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HW_Lesson_25

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									What You’ll Learn
1. Identify the functions and sources of
   proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
2. Identify the functions
   and sources of vitamins,
   minerals, water, and
   herbal supplements.
3. List and describe the five
   elements required on all
   food labels.
4. Discuss other information
   found on food labels.
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Key Terms
 • nutrient                                 • herbal supplements
 • calorie                                  • protein supplements
 • protein
 • amino acids
 • carbohydrate
 • fiber
 • vitamin
 • mineral

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                                           Proteins




• A nutrient is a substance in food
  that helps with body processes.
• A protein is a nutrient that is needed for
  growth and to build and repair body tissues.
• Proteins also regulate body processes and
  supply energy.

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Proteins




  • Each gram of protein
    provides four calories.
  • A calorie is a unit of energy
    produced by food.
  • A daily diet deficient in proteins may stunt
    your growth, affect the development of
    certain tissue, and affect your
    mental development.
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What to Know About Proteins
• There are two kinds of proteins: complete
  proteins and incomplete proteins.
• Complete protein
  – A complete protein is a protein that
    contains all of the essential amino acids.
  – Amino acids are the building
    blocks that make up proteins.
  – Your body needs 20 amino
    acids to function properly, and
    your body can produce only 11
    of them.
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What to Know About Proteins
  – Essential amino acids are the nine amino
    acids that your body cannot produce. These
    nine amino acids must come from the foods
    you eat.
• Incomplete protein
   – An incomplete protein is a protein from
     plant sources that does not contain all of the
     essential amino acids.



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Carbohydrates



           • A carbohydrate is a nutrient that is the
             main source of energy for the body.
           • Carbohydrates include sugars,
             starches, and fiber and supply four
             calories of energy per gram of food.
           • Your body can store only limited
             amounts of carbohydrates. Excess
             carbohydrates are stored as fat.

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What to Know About Carbohydrates
• There are two kinds of carbohydrates: simple
  carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.
• Simple carbohydrates
  – Simple carbohydrate are sugars that
    enter the bloodstream rapidly and provide
    quick energy.
  – Simple carbohydrates provide calories but
    few vitamins and minerals.



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What to Know About Carbohydrates
• Complex carbohydrates
  – Starches and fibers are considered
    complex carbohydrates.
  – Most of the calories in your diet should
    come from complex carbohydrates.
  – A starch is a food substance
    that is made and stored in
    most plants. Starches provide
    long-lasting energy.


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What to Know About Carbohydrates
  – Glucose is a simple sugar that is produced
    when you eat complex carbohydrates.
  – Some glucose is used by cells to provide
    energy and heat while the remaining
    glucose is changed to glycogen.
  – Glycogen is stored in the
    muscles. It is converted to
    glucose when you
    need energy.


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What to Know About Carbohydrates
• Fiber
  – Fiber is the part of grains and plant foods
    that cannot be digested.
  – Fiber, also is known as roughage, helps
    move food through the digestive system.
  – There are two types of fiber:
    • Insoluble fiber helps prevent constipation and is
      associated with reduced risk of colon cancer.
    • Soluble fiber reduces your blood cholesterol level
      and your risk of developing heart disease.

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Fats



  • A fat is a nutrient that provides
    energy and helps the body store and
    use vitamins.
  • One gram of fat supplies nine calories
    of energy.
  • No more than 30 percent of daily caloric
    intake should come from fat.

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What to Know About Fats
• Saturated fat
  – A saturated fat is a type of fat found in
    dairy products, solid vegetable fat, and
    meat and poultry.
  – Saturated fats usually are in solid form
    when at room temperature and contribute
    to the level of cholesterol that is in a
    person’s blood.
  – Cholesterol is a fatlike substance made by
    the body and found in certain foods.

