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					               BIA NOXIOUS WEED FUNDING PROPOSAL – 2008
                Submitted by: Summit Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada
                               November 30, 2007

                               PROGRAM SUMMARY

This program proposes to initiate a tribal noxious weed management program designed to
enhance the biodiversity of flora endemic to the Summit Lake Paiute Reservation and
surrounding area in partnership with Federal, State, and non-profit organizations. The
proposed program will provide services to enhance tribal capacity to treat noxious weeds
within the reservation through employment and training opportunities, procurement of
equipment and supplies, and soliciting technical expertise and assistance from Federal,
State, and non-profit organizations to train tribal staff and develop and design invasive
weed inventory and monitoring activities. Noxious weeds invading rangeland and
riparian habitats will be treated during a three to four week growing period (typically in
June), by a team of tribal staff and/or contractors after satisfying National Environmental
Protection Act (NEPA) compliance, and successful completion of herbicide applicator
certification and training to identify and treat noxious weeds. Noxious weed treatment
plots or polygons will be mapped using GIS technology to monitor effectiveness of
treatment. Tribal Natural Resource Department personnel will actively participate in
State and local noxious weed working groups to keep current on noxious weed
treatments, and funding initiatives. The program, if funded, will cost-share payment for
the following: Time of the Natural Resource Director (NRD) to administrate the
program; salary of a Resource Technician to oversee field work, including noxious weed
treatment, monitoring, and GIS mapping; training of tribal staff; employment of one
seasonal team leader; employment of three seasonal workers; and procurement of
necessary equipment and supplies. The funding request for direct project cost of this
proposal amounts to $41,775. This cost would provide funding to treat 800 acres of dry
meadowland and riparian habitat associated with Mahogany and Snow Creeks, One Mile
Spring and Summit Lake shorelines. This cost can be negotiated with concordant
reduction of area to be treated.


                              PROGRAM NARRATIVE
Geographic Location

The Summit Lake Paiute Reservation (Reservation) remotely located in northwestern
Humboldt County, Nevada occupies about 12,000 acres, classified by West (1983), as
Inter-Mountain Basin Big Sagebrush Steppe. The reservation surrounds Summit Lake, a
terminal, high desert lake, situated in a valley at an elevation of 5,700 feet above mean
sea level. The area of the lake is about 700 acres and varies dependent on climate.
Surface water flowing into Summit Lake includes two perennial stream systems or sub-
watersheds: Mahogany Creek and Snow Creek. Headwaters of Mahogany and Snow
Creek sub-watersheds are off the reservation. There are a number of perennial and
intermittent springs within the basin, including: One Mile Spring, and numerous
unnamed springs.



                                            1
The Reservation is surrounded by approximately 2.5 million acres of protected Federal
land including Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge to the north and west, the Black Rock
Desert – High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area to the south,
and the Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Natural Area and Wilderness Study Area to the east.
Because most of these lands are managed to retain their natural character, there has been
increased public use of the area. As a consequence vehicular traffic from hunters,
campers, and off-road enthusiasts has increased through time. The spread of noxious
weeds from vehicles traveling through the reservation is a real and imminent threat.

Assessment of Need, Noxious Weed Occurrence, Land Use and Project Ownership

Summit Lake and its associated perennial tributaries are occupied by naturally
reproducing Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi), a Federally
threatened fish species (USFWS 1994). A recovery plan for Lahontan cutthroat trout
(LCT) lists Summit Lake as native habitat for one of two remaining self-sustaining lake
dwelling populations. Because of the importance of Summit Lake LCT for recovery and
tribal culture purposes, natural resource management activities have focused on
conservation of LCT and habitat.

Beginning in 1981 when the Tribe established their fisheries management program,
conservation measures were initiated to minimize livestock grazing impacts on LCT
habitat. In 1983, the Tribe began construction of grazing exclosures to protect
streambanks and the riparian corridor of Mahogany Creek from livestock grazing.
Mahogany Creek is the primary spawning tributary for Summit Lake LCT. By 1995 the
entire Mahogany Creek corridor within the reservation had been fenced to exclude
livestock access to the stream. Stream habitat has responded favorably from livestock
grazing exclosures (Chaney et al. 1990) by narrowing the stream channel, replacing a silt
dominated substrate with clean gravels better suited for aquatic invertebrate production
and LCT spawning and rearing purposes, and cooling of water temperatures from greater
canopy and shade over the stream.

