Super Scientist Worksheet and Ansewer Key

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					                                          COURSE: Biology

I.         Grade Level/Unit Number:       9 - 12   Unit 3

II:        Unit Title:    Evolutionary Mechanisms

III.       Unit Length:    2 weeks (on a 90 min per day block schedule)

IV.        Major Learning Outcomes:

           The student will gain an understanding of
          The development of the theory of evolution by natural selection as related to the
           scientific process
          The hypotheses about the evolution of the first living things
          The evidence for the change of organisms over time – both fossil and biochemical
           evidence
          The steps in the theory of natural selection
          The current evidence for evolution seen in antibiotic and pesticide resistance
          The history of classification systems
          The changing nature of classification systems related to new understandings about the
           evolutionary relatedness of organisms
          The differences and similarities between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
          The characteristics that are similar and different among the Protists, Fungi, Plants, and
           Animals
          The use of dichotomous keys in classifying organisms


V.         Content Objectives Included (with RBT Tags):

 Objective        Objective                                                                            RBT
 Number                                                                                                Tag
 3.05              Examine the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection             B4
                   including:
                       Development of the theory.
                       The origin and history of life.
                       Fossil and biochemical evidence.
                       Mechanisms of evolution.
                       Applications (pesticide & antibiotic resistance).
 4.01             Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary              B4
                  relationships.
                       The historical development and changing nature of classification
                          systems.
                       Similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic
                          organisms.
                       Similarities and differences among the eukaryotic kingdoms: Protists,
                          Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
                       Classify organisms using keys.
 1.00             Learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific
                  inquiry. Goal 1 addresses scientific investigation. These objectives are an
                  integral part of each of the other goals. Students must be given the
                  opportunity to design and conduct their own investigations in a safe


Biology- Unit 3                             DRAFT                                                      1
             laboratory. The students should use questions and models to formulate the
             relationship identified in their investigations and then report and share those
             findings with others.
 1.01        Identify biological problems and questions that can be answered through           B1
             scientific investigations.

 1.02        Design and conduct scientific investigations to answer biological questions.      B6
               Create testable hypotheses.
               Identify variables.
               Use a control or comparison group when appropriate.
               Select and use appropriate measurement tools.
               Collect and record data.
               Organize data into charts and graphs.
               Analyze and interpret data.
               Communicate findings
 1.03        Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models of biological             B6
             phenomena using logic and evidence to:
              Explain observations.
              Make inferences and predictions.
              Explain the relationship between evidence and explanation.

 1.04        Apply safety procedures in the laboratory and in field studies:                   C3
              Recognize and avoid potential hazards.
              Safely manipulate materials and equipment needed for scientific
                  investigations.
 1.05        Analyze reports of scientific investigations from an informed scientifically      B4
             literate viewpoint including considerations of:
                   Appropriate sample.
                   Adequacy of experimental controls.
                   Replication of findings. Alternative interpretations of the data.

VI.    English Language Development Objectives (ELD) Included:
NC English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standard 4 (2008) for Limited English
Proficiency Students (LEP)- English Language learners communicate information,
ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of science.

Suggestions for modified instruction and scaffolding for LEP students and/or students
who need additional support are embedded in the unit plan and/or are added at the end
of the corresponding section of the lessons. The amount of scaffolding needed will
depend on the level of English proficiency of each LEP student. Therefore, novice level
students will need more support with the language needed to understand and
demonstrate the acquisition of concepts than intermediate or advanced students.




Biology- Unit 3                       DRAFT                                                    2
VII.   Materials/Equipment Needed:

Activity                     Materials
The Scientific Process and   Group Sets of the cartoon cards from the website
Evolution                    Laminator accessibility (optional)
For LEP Activity            popular magazines for cutting out pictures, scissors, glue,
                             construction paper

Evolution Concept Map        Poster paper
                             Post-it notes
                             Markers

Fossil Comparison Activity   Variety of fossils or pictures of fossils
                             fossils AND pictures
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea      Video from Nova’s Evolution series or computers to access
                             PBS Evolution website
                             ability to display English subtitles/closed-captioning
Human Variation              Rulers
Measurement                  Tape measures
                             Scales
                             Stop watches
                             (other measuring devices as needed)
                             Graph paper
                             Computers with Excel (optional)
                             Pink and blue colored pencils
Fishy Frequencies            Calculators with square root key
                             Goldfish crackers (pretzel and cheese)
                             Big bowl
                             Small plates
                             yellow and brown colored pencils
                             graph paper
Sex and the Single Guppy     Computer Lab or teacher computer with projection device
Molecular Connection         Color copies of the Cytochrome comparison sheets

Rat Island                   Poster paper
                             Markers or crayons or colored pencils

Pesticide Resistance         3 x 5 cards
Concept Map Check-Point      Poster paper
                             Post-it notes
                             Markers

Common Names Versus
Scientific Names
Dichotomous Key Activity     3 x 5 cards with pictures from website
                             Scissors
                             Copies of pages from website
                             For shoe activity, odd shoes or pictures
                             Colored pencils
                             World map
                             Tape


Biology- Unit 3                      DRAFT                                                  3
Taxonomy Learning Guide
Final Concept Map                   Poster paper
                                    Post-it notes
                                    markers

VIII.     Detailed Content Description:

Please see the detailed content description for each objective in the biology support document.
The link to this downloadable document is in the Biology Standard Course of Study at:

http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/science/scos/2004/23biology

IX.       Unit Notes:

This unit is focused on evolution as a significant theory central to understanding other biological
concepts. In particular, this unit deals with evidence for the evolutionary process and with the
mechanism of natural selection. The unit also includes applications of concepts of evolution
such as antibiotic and pesticide resistance. This unit also includes classification systems and
their relationship to understanding of the evolution of species. Specifically, students will gain
an understanding of:

         The development of the theory of evolution by natural selection as related to the
          scientific process
         The hypotheses about the evolution of the first living things
         The evidence for the change of organisms over time – both fossil and biochemical
          evidence
         The steps in the theory of natural selection
         The current evidence for evolution seen in antibiotic and pesticide resistance
         The history of classification systems
         The changing nature of classification systems related to new understandings about the
          evolutionary relatedness of organisms
         The differences and similarities between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
         The characteristics that are similar and different among the Protists, Fungi, Plants, and
          Animals
         The use of dichotomous keys in classifying organisms

In each unit, Goal 1 objectives which relate to the process of scientific investigation are
included. In each of the units, students will be practicing the processes of science: observing,
hypothesizing, collecting data, analyzing, and concluding.

In each unit, Goal 1 objectives which relate to the process of scientific investigation are
included. In each of the units, students will be practicing the processes of science: observing,
hypothesizing, collecting data, analyzing, and concluding.

The unit guide gives an overview of the activities that are suggested to meet the Standard
Course of Study Goals for Unit Three. The guide includes activities, teacher notes on how to
weave the activities into the content, and supplementary notes related to other issues such as
preparation time and time to complete the activity. If a teacher follows this unit (s)he will have
addressed the goals and objectives of the SCOS. However, teachers may want to substitute
other activities that teach the same concept.



Biology- Unit 3                            DRAFT                                                      4
Teachers should also refer to the support document for Biology at
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/science/scos/2004/23biology for the detailed content
description for each objective to be sure they are emphasizing the specified concepts for each
objective.

Essential Questions for Unit Three:
Following are the essential questions for this unit. Essential questions are those questions that
lead to enduring understanding. These are the questions that students should be able to
answer at some level years after the course. These questions are designed to incorporate
multiple concepts. Students will work on answering these questions throughout the unit.
Teachers are advised to put these questions up in a prominent place in the classroom and refer
to them during the teaching of the unit.

   1)   What types of evidence support the theory of evolution by natural selection?
   2)   What are the theorized steps in the process of evolution by natural selection?
   3)   What evidences of natural selection can be found in present day ecosystems?
   4)   What is the relationship between classification systems and the evolutionary relatedness
        of organisms?

Modified Activities for LEP Students:
Those activities marked with a  have a modified version or notes designed to assist teachers
in supporting students who are English language learners. Teachers should also consult the
Department of Public Instruction website for English as a Second Language at:
http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/esl/ to find additional resources.

Computer Based Activities
Several of the recommended activities are computer based and require students to visit various
internet sites and view animations of various biological processes. These animations require
various players and plug-ins which may or may not already be installed on your computers.
Additionally some districts have firewalls that block downloading these types of files. Before
assigning these activities to students it is essential for the teacher to try them on the computers
that the students will use and to consult with the technology or media specialist if there are
issues. These animations also have sound. Teachers may wish to provide headphones if
possible.


X.      Global Content: Aligned with 21st Skills:
One of the goals of the unit plans is to provide strategies that will enable educators to develop
the 21st Century skills for their students. As much as students need to master the NCSOS goals
and objectives, they need to master the skills that develop problem solving strategies, as well as
the creativity and innovative thinking skills that have become critical in today’s increasingly
interconnected workforce and society. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills website is
provided below for more information about the skills and resources related to the 21st Century
classroom.

http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=27&Itemid=120

NC SCS Biology                21st Century Skills                           Activity
                             Communication Skills
    1.03, 3.05        Conveying thought or opinions                  Scientific Process and
                      effectively                                     Evolution


Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                    5
                                                                   Rat Island
                                                                   Dichotomous Key
1.03, 3.05 & 4.01    When presenting information,                  Rat Island
                     distinguishing between relevant and           Dichotomous Key
                     irrelevant information                        Taxonomy Learning Guide
1.01, 1.02. 1.03 &   Explaining a concept to others                Human Variation
       3.05                                                         Measurement Activity
                                                                   Rat Island
                     Interviewing others or being
                     interviewed
                            Computer Knowledge
                     Using word-processing and
                     database programs
   1.03 & 3.05       Developing visual aides for                   Rat Island
                     presentations
                     Using a computer for
                     communication
                     Learning new software programs
                             Employability Skills
Goal 1, 3.05, 4.01   Assuming responsibility for own        All activities
                     learning
Goal 1, 3.05, 4.01   Persisting until job is completed      All activities
 1.03, 3.05, 4.01    Working independently                       Fossil Activity
                                                                 Dichotomous Key
                                                                 Taxonomy Learning Guide
                     Developing career interest/goals
   1.03 & 3.05       Responding to criticism or questions          Rat Island
                        Information-retrieval Skills
 1.01, 1.02, 1.03,   Searching for information via the             Sex and the Single Guppy
   3.05 & 4.01       computer                                      Pesticide Resistance
                                                                   Common Names vs.
                                                                    Scientific Names
       4.01          Searching for print information               Taxonomy Learning Guide
                     Searching for information using
                     community members
                         Language Skills - Reading
  Goal 1, 3.05 &     Following written directions           Most of the activities can be
      4.01                                                  presented as opportunities for
                                                            students to follow written directions.
                                                            The teacher will have to work with
                                                            most students to develop this skill
                                                            over time. The following activities
                                                            are well suited to developing skills
                                                            in following directions:
                                                                  Human Variation
                                                                     Measurement Activity
                                                                  Fishy Frequencies
                                                                  Molecular Connection
                                                                  Dichotomous Key




