation
for
categorizing
                Synthesis
learning
goals           Application

                 Analysis

               Comprehension
                 Knowledge
                               17
     An Alternate
      Approach:
 Nouns instead of Verbs
Categorize and prioritize knowledge
 •Alfred North Whitehead (1920s)
 •Ralph Tyler (1940s-1990s)
 •Mortimer Adler (1940s – 2000)
 •Jerome Bruner (1960s – now)
 •Hilda Taba (1960s)
 •Phillip Phenix (1960-1980)
 •National and State Standards (1990 – now)
 •Robert Marzanno and John Kendall (1990s – now)
 •Lynn Erickson (1990s – now)
 •Understanding by Design (Wiggins and McTighe) (1988 – now)
                                                         18
                       Identify, emphasize, and
                     teach the CORE knowledge
                         in each subject area
• Each discipline or subject area has a small set of essential
  (core) facts, concepts, principles, generalizations, and skills
  that is related to all/many topics in that subject area.
• This core content provides the structure for studying and
  understanding any topic in that subject area that subject area.
• Teaching students to understand this core content and
  structure makes learning deeper, more connected, and easier
  to learn.
• Some of the major concepts and principles in a subject area
  are general enough to be valid in other disciplines. Teaching
  these ideas supports interdisciplinary wisdom.
                                                                19
      Discipline
        Based
      Knowledge
                                     Theme
                       THEORY


                   GENERALIZATIONS


                      PRINCIPLES

                      CONCEPTS
Representative
   Topics               FACTS
                                             20
                   Categories of Knowledge
Facts:             A fact is a specific detail, verifiable information,
                   or characteristics about a particular object, person, or
                   event. PARTICULARS

Concepts:          A concept is a general idea or abstraction, especially a
                   generalized idea of a thing or class of things; a
                   category or classification. VOCAB WORDS

Principles:        A principle is an underlying truth, law, or rule,
                   that explains the relationship between two or more
                   concepts. HOW THINGS WORK

Generalizations:   A generalization is a statement that explains or
                   describes a category of things or ideas. FAT FACT

Skills:            Skill is a proficiency, ability, technique, strategy, 21
                   method, or tool. HOW TO
Examples of Factual
Knowledge

•   There are nine planets.
•   The capital of Connecticut is Hartford.
•   2+2=4
•   ―Cat‖ has one syllable.
•   There are 7 food groups.
•   Andrew Wyeth was a painter.
                                              22
Examples of Concepts

 •   Planet           •   Balance
 •   Constellation    •   Irony
 •   Capital          •   Emergency
 •   Government       •   Science Fiction
 •   Nutrition        •   Addition
 •   Transportation   •   Octagon
 •   Conflict         •   Force
 •   Horizon          •   Gravity
 •   Symmetry         •   Precipitation
                                            23
Examples of Principles
and Generalizations

• Planets revolve around the sun. G
• Gravity is needed to hold planets in their orbit. P
• Capitals were located near the center of a state and near bodies of
  water to make it easier to travel. P
• People must work together to develop laws and policies that they
  can support and implement. P
• A balanced diet helps us stay healthy. P
• Different body functions and systems require different types of
  nutrients. G
• Most trees are green. G
                                                                 24
What makes a                     What makes a
 principle?                      generalization?
•   Explains a relationship     • General descriptions
•   Explains how things work    • Details about a category of
•   Axiom, proverb, rule          things
•   Cause/effect (location,     • Overarching
    location, location)
                                • Stereotypical
•   Law, rule
                                • Parts and the whole
•   If/then (air pressure and
    storms)                     • Common characteristics
•   Influences
•   Conditions

                                                           25
       Skill
     Examples

•   Comparing and contrasting
•   Listening
•   Note taking
•   Using an index
•   Controlling a variable
•   Writing a business letter
•   Measuring temperature       26
             • Thinking Skills
  Skill      • Affective Skills
Categories   • Reading and Study
               Skills
             • Reference Skills
             • Research Skills
             • Communication
               Skills
             • Subject Area
               Methods and
               Techniques
                               27
      What is a
    representative
        topic?

A representative topic is specific subject matter that
is selected purposefully as a focus for teaching and
learning because of the topic‘s potential for
illuminating the essential concepts, principles, and
skills in a related discipline for students of a specific
developmental level.                                28
The role of representative topics
              The Domains of Knowledge




                                          Understanding is
sheds light on core                       supported by careful
knowledge within a                        attention to the
discipline.                               developmental
                                          appropriateness of
                                          the topic and
                  Representative Topics   students’ use of
                                          cognitive and
                                          methodological
                                                          29
                                          inquiry
  Where do standards fit in with
         this picture?
• National and state
  committees of content
  experts
• Identified core concepts,
  principles,
  generalizations, skills,
  attitudes, and
  applications in various
  content areas.
• Spiraled the content across
  grade levels
                                30
What is a standard?


A content standard is a declarative
statement that identifies the essential
knowledge in a given subject area that
students should attain as a result of
instruction. Performance standards, or
benchmarks, specify ascending levels of
understanding across various grade levels.
                                             31
      Categorizing Content in Standards
Facts:             A fact is a specific detail, verifiable information, or characteristics about
                   a particular object, person, or event. PARTICULARS

Concepts:          A concept is a general idea or abstraction, especially a generalized idea
                   of a thing or class of things; a category or classification.
                   VOCAB WORDS

Principles:        A principle is an underlying truth, law, or rule, that explains the
                   relationship between two or more concepts. HOW THINGS WORK

Generalizations: A generalization is a statement that explains or describes a category of
                 things or ideas. FAT FACT

Skills:            Skill is a proficiency, ability, technique, strategy, method, or tool.
                   HOW TO

Attitudes:         Inclinations, beliefs, state of mind, appreciations, dispositions, efficacy
                   VALUES

Applications:      The ability to generalize and transfer knowledge to familiar and novel
                                                                                       32
                   contexts PROBLEM SOLVING
 Understanding the standards
 is only the first step.
―A major challenge facing any
  designer is the inadequacy of
  most district, state, and
  national standards in helping to
  clarify which are the big ideas
  and how to uncover them.‖

1988, Understanding by Design
  ASCD.                              33
                Discipline
                Based
                Knowledge
    THEORY


                  Representative topics
GENERALIZATIONS


   PRINCIPLES

   CONCEPTS

     FACTS
                                34
                 How Can We Use Content to
                  Differentiate Instruction?
                                           CONTENT MODIFICATIONS
     DIFFERENCES                      – It’s not about giving facts to the students who have little
    AMONG STUDENTS                      experience with knowledge and concepts and principles to
•   Academic Differences                the top students. It’s about using preassessment data to tie
                                        teaching to existing schemas and teaching concepts to
     – Developmental readiness          everyone (TIMMS).
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity    – Increase/Decrease the abstractness of the representative
        to learn                        topic
     – Reading level                  – Change the representative topic to something more
     – Concept and skill attainment     familiar/less familiar
•   Cognitive Differences             – Change the representative topic (i.e., within the discipline,
     – Schemas                          across disciplines, time periods, people, or events)
     – Thinking skills                – Offer the opportunity to explore an application, the
     – Learning rate                    methodology of a field, or the lives of contributor (s) in a
                                        field
•   Social and Emotional
                                      – Provide background information about a representative
     – Interests                        topic
     – Learning styles                – Break the representative topic into smaller parts
     – Motivation                     – Provide more/fewer examples; offer choice
                                      – Offer students the opportunity to explore related
                                        representative topics
                                                                                             35
                                      – Identify and address students’ misconceptions
                              Kindergarten
                             President’s Day
           Performance Standard: Students will apply the process of how leaders
      are selected and how people monitor and influence decisions of their government
                                         (p. 155).