In 1997, the Tribe adopted an ordinance prohibiting discharge of pollutants into the
waters of the Summit Lake Paiute Reservation, including non-point source pollution from
livestock grazing. As a consequence, livestock grazing became more restrictive on the
reservation. Recently the entire Summit Lake Reservation has been rested from grazing
for a period of three years, and more than half of the reservation has not been grazed by
livestock for a period of ten years.

For the past two decades, the Summit Lake Paiute Tribe (Tribe) has initiated
infrastructure improvements to improve living conditions on the reservation, and promote
economic development and self-sufficiency for the Tribe. In 1992, an electric power line
was constructed bringing electricity to the reservation. In 2000, the Tribe adopted a Land
Use Plan designed to guide development of the reservation (SLPT 2000). This plan
presented implementation strategies addressing land use, housing, economic
development, open space, rangelands, public facilities and services.



                                            2
Tribal revenue has been generated by the sale of LCT spawn from 1950 – 1980s and from
livestock grazing permits. Annual revenue ranged from zero to $20,000, with the greatest
revenues occurring in the late 1970s to early 1980s. In the 1980s, the abundance of LCT
declined causing the discontinuance of selling spawn. Grazing permits were annually
negotiated from 1960 – 1986. After 1986, the reservation has sporadically been grazed
about 1 in 5 seasons. At present it is the opinion of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) range
conservationists that the reservation is at risk for wildfire due to high fuel component of
accumulated non-grazed forage (BIA 2007). A primary reason why the reservation has
not been grazed is the lack of water facilities to keep livestock out of riparian areas and
away from lake shorelines. The Tribe recognizes these riparian habitats are fragile
ecosystems, important for wildlife, fish habitat, and cultural practices.

In 2005 the Tribe organized a Natural Resource Department funded by Federal grants and
contracts provided by the BIA, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The BIA
provides limited funding for basic fisheries and range management services through 638
contracts pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act. The
EPA provides funding to establish a tribal environmental program to address water
quality, solid waste management and non-point source pollution. At present, funds
support employment of four full-time employees, including a Director of the Natural
Resource Department (NRD), an Environmental Coordinator, a Resource Technician, and
a Maintenance Worker.

The BIA has provided technical assistance to manage rangelands of the reservation.
About five years ago, through a 638 Range Improvement contract, the BIA started
providing technical assistance to investigate and treat noxious weeds. This limited effort
was largely concentrated along roadways to prevent the spread of Russian knapweed
(Acroptilon repens) onto rangelands.

In the 2007 field season, while assessing conditions of Mahogany Creek, the wide spread
occurrence of noxious weeds in meadowlands and riparian areas was discovered. When
further assessments were made the following noxious weeds were found to be prevalent
along shorelines of Summit Lake, meadowlands near Mahogany and Snow Creeks and
One Mile Spring: Hoary cress (Cardaria draba), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), and
Scotch thistle (Onopordum acanthium). These noxious weeds left unattended have the
potential to displace all native vegetation, thereby rendering the habitat inhospitable for
many wildlife species and unpalatable for livestock. It is noteworthy that a small colony
of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), a noxious weed that has displaced native
riparian vegetation along most major rivers in Nevada, was recently discovered and
treated near the roadway north of Summit Lake. Additionally, these plants are listed on
the Nevada Noxious Weed List.