Biology- Unit 3                        DRAFT                                                    6
 1.01, 1.02, 1.03,   Identifying cause and effect                 Scientific Process and
       3.05          relationships                                 Evolution
                                                               Evolution Concept Map
                                                               Video: Darwin’s Dangerous
                                                                   Idea
                                                               Fishy Frequencies
                                                               Sex and the Single Guppy
                                                               Rat Island
                                                               Pesticide Resistance
   3.05 & 4.01       Summarizing main points after             Pesticide Resistance
                     reading                                   Taxonomy Learning Guide
       4.01          Locating and choosing appropriate         Common Names vs.
                     reference materials                           Scientific Names
   3.05 & 4.01       Reading for personal learning        All activities
                           Language Skill - Writing
 Goal 1, 3.05 &      Using language accurately            All the activities
       4.01
1.02, 3.05 & 4.01    Organizing and relating ideas when   All the activities
                     writing
                     Proofing and Editing
   3.05 & 4.01       Synthesizing information from               Common Names vs.
                     several sources                              Scientific Names
                                                                 Taxonomy Learning Guide
                                                                 Concept Mapping
                     Documenting sources
                     Developing an outline
                     Writing to persuade or justify a
                     position
                     Creating memos, letters, other
                     forms of correspondence
                                   Teamwork
                     Taking initiative                         Rat Island
 1.01, 1.02, 1.03,   Working on a team                    Most of the activities are designed
   3.05 & 4.01                                            to be done and discussed in teams.
                                                          The following activities are well
                                                          suited to developing team
                                                          interdependence skills:

                                                                 Evolution Concept Map
                                                                 Human Variation
                                                                  Measurement Activity
                                                                 Rat Island
                                                                 Pesticide Resistance

                      Thinking/Problem-Solving Skills
1.01, 1.02, 1.03 &   Identifying key problems or                 Human Variation
       3.05          questions                                    Measurement Activity
                                                                 Sex and the Single Guppy
1.01, 1.02, 1.03 &   Evaluating results                          Human Variation
       3.05                                                       Measurement Activity


Biology- Unit 3                           DRAFT                                              7
                                                        Fishy Frequencies Activity
                                                        Molecular Connection
                                                        Pesticide Resistance
                  Developing strategies to address
                  problems
                  Developing an action plan or
                  timeline




Biology- Unit 3                    DRAFT                                              8
XI.
                            Unit Guide: Evolutionary Mechanisms

Total: 10 - 90 min days

ENGAGE:
This activity (The Scientific Process and Evolution) engages the student in understanding how
the scientific process works. Each group of students will be given a set of cards with cartoon
pictures (a blend of The Three Little Pigs and Little Red Riding Hood). The teacher will keep
one card from each set. Each group will try to reconstruct a logical story (hypothesis) from the
cards (evidence). Then groups will present their stories. Finally, the teacher will give the
students one more card (a new piece of evidence). Students will adjust their stories
(hypotheses) to fit the new evidence. All materials and discussion of process are found at the
website listed below.

http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/ncisla/muse/naturalselection/materials/section1/index.html

Guiding Question: How is the scientific process applied to studying the process of evolution?

Before the activity: Teachers should explain to students that they will be using a cartooning
activity to better understand the processes of science and their application to studying evolution.

Focus Objectives: 3.05, 1.02, 1.03, 1.05

Activity Time: 60 minutes

Preparation Time: Teachers will find all materials at the website listed below. There is a
complete teacher explanation. The cartoon cards and student handout are also available. The
cartoon cards can be printed in color, laminated, cut and saved for future years.


After the activity: Teachers should lead students in a discussion of science. The emphasis
should be on science as a process of observing and gathering evidence, then forming and
testing hypotheses that explain the evidence. When new evidence is found, hypotheses
sometimes must be rejected or changed. Teachers should then make the connection to
evidence that supports the theory of evolution by natural selection.


LEP Alternative to Cartoon Activity
USING EVIDENCE TO SEQUENCE PHOTOS
   Provide various popular magazines.
   Allow students to cut out 5 pictures of people at various life stages (baby, small
     child, teenager, adult, senior citizen).
   Students should glue the pictures onto construction paper in the correct order.
   Students should write examples of the EVIDENCE they used from the pictures to
     put them in order.
         o Examples of EVIDENCES—must be observable in photo, nothing about
             behavior, cognitive abilities!
         o Baby-small size, shorter bones, fine hair
         o Child-larger than baby, smaller than teenager, muscles and bones allow
             walking, skull larger
         o Teenager-bones longer, muscles defined, secondary sex characteristics
             (maybe not in all photos)

Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                      9
                o Adult-bones longer, hair color/texture, fat deposits characteristic of
                    males/females
                o Senior-shorter stature, condition of teeth, hair color/texture
            After posters are complete, allow students to share their pictures and
             EVIDENCES with a neighbor.

 Relate the activity to the scientific process. How do scientists gather information on
 which to base their theories?

Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
    Write examples of evidence observed in various magazine pictures.
    Discuss how the evidence can be used to put the pictures in sequence from oldest to
     youngest.
    Discuss how scientists use evidence to formulate theories.




 EXPLORE:
 Students will be given a list of words (or they can generate their own list). They will work in
 groups to create concept maps of the process of evolution by natural selection. This concept
 map will be returned to them and adjusted with their new knowledge at the end of the unit.

 For LEP students:
            Lead a class discussion to define the concept map terms PRIOR to asking students to
             complete the map.
            Have the students write the definitions in their notebooks and allow them to refer to the
             definitions as they work.
            Circulate among the groups as they work on their maps. Guide their work with questions
             like: “Why did you choose to connect those two terms?”, “Are the links you made the
             only way these words/concepts relate?”
            Allow students to verbally explain their maps to you and to other groups.

 Extension: Students use their concept maps to write a paragraph about evolution.

 Guiding Question: What are the connections among the major concepts in the theory of
 evolution?

 Before the Activity: Explain to students that they will be creating a concept map. If the
 students have not done concept maps in previous units, they will need to be taught how to
 construct a concept map (see Unit 1).




 Focus Objectives: 3.05, 1.03


   Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
                                       DRAFT
 Biology- Discuss content area-related vocabulary/concepts as a class with teacher support. 10
       Unit 3
              Write definitions of words for concept map.
              Discuss words and their relationships with a partner.
              Listen to teacher’s explanation of how to complete a concept map.
                               Evolution Concept Map
Following is an example of the words that could be given to students for creating
their concept maps.

See Unit One for more detailed concept map instructions.

Methods for doing concept maps include:
  1. Use of Inspiration Software – requires a site license.
  2. Place words on post-it notes and let students place these on poster board.
  3. Students simply write the words on poster board and create the
     connections.
  4. Use group white boards and white board pens. (Note: large pieces of tile
     board – available at Lowes or Home Depot can be purchased and cut into
     poster board sized pieces to make smaller boards that can be used by
     groups.

WORD LIST
Evolution
Fossils
Biochemistry
Reproduction
Environment
Adaptations
Natural Selection
Allele frequencies
Species
Variation

Other words that could be added now or later:
Antibiotic Resistance
Pesticide Resistance

Biology- Unit 3                   DRAFT                                             11
Geographical Isolation
Anatomical Structures
Fossil Dating




Activity Time: 45 minutes

Preparation Time:
Teachers will need to get materials ready – post-it notes and poster paper or a computer lab
with concept mapping software.

After the Activity: Explain to students that they will be examining evidence supporting the theory
of evolution and performing related activities. At the end of the evolution unit, they will return to
their concept maps and adjust them according to what they have learned.


EXPLORE:
Teachers will use a real fossil collection or pictures of fossils for this (Fossil Comparison
Activity) activity. Students will be given some open-ended questions to help them learn about
how fossils are used as evidence for evolution.


For LEP students:
       Limit the number of fossils to 8-10.
       If possible, provide real fossils AND pictures of the 8-10 you select.
       Have students sketch the fossils prior to answering the questions and provide them with
        background information about the organism, its environment, its approximate age.
       Select questions from the list provided in Fossil Comparison Activity that correspond to
        the fossils you have selected.
       Allow students to work with a partner and use the background information you provided
        to answer the questions on notebook paper.




Guiding Question: How can fossil evidence be used to understand evolution?

Before the Activity: Explain to the students that they will be going to various stations,
examining fossils, and answering questions. Let them consult with each other; the discussions
can be very productive. Give them a quick lesson on ratios if you are going to have them
estimate the width of a megalodon jaw.

Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.05


  Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
      Sketch fossils and write organisms’ names, environments, and ages.
      Unit to                        DRAFT
Biology- Listen3 background information about selected fossils.                                   12
      Read questions related to specific fossil examples.
      Study fossils and pictures to write answers to questions.
      Discuss fossils and pictures with a partner and with the teacher.
Activity Time: 60 minutes

Preparation Time: Teachers will need to set out the fossil stations or copy pictures (in color)
from a website such as the one listed below.
http://www.fossilmuseum.net/EdResources/FossilImages.htm

Safety: Remind students that the fossils are very old. If you use real fossils, the students
should be very careful. Don’t let them handle the fossils over the floor, but have them hold the
fossils over a table.

Note:
This is an example of possible questions used for a specific fossil collection.



                                 Sample Fossil Questions
NAME____________________________

   1.   (Collection of shark’s teeth) Shark teeth are commonly found at the bottom of the ocean,
        but other parts of the shark are rarely found there. Suggest a reason for this.

   2. (fossil leaf – carbon imprint) What type of fossil is this according to how it was formed?

        What environment would these organisms have lived in?

   3. (cast of fossil univalve) How do you think that this fossil formed?

        What kind of environment did it live in?

   4. (piece of fossil wood) What does this sample have in common with wood?

        What does this sample have in common with rock?

   5. (rock with several fossil plant parts – carbon film) Fossil evidence suggests that much
      vegetation found in Canada today is similar to what was found 14,000 years ago in our area.
      Suggest an explanation for this.

   6. (strange seed pod from the tropics) Is this a fossil? Why or why not?

   7. (Insect in amber – with stereoscope)How might this arthropod have been preserved so
      completely?

   8. (mold of fossil bivalve) What kind of fossil is this according to how it was formed?

Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                     13
      What kind of environment did this organism live in?

   9. What is the common name of this fossilized organism?

      What used to live in the tiny holes?

   10. (fossil feces from dinosaur) Do you have any idea what this might be? Hint: It came from
       one end of a dinosaur.

   11. (fossil wood) Is this an example of actual remains or replaced remains? Explain.

   12. (arrowheads) What are these?      Are they fossils?   Why or why not?

   13. (fossil coral and a rock with fossil fern) If the coral fossil was found in a deeper stratum of
       rock in the same general location as the fern fossil, which do you think is older?

   14. (fish fossil – carbon film) How do you think this fossil was formed?

      I thought Wyoming was where “the deer and the antelope play.” Why was this fossil found
      there?




   15. (fossil shark vertebrae) What part of the anatomy of a large animal do you think this fossil
       came from?

      This was an ocean-dwelling organism. Any guesses?

   16. (ammonite – mold and cast – fit together) Is this fossil a mold or a cast? Explain.

   17. (varnished blowfish – recent) Is this a fossil? Why or why not.

   18. (three thigh bones – one rock replaced, one recent, one plastic) One of these is a fossil.
       Which one? Explain.

   19. (trilobite) Fossils of this type are common. Why are fossils like these and like shark’s teeth
       more abundant than other fossils.

   20. (any kind of fossil cast) What kind of fossil formation is this?

      What kind of organism was it?

   21. (reproduction of a megalodon tooth and a modern shark jaw plus a ruler) This is a fossil
       shark’s tooth. Looking at the shark jaw and the given measurements of jaw width and tooth
       length, estimate the width of the jaw that the fossil tooth came from.