                                          DIFFERENTIATED
        CORE
To celebrate President‘s
                            To celebrate President‘s Day, Janet Henry decided to
Day, kindergarten           link the holiday to a discussion about leaders. She
teacher, Emily Rosen,       collected some picture books about presidents, coins of
planned a special day for   all types, and paper currency in small denominations.
her students. She
showed students pictures    She began by giving each child a penny, and asked her
of George Washington        students to tell her about the face on the coin. Then,
and President Lincoln.      she asked them a series of questions: Whose face is on
Then, she had her           the coin? Do other coins have different people on
students paste lengths of
black yarn onto a picture   them? What might you have to do to get your face on a
of Lincoln to show his      coin?
beard. They put elastics    Some students wanted to find out more about famous
around their pictures to
make masks and wore         American presidents. She had a separate conversation
them in a parade around     with these students about Lincoln and birthday
the school to celebrate     celebrations. She made a mental note to watch the
this special day.           kiddos who wanted to learn more for other             36
                            opportunities to facilitate their learning in this area.
Developmental
Readiness in
Mathematics
  Concrete           Representational                Abstract
   (50%)                 (30%)                        (20%)
Gravitate to       Draw pictures to          ―See‖ concepts
 hands-on            represent mathematical     abstractly
 materials or        thinking                  Explain readily their
 manipulatives      Make models                mathematical thinking
Experience         Talk about mathematical   See and articulate
 difficulty          thinking in words          relationships among
 explaining their   Are able to relate the     mathematical processes
 mathematical        mathematical concept to   Make connections
 thinking            real-life experiences      readily between
                                                mathematical concepts
                                                and prior experiences
                                               Express mathematical
                                                concepts in multiple
                                                ways
                                                                    37
                           Grade 2 Addition
                Performance standard: Develop proficiency with basic addition,
             subtraction, multiplication and division through the use of a variety of
                              strategies and contexts, K-4 (p. 90).
           EXAMPLE 1                                  EXAMPLE 2
Katie Martin prepared to teach        Ms. Brennan knew from her preassessment
her 2nd grade students about          that her grade two students were at very
addition. She gathered together       different developmental levels with respect
gummed stars in two colors and        to their understanding of addition. One group
construction paper. She gave          of students needed manipulates to visualize
pairs of students construction        the addition facts and practice skip counting.
paper on which she had written        They used manipulatives, like dominos, and
an addition fact. Each child was      counters to ―count on.‖ Another more
asked to display an addend with       sophisticated group was working on
different colored stars and then      accuracy and speed with their addition facts.
the pair was asked to add all the     They worked in pairs to check each other‘s
stars by counting on from the         work. A final group, ready for more abstract
                                      thinking, was asked to use dominos to infer a
greater number of stars. The
                                      rule (commutative principle) of addition.
students displayed all their work
to make a ―sky‖ full of addition                                               38
facts.
                               6th Grade Spelling
                       Students will demonstrate proficient use of capitalization,
                       punctuation, usage and spelling skills and develop proficiency
                       in the use of resources for proofreading and editing - all
                       appropriate for their grade level, and individual goals.


      EXAMPLE 1                                    EXAMPLE 2
Mr. Jenkins pretests his              Mr. Forrester pretests his students on the
students on the required lists of     required lists of spelling words at two week
spelling words at two week            intervals. Students have a spelling notebook
intervals. When students              in which they write the next ten words. Each
demonstrate at least 80%              writes the word, a definition, and a sentence.
mastery on the list, they do not      Students work in pairs, correcting each
have to write out the words, a        other‘s work, which is then reviewed by the
definition, and an                    Mr. Forrester. Peers administer the quizzes.
accompanying sentence. He             Words missed are recycled into next week‘s
does require all students to take     list. Repetitions help students internalize key
the posttest at the end of the        spelling patterns. Students who demonstrate
two week period because he            mastery are provided with other words that
want to make sure everyone            emphasize roots and/or students‘ own
really knows the words.               personal list of vocabulary words.

                                                                                   39
                       8 th     Grade Social Studies
                        Content Standard 4: Students will recognize the continuing
                        importance of historical thinking and the role of historical
                        knowledge in their own lives an in the world in which they live.

          EXAMPLE 1                                       EXAMPLE 2
Ms. Kahlid realized that it was          Ms.Budzinsky, an 8th grade social studies teacher,
important for her students to
understand the role of the
                                         had looked forward to her trip to Peru for many
archeologist. These researchers          years. Way in advance, she had decided to bring
played a key role in helping             back a collection of 50-100 inexpensive artifacts.
historians recover the stories of        She made a point to collect items that reflected the
ancient civilizations. Every year, she   family life, technology, and art of this South
assigned students to look over the       American culture: inexpensive musical instruments,
page in their textbook called, ―A        inexpensive pottery, articles of clothing, some books,
Moment in Time: The                      kitchen utensils, children‘s inexpensive games, band-
Anthropologist.‖ It showed a picture
of a woman studying a coal mine in
                                         aids, and the like.
West Virginia. The picture               Upon her return, she used the artifacts in her social
illuminated her tools: a notebook, a     studies class to help students understand the role of
camera, a lantern, her shoulder bag      the archeologist and historian. She grouped the
and lunch pail. Ms. Swift made a         artifacts around the three aspects of culture. Then,
point to review this picture with her    she asked students to form small groups of scientists
students the next day in class and
answered any questions they had
                                         and researchers. Using the artifact cluster of their
about anthropologists.                                                                     of
                                         choice, she asked students to ―infer‖ the culture40
                                         this ―ancient‖ South American society.
                      11th Grade Chemistry
               CT 15.9-12.4
               Recognize that the ability of a reaction to occur and the extent to which
               is proceeds depends upon the relative stability of the reactants compared
               to the products and the conditions under which the reaction occurs.
               EXAMPLE 1                               EXAMPLE 2
Ms. Barnes prepared for the lab on          Mr. Luther knew at the outset of his
simple reactions between metals and         chemistry unit on reaction rates that he
acids. At the conclusion of the             had students who not only had
experiment, she wanted students to          different levels of prior knowledge
understand that there is a direct           about aspects of chemistry, but also
relationship between the concentration      learned more quickly than others in the
of an acid and the reaction rate. To        class. He decided to provide most of
help them understand this important         his students with a hands-on lab that
direct relationship, she set up different   helped students understand that there is
test stations for students to observe.      a direct relationship between the
Each station had the same mass of a         concentration of an acid and the
given metal. Each of the containers held    reaction rate.
increasing concentrations of HCl.           He provided the remaining students
Students had to combine the reactants       with the same metal and solutions as
and analyze the data for trends in the      the other group, but invited them to
reaction rates.                             find the ideal conditions for the fastest
                                                                                41
                                            reaction time.
                           Grade 11 U.S. History
                           Students will demonstrate knowledge of the rights and
                           responsibilities of citizens to participate in and shape public
                           policy, and contribute to the maintenance of our democratic
                           way of life.                      EXAMPLE 2
                           .
          EXAMPLE 1                            As she began the unit on the Constitution and the
                                        Bill of Rights, Ms. Polanski realized that she had students
Mr. Todd loved teaching his             with widely differing reading abilities in her classrooms.
students about the Constitution. He She designed a simple plan to scaffold for her students.
especially liked the simulations he
had collected over his career that             She divided her class into two groups based upon her
dealt with the debates that occurred knowledge of their reading comprehension. For the
between the Federalists and the         struggling learners, she developed a one sheet, two-column
Antifederalists over the ratification table that listed each of the 10 amendments in the Bill of
of the Constitution. Another of his Rights in the left-hand column and definitions of
favorites was the interdisciplinary, troublesome words in the right-hand column. Using this
culminating activity in which           information, students were asked to write down their own
students were required to take on the understanding of the meaning of the first ten amendments.
role of a responsible citizen and              Ms. Polanski provided her more advanced readers
voice their opinion about a local       with the original text of each amendment and asked them
matter. Each had to compose a letter to derive, in their own words, the meaning of each.
to the editor of a local newspaper             At the conclusion of the lesson, students reconvened
and express their opinion about a       as a whole group to share their new understandings about
community issue.                        the Bill of Rights.                                  42
Stopping By Woods
on a Snowy Evening
                    by Robert Frost



Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.
He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound's the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.         43
        It’s Your Turn…
Content Standard 1: Reading and
 Responding
 1.9-10.12 Students will use the
 literary elements (theme, symbolism,
 imagery, etc.) to draw conclusions
 about a text
 1.9-10.13 Students will understand
 that a single text may elicit a wide
 variety of responses

                                        44
                        10th Grade American Lit
                  Content Standard 1: Reading and Responding
                  1.9-10.12 Students will use the literary elements (theme,
                  symbolism, imagery, etc.) to draw conclusions about a text
                  1.9-10.13 Students will understand that a single text may elicit a
        EXAMPLE 1 wide variety of responses EXAMPLE 2
Mr. Johnson spent a bit more than     Ms. Mody wanted her students to understand that poetry can
a week on Robert Frost‘s poetry,      evoke many viable interpretations from the skillful use of
including ―Stopping By Woods on       literary elements by the author. At the same time, she knew
a Snowy Evening.‖ He wanted his
                                      that her juniors were at very different levels with respect to
students to appreciate the ―down
homeness‖ of Frost‘s poetry. He       abstract thought. For one group of learners, she provided a list
had students read selected poems      of symbols (the owner of the land, the horse, the woods.
aloud to appreciate the sounds and    promises, sleep), some possible interpretations for each, and
cadence of each selection. With       asked them to interpret the poem from their point of view in a
respect to ―Stopping,‖ he asked       one-page essay. For a second group of learners, she provided
students to write responses to the    the poem only. She asked them to identify the symbols, think
following questions:                  about how they interact within the poem, and generate a
How do you interpret the              reflective essay about its meaning to their lives. For the
speaker‘s attraction to the woods?    sophisticated learners, she provided them with a copy of the
What do the last three lines          poem and carefully selected quotations by Frost reflecting on
suggest about everyone‘s life?        his art. She asked them to select one or two of Frost‘s
Why did Frost repeat the last line?   quotations and explain,in a short essay, how there can be so
What is the effect of the             many irreconcilable interpretations of ―Stopping,‖ the poem
repetition?                           that Frost called his ―best bid for remembrance.‖         45
             Selected Quotations
“It should be the pleasure of a
poem itself to tell how it can. The
figure a poem makes. It begins in
delight and ends in wisdom.” The
Figure a Poem Makes, 1939

[Metaphor]: saying one thing and
meaning another, saying one
thing in terms of another, the
pleasure of ulteriority*. Poetry is
simply made of metaphor.” The
Constant Symbol, 1946

“Like a piece of ice on a hot stove
the poem must ride on its own
melting.” The Figure a Poem                                            46
Makes, 1939               *Ulteriority: Lying beyond what is evident or revealed
47
                          Assessments
Definition: Varied tools, technique, and criteria teachers
       use to measure students’ content expertise

Purpose:       To ascertain the extent to which students
               have attained the knowledge contained
               within the learning goal(s), to make
               decisions about future areas of emphasis

Characteristics: Aligned with the learning goal,
               reliable, valid, varied, efficient, equitable,
               motivating, have a low baseline and a high
               ceiling                                          48
     The
  Assessment
   Equation
PARTICIPANT

+ TASK
+ KNOWLEDGE
+ COGNITIVE PROCESSING
= ASSESSMENT
                         49
        Sample Assessment Formats
Oral Questions    Conversations   Recitations

Tests             Essays          Behaviors

Observations      Portfolios      Performances

Think-Alouds      Concept Maps    Lab Reports

Ongoing Records   Checklists      Auditions

Conferences       Assignments     Journal Entries
                                                    50
 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
ASSESSMENT AND CURRICULUM

                   STANDARDS
                 Content Knowledge

                PREASSESSMENT
and resulting modifications, if warranted, are based upon critical
                  differences among students


                TEACHING AND LEARNING
                ACTIVITIES AND FEEDBACK


     ON-GOING & POST ASSESSMENT
                                                                     51
Why Should We Increase the Depth
       in Our Rubrics?
         • Addresses differences in students’
           zone of. proximal development
         • Attends to varying levels of prior
           knowledge.
         • Fosters continuous progress on
           the novice-expert continuum.
         • Reduces frustration.
         • Increases challenge levels.
         • Makes teaching more efficient.   52
      The Ladder: A Tool for
      Climbing Out of the Box
         Grade 5 Benchmark (Content): Students will
         understand the characteristics and properties of
         two- and three- dimensional geometric shapes.