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What to Know About Fats
• Unsaturated fat
  – An unsaturated fat is a type of fat obtained
    from plant products and fish.
  – Unsaturated fats are usually liquid at
    room temperature.
  – There are two types of unsaturated fats:
    • Polyunsaturated fats include sunflower, corn,
      and soybean oils.
    • Monounsaturated fats include olive and
      canola oils.

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What to Know About Fats
• Trans-fatty acids
  – Trans-fatty acids are fatty acids that are
    formed when vegetable oils are processed into
    solid fats, such as margarine or shortening.
  – Hydrogenation is the process of converting
    vegetable oils into solid fats.
  – Trans-fatty acids appear to raise blood
    cholesterol levels.



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Vitamins




              • A vitamin is a nutrient that helps
                the body use carbohydrates,
                proteins, and fats.
              • Vitamins provide no energy to the
                body directly, but help unleash
                energy stored in carbohydrates,
                proteins, and fats.

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What to Know About Vitamins
• There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble
  vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.
  – A fat-soluble vitamin is a vitamin that
    dissolves in fat and can be stored in
    the body.
  – A water-soluble vitamin is a vitamin
    that dissolves in water and cannot be
    stored by the body in significant amounts.



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What to Know About Vitamins
• Vitamin B complex
  – Vitamin B1 , also called thiamin, is necessary
    for the function of nerves.
  – Vitamin B2, also called riboflavin, helps the
    body use energy.
  – Vitamin B3 is also known as niacin.
  – Vitamin B6 helps the body use fat and take
    in protein.


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What to Know About Vitamins
  – Vitamin B9, also called folacin, is necessary
    for the formation of hemoglobin in red
    blood cells.
  – Vitamin B12 is necessary for the formation
    of red blood cells.
  – Biotin is necessary for normal metabolism
    of carbohydrates.
  – Pantothenic acid is necessary for production
    of RNA and DNA.


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What to Know About Vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Fat solubles include vitamins A, D, E, and K.

• Vitamin A: Keeps eyes, hair, and skin healthy and
             can be found in dairy products, fruits,
             and green and yellow vegetables.
• Vitamin D: Aids in formation of bones and teeth;
             found in meat and dairy products.
• Vitamin E: Helps form and maintain cells; found in
             green vegetables and whole-grain cereals.
• Vitamin K: Necessary for normal blood clotting; found
             in leafy, green vegetables and cheese.
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Minerals




  • A mineral is a nutrient that
    regulates many chemical reactions
    in the body.
  • Minerals are naturally occurring
    inorganic substances.
  • Small amounts of some minerals are
    essential in metabolism and nutrition.

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What to Know About Minerals
• There are two types of minerals: macro minerals
  and trace minerals.
  – Macro minerals are minerals that are
    required in amounts greater than 100 mg.
    Examples include calcium, sodium, and
    potassium.
  – Trace minerals are minerals that are
    needed in very small amounts. Examples
    include iron and zinc.


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What to Know About Minerals
                    Types of Trace Minerals
Trace Mineral and Functions                    Sources

Copper: Necessary for                          Red meat, liver, seafood,
production of hemoglobin                       poultry, nuts, and legumes
in red blood cells
Iodine: Necessary for                          Iodized salt, milk, cheese,
production of the thyroid                      fish, whole-grain cereals
gland hormone                                  and breads
Iron: Aids red blood cells in                  Liver, red meats, fish, eggs,
transporting oxygen                            legumes, and whole-grain
                                               products

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What to Know About Minerals
                    Types of Trace Minerals
Trace Mineral and Functions                    Sources

Manganese: Aids in                             Whole-grain products, leafy
synthesis of cholesterol                       green vegetables, fruits,
and normal function of                         legumes, nuts
nerve tissue
Zinc: Necessary for                            Seafood, red meats, milk,
digestive enzymes and                          poultry, eggs, whole-grain
healing wounds                                 cereals and breads




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Herbal Supplements




              • Herbal supplements are
                supplements that contain extracts
                or ingredients from the roots, berries,
                seeds, stems, leaves, buds, or
                flowers of plants.