Nevada Noxious Weed designation identifies plant species harmful to agriculture and the
environment, and provides incentives for landowners to treat noxious weeds with State
and Federal assistance. There appears to be many opportunities and resources for
noxious weed treatment and training, unfortunately, the recent discovery of widespread



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noxious weeds in meadowland and riparian habitats on the Summit Lake Paiute
Reservation came too late to apply for Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) assistance in 2008 (see NRCS letter
of support in Additional Materials section). As of this writing, the Tribe has approached
the NRCS, University of Nevada (UNR) Cooperative Extension and the Nevada
Department of Agriculture to learn about services and funding opportunities to treat
noxious weeds. Additionally, the Tribe recently submitted a proposal to the US Fish and
Wildlife Service (USFWS) seeking assistance to treat noxious weeds pursuant to a Tribal
Wildlife Grant Program (TWG). Awards for TWG grants will be determined after
Congress passes the Federal budget for 2008. Recently the Tribe entered into a
Memorandum of Understanding with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and
Plant Health Inspection Services, and Veterinary Services to facilitate exchange of
information should an outbreak of a foreign animal disease or other significant animal
health emergency occur on the Reservation.

An aggressive effort is needed to treat noxious weeds on meadowlands and riparian areas
of the Reservation to prevent displacement of endemic flora. If this proposal is funded,
the Tribe would have resources to immediately treat 800 acres of meadowlands and
riparian area in 2008, and have capabilities and staff to outreach and network with
noxious weed experts and working groups to secure long-term assistance from other
sources in 2009 and beyond. Funds will be used to pay costs associated with organizing
treatment of riparian noxious weeds, enrolling employees in workshops and training to
attain certification as herbicide applicators, hiring one seasonal tribal employee to serve
as a certified herbicide applicator and team leader, hiring three additional seasonal tribal
employees to serve as herbicide applicators supervised by the team leader; and acquiring
technical assistance from weed experts to prescribe appropriate management to validate
treatment and monitoring of noxious weeds on the Reservation. Additionally, funds will
be used to cover costs of a tribal employee (Resource Technician) to initiate a GIS based
noxious weed program to track effectiveness of treatment.

Noxious Weed Infestation, Delineation, and Treatment Methods

Treatment of noxious weeds prior to 2007 has been haphazard and limited to corridors
along primary roadways through the reservation. In 2007, a proliferation of noxious
weeds was discovered in all meadowlands and riparian habitats delineated by a
vegetation inventory conducted by BIA in 2006 (BIA 2007). Noxious weeds found in
meadowland and riparian habitats, in order of greatest occurrence, are: Hoary cress,
Canada thistle, Scotch thistle, Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and water
hemlock (Cicuta maculata). Table 1 presents noxious weeds found in meadowlands,
riparian habitat, and lake shorelines.

Based on GIS delineation presented in a vegetation inventory of the Reservation (BIA
2007) and an estimate of lake shoreline derived from total lake surface (700 acres)
multiplied by a factor of 5%, the total estimated acreage of habitat invaded by noxious
weeds is 813 acres (i.e., 778 acres of dry meadowlands + 35 acres of lake shoreline).
However, due to patchy infestation, it is believed noxious weeds inhabit no more than 50



                                             4
percent of dry meadowlands and lake shorelines (i.e., 407 acres). Figure 1, abstracted
from the 2006 vegetation inventory (BIA 2007), presents ecological sites by fenced range
unit. Dry meadowlands are depicted in aqua-green color and are codified as
R023XY013NV. Fenced range units enclosing a corridor surrounding Mahogany Creek
are the grazing exclosures described above and represent riparian acres presented in
Table 1.

Due to size and patchiness of infestation, all noxious weeds listed in Table 1 are
considered new invaders and with immediate treatment there is a better chance for
control. Treatment of noxious weeds will typically be done by spot spraying herbicides
in accordance to recommended prescriptions and compliance with NEPA. Because
Mahogany and Snow Creeks and Summit Lake are occupied by the federally threatened
LCT, treatment of riparian habitat along occupied or potential habitat will require
consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), pursuant to the
Endangered Species Act.