         NO students understand the properties of platonic solids.
None
         A FEW students can explain how triangles and rectangles
         can be classified by their sides and angles.
Few
         SOME students can explain the features of three
         dimensional figures: edges, vertices, face and volume.
Some
         ALL students can already identify 2-dimensional shapes;
All      triangle, quadrilateral, rectangle, rhombus, trapezoid,
         circle, and square.
                                                                     53
So how might the“ladder”
look when it’s finished?
• Often the grade level expectation is in the ―some‖ rung.
• If we review world-class standards related to this
  objective, we might find that the content in those standards
  could be listed on the ―few‖ rung.
• Knowledge addressed in the previous grade level if often
  listed on the ―many‖ rung.
• Knowledge listed on the ―all‖ rung is often gained from
  life experiences.
• The knowledge listed on the ―no one‖ rung may related to
  big ideas, themes, or students‘ interests and questions.
                                                             54
                 How Can Assessment Help Us to
                  Differentiate Our Instruction?
DIFFERENCES AMONG                              ASSESSSMENT
      STUDENTS                          – Use well-aligned preassessments and
•   Academic Differences                  preassessment data to monitor and
     – Developmental readiness            communicate growth
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to   – Align assessment data—pre, post and
        learn                             ongoing—with instructional components to
     – Reading level                      ensure impact on achievement
     – Concept and skill attainment     – Use gain scores to determine how individual
•   Cognitive Differences                 students are progressing with the acquisition
     – Schemas                            of content
     – Thinking skills                  – Use trait rubrics rather than holistic scoring
     – Learning rate                      to illuminate student learning gains and
•   Affective Differences                 misconceptions/gaps
     – Interests                        – Offer students alternative product formats to
     – Learning styles                    demonstrate their understanding (e.g.,
     – Motivation                         written, kinesthetic, visual, multi-media)
                                        – Provide for self-assessment

                                                                                     55
              Examples: Assessment
         Standard: Student will develop a healthy eating plan


      EXAMPLE 1                           EXAMPLE 2
The student will design and        Student will design a daily
construct a collage of the         diet for one week that is
seven different food groups.       based on the U.S. dietary
                                   guidelines. In several
                                   paragraphs, the student will
                                   explain how his/her plan
                                   adheres to the guidelines (pre
                                   and post).


                                                                56
                          Rubrics: Essential
                        Assessment Instruments

                       Sample Rubric: Health
  Performance Standard: Plan and select a nutritious daily diet based on
                       U.S. dietary guidelines.
  Key    NOVICE    APPRENTICE   PRACTITIONER       EXPERT         MASTER
Feature/
 Trait
Content   Food        Three meals     Three meals       Three meals are      The meals
          items are   are             are               presented. All       reflect the
          presented   presented;      presented;        reflect a balance    dietary
          or listed   the meals       some, but         among the food       guidelines
                      do not                            groups:              for all food
                      reflect a       not all, of the
                                      dietary                                groups and
                      balance                           •Breads, cereals,    reflect food
                      among the       requirements      rice and pasta       preferences
                      food groups;    are met.            (6-11)
                      they are lop-                     •Fruits (2-4)
                      sided                             •Vegetables (3-5)
                                                        •Meats, poultry,
                                                        fish and beans
                                                          (2-3)
                                                        •Milk, yogurt, and
                                                        cheese (2-3)
                                                        •Fats, oils, and            57
                                                        sweets (sparingly)
                                Rubrics: Essential
                              Assessment Instruments
                            Sample Rubric: Chemistry
                  Performance Standard: Reactions and Interactions
     NOVICE             PRACTITIONER                EXPERT                   MASTER

Does not                Can identify that      Can identify that      Designed the
understand the          there is some          there is a clear and   experiment correctly;
relationship            relationship, but is   strong relationship,   used trial and error
between                 confused because       uses solid             techniques
concentration and       the data is unclear    measurement and        appropriately; can
reactivity; did not     due to                 observational          identify that there is a
hold the variable       inconsistencies in     skills; is able to     clear and strong
constant; weak          measurement            explain the            relationship, uses solid
measurement             and/or                 importance of          measurement and
skills; little use of   observational          holding variables      observational skills; is
observational           skills; is not able    constant.              able to explain the
skills                  to explain the                                importance of holding
                        importance of                                 variables constant.
                        variable control
                                                                                      58
                     Grouping Strategies
Definition:    The varied approaches to arranging students
               for effective learning in the classroom

Purpose:       To enhance the depth or breadth of student
               learning; to promote reflection, to address
               student differences; to provide teachers with
               opportunities to observe students in varied
               settings; to provide students with
               opportunities to work in varied settings
               that nurture their unique abilities and talents;
               to minimize heterogeneity, to make learning
               more efficient
Characteristics: Aligned with the content goals, teaching
               methods and students’ learning needs;
               varied                                             59
Examples of Grouping
Formats
Whole         A grouping strategy that is used to enhance learning when all students
              have approximately the same level of prior knowledge and no critical
group         differences in learning style preferences, interests, effort or motivation.
instruction
Cooperative   A grouping technique in which learners participate in small teams on
learning      similar tasks. The strategy is based on social learning theory which states
              that increased learning results when students engage in discussions, think
groups        alouds, and other forms of verbal interaction.
Flexible,     A grouping strategy that is used to enhance learning when significant
              differences exist among students. Flexible, small, groups of students (2-
small         10 members) are formed for short periods of time to address critical
groups        differences in students‘: interests, learning style preferences, questions,
              motivation, expression style preferences, prior knowledge, readiness to
              learn, and learning rate. Group tasks are different and honor student
              differences. These groups can be facilitated by a teacher or students. They
              may support collaborative teaching and learning activities.

Dyads         A grouping strategy in which students are paired for a variety of
              purposes: to share thinking, to complete a task, to analyze and reflect on a
              completed task, or to check each other‘s work.
Tutoring      A grouping technique in which the teacher works one-on-one with a
              student. It is used to address unique facets of a learner‘s prior    60
              knowledge, cognitive, or social and emotional profile.
            Other Options
• Homogeneous
• Heterogeneous
• Cross Grade Grouping
• Cluster
• Interest-based
• Across Class
                            61
            How Can We Use Grouping Formats
               to Support Differentiation?

DIFFERENCES AMONG                                 GROUPING
                                        – Avoid the one-size-fits-all model of
      STUDENTS                            curriculum and instruction
•   Academic Differences                – Teach to small groups to address
     – Developmental readiness            learners’ academic and cognitive
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to     differences
        learn                           – Use a variety of factors to group students
     – Reading level                    – Locate contracts and centers to deliver
     – Concept and skill attainment       and manage small group learning
•   Cognitive Differences               – Develop in-class extensions around the
                                          interests of individuals and small groups
     – Schemas                            of students
     – Thinking skills                  – Provide opportunities for students to
     – Learning rate                      work in small groups or individually to
•   Cognitive Differences                 pursue their own questions
     – Interests                        – Provide opportunities for students to
     – Learning styles                    present their work to small groups of
                                          peers
     – Motivation
                                        – Offer after-school clubs and “Power
                                          Hour” programs to address students’
                                          interests and learning needs          62
        Grouping: World Language
    Performance standard (9-12): Students will analyze various elements of the target
        language (such as tense) and compare and contrast them with comparable
                              linguistic elements in English

    EXAMPLE 1                                    EXAMPLE 2
                              In a series of skill lessons, Madame Cailliard
Students work as a            emphasized the formation of the future tense for her
whole class to                French students. One group, challenged by the
                              formation of this tense, worked in a small group to
complete several              supply the correct verb form for simple sentences,
worksheets related            written in French, that contained regular verbs. Another
                              group, with greater familiarity and proficiency, worked
to the formation of           on a similar exercise. Their sentences were more
the future tense in           complex and contained a number of irregular verb
                              forms. A final group worked on a skill sheet that
French                        contained complex sentences in English only and needed
                              translation. The English sentences contained a variety of
                              irregular verb forms. Two students did not need
                              practice in the formation of the future tense. These two
                              students worked collaboratively to tape record an
                              advertisement for a self-selected French product.
                                                                                 63
                          Introductory
                            Activities
Definition:    A forward or segue to a curriculum unit; the
               first interaction between the student and the
               ideas contained within the curriculum unit