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What to Know About Herbal Supplements
• Herbal supplements officially are classified
  as foods and not as drugs.
  – This means that herbal or dietary supplements
    do not have to be proven safe or screened by
    the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    before they can be placed on the market.




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What to Know About Herbal Supplements
• Creatine is an amino acid that is made in the
  liver, kidneys, and pancreas. It also is found
  naturally in meat and fish.
  – It is recommended that creatine be taken only
    under medical supervision because of
    potential negative health consequences.
• Protein supplements are products taken orally
  that contain proteins that are intended to
  supplement one’s diet and are not
  considered food.

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What to Know About Herbal Supplements
Questions To Ask Before Taking A Supplement
Below are questions that one should ask before taking
a supplement.
• Do I know what ingredients are contained in
  the supplement?
• Have I consulted my doctor about taking
  this supplement?
• Have I discussed my intention to use this supplement
  with my parents or guardian?
• Do I know that this supplement is safe and that it works?


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What to Know About Herbal Supplements
Questions To Ask Before Taking A Supplement
Below are questions that one should ask before taking
a supplement.
• Does the product make claims that seem too good to be
  true (e.g. “miracle cure,” “easy muscle gain,” “effortless
  weight loss,” “special ingredient”)?
• Do I know if this supplement can interact with the foods
  that I am eating and the drugs that I am taking?




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Water




  • Water is a nutrient that is involved
    with all body processes.
  • Water makes up the basic part of
    the blood, helps with waste removal,
    regulates body temperature, and
    cushions the spinal cord and joints.
  • Water makes up more than 60
    percent of body mass.
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What to Know About Water
• You can survive without water only for about
  three days.
• Dehydration is a condition in which the water
  content of the body has fallen to an extremely
  low level.
  – Common signs of dehydration include fatigue,
    dry mouth, dizziness, weakness, flushed skin,
    headache, blurred vision, difficulty swallowing,
    dry skin, rapid pulse, and frequent urination.


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What to Know About Water
• How much water is needed?
  – It is important to drink an adequate amount of
    water a day.
  – Do not substitute soda pop or drinks with
    caffeine for water because they act as
    diuretics.
  – A diuretic is a product that increases the
    amount of urine excreted.



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What to Know About Water
• Why drink water when you are sick?
  – Fever, vomiting, and diarrhea cause water
    loss and put people at risk for dehydration.
• How to get an adequate amount of water
  a day
   – There are many tips to increase your water
     intake, such as carrying a squeeze bottle
     filled with water, eating water-rich fruits and
     vegetables, and taking drinks from the
     water fountain.

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Food Labels




              • A food label is a panel of nutrition
                information required on all
                processed foods regulated by the
                Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
              • Nutrition is the sum of the processes
                by which humans, animals, and plants
                consume and use food.
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What to Know About Food Labels




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What to Know About Food Labels
• Nutrition facts is the title of the
  information panel that is required
  on most foods.
• Serving size is the listing of the
  amount of food that is considered
  a serving.
• Servings per container is the
  listing of the number of servings in
  the container or package.


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What to Know About Food Labels
• Calories listing is the listing of
  the number of calories in one
  serving of the food.
• Calories from fat is the listing of
  the number of calories from fat in
  one serving of the food.
• Percent Daily Value is the portion
  of the daily amount of a nutrient
  provided by one serving of the
  food.

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Decoding Food Labels




  • Along with nutrition facts, other
    information can be found on a
    food label.
  • Included in this information is a
    listing of ingredients, food additives,
    and other important facts.


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How to Be Food Label Savvy
• A food label is not required on
  – fresh fruits and vegetables,
  – food served in restaurants,
  – fresh meats,
  – foods in very small packages,
  – foods sold by vendors,
  – bakery and deli products,
  – coffee and tea.