   22. (plant fossil) How was this fossil formed?



Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                      14
          Certain fuels are often associated with an abundance of these organisms. Cite two
          examples of these fuels.

       23. (fossil barnacle) Relatives of these organisms live today – often on boat bottoms. What do
           you think these are?

       24. (fossil pig molar) Was this animal a herbivore or carnivore? Explain.

       25. (one fossil mold and one carbon film fossil) Describe the difference in the ways that these
           two fossils were formed.

       26. (fossil rock with a branch and some leaves) Are the branch and leaves in this fossil from
           the same type of organism? Explain.

       27. (large rock with many fossil bivalves and univalves) How many fossil organisms are here?

          What kind of environment do you think they once lived in?

       28. (fossil clam and seed pod of same shape and size) One of these is a fossil. Which one and
           why?

       29. Fossils of this type are very common. Can we say that these organisms are therefore more
           abundant than other organisms that lived at the same time? Why or why not?

       30. (two vertebrae – one very heavy and one very light) Lift both of these fossils. How do you
           explain the difference in weight?

          Which is probably oldest? Why?

       31. (fossil fish vertebrae) What part of a marine skeleton are these?




 After the Activity:
 Explain that fossils were very early evidence of evolution and that today, scientists still analyze
 and study fossils to better understand the evolution of specific species. When discussing fossil
 formation, help students understand that how a fossil is formed tells something about the
 environment that the organism lived in.

 EXPLORE:
 The first hour of “Darwin’s Dangerous Idea” (a NOVA video from the Evolution collection) will be
 shown. Questions to guide the viewing are provided. There are video clips and associated
 activities that can be found at the website noted. This website is excellent. It is tied to the
 complete series of videos (8 hours) in the Evolution series – PBS.


For LEP students:
     Use the modified version of video questions that follows.
     Discuss key terms BEFORE viewing the video. Be sure students write
      definitions/explanations.
    Put English subtitles on while video is playing.
    Stop the 3                        DRAFT
 Biology- Unit video and discuss answers to questions as they arise.                                   15
Guiding Question:    How did Darwin develop his idea about evolution by natural selection?

Before the activity: Explain that this video is a dramatization of part of Darwin’s life, including
his research and journey on the H.M.S. Beagle.

                          Darwin’s Dangerous Idea – Part1
                           Video Guide – Evolution Series

Name_____________________________

1. What were some of the amazing things that Darwin found in South America?



2. How did Darwin explain the great variety in the beaks of the finches that were
   found on the different islands of the Galapagos?



3. Darwin proposed that the evolution of species was like a branching “tree of
   life.” What did he mean by this?

4. What is the scientist, Schneider, hoping to learn as he and his team explore a
   remote region of rainforest in Ecuador?



5. How did the leaf-like praying mantis probably evolve ?



6. How might hummingbirds of different beak lengths have evolved?



7. What is the tool that Smith and Schneider used to study hummingbirds that
   Darwin never had?

8. How does the information from “selective breeding” (of dogs, for example)
   support Darwin’s ideas about natural selection?



9. Darwin marries Emma Wedgewood. His brother advises him to keep his theory
   to himself and not tell Emma. Why?


Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                        16
10. Darwin read Malthus’ book about populations reproducing exponentially. How
    did he use this information in his idea about the “struggle for survival?”



11. How does our experience with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, support
    Darwin’s idea of evolution by natural selection?

                    Darwin’s Dangerous Idea – part 1
                      Video Guide – Evolution Series

We will watch the video together. We will stop and discuss the answers for each
of the following questions. Pay close attention to the organisms and the
explanations.

First, we need to define the following terms. You may write the definitions on the
back of this sheet or on a piece of notebook.
Key Vocabulary:
Galapagos Islands
finch
tortoise
adaptations
evolution
natural selection
variations
survival
beak
remote region
selective breeding
exponential population growth
HIV and AIDS
struggle for survival




Biology- Unit 3                   DRAFT                                           17
12. List/Describe/Draw 3 amazing things that Darwin found in South America?




13. According to Charles Darwin, why do the Galapagos finches have different beak
    shapes?




14. Darwin proposed that the evolution of species was like a branching
    __________.

15. What is the scientist, Schneider, hoping to learn as he and his team explore a
    remote region of rainforest in Ecuador?



16. How is the leaf-like praying mantis adapted for survival?




17. How might hummingbirds of different beak lengths have evolved?




18. What is the tool that Smith and Schneider used to study hummingbirds that
    Darwin never had?

19. How does the information from “selective breeding” (of dogs, for example)
    support Darwin’s ideas about natural selection?




20. Darwin marries Emma Wedgewood. His brother advises him to keep his theory
    to himself and not tell Emma. Why?




Biology- Unit 3                    DRAFT                                             18
21. Darwin read Malthus’ book about populations reproducing exponentially. How
    did he use this information in his idea about the “struggle for survival?”




22. How does our experience with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, support
    Darwin’s idea of evolution by natural selection?



Focus Objective: 3.05


Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
       Discuss content area-related questions with a partner.
       Discuss key terms as a class.
       Write definitions of key terms.
       Listen to video and write answers to questions.



Activity Time:   90 minutes (with discussion)

Preparation Time: The only preparation time involves copying the student question sheet.
Ideas for discussion can be found at the website below. If a teacher does not have this video,
there are many video clips on line that can be used in place of showing the video.

Note: The website has excellent video clips from the video series and these can be used for
this discussion without actually owning the video series.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/
Click on Teachers and Students and then click on Teacher’s Guide. Finally click on Web
Resources under Unit 2.


After the activity: The teacher should lead students in a discussion of Darwin’s life, journey,
and conclusions. The teacher should emphasize the evidence that Darwin found to support his
ideas.


ELABORATE:
In this (Human Variation Measurement Activity) activity, students will measure a multitude of
thumbs. They will create histograms from their measurements. This activity will be linked to an
understanding of the role that variation plays in the process of evolution by natural selection.


Biology- Unit 3                        DRAFT                                                  19
 Guiding Question: What is the value of variation in the process of evolution?

 Before Activity: Teacher will explain to students how to make sample measurements and also
 how to create histograms. The teacher also needs to explain to students that this activity will
 be focused on variation in human traits.

 Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.02, 1.03


Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
      Use modified lab sheet that follows.
      Discuss content area-related terms as a class with teacher support.
      Write definitions of key terms.
      Read laboratory procedures to complete activity.
      Explain hand span measurement and purpose of activity to 50 people from whom data is
       gathered.
      Discuss data and concepts with a partner.
      Write complete sentences to answer analysis questions.
      Discuss concept of variation with partner and with teacher.
      Read and manipulate data to create graphs of results.


 Activity Time:   90 minutes

 Preparation Time: The teacher will need to have measuring devices available – rulers, tape
 measures, or other items. Graph paper should also be made available to students. There
 are excellent graph paper websites that can be used to produce graph paper for copying. The
 questions will also need to be copied. The website below contains all the instructions,
 questions, and other helpful information.
  http://www.ncsu.edu/scivis/lessons/variation/varlab2.html


   For LEP students:
          Use modified lab directions and data sheet below.
          Provide the data sheet for each student.
          Have students gather measurements for 50 people.
          Students should do this for homework over 2-3 nights.
          Provide rulers for students to take home and return to you.
          After data is gathered, students should make a bar graph on the sheet provided.
          Guide students through answering the first set of questions on the student sheet.
          Omit the Visualization of Data section.




 Biology- Unit 3                        DRAFT                                                  20
                                      Variation Lab
Purpose: To observe, measure, and analyze variation in organisms and create a graphical
representation of that information.

Background:
Look around the room at your fellow students and you will see that everyone is not the same.
People come in all different shapes and sizes. These differences are called variation. All
populations of organisms have variation. Some variation comes from what the organism
inherits from its parents. Other variation is caused by differences in the environment. For
example, a plant might grow larger in a sunnier environment. In this lab we will investigate
human variation in hand span.

Key Vocabulary:
variations
hand span
inherit
environment
advantage
disadvantage
axis (axes)
internal
external




Biology- Unit 3                        DRAFT                                                   21
Materials:
 metric rulers
 100 people—about half male, half female---no one under 15 years old
 graph paper
 pink and blue colored pencils or crayons
Procedure:
1. Spread your hand flat on a table stretching out the distance from you thumb to your pinkie as
far as possible.
2. Measure the distance from the tip of your thumb to the tip of your pinkie. Round to the
nearest centimeter.
3. Record.
4. Collect data from 50 people. You should measure 25 females and 25 males. Do not measure
anyone under 15 years of age.




DATA FOR FEMALES

 measurement     10   11    12    13   14    15   16    17    18   19    20   21    22       23   24
in cm



number of
persons at
measurement


 DATA FOR MALES

 measurement     10   11    12    13   14    15   16    17    18   19    20   21    22       23   24
in cm



number of
persons at
measurement



5. Make a bar graph of your data. Graph the males and females separately. Color the male bars
blue; color the female bars pink.
6. Check your graph to be sure that:
   a) it has a title.
   b) the axes are both labeled.

Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                     22
  c) label printing is clear and a good size.
  e) the axes are a good length and scale for your data.
  f) the males are blue, the females are pink




Analysis Questions:
1. Define the term variation in your own words.



2. Describe the pattern of variation in your population.



3. What causes the variation in hand spread that you have observed.



4. Describe a situation in which a larger hand might provide an advantage.




5. Describe a situation in which a smaller hand might provide an advantage.



6. List at least ten characteristics that vary in human populations. Try to think of some that are
internal rather than externally visible.


7. Why is variation an advantage to the population overall?



Note: As an extension of this activity, students can compare the sizes of hominid skulls with
the following online activity: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/lessons/hom.cran.html
In order to do this lab, it is beneficial to have actual skull casts for the students to measure
(perhaps purchase one per year and use drawings to augment the collection). Large calipers
are also needed and students should be cautioned about careful handling of the casts.

After Activity: Students should discuss the questions at the end of the activity that focus on the
reasons for variation in populations and what the adaptive advantages might be.




Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                   23
 ELABORATE:
 In this activity (Fishy Frequencies), students will be introduced to the concept of the Hardy-
 Weinberg Equilibrium and will connect evolution to the shift in allele frequencies over time.
 Students will “prey” upon little goldfish and pretzel fish crackers – at first without selection, and
 then with selection. They will compare the change in allele frequencies when they look at class
 data.


For LEP students:
       Teacher should read and understand all background information provided with the
        lab.
       Use the modified version of the lab sheet with students.
       Complete activity as described in modified version.


 Guiding Question: What are the relationships among variations in a population, selection,
 change in allele frequencies and evolution?

 Before Activity: The teacher should go over the instructions for the activity and make sure that
 students understand where they need to be random and where they need to “select”.


 Fishy Frequencies




                                     Fishy Frequencies (with Hardy-Weinberg)
 XI.      NC Standard Course of Study Goals and Objectives:

 Biology Competency Goal 2: The learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and the changes of
 organisms over time.

 Objective 2.06: Examine the development of the theory of biological evolution including: The origins of life,
 patterns, variation, and natural selection.