Purpose:       To introduce, challenge, orient, preassess,
               motivate, provide students with a rationale,
               provide clarity about learning expectations,
               to increase students’ cognitive engagement,
               or provide rules and guidelines

Characteristics: Purposeful, enlightening, motivational,
               useful, aligned with other curriculum
               components                                  64
The Introduction: Six Features
       • I Interrogative; focusing question
       • N Needs assessment; preassessment
       • T Teaser or hook
       • R Rationale
       • O Objectives, expectations
       •S   Students‘ schemas and interests
                                          65
               How Can We Use Introductions to
                  Support Differentiation?
DIFFERENCES AMONG
      STUDENTS
•   Academic Differences
                                             INTRODUCTIONS
     – Developmental readiness          – Ensure introductions are included in the
                                          teaching sequence
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to
        learn                           – Ensure that a preassessment is completed
                                          and that preassessment data has been
     – Reading level                      analyzed and linked to forthcoming
     – Concept and skill attainment       instruction
•   Cognitive Differences               – Ask students to complete a concept map to
     – Schemas                            uncover prior knowledge and
     – Thinking skills                    misconceptions
     – Learning rate                    – Provide an advanced organizer
•   Affective Differences               – Use a discrepant event to heighten interest
                                          and motivation
     – Interests
                                        – Use community resources to demonstrate
     – Learning styles                    relevance
     – Motivation                       – Develop developmentally appropriate
                                          guiding questions
                                                                                  66
               Examples: Introductions
         Content Standard: Students will demonstrate knowledge of major trends
              in state and local history, including history of original people
   EXAMPLE 1                              EXAMPLE 2
―After students read       Students were provided with copies of
the chapter title
(The First People          an original map of Native American
of the Americas)           Indian tribes in Connecticut, as well as
ask them to                the goals and purposes of the unit and a
describe in one            timeline for its completion. The teacher
word the culture           knew that her students liked to learn by
that existed in            listening, so she made arrangements for
America in AD              a local archeologist to ―kick off‖ the
1200 (varied, old,         unit. The archeologist brought artifacts
active).‖                  with her that were collected from a
                           recent archeological dig nearby.        67
                     Teaching Strategies
Definition:    Activities designed and/or conducted by the
               teacher in order to explicitly or implicitly
               provide students with the information,
               challenge, support, and on-going experiences
               they need to process knowledge and improve
               performance related to the lesson’s learning
       goal (s)
Purpose:       To mediate learning, increase the likelihood
               of student success and self-directed learning,
               promote cognitive processing, rehearsal, and
               transfer.
Characteristics: Aligned with the content and students’
               learning needs, varied, motivating, promote
               cognitive engagement                             68
         The Teaching Strategies
Direct
              Continuum
 •   Lecture                         •   Role playing
 •   Drill and recitation            •   Cooperative learning
 •   Direct instruction              •   Jurisprudence
 •   Strategy-based instruction      •   Simulation
 •   Coaching                        •   Inquiry-based instruction
 •   Concept attainment              •   Problem-based learning
 •   Synectics                       •   Shadowing experiences
 •   Demonstration                   •   Mentorships
 •   Socratic Questioning            •   Independent study
 •   Visualization                   •   Independent investigations
                          Indirect
                                                                 69
                       Explicit-Implicit
Teacher’s Role
•   Drill Instructor
•   Illustrator
•   Trainer
•   Inquirer
•   Coach
•   Facilitator
•   Designer
                                           70
         How Can We Use Teaching Strategies
        to Support Curriculum Differentiation?
DIFFERENCES AMONG
      STUDENTS
                  TEACHING STRATEGIES
                   – Avoid being the “sage on the stage.”
•   Academic Differences
     – Developmental readiness          – See teaching as FACILITATING
                                          students’ sense making
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to
        learn                           – Use direct or indirect teaching methods
     – Reading level                      to respond to students’ learning needs
     – Concept and skill attainment     – Vary the amount of teaching time for
•   Cognitive Differences                 different groups of learners
     – Schemas                          – Vary the amount and source of
     – Thinking skills                    feedback
     – Learning rate                    – Provide skill strategies only if learners
•   Affective Differences                 need them
     – Interests                        – Provide practice and reinforcement
     – Learning styles                    only if warranted
     – Motivation                       – Change the pace of teaching

                                                                               71
Examples: Teaching Strategies
Content Knowledge: Students will identify physical changes as changes
    in state or form: evaporation and condensation (the rain cycle)



             EXAMPLE 1
• Lecture
• Whole-class discussion
• Assign homework




                                                                   72
    Examples: Teaching Strategies
    Content Knowledge: Students will identify physical changes as changes
    in state or form: evaporation and condensation (the rain cycle)

                         EXAMPLE 2
      Students were assigned to small, flexible groups based upon
   preassessment data that revealed critical differences in students‘
     prior knowledge. One group of students was provided with a
  demonstration about the two processes, asked to work as a small
 group to come to consensus in a small group discussion about their
   observations, and make a list of everyday examples of these two
   processes at work. Another group, with greater prior knowledge
than the first, was asked to watch the same demonstration, come to
 consensus in a small group discussion about their observations and
  conclusions and to compare their findings to the weather outside.
The third group, who demonstrated a thorough understanding of the
  two processes, was provided with topographical maps and related
weather information, and was asked to draw conclusions about why
  it rains in some parts of the United States than in other parts. The
      teacher roved to each of the small groups and used Socratic
        questioning and feedback to advance students‘ thinking.          73
                      Learning Activities

Definition:    Tasks for students that are designed to
               develop the knowledge, understanding, and
               skills specified in the content and learning
               goals.

Purpose:       To help students perceive, process, store,
               and/or transfer new information and skills.
Characteristics: Aligned with the content goals, teaching
               methods and students’ learning needs;
               varied; motivating; promote cognitive
               engagement; efficient, causes perturbation,
               and dissonance
                                                              74
                   Evolving Definitions
                  of Learning: A Good
                   Learner Is One Who
                                  Can:
• 1st Generation: Memorize and recite
• 2nd Generation: Paraphrase, summarize, and
      synthesize
• 3rd Generation: Analyze and infer
• 4th Generation: Transfer and apply
• 5th Generation: Solve problems creatively 75
Information Processing Model
                    Sensory input
                  Selective encoding
                   Working memory
                 Short Term memory
                 Mental representation
                    Schema storage
                      Rehearsal
                  Long term memory
                       Retrieval
                                       76
Then and Now: Perspectives
       on Learning
THEN      •Fixed Intelligence
          •Rote Learning
          •Drill and Recitation Methods

          •Behavioral Psychology




       Novice-Apprentice-Practitioner-Expert
                           •Cognitive Psychology
             NOW
                           •Thinking and Learning
                                                       77
                           •Cognitive Apprenticeship
What is the Learner’s Role?

