Docstoc

investigatory project - PowerPoint

Document Sample
investigatory project - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					Prof. Aleli R. Martin
   Mariano Marcos state University
How are you?
ANGELI JOYCE DY
Capiz National High School


  Cytotoxicity Against Human Lung and Colon
  Carcinomas Antioxidant and Anti-bacterial
  Properties of Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal)
  Bile
   2nd Special Award from American
   Association for Clinical
   Chemistry
                                     “I want to help contribute in
                                     finding a cure to a wide
                                     spread and global disease
                                     such as cancer.”
KEVIN VER DAVID
ORVEN JULES DUMAOANG
PSHS – Quezon City

  Quorum Sensing Inhibitors from Surface-Associated
  Bacteria of Halymenia Durvillaei
   1st Place in the Plant Sciences Category
                                                   “Science is fun. It is
                                                   discovery. When we
                                                   have queztions and
                                                   we want to prove it
 “We did this study because at the back of our     and find the
 minds, we want to help develop drugs that will    solution, you get to
 combat diseases, and perhaps make drugs           devise solutions to
 that are effective, especially now, we know hat   problems like ano
 there are a lot of bacterial anti-resistant       ba nangyayari, how
 drugs” – Orven                                    can we solve this” –
                                                   Kevin
JOVANI TOMALE
Davao City National High School




        Mathematical Models for Gender
        Determination of Philippine Eagles
          2nd Special Award from American
          Statistical Association
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the activity, you should be able to :

Identify a researchable problem

   a. identify possible sources of ideas when
      looking for a problem
   b. apply guidelines in the selection of a
      problem
Ways to identify the subject area
for investigation

   What are the possible sources of ideas
   when you scout for a problem?
POSSIBLE SOURCES OF IDEAS
PEOPLE

Friends
Teachers
Family scientist/experts
Community
School officials
Professionals
PLACES

Library
Research institutions
School
Community
Museums
Parks
Home
River
Internet
THINGS

Soil
Water
Air
Plants
Animals
Books
YOU CAN BE HELPED IN IDENTIFYING A
 PROBLEM BY:


1. consulting, interviewing or observing people
2. visiting facilities and places
3. reading materials
4. observing things
GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A
 TOPIC:
1. your interests and abilities
2. availability of materials needed for
   investigation
3. particular needs of the community
4. socio-economic significance of the problem
5. topic is within the level of knowledge and
   experience
6. the time element required to finish the project
7. safety measures to be undertaken during
   investigation
8. expenses involved in undertaking the project
9. generation of new information
In looking for a topic for investigation, a student-
researcher first conducted a survey of the existing
problems in a farming community. He interviewed
   absence of an irrigation system;
community officials and observed the community.
From the interviews and observations, the
   lack of farm-to-market roads;
researcher identified the following problems:

  abundance of farm pests like locusts and rats;

  laziness of the farmers; and

  high cost of farm inputs particularly fertilizer
E       SELECTING A RESEARCH PROBLEM
X   1. Consider one possible source of a research
E      problem from each of the three categories
       given previously :
R
C      People         Place          Thing
I   2. Using the guidelines/factors involved in the
S      choice of a research problem, select a
       specific topic for actual investigation.
E
    3. Defend your choice of this topic before your
       classmates.
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the activity, you should be able to :

Formulate the research problem
      a. state the main problem and subproblems of the
         research
      b. state the significance of the research problem
      c. state the scope and limitations of the research
         problem; and
      d. identify the variables involved in the study
In making a statement of the problem, there are
several things that you must consider

                 clarity

              organization

               specificity

           well-defined scope

              conciseness

             measurability
For the research problem to be a significant
one, it must:

a. help answer a problem/need of the
   people/community/country;

b. contribute to the generation of new
   information;

c. develop or improve an existing process; and

d. contribute to the development of your scientific
   skill
            VARIABLES VARIABLES


                  changing quantities

any factor, trait, or condition that can exist in differing
                     amounts or types
           VARIABLES
            INDEPENDENT VARIABLES


                  they are the cause.

variables which could be changed or manipulated by the
   investigator depending on the nature of the study
               VARIABLES
                 DEPENDENT VARIABLES


                     the observed effects

responding variables because their values are dependent on the
                   independent v variables
               VARIABLES
                EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES


all other variables that may influence the results of the study
           besides those of the independent variables

 controlled or maintained constant during the investigation
            Question              Independent        Dependent          Controlled
                                    Variable          Variables         Variables
                                 (What I change)   (What I observe)   (What I keep the
                                                                          same)
How much water flows
through a faucet at different
openings

Does heating a cup of water
allow it to dissolve more
sugar?