 Teacher Notes:

 This activity shows allele frequencies changing over time as a result of selection and remaining stable without
 selection. It can be done with or without using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation depending on the needs of
 your students. Two different sets of activity sheets are provided so that you can choose. The Hardy Weinberg
 equilibrium equation allows you to figure out the frequency of alleles and genotypes from the frequency of
 observable phenotypes in populations that meet the conditions for Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. These conditions
 include an infinitely large population, random mating, and no selection, mutation, migration or genetic drift. Of
 course, no real population completely fits these conditions. When a population or sub-population is not in
 equilibrium, population biologists can study the factors affecting the distribution of alleles. If your students do the
 activity using the Hardy Weinberg equation they can see how population biologists estimate the number of
 organisms heterozygous for a trait from the number of organisms with the recessive phenotype. You can also relate
 the Hardy Weinberg equation to Punnett squares and use this as an opportunity to show students an application for
 squaring binomials. Punnett squares can be used to calculate expected phenotype frequencies for populations as
 well as the expected ratios from individual crosses. You can also take the opportunity to discuss the conditions for
 equilibrium and in what ways this simulation does and does not meet these conditions.

 Biology- Unit 3                                  DRAFT                                                             24
If you decide that your students are not ready to learn the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation, you can do this
same activity and have the students simply calculate the percentages of brown and gold fish in successive
generations. By conducting the simulation twice (once without selection and once with selection) students will see
changes in percentages and you can help them understand that this means a different percentage of each allele – in
other words, allele percentages will have changed over time when a population responds to selective pressures.

In either case, one important difference is to be sure students note between this simulation and selection in a natural
setting is that in this case the population experiencing selection is being replenished from the ―ocean‖ which is not
experiencing selection.

This activity can be done using actual edible fish crackers or it can be simulated with paper fish or other materials.
You will need a place for each group to provide their data in order to calculate the class data.




Biology- Unit 3                                  DRAFT                                                               25
                                                          Fishy Frequencies

Introduction:
Understanding natural selection can be confusing and difficult. People often think that animals consciously adapt to
their environments - that the peppered moth can change its color, the giraffe can permanently stretch its neck, the
polar bear can turn itself white - all so that they can better survive in their environments.

In this lab you will use fish crackers to help further your understanding of natural selection and the role of genetics
and gene frequencies in evolution.

Background: Facts about the ―Fish‖
1) These little fish are the natural prey of the terrible fish-eating sharks - YOU!
2) Fish come with two phenotypes - gold and brown:
         a) gold: this is a recessive trait (ff)
         b) brown: this is a dominant trait (F_)
3) In the first simulation, you, the terrible fish-eating sharks, will randomly eat whatever
   color fish you first come in contact with. (There will be no selection.)
4) In the second simulation, you will prefer to eat the gold fish (these fish taste yummy and
   are easy to catch) you will eat ONLY gold fish unless none are available in which case you
   resort to eating brown fish in order to stay alive (the brown fish taste salty, are sneaky and hard
   to catch).
4) New fish are born every ―year‖; the birth rate equals the death rate. You simulate births by
   reaching into the pool of ―spare fish‖ and selecting randomly.
5) Since the gold trait is recessive, the gold fish are homozygous recessive (ff). Because the
   brown trait is dominant, the brown fish are either homozygous or heterozygous dominant (FF
   or Ff).

Hardy-Weinberg:
G. H. Hardy, an English mathematician, and W.R. Weinberg, a German physician, independently worked out the
effects of random mating in successive generations on the frequencies of alleles in a population. This is important
for biologists because it is the basis of hypothetical stability from which real change can be measured. This also
allows you to figure out the frequency of genotypes from phenotypes.

You assume that in the total population of fish crackers, you have the following genotypes, FF, Ff, and ff. You also
assume that mating is random so that ff could mate with ff, Ff, or FF; or Ff could mate with ff, Ff, or FF, etc. In
addition, you assume that for the gold and brown traits there are only two alleles in the population - F and f. If you
counted all the alleles for these traits, the fraction of ―f‖ alleles plus the fraction of ―F‖ alleles would add up to 1.

The Hardy-Weinberg equation states that: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

This means that the fraction of pp (or FF) individuals plus the fraction of pq (or Ff) individuals plus the fraction of
qq (ff) individuals equals 1. The pq is multiplied by 2 because there are two ways to get that combination. You can
get ―F‖ from the male and ―f‖ from the female OR ―f‖ from the male and ―F‖ from female.

If you know that you have 16% recessive fish (ff), then your qq or q 2 value is .16 and q = the square root of .16 or
.4; thus the frequency of your f allele is .4 and since the sum of the f and F alleles must be 1, the frequency of your F
allele must be .6 Using Hardy Weinberg, you can assume that in your population you have .36 FF (.6 x .6) and .48
Ff (2 x .4 x .6) as well as the original .16 ff that you counted.

Biology- Unit 3                                   DRAFT                                                               26
Procedure 1:
1) Get a random population of 10 fish from the ―ocean.‖
2) Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart; you can calculate frequencies later.
3) Eat 3 fish, chosen randomly, without looking at the plate of fish
4) Add 3 fish from the ―ocean.‖ (One fish for each one that died). Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.
5) Record the number of gold and brown fish.
6) Again eat 3 fish, randomly chosen
7) Add 3 randomly selected fish, one for each death.
8) Count and record.
9) Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times.
10) Provide your results for the class. Fill in the class results on your chart.

Procedure 2:
1) Get a random population of 10 fish from the ―ocean.‖
2) Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart; you can calculate frequencies later.
3) Eat 3 gold fish; if you do not have 3 gold fish, fill in the missing number by eating brown fish.
4) Add 3 fish from the ―ocean.‖ (One fish for each one that died). Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.
5) Record the number of gold and brown fish.
6) Again eat 3 fish, all gold if possible.
7) Add 3 randomly selected fish, one for each death.
8) Count and record.
9) Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times.
10) Provide your results for the class. Fill in the class results on your chart.

FINALLY: Fill in your data chart and calculations, prepare a graph showing the frequency of the alleles in each
generation (see directions in analysis question 1) and answer the analysis questions.

PART 1 - Without selection

CHART (without selection): (Partners)


generation      gold         brown           q2             q              p             p2            2pq

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

CHART (without selection): Class


generation      gold         brown           q2             q              p             p2            2pq

    1

    2

    3


Biology- Unit 3                                DRAFT                                                              27
    4

    5

PART 2 - With Selection

CHART (with selection): (Partners)


generation      gold          brown           q2              q              p             p2             2pq

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

CHART (with selection): Class


generation      gold          brown           q2              q              p             p2             2pq

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

Analysis:
1) Prepare one graph using both sets of class data (without selection AND with selection). On the ―x‖ axis put
   generations 1-5 and on the ―y‖ axis put frequency (0-1). Plot both the q and p for both sets of class data. Label
   lines clearly (without selection AND with selection).

2) In either simulation, did your allele frequencies stay approximately the same over time? If yes, which situation?

3) What conditions would have to exist for the frequencies to stay the same over time?

4) Was your data different from the class data? How? Why is it important to collect class data?

5) With selection, what happens to the allele frequencies from generation 1 to generation 5?

6) What process is occurring when there is a change in allele frequencies over a long period of time?

7) What would happen if it were more advantageous to be heterozygous (Ff)? Would there still be homozygous
   fish? Explain.

8) In simulation 2, what happens to the recessive alleles over successive generations and why?

9) In simulation 2, why doesn’t the recessive allele disappear from the population?


Biology- Unit 3                                 DRAFT                                                             28
10) Explain what would happen if selective pressure changed and the recessive allele was selected FOR?

11) What happens if the sharks only eat very large fish that have already reproduced? What happens if they eat
    small gold fish, before they have a chance to reproduce?

12) In what ways did these simulations represent real life? How were the simulations different from real life
situations?




                                                Fishy Frequencies
Introduction:
Understanding natural selection can be confusing and difficult. People often think that animals consciously adapt to
their environments - that the peppered moth can change its color, the giraffe can permanently stretch its neck, the
polar bear can turn itself white - all so that they can better survive in their environments.

In this lab you will use fish crackers to help further your understanding of natural selection and the role of genetics
and gene frequencies in evolution.

Background: Facts about the ―Fish‖
1) These little fish are the natural prey of the terrible fish-eating sharks - YOU!
2) Fish come with two phenotypes - gold and brown:
         a) gold: this is a recessive trait (ff)
         b) brown: this is a dominant trait (F_)
3) In the first simulation, you, the terrible fish-eating sharks, will randomly eat whatever
   color fish you first come in contact with. (There will be no selection.)
4) In the second simulation, you will prefer to eat the gold fish (these fish taste yummy and
   are easy to catch) you will eat ONLY gold fish unless none are available in which case you
   resort to eating brown fish in order to stay alive (the brown fish taste salty, are sneaky and hard
   to catch.).
4) New fish are born every ―year‖; the birth rate equals the death rate. You simulate births by
   reaching into the pool of ―spare fish‖ and selecting randomly.
5) Since the gold trait is recessive, the gold fish are homozygous recessive (ff). Because the
   brown trait is dominant, the brown fish are either homozygous or heterozygous dominant (FF
   or Ff).

Procedure 1:
1) Get a random population of 10 fish from the ―ocean.‖
2) Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart; you can calculate percentages later.
3) Eat 3 fish, chosen randomly, without looking at the plate of fish
4) Add 3 fish from the ―ocean.‖ (One fish for each one that died). Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.
5) Record the number of gold and brown fish.
6) Again eat 3 fish, randomly chosen
7) Add 3 randomly selected fish, one for each death.
8) Count and record.
9) Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times.
10) Provide your results for the class. Fill in the class results on your chart.

Procedure 2:
1) Get a random population of 10 fish from the ―ocean.‖
2) Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart; you can calculate frequencies later.
3) Eat 3 gold fish; if you do not have 3 gold fish, fill in the missing number by eating brown fish.
4) Add 3 fish from the ―ocean.‖ (One fish for each one that died). Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.
5) Record the number of gold and brown fish.
6) Again eat 3 fish, all gold if possible.
7) Add 3 randomly selected fish, one for each death.
8) Count and record.

Biology- Unit 3                                  DRAFT                                                               29
9) Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times.
10) Provide your results for the class. Fill in the class results on your chart.




Biology- Unit 3                                   DRAFT                            30
CHART (without selection) Partners:

    Generation                gold       brown   % gold   % brown

         1

         2

         3

         4

         5



CHART (with selection) Partners:

    Generation                gold       brown   % gold   % brown

         1

         2

         3

         4

         5



CHART (without selection) Class:

    Generation                gold       brown   % gold   % brown

         1

         2

         3

         4

         5




Biology- Unit 3                       DRAFT                         31
CHART (with selection) Class:

     Generation                 gold                   brown                   % gold                 % brown

          1

          2

          3

          4

          5


Analysis Questions for Percentage Method:
1) Prepare one graph using both sets of class data (without selection AND with selection). On the ―x‖ axis put
generations 1-5 and on the ―y‖ axis put percentage (0-100). Plot both the gold and brown for both sets of class data.
Label lines clearly (without selection AND with selection).

2) In either simulation, did your percentages stay approximately the same over time? If yes, which situation?

3) What conditions would have to exist for the percentages to stay the same over time?

4) Was your data different from the class data? How? Why is it important to collect class data?

5) With selection, what happens to the percentages from generation 1 to generation 5?

6) What process is occurring when there is a change in percentages over a long period of time?

7) What would happen if it were more advantageous to be heterozygous (Ff)? Would there still be homozygous
fish? Explain.

8) In simulation 2, what happens to the gold fish over successive generations and why?