 •   Recall       •   See Relationships
                  •   Critique
 •   Memorize
                  •   Apply
 •   Practice     •   Evaluate
 •   Sequence     •   Decide
 •   Describe     •   Plan
                  •   Problem Solve
 •   Paraphrase
                  •   Create
 •   Categorize   •   Metacogitate
 •   Analyze
                                          78
The Thinking-Learning
     Connection


    Analytic   Critical


   Practical   Creative


                          79
Thinking-Learning Activities:
Analysis
                                Draw Conclusions
                                Infer
 • Make an Observation
                                Inductive Reasoning
 • Find Similarities and        Deductive Reasoning
   Differences
 • Compare and Contrast
 • Sequence, Rank, Prioritize
 • Categorize
 • Classify
 • Predict
 • Look for Patterns
 • Find Cause and Effect
 • Make an Analogy
                                                 80
Thinking-Learning
Activities:Critical
                             Critique
                             Evaluate
 • Detecting Fact and
                             Judge
   Opinion
                             Persuade
 • Determining Bias          Argue
 • Determining Credibility
   of a Source
 • Identifying Assumptions
 • Detecting Warranted
   and Unwarranted
   Claims
 • Determining Strength of
   an Argument
 • Identifying Fallacies                81
Thinking-Learning Activities:
Practical
 •   Decision Making
 •   Problem Solving
 •   Planning
 •   Decision Making
 •   Hypothesizing
 •   Formulating Questions
 •   Criteria Setting

                                82
Thinking-Learning
Activities:Creative
                       Design
                       Innovate
  • Fluency            Invent
                       Develop
  • Flexibility        Improve
  • Originality
  • Elaboration
  • Brainstorming
  • Creative Problem
    Solving
  • Synectics
                                  83
        How Can We Use Learning Activities
       to Support Curriculum Differentiation?

DIFFERENCES AMONG                        LEARNING ACTIVITIES
      STUDENTS                          – Make students think
                                        – Listen and watch students’ thinking
•   Academic Differences                  purposively and frequently; use your
     – Developmental readiness            observations to tailor instruction
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to   – Ensure that the learning activities are not
        learn                             too easy or too frustrating
     – Reading level                    – Ensure that the learning pace is not too fast,
     – Concept and skill attainment       not too slow, but “just right”
•   Cognitive Differences               – Offer more or less scaffolding
     – Schemas                          – Provide more or less time
     – Thinking skills                  – Provide advance organizers that have
     – Learning rate                      more/less detail
•   Affective Differences               – Create more reflection opportunities
     – Interests                        – Vary grouping options for learning activities
                                          (e.g., heterogeneous, homogeneous); provide
     – Learning styles                    some opportunity for students to self-select
     – Motivation                         group membership

                                                                                   84
      Examples: Learning Activities
      Learning Goal: Students will identify physical changes as changes in state
      or form: evaporation and condensation (the rain cycle)


      EXAMPLE 1                                EXAMPLE 2
                                   •   Observe a demonstration
―Read pages 74-79 in your
textbook. Answer the first three   •   Make observations and write
questions on page 80, Review           them down your observations
Questions.‖                            in a scientific log
                                   •   Work with students in your
                                       group. Come to consensus
                                       within your group about
                                       your observations
                                   •   Compare your observations
                                       to the weather outside.
                                                                       85
                               Resources

Definition:    Materials that support learning during the
               teaching and learning activities.

Purpose:       To provide a context or format
               for delivering, receiving, processing, or
               communicating new knowledge
.
Characteristics: Aligned with the content goals, teaching
               methods and students’ learning needs;
               varied; authentic; motivating, appropriate
               levels of readability and cognitive demand
                                                            86
              How Can We Use Resources to
            Support Curriculum Differentiation?

DIFFERENCES AMONG
      STUDENTS
                                               RESOURCES
                                        – Use advance organizers
•   Academic Differences
     – Developmental readiness          – Incorporate manipulatives
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to   – Develop skill/strategy sheets that
        learn                             include varying levels of detail
     – Reading level                    – Use mnemonics
     – Concept and skill attainment     – Provide post-its@ and highlighters
•   Cognitive Differences               – Provide resources at appropriate levels
     – Schemas                          – Don’t put a ceiling on resources
     – Thinking skills
                                        – Use www.iconn.org
     – Learning rate
•   Affective Differences
                                        – Consider students’ interests
     – Interests                        – Ensure that resources reflect a variety
     – Learning styles                    of formats (e.g., visual, auditory)
     – Motivation


                                                                            87
           Examples: Resources
           Learning Goal: Students will describe and explain some of the
           reasons people have moved and relate these reasons to some historic
           movements of large groups of people

     EXAMPLE 1                                    EXAMPLE 2
• The textbook               • Primary Source Documents
                                 – Faith Unfurled: The Pilgrims’ Quest for
• Stories about Native             Freedom
  Americans                      – American Quakers
• Books about Native             – www.ushistorydocs.com
  Americans                  • Simulations
                                 – Interact: www.interact-simulations.com
                             • Web Sites
                                 –   Caleb Johnson‘s Mayflower Page
                                     Resource dedicated to the historic vessel provides
                                     educational resources, original documents, passenger lists,
                                     biographies, and Pilgrim writings. http://
                                     members.aol.com/calebj/mayflower.html
                             • Related Literature
                                 –   Children’s Literature in Social Studies-Dean M. Krey

                                                                                            88
                           Grade 11 U.S. History
                        CPNTENT STANDARD 1: Historical Thinking
                        Students will develop historical thinking, including chronological
                        thinking and recognizing change over time.
                        .                                EXAMPLE 2
        EXAMPLE 1
                                        As she began the chapter on the roots of the Constitution,
Mr. Todd loved teaching his             Ms. Polanski wanted her students to understand many
students about the roots of the         different aspects related to this important time in American
Constitution. He especially liked the   history. Equally important she saw the critical need to
simulations he had collected over his   teach her students how to trace and analyze influential
career that dealt with the debates      ideas that shaped US History.
that occurred between the               She gathered together easily accessible primary source
Federalists and the Antifederalists     documents: The Magna Carta (1215), the Mayflower
over the ratification of the            Compact (1620),. The Fundamental Orders of
Constitution. Another of his            Connecticut(1639), and the Bill of Rights (Ratified 1791).
favorites was the culminating           She organized her students into three flexible groups based
activity in which students collected    upon their ability to make inferences and analyze dense
                                        text, and provided each group a copy of the Bill of Rights
photographs from newspapers and         and one of the other 3 documents. She asked each group to
magazines that illustrated the          (1) identify their ―other‖ historical document, (2) analyze
freedoms guaranteed under the Bill      the ideas contained within the document, (3) compare and
of Rights. Each student made a          contrast its ideas to these contained within the Bill of
poster entitled, Pictures of Liberty.   Rights, and (4) trace the succession of the ideas related to
                                                                                             89
                                        rights and freedoms.
                                 Products