Table 1. Presence of noxious weed species (denoted by X) found in meadowlands,
riparian habitat within grazing exclosures and lake shorelines. Meadowlands comprise
622 acres, riparian habitat within grazing exclosures comprises 156 acres, and lake
shorelines comprise 35 acres. Acreage of meadowlands and fenced riparian habitat was
determined by BIA (2006). Acreage of lake shorelines was estimated by multiplying a
factor of 5% to total surface area of the lake (700 acres). The estimate of acres infested
was derived from observations in 2007 of percent occurrence per habitat type.
Noxious weeds Meadowlands Riparian Lake shorelines                     Estimate of acres
                      622 acres      156 acres        35 acres               infested
Hoary cress               X              X                X                    407
Canada thistle            X              X                X                    407
Scotch thistle            X              X                X                    407
Reed canary                              X                                      20
grass
Water hemlock                            X                                      <5


The treatment of water hemlock will be decided after consultation with BIA, the USFWS,
and other experts. Although this plant is native, it is extremely toxic to livestock and
humans. Water hemlock grows in wetland and riparian habitats with saturated soils and
is very noticeable on streambanks of Mahogany and Snow Creeks. Literature suggests
that water hemlock can be effectively controlled by grubbing and spot herbicide
treatment (Graham and Johnson 2004). Treatment of all noxious weeds is most effective
prior to seed production. Therefore, treatment will be planned to coincide with
vulnerable stages of plant development of the targeted species.




                                             5
Figure 1. Ecological sites by fenced range unit, abstracted from BIA (2006). Noxious
weeds are prevalent in dry meadowland ecological sites depicted in aqua-green color and
codified as R023XY013NV), within fenced areas surrounding Mahogany Creek corridor,
and along Summit Lake shorelines.


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A strategic plan will be developed to efficiently treat noxious weeds by using GPS and
GIS technology to map noxious weed occurrence before and after treatment. Using this
technology will help identify where to place the greatest treatment effort, validate
effectiveness of controlling noxious weeds in the future, and document occurrence of
new weed species.

Tribal staff will be trained to identify noxious weeds and safely apply herbicides in
compliance to regulations. Protocol and records management on herbicide application
learned during training and required by BIA will be followed. All sites treated for
noxious weed will be geo-referenced, mapped, and described in a report. Effectiveness
of weed treatment will be determined by revisiting treatment location within one week of
treatment and prior to one month for future treatments. Monitoring plots will be
established to determine if noxious weed density and production is effectively reduced by
treatment.

Existing and Potential Cooperators

The Tribe is an active participating member of the Humboldt County Noxious Weed
Task Force Group. Federal cooperators may include BIA, USFWS, Bureau of Land
Management (BLM), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Services, USDA Veterinary Services, USDA Natural Resource Conservation
Service (NRCS), Bureau of Reclamation, and EPA. State cooperators may include
Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW), Nevada Department of Agriculture, Nevada
Department of Environmental Protection, and University of Nevada (UNR) Cooperative
Extension. Non-profit organizations may include volunteers of the Great Basin Bird
Observatory, the Nature Conservancy, staff of the Nevada Outdoor School (NOS) – a
subsidiary of Ameri-Corps, and Tribal members. Many of these partners are supportive
of assisting the Tribe (see letters of support in Additional Materials section) and other
potential partners have yet to be discovered.

Budget and Cost Share Amounts

A budget to treat noxious weeds on meadowlands and riparian areas associated with
Mahogany and Snow Creeks, One Mile Spring, and shorelines of Summit Lake is
presented in Table 2. Direct project costs amounts to $41,775. Personnel salaries include
mandatory liability, workers compensation, and unemployment insurance for work
conducted by the Natural Resource Director (NRD), a Tribal Resource
Technician/Biologist (Resource Technician), one seasonal certified herbicide applicator
who will serve as a crew leader, and three seasonal herbicide applicators. The NRD and
Resource Technician will network with cooperators, organize logistics to train and
conduct noxious weed treatment, and develop proposals to continue a tribal noxious weed
program. The Resource Technician will be the primary lead for this project with the
NRD providing administrative support and guidance. Herbicide costs were estimated by
applying a 50% infestation factor observed in 2007 to total acreage of meadowlands,
riparian habitats and lake shorelines (see Table 1) and by using cost information from