9) In simulation 2, why don’t the gold fish entirely disappear from the population?

10) Explain what would happen if selective pressure changed and the gold fish were selected FOR?

11) What happens if the sharks only eat very large fish that have already reproduced? What happens if they eat
    small gold fish, before they have a chance to reproduce?

12) In what ways did these simulations represent real life? How were the simulations different from real life
    situations?




Biology- Unit 3                                 DRAFT                                                             32
                                               Fishy Frequencies
LEP Version---omit Hardy-Weinberg portion. Data sheet for students has been modified.




                                                         Fishy Frequencies

Introduction:
Understanding natural selection can be confusing and difficult. People often think that animals consciously adapt
to their environments - that the peppered moth can change its color, the giraffe can permanently stretch its neck, the
polar bear can turn itself white - all so that they can better survive in their environments.

In this lab you will use fish crackers to help further your understanding of natural selection and the role of genetics
and resulting phenotype in evolution.


Key Vocabulary:
natural selection
consciously adapt
environment
genetics
phenotype
genotype
prey
recessive
dominant
simulate (simulation)
random (randomly)
birth rate
death rate
population
artificial selection
record
bar graph
line graph
frequency




Biology- Unit 3                                  DRAFT                                                             33
Background: Facts about the ―Fish‖
1) These little fish are the natural prey of the terrible fish-eating sharks - YOU!
2) Fish come with two phenotypes - gold and brown:
         a) gold: this is a recessive trait (ff)
         b) brown: this is a dominant trait (F_)
3) In the first simulation, you, the terrible fish-eating sharks, will randomly eat whatever
   color fish you first come in contact with. (There will be no selection.)
4) In the second simulation, you will prefer to eat the gold fish (these fish taste yummy and
   are easy to catch) you will eat ONLY gold fish unless none are available in which case you
   resort to eating brown fish in order to stay alive (the brown fish taste salty, are sneaky and hard
   to catch).
4) New fish are born every ―year‖; the birth rate equals the death rate. You simulate births by
   reaching into the pool of ―spare fish‖ and selecting randomly.
5) Since the gold trait is recessive, the gold fish are homozygous recessive (ff). Because the
   brown trait is dominant, the brown fish are either homozygous or heterozygous dominant (FF
   or Ff).

TRIAL 1---WITHOUT SELECTION
1) Get a random population of 10 fish from the ―ocean.‖
2) Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart.
3) Eat 3 fish, chosen randomly, without looking at the plate of fish
4) Add 3 fish from the ―ocean.‖ (One fish for each one that died). Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.
5) Record the number of gold and brown fish.
6) Again eat 3 fish, randomly chosen
7) Add 3 randomly selected fish, one for each death.
8) Count and record.
9) Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times.
10) Provide your results for the class. Fill in the class results on your chart.




TRIAL 2---WITH SELECTION
1) Get a random population of 10 fish from the ―ocean.‖
2) Count gold and brown fish and record in your chart.
3) Eat 3 gold fish; if you do not have 3 gold fish, fill in the missing number by eating brown fish.
4) Add 3 fish from the ―ocean.‖ (One fish for each one that died). Be random. Do NOT use artificial selection.
5) Record the number of gold and brown fish.
6) Again eat 3 fish, all gold if possible.
7) Add 3 randomly selected fish, one for each death.
8) Count and record.
9) Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 two more times.
10) Provide your results for the class. Fill in the class results on your chart.

FINALLY: Fill in your data chart and prepare a bar graph and a line graph showing the numbers of gold and brown
fish in each generation. Answer the analysis questions.



TRIAL 1
YOUR GROUP---WITHOUT SELECTION                                           CLASS---WITHOUT SELECTION




Biology- Unit 3                                  DRAFT                                                       34
GENERATION        GOLD    BROWN                            GENERATION      GOLD   BROWN


      1                                                          1


      2                                                          2


      3                                                          3


      4                                                          4


      5                                                          5




TRIAL 2
YOUR GROUP---WITH SELECTION                              CLASS---WITH SELECTION


GENERATION        GOLD    BROWN                            GENERATION      GOLD   BROWN


      1                                                          1


      2                                                          2


      3                                                          3


      4                                                          4


      5                                                          5




GRAPHS:
Making your BAR GRAPH:
   1. Use both sets of class data---WITHOUT SELECTION and WITH SELECTION
   2. On the X-axis put GENERATIONS 1-5
   3. on the Y-axis put NUMBER OF FISH.
   4. Draw BARS to represent the CLASS DATA
   5. Color the bar representing the gold fish YELLOW
   6. Color the bar representing the brown fish BROWN
   7. Make sure you TITLE your graph.



Biology- Unit 3                       DRAFT                                         35
Making your LINE GRAPH:
   1. Use both sets of class data---WITHOUT SELECTION and WITH SELECTION
   2. On the X-axis put GENERATIONS 1-5
   3. on the Y-axis put the NUMBER OF FISH
   4. Plot the points for WITH SELECTION on your graph.
   5. Draw a line to CONNECT the points.
   6. Plot the points for WITHOUT SELECTION on your graph.
   7. Draw a line to CONNECT the points.
   8. Clearly label the lines WITH SELECTION and WITHOUT SELECTION
   9. Make sure you TITLE your graph.


QUESTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
ANSWER IN COMPLETE SENTENCES ON YOUR OWN PAPER
   1. In either simulation, did the number (frequency) of gold and brown fish stay approximately the same
      over time? If yes, which situation?

    2.   What conditions would have to exist for the numbers (frequencies) to stay the same over time?

    3.   Was your data different from the class data? How? Why is it important to collect class data?

    4.   With selection, what happens to the numbers (frequencies) of GOLD fish from generation 1 to generation
         5?

    5.   What process is occurring when there is a change in the numbers (frequencies) over a long period of
         time?

    6.   In TRIAL 2, what happens to the BROWN fish over 5 generations and why?

    7.   Explain what would happen if selective pressure changed and the BROWN fish were selected FOR?

    8.   What happens if they eat small GOLD fish, before they have a chance to reproduce?

    9.   In what ways did these simulations represent real life? How were the simulations different from real life
         situations?




Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.02, 1.05

Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
        Discuss content area-related terms as a class with teacher support.
        Write definitions of key terms
        Read laboratory procedures to complete activity.
        Discuss data and concepts with a partner.
        Write complete sentences to answer analysis questions.
        Discuss concept of variation with partner and with teacher
        Read and manipulate data to create graphs of results.

Activity Time: 60 minutes




Biology- Unit 3                                DRAFT                                                           36
 Preparation Time: The teacher will need to copy the student handout and make sure that the
 fish crackers, paper plates, and large bowl are gathered for the activity. Students will also need
 access to a calculator with a square root key.

 Safety: Make sure that students don’t actually eat the goldfish that they “prey” upon. You can
 provide a clean bag of goldfish for eating, if you wish.
 You can save the “used” goldfish from year to year (in the freezer) and then provide fresh
 goldfish for students to eat separately from the lab activity.



 After Activity: The teacher should collect class data and help students graph the allele
 frequency changes with and without selection. Students should discuss the relationship
 between evolution by natural selection and the “shift in allele frequencies” that occurs.

 ELABORATE:
 This activity (Sex and Single Guppy) is found online. There are teacher notes, data sheets and
 discussion questions to go with the activity. The activity will help students understand the role
 that sexual selection plays in natural selection.




For LEP students:
      Use Sex and the Single Guppy Lab Worksheet that follows.
      Discuss key vocabulary BEFORE completing simulations.
      Be sure students write definitions of key vocabulary.
      Use a projector and work through all trials with the students.
      Allow time for explanation and discussion as you work.




 Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                  37
                      SEX AND THE SINGLE GUPPY

The purpose of this activity is to analyze how guppy populations change
over time. The simulation activity allows you to start with a pool of
guppies and your choice of predators, you will be able to watch what
happens to your guppy population and how the introduction of
predators can affect the guppy's phenotype (appearance). The
simulation will help you understand what pressures drive guppy
evolution.
Key Vocabulary:
Write the definitions of the following words BEFORE you do the activity

analyze

guppy, guppies, guppy’s

simulation

population

predators

phenotype

pressures

evolution

bright

drab

common name

scientific name

origin

habitat

stream

hypothesis


Biology- Unit 3                   DRAFT                                   38
Open the Guppy Sex Simulator!!!
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/sex/guppy/ed_pop.html

Introduction:

1. If bright colors attract predators, why do you think guppies are so
colorful?



2. After viewing the guppy gallery, pick the fish you find most interesting.
What is the fish’s common name, scientific name, origin and average
size? Describe the phenotype (colors) of the fish you chose.




3. After viewing the predator gallery, pick the fish you find most
interesting. What is the fish’s common name, scientific name, average
size and origin?


4. View the guppy’s habitats, what habitat conditions would affect the
predator populations?




Endler’s Discovery and Variations of Guppy’s in Pools

5. Who is John Endler? What did he study and where did he study it?


6. For each of the three stream areas, describe the guppy coloration:

Pool 1:

Pool 2:

Pool 3:




7. Develop your own hypothesis about guppy coloration. The hypothesis
should answer the questions: Why do guppies in different areas of the


Biology- Unit 3                 DRAFT                                          39
stream have difference in coloration? (You can choose from the list on the
simulation, or make up your own)




Guppy Simulation

                            % of Brightest     % of Bright      % of Drab        % of
                            Guppies            Guppies          Guppies          DrabbestGuppies
                            (10 generations)   (10 generations) (10 generations) (10 generations)

Trial 1
Guppy: Even Mix
Predators: 30 Rivulus


Trial 2
Guppy: Even Mix
Predators: 30 Rivulus, 30
Acara


Trial 3
Guppy: Even Mix
Predators: 30 Rivulus, 30
Acara, 30 Cichlid


Trial 4
Guppy: Mostly Bright
Predators: 30 Rivulus


Trial 5
Guppy: Mostly Drab
Predators: 30 Rivulus, 30
Acara, 30 Cichlid




Summary

8. Describe how predators influence guppy coloration.




Biology- Unit 3                                DRAFT                                                40
  9. Was your hypothesis correct, use your data to explain your answer.



  10. What does it mean that “male guppies live in a crossfire between
  their enemies and their would-be mates”?




  11. Why do you think guppies in different areas of the stream have
  different coloration?




  12. What would happen to mostly drab guppies that were placed in a
  stream with very few predators?



  13. What would happen to brightly colored guppies that were placed in a
  stream with many predators?




  Guiding Question:     What is the role of sexual selection in evolution?

  Before Activity: The teacher will need to show students how to use the website and explain the
  instructions for the activity.

  Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.05


Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
      Discuss content area-related terms as a class with teacher support.
      Listen to and read descriptions of guppies.
      Verbally explain the results of various situations created in computer simulation.
      Read laboratory procedures to complete activity.
      Write results of simulation situations in data table.
      Discuss data and concepts with a partner and with teacher.
      Write complete sentences to answer analysis questions.




  Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                             41
Activity Time: 90 minutes

Preparation Time: The teacher will need to copy student materials and arrange for a single
computer (for a teacher led activity) or for a computer lab. All materials as well as the activity
are found at the website listed below. The teacher should be familiar with the website. The
teacher might want to decide ahead of time which matings the students should do.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/
Click on “for Teachers” and then click on Teacher’s Guide. Click on Web Resources under Unit
4. Then click on “How Does Evolution Work”. You will be doing the “Flashy Fish” activity.