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How to Be Food Label Savvy
• Ingredients listing
  – Ingredients are the parts that make up the
    particular food.
  – Ingredients are listed by weight, beginning
    with the ingredient that is present in the
    greatest amount.




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How to Be Food Label Savvy
• Check the dates
  – “Sell By” is the last date by which the product
    should be sold (although it can be stored
    past this date).
  – “Best If Used By” is the date by which the
    product should be used to ensure quality.
  – “Expiration Date” is the date after which the
    product should not be used.



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How to Be Food Label Savvy
• Food Health Claims
  – Healthy A food product that must be low
    in fat, low in saturated fat, and have no more
    than 60 mg of cholesterol per serving
  – Fat free A product that must have less
    than .5 g of fat per serving
  – Low fat A food that must have 3 g of fat,
    or less, per serving



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How to Be Food Label Savvy
• Food Health Claims
  – Lean A product that must have less than
    10 g of fat, 4.5 g of saturated fat, and no
    more than 95 mg of cholesterol per serving
  – Light A product that must have one-third the
    calories or no more than half the fat or
    sodium of the regular version
  – Cholesterol free A product that must have
    less than 0.5 mg of cholesterol and 2 g of fat
    or less of saturated fat per serving

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How to Be Food Label Savvy
• Food Health Claims
  – ____free A product that must adhere to the
    guideline that the product has no amount or
    only a negligible amount of whatever the
    product claims to be “free” of
  – Fresh A product that must be raw,
    unprocessed, contain no preservatives, or
    never have been frozen or heated
  – Less____ A product that must have at least
    25 percent less of a nutrient or calories than
    the regular version
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How to Be Food Label Savvy
• Food Health Claims
  – High____ A product that must supply at
    least 20 percent or more of the Percent Daily
    Value of a particular nutrient per serving
  – Food additives Substances intentionally
    added to food are food additives.
    • An enriched food is a food in which nutrients lost
      during processing are added back into the food.
    • A fortified food is a food in which nutrients not
      usually found in the food are added.

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Study Guide
1. Match the following terms and definitions.
___ creatine
 D                                                A. a food substance that is made and
___ fiber                                            stored in most plants
 C
___ carbohydrate                                  B. a nutrient that is the main source
 B
                                                     of energy for the body
___ cholesterol
 E
                                                  C. the part of grains and plant foods
___ starch
 A                                                   that cannot be digested
                                                  D. an amino acid that is made in the
                                                     liver, kidneys, and pancreas
                                                  E. a fatlike substance made by the
                                                     body and found in certain foods



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Study Guide
2. Identify the following statements as
   true or false.
  _______ Sugars that enter the bloodstream rapidly and
   false
          provide quick energy are called proteins.
  _______ A type of fat obtained from plant products
    true
          and fish is called unsaturated fat.
  _______ Minerals that are needed in very small
   false
          amounts are called macro minerals.
  _______ A panel of nutrition information required on all
   false
          processed foods regulated by the FDA is an
          ingredients list.

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Study Guide
3. Name four signs of dehydration.
  Common signs of dehydration include
  fatigue, dry mouth, dizziness, weakness,
  flushed skin, headache, blurred vision,
  difficulty swallowing, dry skin, rapid pulse,
  and frequent urination.




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Study Guide
4. Match the following terms and definitions.
___ vitamin
 B                                              A. a nutrient that provides energy and
___ fat                                            helps the body store and
 A
                                                   use vitamins
___ mineral
 E
                                                B. a nutrient that helps the body use
___ protein
 D                                                 carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
___ water
 C                                              C. a nutrient that is involved with all
                                                   body processes
                                                D. a nutrient that is needed for
                                                   growth, and to build and repair
                                                   body tissues
                                                E. a nutrient that regulates many
                                                   chemical reactions in the body

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Lesson Resources


       Interactive Tutor
       Web Links
       Self-Check Quiz
www.glencoe.com




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