Does fertilizer make a plant
grow bigger

Does an electric motor turn
faster if you increase
the voltage?

How fast does a candle burn?

Who listens to music the most:
teenagers or their parents

Is a classroom noisier when
the teacher leaves the room?

Do bicycle fenders keep the
rider dry when riding through
a puddle?
                                                   For Good Variables, You
          What Makes for Good Variables?           Should Answer "Yes" to
                                                       Every Question


Is the independent variable measurable?                   Yes / No



Can you change the independent variable during
                                                          Yes / No
the experiment?




Have you identified all relevant dependent
variables, and are they all caused by and                 Yes / No
dependent on the independent variable?



Are all dependent variable(s) measurable?                 Yes / No


Have you identified all relevant controlled
                                                          Yes / No
variables?


Can all controlled variables be held at a steady
                                                          Yes / No
value during the experiment?
         RESPONSE OF OKRA TO HORSE MANURE AND UREA:
                     A COMPARATIVE STUDY

The main problem of the study is to compare the effect of horse manure and urea to the
   growth of okra.

The sub-problems of this study are:

1. How will the use of horse manure and urea affect the following:
   a. height of the okra plants?
   b. time of flowering per okra plant?
   c. number of pods per okra plant?
   d. final weight of each of tbe okra plants?
   e. final total weight of the pods per okra plant?

2. How will the effect of horse manure and urea on the growth of okra plants differ in
    terms of:
   a. average height per plant;
   b. time of flowering per plant
   c. number of pods per plant;
   d. number of leaves per plant; and
   e. total weight of plants per plot.
E            STATING THE PROBLEM
X   1. Recall the research problem identified in the
E      previous activity.
R
    2. Formulate a clear, concise, specific, well
C      defined and an attainable problem.
I
    3. Present orally the formulated research
S      problem (main and sub) before your
E      classmates. Allow them to react and
       comment on it.
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the activity, you will be able to
formulate a hypothesis that is:

    a. Relevant

    b. Testable

    c. Specific

    d. stated properly
            HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS


A tentative answer to the research question

It is based on experiences, observations of factual knowledge.

It guides the researcher in designing the study or the
experiment.
            HYPOTHESIS
           HOW ARE HYPOTHESES WRITTEN


Chocolate may cause pimples.
Salt in soil may affect plant growth

Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light

Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature

Ultraviolet light may cause skin cancer

Temperature may cause leaves to change color
If skin cancer is related to UV light then people
with high exposure to UV light will have higher
frequency of skin cancer.




If leaf color change is related to temperature then
exposing plants to temperature will result in
changes in leaf color.
If I play the lottery then I will get rich
 HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis may be stated in three ways

              Null form
          Alternative form
     Cause and effect statement
A hypothesis in null form states that there is no significant difference between the

                   HYPOTHESIS
results of two conditions being tested.

Example: There is no significant difference between the effects of horse manure and
urea on the following variables: average height per plant; time of flowering, etc.


A hypothesis in alternative form states that there is a significant difference
between the results of the two conditions being tested.

Example: There is a significant difference between the effects of horse manure and
urea on the following variables: average height per plant, time of flowering per
plant, etc.

A cause and effect statement states that is a certain condition (cause) is true, then
a supporting observation (effect) occurs.

Example : If there is a difference between the effects of horse manure and urea, then
the growth of the plants will differ significantly in terms of average height per
plant, time of flowering per plant, etc.
E             STATING THE HYPOTHESIS
X
E
    • Recall the research problem identified in the
R     previous activity.
C
I   2. Formulate hypothesis in three ways for the
       identified problem
S
E

				
DOCUMENT INFO