Note: Another set of teacher materials may be found at
http://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/sex-selection.html

http://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/guppy.html


After Activity: The teacher should have students discuss their results as a class. The teacher
should reinforce the role of sexual selection in evolution and help students link sexual selection
to genetic traits and allele frequencies.

ELABORATE:
This activity (The Molecular Connection) will help students understand the biochemical evidence
for evolution and how it connects to other types of evidence. Students will compare the amino
acid sequences in cytochrome c for a variety of species and then see how those comparisons fit
a given cladogram (phylogenetic tree).


For LEP students:
       Review protein structure, translation, amino acids, mRNA.
       Have pictures of rhesus monkey, kangaroo, snapping turtle, bullfrog, lamprey, and tuna
        available.
       Use list below. Discuss key vocabulary BEFORE completing activity. Have
        pictures/diagrams available.
       Be sure students write definitions of key vocabulary.
       Allow students to work in pairs/small groups.
       Model the counting of amino acid differences. Allow students to mark on their cytochrome C
        sheets.
       Allow time for explanation and discussion as you work.



Molecular Connection-LEP
Key Vocabulary:
amino acids                         paired                              amnion
proteins                            appendages                          mammary glands
cladogram                           dorsal nerve cord                   placenta
cytochrome C                        notochord                           foramen magnum
anatomical features                 spinal column                       bipedalism


Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                   42
  Guiding Question: How is biochemical evidence used to determine evolution relationships as
  modeled in a phylogenetic tree?

  Before Activity: The teacher should explain how to create a cladogram and what a cladogram
  shows about the relationships among organisms.


  Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.02, 1.03, 1.05


Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
      Discuss content area-related terms as a class with teacher support.
      Write definitions of key terms
      Read directions to complete activity.
      Discuss data and concepts with a partner.
      Write complete sentences to answer analysis questions.
      Make oral and written predictions about evolutionary relationships based upon cladograms.
      Discuss the role of biochemical evidence in understanding evolution.




  Activity Time: 60 minutes

  Preparation Time: Teachers will need to copy the student handouts. Teachers will also need
  a class set of the cytochrome c sequence page. These pages can be placed in clear page
  protectors or laminated in order to be used in future years. The website below has all of the
  handouts and information needed for this activity.

  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/
  Click on “for Teachers” and then click on Teacher’s Guide. Click on “Web Resources” under
  Unit 3. Go to “In Depth Investigation” and Click on the “Molecular Connection”.


  After Activity: Students should review as a class what they have learned about the organisms
  whose sequences are being compared. Students can discuss whether this information fits their
  predictions and whether it would be confirmed by other data.

  EXPLAIN:
  This activity (Rat Island) involves putting students in groups and giving them a description of a
  particular island. Each group of students will design a rat that would be able to survive and
  thrive on their particular island. Students will present their “rat creations” to the class and
  explain the adaptations that were selected for (or against) over time.




  Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                   43
For LEP students:
       Allow students to work in pairs/small groups.
       Give each group an island description. Modified descriptions follow. They include simpler
        language and bold-faced key terms.
       One member of the group should read the description out loud. Repeat as many times as
        needed.
       Ask group members to discuss each of the words in bold print. They should make a written
        list of any words they do not understand or questions they have.
       Circulate among the groups to define words and/or answer questions about island
        descriptions.
       Once students understand their island descriptions, ask each group to brainstorm BEFORE
        they draw. They should consider questions like: Where does our rat live? What does it
        eat? Is there any competition for resources on the island? What special structures does
        our rat need and why? Students should take written notes on their discussions.
       Be sure to remind students that they must be able to explain HOW their rat EVOLVED into
        its present form.
       Students should draw and color the island habitat AND their rat species. Label the diagram
        with key words from island descriptions and brainstorming notes.
       Groups should present their posters to the class and orally describe the habitat and rat.
        They should be prepared to answer questions from classmates and teacher.
       Include notes from group discussions in grading.




      Guiding Question: What is the relationship between environments and adaptations of
      organisms?

      Before Activity: Teacher should review the steps in evolution by natural selection. The
      teacher should emphasize the “correct” language in describing the process of evolution. The
      stress should be on natural variations, changes in environment, natural selection of particular
      variations, passing on to offspring of the favored variations, and shifts in allele frequencies over
      time. Tell students to avoid language such as “rats needed to acquire a particular adaptation.”

      Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.03

   Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
           Discuss content area-related terms as a class with teacher support.
           Listen to and read descriptions of island habitats.
           Discuss key terms related to descriptions and write additional questions.
           Discuss group’s questions with one another and with teacher.
           Orally brainstorm ideas related to island habitats and rat survival.
           Write notes on brainstorming session.
           Draw and label a poster using vocabulary from island description and brainstorming
            discussions.
      Biology- Unit 3                        DRAFT
          Orally describe poster and answer questions during group presentation.                       44
Activity Time: 90 minutes

Preparation Time: Teachers will need to make class sets of the island descriptions for students
to use – one island per group. Students will also need poster paper and crayons, colored
pencils, or markers. Instructions and island descriptions can be found at the following website.
http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/ATG/data/released/0187-LeslieTong/description.html

Note: The website above describes the activity and gives four island descriptions. It is
recommended that the teacher write at least 2-3 extra island descriptions in order to keep the
groups small. As an alternative, teachers could give the same island to two different groups. It
is interesting to see what two groups can do with the same description.


RAT ISLAND DESCRIPTIONS
ISLAND A
The island is mostly flat, with a few small hills. The ground is soft dirt, and several
species of shrubs (small bushes) grow towards the center of the island. There is
no animal life on land; but there are many kinds of fish in the water. The island is
surrounded by a coral reef which keeps the predators out. The shore is sandy and
no algae grows there. Fresh water is available.

ISLAND B
The island has many rocks along the shore. Tide pools form in the rocks when the
waves wash over them. The tide pools host crabs, snails, small fish, and starfish.
Algae grow all around the island; however, there is very little in the tide pools
where the various animals feed. The current is quite strong along the rocky
outcrops where the algae grow best. Fresh water is available.

ISLAND C
The island has little plant or animal life. A few species of cactus live in the dry
soil. A large cactus-eating tortoise lives on the island. A species of very large bird
nest on the island annually. They build their nests on the rocks, and protect their
eggs from the sun by standing over the nests with outspread wings. The nests are
always found on the windy side of the island which is somewhat cooled by offshore
breezes.

ISLAND D
The island is an extinct volcano. Vegetation on the island changes with the altitude
moving up the volcano. Grasses grow at the base. Further up the slope the grasses


Biology- Unit 3                        DRAFT                                                 45
       give way to low shrubs. Half way up, the island becomes quite lush; tropical plants
       and trees dominate the landscape. At this altitude, the island experiences
       frequent rain showers. There are two species of birds that inhabit the island. One
       is a raptor which preys upon the smaller birds. The other eats fish in the waters
       approximately one mile offshore. Both nest in trees.




       After Activity: The teacher should reinforce the language of evolution. The teacher should
       stress the complexities of this process and make sure students understand that “Rat Island”
       activity is simply allowing them to model the adaptations that might evolve in a particular
       environment.

       ELABORATE:
       Two activities (The Formulation of Explanations: An Invitation to Inquiry on Natural Selection
       and Pesticide Resistance) and have been given that address the development of pesticide
       resistant strains of flies. These are modern evidences of evolution. Either activity would be
       appropriate for teaching about this topic. The activities at the websites below will allow students
       to extend their knowledge of evolution and understand how some organisms have become
       resistant to pesticides. Students will be able to answer how pesticide resistance (or antibiotic
       resistance) provides evidence for evolution.

       Guiding Question: How does pesticide resistance (or antibiotic resistance) provide evidence for
       evolution?

       Before Activity: Teachers should explain to students that there are modern examples of
       selection that give us a model of how evolution works.

       The Formulation of Explanations: An Invitation to Inquiry on Natural Selection
       http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/evolution98/evol6-b.html
       The activity above is designed to lead students in understanding how pesticide resistance
       occurs in organisms.

For LEP students:
        Use these modifications with The Formulation of Explanations: An Invitation to Inquiry on
         Natural Selection.
        Give students written copies of “to the student” sections. Have students read them out loud
         to each other or to the class.
        Allow students to write on their copies and underline key words.
        After reading, roleplay the “to the student” portions or use diagrams/props to facilitate
         understanding.
        For each section, students must write their possible explanations and orally explain them to
         the class. Have a class recorder write them on chart paper.
        Allow time for discussion and reporting to class.
        If time allows, give students a similar problem (antibiotic-resistant bacteria, pesticide-
         resistant weeds) and have them do a short skit. They should use props and have a written
         script.



       Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                   46
Pesticide Resistance
http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/126.php
In this activity, students are actually involved in a game simulating the development of biological
resistance to a pesticide.

Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.01, 1.03

Activity Time: 90 minutes

Preparation Time: Teachers will need to copy student materials. The materials and
instructions can be found at the two websites listed above.


After Activity: Teachers should discuss with students the environmental problems associated
with pesticide resistance (or other resistances that are brought on my human activities).
Teachers should also help students connect the development of pesticide resistance to the
evolution of organisms over long periods of time.

Teachers should also discuss with students antibiotic resistance as a similar model of the
evolutionary process. There are many articles on various bacteria that have developed
widespread resistance to antibiotics (for example, MRSA).



EVALUATE:
Students will go back to their original concept maps and modify them to fit their new knowledge.



Guiding Question:    What are the connections among the major concepts in the theory of
evolution?


Before Activity: Explain to students that this is the next step in the concept map process.

Focus Objective: 3.05, 1.03

Activity Time:   30 minutes

Preparation Time: Teacher needs to put out the materials for finishing concept maps.

Note: The teacher may want to add more words to the original list.

After Activity: Have students post their maps in the classroom or present them to the rest of the
class if there is time.

ENGAGE:
Ask the students, “Is a guinea pig a really a pig? Is a sea horse really a horse?”. Allow time for
answers. Instruct students that oftentimes, common names (such as guinea pig and sea horse)



Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                   47
 are misleading. Because of this fact, organisms are given scientific names that are identifiable
 around the world.

 EXPLORE:
 In this (Common Names vs. Scientific Names) activity students will try to imagine what an
 organism looks like when given its common name. Students will then research the scientific
 names of various organisms and discover the value of scientific nomenclature.
For LEP students:
      Allow students to work in pairs/small groups.
      Give each group 2-3 organisms from the list.
      Students should discuss the name with their partner(s) and agree upon what they will write
       and draw.
      Students should provide a written description of the organism and a sketch of what they
       think it looks like.
      Each group should share at least one of its organism descriptions and drawings with the
       class.
      For part 2, allow students to print what they find in their research. Lead discussions about
       whether or not their research matches their original descriptions/sketches.
      For part 3, provide pictures of the organisms and ask students to match them with their
       common names.
      Discuss the importance of scientific names and point out the problems with common names.
      Students should write complete sentences in paragraph form to answer the conclusion
       questions.



 Guiding Question:   What is the value and purpose of scientific nomenclature?

 Before Activity: Explain to students that they will be given a list of organisms (common names)
 and they need to try and figure out what kind of organism each one is.

                       Common Names vs. Scientific Names

 Part 1: The following are common names for certain organisms. For each, describe
 the organism based on its name. What kind of organism is it? What does it look
 like? (You could draw a picture to illustrate your description).