Definition:    Performances or work samples created by
               students that provide evidence of student
               learning

Purpose:       To assess student growth; to provide for
               student reflection, to monitor and adjust
               instruction, to evaluate students.
Characteristics: Aligned with the content goals, teaching
               methods and students’ learning needs;
               varied; authentic; motivating; efficient

                                                            90
                                                                      Products
Advance organizer        Costume              Illustrated story       Pamphlet                Sculpture
Advertisement            Critique             Interview               Pantomime               Set design
Animation                Dance                Invention               Paragraph               Short story
Annotated bibliography   Debate               Investment portfolio    Pattern                 Silk screening
Argument                 Diagram              Journal                 Photo essay             Simulation
Assignment               Diary                Landscape design        Photo journal           Skit
Audiotape                Dictionary           Learning profile        Play                    Slide show
Biography                Diorama              Lecture                 Picture dictionary      Small-scale model
Blueprint                Display              Lesson                  Picture book            Social action plan
Board game               Dramatic monologue   Letter                  Poem                    Song
Book jacket              Drawing              Limerick                Portfolio               Sonnet
Bulletin board           Economic forecast    Line drawing            Poster                  Stencil
Bulleted list            Editorial            List                    Pottery                 Summary
CD disc                  Elegy                Magazine article        Powerpoint slides       Survey
Calendar                 Essay                Map                     Prediction              Table
Campaign                 Etching              Maze                    Protocol                Terrarium
Card game                Experiment           Memoir                  Proposal                Textbook
Census                   Fable                Memoir                  Puppet                  Timeline
Ceramics                 Fact file            Montage                 Puppet show             Theory
Chamber music            Fairy tale           Movie                   Questions               Think piece
Character sketch         Family tree          Museum exhibit          Radio show              Topographical map
Charcoal sketch          Festival             Musical composition     Relief map              TV documentary
Chart                    Filmstrip            Newspaper               Reflection              TV newscast
Choral reading           Glossary             Notes                   Reflective essay        Video
Chronology               Graph                Observation log         Research report         Video game
Collage                  Graphic organizer    Oil painting            Rubbing                 Vocabulary list
Collection               Greeting card        Oral history            Rule                    Weather instrument/log
Comic strip              Haiku                Oral report             Science fiction story   Web
Computer game            Hypercard stack      Outline                 Scrapbook               Worksheet
Computer program         Hypothesis           Overhead transparency                           Wrapping paper design

                                                                                                             91
                How Can We Modify Products to
                 Attend to Learner Differences?

DIFFERENCES AMONG                                  PRODUCTS
      STUDENTS                          – Don’t spend more time than is necessary to
•   Academic Differences                  figure out the nature and extent of learning
     – Developmental readiness          – Use daily formal or informal assessments
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to   – Develop rubrics with a low baseline and
        learn                             high ceiling
     – Reading level                    – Link drafts, final products, learning
                                          opportunities, and reteaching
     – Concept and skill attainment
                                        – Don’t make everyone write all the time; use
•   Cognitive Differences                 a variety of product formats
     – Schemas                          – Encourage self-assessment
     – Thinking skills                  – Provide choice; allow students to express
     – Learning rate                      themselves in their preferred expression
•   Affective Differences                 format some of the time
     – Interests                        – Keep selected exemplars to showcase as
     – Learning styles                    “possibilities”
     – Motivation                       – Provide time for students to share their
                                          work in large and small groups

                                                                                92
                 Examples: Products
                 Learning Goal: Students will describe and explain some of
                 the reasons people have moved and relate these reasons to
                 some historic movements of large groups of people


                                           EXAMPLE 2
  EXAMPLE 1 Throughout the unit, students have the
                         opportunity to work on a variety of products.
The preparation of the
                         All students create their own concept map
Thanksgiving dinner
for the class, parents, about migration, as well as other protocol or
and invited officials to thinking skill worksheets related to the unit.
coincide with            They also have the opportunity to create a
Thanksgiving Day         reflective essay about the diversity of people in
                         their neighborhood, an audiotape created to
                         chronicle the thoughts of immigrants coming to
                         America, and a collage.

                                                                      93
   Determining Cause and Effect
                           Leader:     ______________
                           Colony:     ______________

Reasons for leaving Europe:
1. _____________________________________
2. _____________________________________
3. _____________________________________
4. _____________________________________

Effects of the migration:
1. _____________________________________
2. _____________________________________
3. _____________________________________
4. _____________________________________
5. _____________________________________           94
      Making Generalizations-Causes/
      Effects of Migration (Colonization)
Generalization (s):

            Evidence to support the generalization (s):




                                                          95
                          Concept Map: Migration
                                                   Movement
                                                across time and space

                Goods                                                                                      Ideas
                                                   LIVING THINGS
                                                      Migration
                                      The study of interactions among people and other
                                       life forms located in different places, times, and
                                                    different environments                  Animals
                          People

                                                         Barriers                           Effects/Changes
    Cultural Reasons

     Push                  Pull
                                                   Economic      Cultural      Physical           People            Land
    Factors               Factors

Lack of
Freedom            Famine            Land     Wealth
                                                                     People          Indigenous         Former        New Land
                                                                     Leaving           People            Land
Religious     Political     Speech
                                                         Refugees
                                                                      Innovation                                 Assimilation
                                                                       Diffusion        Acculturation
                   Conflict           Dissension                                                                     96
                              Extensions

Definition:    Preplanned or serendipitous experiences that
               emerge from the learning goals, debriefing
               and reflection activities, and students’
               interests.

Purpose:       To extend students’ learning, promote the
               transfer and application of content goals to
               real-world contexts and problems, to
               generate excitement for learning, to address
               individual interests, to promote intrinsic
               motivation for learning.
Characteristics: Linked to the content goals; aligned with
               students’ interests, open-ended, guided,
               authentic                                      97
                              Extension Activities

Extension Activity              Time &             Reasons for Providing
                                Support              Extension Activities
                                Required              – To learn about a related topic
Print article                   S
Videotape                       S                     – To accommodate students‘
                                                        interests
Community Speaker               S
Simulation                      S-M                   – To link to current events
Performance                     S-M                   – To relate to historical events
Library research                S-M                   – To explore career
Field Study                     M                       opportunities
Web Quest                       M                     – To transfer or apply new
Project                         M-L                     learning
Product Development             M-L                   – To solve a related problem
Independent Study               L                     – To share a personal
Research                        L                       experience or realia
                                                      – To increase intrinsic
 S=small amount, M=medium amount, L=large amount
                                                        motivation for learning 98
                       How Can We Use Extension
                  Activities to Differentiate for Students?