 Sea Cow:

 Guinea Pig:

 Sea Horse:

 Kangaroo Rat:


 Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                 48
Tufted Titmouse:

River Horse:

Camel Cricket:

Prairie Dog:

Sea Cucumber:

Sea Lion:

Lady Slipper:

Queen Anne’s lace:

Jack in the Pulpit:

Stinkhorn:

Pitcher Plant:

Crown of Thorns:

Worm Snake:

Catamount:

Cheeselog:

Antbear:

Nature’s Mistake:

Sand Puppy:




Biology- Unit 3       DRAFT   49
Part 2: Look up the organisms on the first page. You can use books or internet
sites. Find all the scientific names that you can and write them next to your
descriptions?

How close did your original descriptions come to the actual organism?

Part 3: Some of the organisms listed in part 1 have other common names. See if
you can determine what organism in part 1 corresponds to the list of alternate
names given below.

____________________:
Panther, cougar, painter cat, puma, mountain lion

____________________:
Armadillo bug; doodlebug; woodlice

____________________:
American dogwood, false box, arrowwood, white cornel

____________________:
Aardvark

____________________:
Naked Mole Rat

____________________:
Wild Carrot



Part 4:     Questions

   1.     Describe the value of giving scientific names to living organisms.

   2.     Why do some organisms have so many common names?



Focus Objective: 4.01



Biology- Unit 3                       DRAFT                                    50
  Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
         Discuss common names of organisms with group member(s).
         Write descriptions of organisms based upon their common names.
         Sketch organisms that match written descriptions and group discussions.
         Orally explain 1 organism and its description to the class.
         Listen to presentations made by classmates.
         Orally ask questions.
         Use computers to research organisms.
         Match pictures of organisms to their scientific names by studying the words in their names.
         Write complete sentences in paragraph form to answer the conclusion questions.




Activity Time: 30 minutes

Preparation Time:   Teacher will need to copy the hand out for students.

After Activity: Lead students in a discussion of the differences in their answers. Get them to
think about the value in each type of organism having a scientific name that is the same across
the world.

Teacher Notes:
Below is a list of organisms and their respective common and scientific names. (Just so you
wouldn’t have to research them.)


Common Name                      Scientific Name                  Description / Discovery (if
                                                                  applicable)

The Flowering Dogwood,           Cornus florida, syn.             a species of dogwood
American Dogwood,                Benthamidia florida              native to eastern North
Cornelian Tree, False Box,                                        America, from southern
False Boxwood, Florida                                            Maine west to southern
Dogwood, Indian                                                   Ontario and eastern
Arrowwood, Nature's                                               Kansas, and south to
Mistake or, White Cornel                                          northern Florida and
                                                                  eastern Texas and also in
                                                                  Illionis, with a disjunct
                                                                  population in eastern
                                                                  Mexico in Nuevo León and


Biology- Unit 3                        DRAFT                                                  51
                                                        Veracruz.

Stellar’s sea cow            Hydrodamalis gigas


guinea pig, cavy             Cavia porcellus

sea horse                    Genus Hippocampus
                             Hippocampus abdominalis
      Big-belly seahorse                               Lesson, 1827 (New
                                                        Zealand and south and east
                                                        Australia)
                             Hippocampus alatus
      Winged seahorse                                  Kuiter, 2001
                             Hippocampus algiricus
      West African                                     Kaup, 1856
       seahorse
                             Hippocampus angustus
      Narrow-bellied                                   Günther, 1870
       seahorse
                             Hippocampus barbouri
      Barbour's seahorse                               Jordan & Richardson, 1908
                             Hippocampus bargibanti
      Pygmy seahorse                                   Whitley, 1970 (West Pacific
                                                        area (Indonesia,
                                                        Philippines, Papua New
                                                        Guinea, Solomon Islands,
                                                        etc)

      False-eyed seahorse Hippocampus biocellatus      Kuiter, 2001
                             Hippocampus borboniensis
      Réunion seahorse                                 Duméril, 1870

      Short-head seahorse Hippocampus breviceps        Peters, 1869 (south and
                                                        east Australia)
                             Hippocampus
      Giraffe seahorse                                 Bianconi, 1854
                             camelopardalis
                             Hippocampus capensis
      Knysna seahorse                                  Boulenger, 1900
                             Hippocampus colemani
      Coleman’s Pygmy                                  Kuiter, 2003
       Seahorse

                             Hippocampus comes
      Tiger tail seahorse                              Cantor, 1850
                             Hippocampus coronatus
      Crowned seahorse                                 Temminck & Schlegel,
                                                        1850




Biology- Unit 3                   DRAFT                                           52
                            Hippocampus denise
      Denise's pygmy                                    Lourie & Randall, 2003
       seahorse
                            Hippocampus erectus
      Lined seahorse                                    Perry, 1810 (east coast of
                                                         the Americas, between
                                                         Nova Scotia and Uruguay)
                            Hippocampus fisheri
      Fisher's seahorse                                 Jordan & Evermann, 1903
                            Hippocampus fuscus
      Sea pony                                          Rüppell, 1838 (Indian
                                                         Ocean)
                            Hippocampus grandiceps
      Big-head seahorse                                 Kuiter, 2001
                            Hippocampus guttulatus
      Long-snouted                                      Cuvier, 1829
       seahorse
                            Hippocampus hendriki
      Eastern spiny                                     Kuiter, 2001
       seahorse
                            Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus, 1758)
      Short-snouted
       seahorse                                     (Mediterranean Sea and
                                                    Atlantic Ocean)
                            Hippocampus histrix
      Thorny seahorse                                   Kaup, 1856 (Indian Ocean,
                                                         Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and
                                                         the Far East)
                            Hippocampus ingens
      Pacific seahorse                                  Girard, 1858 (Pacific coast
                                                         of North, Central and South
                                                         America)
                            Hippocampus jayakari
      Jayakar's seahorse                                Boulenger, 1900
                            Hippocampus jugumus
      Collared seahorse                                 Kuiter, 2001
                            Hippocampus kelloggi
      Great seahorse                                    Jordan & Snyder, 1901
                            Hippocampus kuda
      Spotted seahorse                                  Bleeker, 1852
                            Hippocampus lichtensteinii
      Lichtenstein's                                    Kaup, 1856
       Seahorse
                            Hippocampus minotaur
      Bullneck seahorse                                 Gomon, 1997
                            Hippocampus mohnikei
      Japanese seahorse                                 Bleeker, 1854
                            Hippocampus
      Monte Bello                                       Kuiter, 2001
                            montebelloensis
       seahorse


Biology- Unit 3                  DRAFT                                            53
                            Hippocampus multispinus
      Northern spiny                                   Kuiter, 2001
       seahorse
                            Hippocampus procerus
      High-crown                                       Kuiter, 2001
       seahorse
                            Hippocampus
      Queensland                                       Horne, 2001
       seahorse             queenslandicus

                            Hippocampus reidi
      Longsnout seahorse                               Ginsburg, 1933 (Caribbean
                                                        coral reefs)
                            Hippocampus
      Half-spined                                      Kuiter, 2001
                            semispinosus
       seahorse
                            Hippocampus sindonis
      Dhiho's seahorse                                 Jordan & Snyder, 1901
                            Hippocampus
      Hedgehog seahorse                             Weber, 1913
                            spinosissimus
                            Hippocampus subelongatus Castelnau, 1873
      West Australian
       seahorse
                            Hippocampus trimaculatus
      Longnose seahorse                                Leach, 1814
                            Hippocampus whitei
      White's seahorse                                 Bleeker, 1855 (east
                                                        Australia)
                            Hippocampus zebra
      Zebra seahorse                                   Whitley, 1964
                            Hippocampus zosterae
      Dwarf seahorse                                   Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
                                                        (Gulf of Mexico and the
                                                        Caribbean)

Kangaroo rat                Dipodomys californicus

Tufted titmouse             Baeolophus bicolor

River horse                 Hippopotamus amphibius      massive thick-skinned
                                                        herbivorous animal living in
                                                        or around rivers of tropical
                                                        Africa
Camel cricket               Subfamily                   Brunner, 1888
                            Rhaphidophorinae- camel
                            crickets: United States
                            Diestrammena asynamora
                            Subfamily Tropidischiinae
                            — camel crickets: Canada    Scudder, 1869



Biology- Unit 3                  DRAFT                                            54
Prairie dog                    Genus Cynomys About 14
                               other genera in subfamily
                               Cynomys gunnisoni
      Gunnison's Prairie
       Dog
                               Cynomys leucurus
      White-tailed Prairie
       Dog
                               Cynomys ludovicianus
      Black-tailed Prairie
       Dog
                               Cynomys mexicanus
      Mexican Prairie Dog
                               Cynomys parvidens
      Utah Prairie Dog

Sea cucumber                   Class Holothuroidea
                               contains sea cucumbers.
                               There are approximately
                               1150 species of sea
                               cucumbers.
Sea lion                       A sea lion is one of many
                               marine mammals of the
                               family Otariidae.
Lady’s slipper                 Cypripedium
                               Cypriepedium acaule Aiton
Moccasin flower

Queen Anne’s lace Wild         Daucus carota
carrot, bishop's lace

Venus fly-trap                 Dionaea muscipula

Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Bog        Arisaema triphyllum
onion, Brown dragon,
Indian turnip, Wake robin or
Wild turnip
Stinkhorn, The Phallaceae,     Notable species:
or stinkhorns, are a family          Phallus impudicus,
of basidiomycetes                     the common
                                      stinkhorn
                                     Phallus hadriani,
                                      (sometimes
                                      considered as a
                                      subspecies of
                                      Phallus impudicus)




Biology- Unit 3                       DRAFT                55
                                    Phallus ravenilii
                                    Phallus indusiatus
                                     (syn. Dictyophora
                                     indusiata), Chinese
                                     "bamboo fungus,"
                                     eaten as a food in
                                     southwestern China

Pitcher plant                 The families Nepenthaceae
                              and Sarraceniaceae are the
                              best-known and largest
                              groups of pitcher plants.
Crown of thorns               Euphorbia splendens

Crown-of-thorns starfish      Acanthaster planci

As mentioned above there
are over 1800 species and
many are undiscovered.
Some of the better known
starfish include:
      Blue sea star
      Japanese sea star
      Carpet sea star
      Eleven-armed sea
       star
      Pincushion sea star
      Comb sea star
      Crown of thorns sea
       star



Worm snake or Blind snake     Carphophis amoenus

Panther, Catamount,           felis concolor
Cougar, Painter cat, and
Puma, Mountain lion

Woodlice vary throughout      pill bug" (usually applied
the English-speaking world.   only to the genus
They include: "armadillo      Armadillidium)


Biology- Unit 3                      DRAFT                 56
bug", "cheeselog"
(Reading, Berkshire),
"doodlebug" (also used for
the larva of an antlion) roly-
poly", "potato bug", "roll up
bug" , "slater" and "sow
bug".
Aardvark or Antbear              Orycteropus afer

Binturong or Bearcat             Arctictis binturong

Naked Mole Rat or Sand           Heterocephalus glaber
Puppy
Purple Frog or Pignose           Nasikabatrachus
Frog                             sahyadrensis
Birds                            class Aves, subphylum
                                 Vertebrata, and phylum
                                 Chordata
       American Robin               Turdus migratorius

       Dark-Backed Robin               T. m. nigrideus           northern-nesting
                                                                   subspecies




ELABORATE:
There are many dichotomous key activities that can be done to help students understand how
organisms are classified or identified. Two websites containing dichotomous key activities are
provided below.