DIFFERENCES AMONG
      STUDENTS                                 EXTENSIONS
•   Academic Differences                – Extensions do not have to be time-
     – Developmental readiness            consuming projects; a spectrum of
     – Prior knowledge/Opportunity to
                                          possibilities exists
        learn                           – Make a conscious effort to analyze and
     – Reading level                      reflect upon students’ evolving interests
     – Concept and skill attainment     – Think of ways to respect students’
•   Cognitive Differences                 interests in the curriculum
     – Schemas                          – Strive to allocate 10%-20% of time to
     – Thinking skills                    students’ interests
     – Learning rate                    – Seek local citizens to help with
•   Affective Differences                 extensions
     – Interests                        – Encourage students’ reflections and
     – Learning styles                    self assessment of their extension
     – Motivation                         activities

                                                                               99
        Coming to Conclusions…
  Learner Difference: _______________
  Breadth                         Depth
__________    •   Content      __________
__________    •   Assessment   __________
__________    •   Grouping     __________
__________    •   Teaching     __________
__________
              •   Learning     __________
__________
              •   Products     __________
__________
              •   Resources    __________
__________
__________    •   Extensions   __________
__________    •   Time         __________
                                       100
Teachers’ Initial Use of Differentiation:
          What We’ve Seen
 • Open-ended
   activities and
   questions
 • Choice or
   alternatives
 • Tiering


                                    101
    Designing Curriculum Components That
 Require Constructivist Thinking From Students
  Component        Original       Revised

Teaching

Learning

Product

Resources

Extensions
                                            102
       Scenario 1:
   Grade 5 Social Studies
• Content Standard and Performance Standard
  – Standard:Social Studies, Historical Thinking
  – Performance standard: Students will be able to
    analyze data in order to see persons and events in
    their historical context, understand casual factors
    and appreciate change over time.
  – Gather information from multiple sources,
    including archives or electronic databases, to
    have experience with historical sources and to
    appreciate the need for multiple perspectives.
• The Class
  – Very diverse: interests, levels of motivation,
    ability to engage in abstract thinking
                                                     103
     Differentiation (Open-ended
     Activities and Assignments):
  motivation, learning style preference
"We‘re going to make our own definition of explorer at the end of this unit. Before we are able
to make our definition, I want you to consider the names of the people on this list. When you
have done some initial research about two or three, you are to choose one explorer and answer
the following questions about him or her:

1. Who was this person?
2. What adjectives describe him/her most accurately?
3. Describe the historical time period in which he/she lived.
4. Which group(s) of people value his/her contribution?
5. Why is the contribution valued?
6. In your opinion, what impact or legacy does the contribution have on
   history?
7. Should students study explorers? Defend your answer.

You will use at least five resources, one of which must be electronic. You will be making a
presentation to the class on your explorer in any format you wish. When everyone has made his
or her presentation, we will work as a class to define the word ‗explorer,‘ what role explorers
played/play in the course of history, and discuss the value of studying
world explorers."                                                                      104
            •Students do most of the work.
Benefits:   •Information, activities, and assignments are subject
            to interpretation.
            •Respects differences in prior knowledge
            •Provides higher level thinking opportunities for all
                    students.
            •Impacts the breadth and the depth of the unit.

Limitations:     •Teaches only in context.
                 •Time intensive.
                 •Doesn‘t necessarily offer explicit instruction.
                 •May require scaffolding.
                 •May not address large differences in prior
                         knowledge.
                 •Students may have different cognitive strengths.
                                                               105
            Designing Alternatives
Component     Option 1   Option 2    Option 3

Goal

Teaching

Learning

Product

Resources
                                          106
           Example 2: Scenario
            Grade 12 Statistics
• The content standard and performance standard
   – Standard: Mathematics, Probability and Statistics
   – Performance standard: Students will be able to use
     measures of central tendency, dispersion and
     correlation
• The class
   – Twelfth-grade statistics class: 12 young men, 7 young
     women
   – Very diverse interests

                                                          107
Differentiation by Interest
(Choice)
The class divide themselves, by interest, into groups of three to four students
around the following assignment:

Investigate the relationship between two variables by collecting your own
paired sample data. Use both methods that we covered in this chapter to
determine whether there is a significant linear correlation. Present and
justify your findings to the class. Choose one of the following
topics. Is there a relationship between:

Taste and cost of different brands of chocolate chip cookies?
The salaries of professional ball players and their season achievements?
Car fuel consumption rates and car weights?
The lengths of men‘s (women‘s) feet and their heights?
Student‘s grade point averages and the amount of television they watch?108
     Benefits:
  •Improves attitudes toward
          learning.
•Provides for varied interests.
  •Encourages multi-ability           Limitations:
     small group work.
                                  •May be limited to alternative
•Improves intrinsic motivation.             products.
•Changes in teaching strategies   •May stray from learning goal.
  may increase achievement.
                                   •Requires preparation time.
 •Changes the breadth of the
            unit.                   •Requires access to varied
                                     materials and resources.
                                                              109
            Designing a Tiered Lesson Plan
Component         Novice    Apprentice       Expert

Goal

Teaching

Learning

Product

Resources
                                                 110
Optimal Learning
        ―Instruction is only good
         when it precedes ahead of
         development, when it
         awakens and rouses to life
         those functions which are
         in the process of
         maturing….it is in this way
         that instruction plays an
         extremely important role in
         development.‖
                -Vygotsky, 1956
                                  111
―If the match is not optimal (i.e. the match is
  below or above the child‘s level of
  understanding or knowledge), learning is
  less efficient and development may be
  halted.‖

• Chall and Conrad, 1991




                                                  112
Characteristics of Exemplary Curriculum

            •Powerful knowledge goals, representative
             or generative topics, and big ideas
            •Advance organizers that clarify prior
             knowledge,future activities, and
             expectations
            •Motivating introductory experiences
            •Challenging and active learning activities
            •Authentic resources and products
            •Aligned assessment strategies and growth
             criteria, feedback, debriefing, transfer and
             extension opportunities, interaction, and
             support                               113
The Fit…
    • Carol Tomlinson‘s
      curriculum
      differentiation:
      content, process,
      product
    • Standards Movement?
    • Concept-Based
      education?
    • UBD?
    • Other?


                        114
One Way to Reduce the Gap…




                                     D
                                     E
                                     P
                                     T
                               BREADTH
   KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS
                                  115
Where do we go from here?

                            116
Think-Pair-Share
•   Find your mission
•   Make a promise
•   Develop a plan
•   Ask for help
•   Hold hands
•   Honor your commitments

                             117
        Your Action Plan
Need          Goal      Product




Steps        Timeline   Audience




                                   118
I want to thank each and
every one of you for
having extinguished
yourselves this session.
     -- Gib Lewis, Texas Speaker of the House


                                                119
120
121
122
The potential possibilities
of any child are the most
     intriguing and
    stimulating in all
        creation.

                 -Ray L. Wilbur

                                  123
124
Consider the postage stamp,
 my son. It secures success
through its ability to stick to
 one thing till it gets there.


                  -Josh Billings

                                   125
 Perhaps the most delightful
friendships are those in which
   there is much agreement,
  much disputation, and yet
     more personal liking.

                     - George Eliot

                                      126
127
When you come to
the edge of all the
light you have, and
must take a step
into the darkness
of the unknown,
either there will be
something solid for
you to stand on, or,

           fly…
you will


-Patrick Overton       128

								
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