For LEP students:
       Use shoe activity found on website listed below.
       Allow time for discussion among students and with you.
       Have students copy the key they created in their notebooks.
       After the key is created, give each group a unique shoe or picture of one (ice skate, slipper,
        scuba flipper, ballet shoe, etc.) that they must fit into their scheme.
       Each group should explain to the class how they decided to add their special shoe in and
        why. Ex: We put the ice skate in the sneaker kingdom because it has laces like sneakers.
        We put the slipper in the flip flop kingdom because you can just slip it on. We had to make
        a new kingdom because this shoe is unlike any of the others.




Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                 57
Guiding Question:    How can organisms be identified using a dichotomous key?

Before Activity: The teacher should reinforce the value of organizing living things with a
taxonomic system as discussed in the previous activity. The teacher should briefly explain how
to use a dichotomous key and do one organism as an example.

Focus Objectives: 4.01, 1.02


Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
       Discuss shoe classification with classmates and teacher.
       Write a dichotomous key to classify shoes.
       Discuss placement of a unique shoe into the kingdoms created by the class.
       Orally explain the placement of the unique shoe.




Activity Time: 45 minutes

Preparation Time: Decide on a dichotomous key activity. If the following website is used, then
student materials will need to be copied. The cards can be laminated for use in future years.
http://www.microbeworld.org/resources/experiment/pgs1-6.pdf

Note: The following website has instructions for doing a dichotomous key using student shoes.
http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/1228.html (classification of shoes)
Great activity for LEP students


The teacher could buy a variety of pasta or use pictures of various kinds of pasta and let
students work in groups to develop a dichotomous key for their pasta collection.

This website has a dichotomous key that uses actual organisms (pictures).
http://www.seaworld.org/just-for-teachers/lsa/i-012/pdf/4-8.pdf


After Activity:
Students should review the process of using a dichotomous key by actually using a key that
involves real organisms. See website above.

For LEP Students:
Be sure to provide an opportunity for students to identify unknown objects with a real dichotomous
key. Stress that all of the vocabulary in a given key is not necessarily important. What is important
is the actual USE of the key.




Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                 58
ELABORATE:
Students will build upon their knowledge of characteristics of organisms and dichotomous keys
to compare/contrast organisms from the three domains and the six kindgoms. This guide
(Taxonomy Learning Guide) will help students learn about the characteristics of various
kingdoms and the taxonomic levels.

Guiding Question: What are the characteristics of organisms in various taxonomic levels?


Before Activity: Teachers should go over the various taxa and briefly explain the divisions to the
students before they attempt the learning guide.

For LEP students:
       Review vocabulary: prokaryote, eukaryote, multicellular, unicellular, autotroph, heterotroph,
        cell wall, and chloroplast.
       Provide textbook references, posters, computers for finding information.
       Group students into 6 groups. Assign each group 1 of the kingdoms to research.
       Allow students to report their findings to the class.
       Make a wall size chart similar to the one below. As each group reports fill in information. Be
        sure students complete the chart in their notebooks.
       Keep wall chart up as you complete the unit.




                    Characteristics of Domains and Kingdoms
                           Taxonomy Learning Guide

DOMAIN           Bacteria      Archaea                        Eukarya
KINGDOM          Eubacteria    Archaebacteria    Protista     Fungi        Plantae     Animalia
Cell Type
(eukaryotic or
prokaryotic)
Cell Wall
Presence or
absence?
Composition?
Chloroplasts



Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                  59
Number of
cells




Mode of
Nutrition
(heterotroph
or autotroph)
Examples




   For LEP students:
           Explain that the chart below provides classification information about the organisms.
           If possible, provide pictures of each of the organisms.
           Stress to students that they do not need to memorize the taxa names. They need to
            COMPARE the taxa of the organisms to answer questions.
           Lead group discussion about the questions.
           Have students write answers to the questions in their notebooks. They should use complete
            sentences and include content vocabulary wherever appropriate.




Characteristics of the Taxon Groupings


                    Golden                                        Praying
   Taxon                           Human           Tiger                         Dogwood
                    Lemur                                         Mantis

Domain           Eukarya        Eukarya        Eukarya         Eukarya        Eukarya

Kingdom          Animalia       Animalia       Animalia        Animalia       Plantae


Phylum or        Chordata       Chordata       Chordata        Arthropoda     Magnoliophyta



Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                             60
Division

Class           Mammalia        Mammalia        Mammalia       Insecta          Magnoliopsida

Order           Primates        Primates        Carnivora      Dictyoptera      Cornales

Family          Lemuridae       Hominidae       Felidae        Mantidae         Cornaceae

Genus           Hapalemur       Homo            Panthera       Mantis           Cornus

Species         H. aureus       H. sapiens      P. tigris      M. religiosa     C. florida




Analysis Questions:
1) If you compared cytochromes of these species, which would be most similar? Unlike?
2) Which two species are most closely related? Explain.
3) Which three species are most closely related?
4) Which organism is least closely related to all of the others?
5) Which taxon has the fewest types of organisms? Explain.

Focus Objective: 4.01, 1.03



Language (ELP) Objectives for LEP students:
        Discuss content vocabulary.
        Listen to class discussions.
        Research information about 1 kingdom and discuss it with partner(s).
        Write necessary information in chart.
        Orally report findings to class and write information on wall chart.
        Write information from wall chart on notebook chart.
        Discuss how classification information may be used.
        Use content vocabulary in written answers to analysis questions.




Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                61
 Activity Time: 30 minutes

 Preparation Time: Teachers will need to make copies of the learning guide.

 EXPLAIN:
 Instruct students to explain the answers to the questions from the lab to other students.

 After Activity: Discuss the questions and answers with the students.

 EVALUATE:
 Students will complete their concept map, including information about evolution and
 classification.

 For LEP students:
           Allow students to refer to all information in their notebooks as they work.
           Circulate among the groups as they work on their maps. Guide their work with questions
            like: “Why did you choose to connect those two terms?”, “Are the links you made the
            only way these words/concepts relate?”
           Encourage additions/revisions based upon what they have learned.
           Allow students to verbally explain their maps to you and to other groups. Ask students to
            concentrate on explaining the additions/changes they made and why.

 Extension: Students use their concept maps to re-write the paragraph they wrote at the
 beginning of the unit.




 Guiding Question: What is the relationship between concepts of evolution and our
 understanding of relatedness of organisms?

 Before Activity: Explain to students that they will be combining their understanding of evolution
 and their new knowledge of taxonomy into one concept map that links the ideas of both areas.

 Focus Objective: Objectives
Language (ELP) 4.01, 1.05 for LEP students:
          Discuss words and their relationships with a partner.
          Explain concept map links to teacher and other students.
          Use completed concept map to write a paragraph about evolution.

 Activity Time: 30 minutes

 Preparation Time: Teacher will need to set out the materials for completing the concept maps.

 After Activity: Lead a class discussion where students share their concept maps linking ideas
 of evolution and taxonomy. Be sure to address any areas of the concept maps that are weak
 and/or incomplete.




 Biology- Unit 3                           DRAFT                                                 62
Sample Assessment Questions
Goal 3.05
   1. What type of fossilized remains would provide the greatest evidence of an organism’s
       diet?
           a. Hip Socket
           b. Cranium Bones
           c. Femur Bone
           d. Teeth

   2. Which combination of factors provides the greatest potential for evolutionary change in a
      species?
         a. Small population and no natural selection
         b. Large population and no natural selection
         c. Small population and the occurrence of natural selection
         d. Large population and the occurrence of natural selection

   3. During the past decade, doctors have noted the appearance of several super bugs,
      which are bacteria that show multiple resistances to antibiotic. The development of
      these super bugs has been linked to the overuse of antibiotics. Which of the following is
      the best explanation for the increase in the appearance of these super bugs?
          a. Use of the antibiotic has caused a random mutation that allows the bacteria to be
          resistant.
          b. Use of the antibiotic has caused a random mutation that allows the bacteria
             less resistant.
          c. Use of the antibiotic has created an environment where only bacteria that
             have a random mutation that conveys resistancy survive and reproduce.
          d. Use of the antibiotic has destroyed all bacteria which has allowed for the
              appearance of the super bugs.

   4.   The description of the earliest life forms as being anaerobic is based of the absence of
         which gas from the early earth atmosphere?
          a. carbon dioxide
          b. free oxygen gas
          c. methane
          d. free hydrogen gas

Goal 4.01
   1. In which kingdom would an eukaryotic, multi-cellular and autotrophic organism be
        classified?
           a. Eubacteria
           b. Fungi
           c. Animalia
           d. Plantae

   2. Which classification taxon includes organisms that are able to mate and to produce fertile
       offspring?
          a. kingdom
          b. species
          c. family



Biology- Unit 3                         DRAFT                                                 63
           d. order

   3. Using the following classification information, which two organisms are the most closely
        related?
Classification Taxon               Examples
Kingdom- Animal                    dolphin, house cat, songbird, lynx, wolf, earthworm, butterfly,
                                   hydra
Phylum- Chordata                   dolphin, house cat, songbird, lynx, wolf
Genus- Felis                       house cat, lynx
Species- Felis domastica           house cat

           a.   house cat and dolphin
           b.   lynx and house cat
           c.   songbird and house cat
           d.   wolf and house cat


Modified Sample Assessment Questions
Words in bold print are key words. Pay close attention to these words when reading and
answering questions




Goal 3.05
1. Which fossil provides the best evidence of an organism’s diet?
          a. vertebrae (backbones)
          b. cranium (skull) bones
          c. leg bones
          d. teeth
2. Which combination of factors provides the greatest potential for evolutionary change in a
species?
          a. small population and no natural selection
          b. large population and no natural selection
          c. small population with natural selection
          d. large population with natural selection

3. During the past decade, doctors have noted the appearance of bacteria that are resistant to
antibiotics (medicine). The development of these bacteria has been linked to the overuse of
antibiotics. Which of the following supports this idea?
             a. Use of the antibiotic has killed all bacteria.
             b. Use of the antibiotic has killed the bacteria that are genetically resistant. The
                non-resistant bacteria have survived and reproduced.
             c. Use of the antibiotic has killed the bacteria that are genetically non-resistant.
                The resistant bacteria have survived and reproduced.




Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                   64
           According to scientists, the earliest life forms on Earth were anaerobic. This
           suggests the absence of which gas from Earth’s early atmosphere?
           e. carbon dioxide
           f. oxygen
           g. methane
           h. hydrogen gas

Goal 4.01
   1. Which kingdom contains eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs?
          e. Eubacteria
          f. Fungi
          g. Animalia
          h. Plantae

   2. Which classification taxon includes organisms that are able to mate and to produce
       fertile offspring?
          e. kingdom
          f. species
          g. family
          h. order

   3. Use the classification information below. Which two organisms are the most closely
        related?
Classification Taxon              Examples
Kingdom- Animal                   dolphin, house cat, songbird, lynx, wolf, earthworm, butterfly,
                                  hydra
Phylum- Chordata                  dolphin, house cat, songbird, lynx, wolf
Genus- Felis                      house cat, lynx
Species- Felis domastica          house cat

           e.   house cat and dolphin
           f.   lynx and house cat
           g.   songbird and house cat
           h.   wolf and house cat




Biology- Unit 3                          DRAFT                                                  65

				
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