                                            7
NRCS (see letter of support in Additional Materials section). Field equipment and
supplies includes the purchase of 5 sets of backpack sprayer units and protective personal
equipment (goggles, face shields, gloves, clothing, etc.); 2 safety chemical wash tanks; 2
first aid kits; 4 herbicide/water tanks to be mounted in the bed of two pick-up trucks; 1
ATV; 2 ATV sprayer tank assemblies; and miscellaneous supplies. The Travel line item
will pay for costs associated with attending training or workshops. Vehicle
Equipment/Maintenance will pay for reimbursable costs to use GSA leased or Tribal
owned vehicles, and general maintenance of Tribal owned equipment. Fuel will pay the
cost to operate vehicles, sprayers and other equipment as needed. The
Seminars/Conference (Training) line item will pay for noxious weed training and
herbicide applicator certification costs. The NRD, Resource Technician, and one
certified herbicide applicator will attend training to be certified herbicide applicators and
ATV operators.

Table 2. A budget to treat noxious weeds in meadowlands and riparian areas associated
with Mahogany and Snow Creeks, One Mile Spring, and Summit Lake shorelines.
Personnel salaries include mandatory liability, workers compensation, and unemployment
insurance.
Line Item Description                         Unit cost   Quantity       Project Cost
Personnel Salaries
Natural Resource Director                      $45/hr.    72 hours                $3,240
Resource Technician                          $25.29/hr. 160 hours                 $4,047
Certified Herbicide Applicator               $19.21/hr. 180 hours                 $3,458
Herbicide Applicators (3 seasonal            $16.65/hr. 480 hours                 $7,990
employees)
Total Salaries                                                                   $18,735

Field Equipment and Supplies
Herbicides                                   $25/acre       400 acres                 $10,000
Backpack sprayer units                       $200 each          5                      $1,000
Personal Protective Equipment                $150/set           5                        $750
Tanks for herbicide/water                    $150 each          4                        $600
Safety chemical wash tanks                   $70 each           2                       $140
First aid kits                               $75 each           2                        $150
ATV                                          $5,500             1                      $5,500
                                             each
ATV mounted sprayer tank assemblies          $250 each          2                       $500
Miscellaneous supplies                       $150                                        $150
Total Field Equipment and Supplies                                                    $18,790

Travel                                                                                  $500
Vehicle/Equipment Maintenance                                                          $1,000
Fuel                                                                                   $2,000
Seminars/Conferences (Training)                                                          $750
Total Direct Cost                                                                     $41,775



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A breakdown of estimated shared costs to implement a noxious weed program for the
Tribe is presented in Table 3. Estimated cost share amounts to $47,147 and includes: 1)
Tribal Accountant costs to track and issue payment for expenditures and wages; 2) audit
costs calculated at 5% of direct costs for the proposal; 3) cost share for Tribal
Environmental Department staff to coordinate tribal environmental compliance, assist
with the NEPA process and notification to tribal members about noxious weed
management and activities conducted with this program; 4) cost share for Tribal Natural
Resource Department staff and other agency staff to comply with NEPA and prepare
documents necessary for coordination and compliance with the Endangered Species Act,
the National Historic Preservation Act, and other regulatory legislation and agencies; 5)
cost share from technical assistance provided by cooperators or partners for this project;
and 6) rental and use of Tribal equipment and facilities including an ATV, a truck, office
space, temporary lodging quarters for seasonal employees, cooperators, and volunteers,
computers, printers, software, GPS, and GIS. The total project cost is estimated at
$87,430 which includes cost share and direct project costs. The cost share percent of the
total estimated cost for this project is 52%.

Table 3. A breakdown of estimated cost share to implement a proposed noxious weed
program for the Summit Lake Paiute Tribe in 2008.
Description                                                                Cost
Accountant services (208 hours @ $21.78/hr.)                                  $4,530
Audit – cost share @ 5% of direct cost for project                            $2,089
Tribal Environmental Coordination and outreach of project (Environmental      $6,190
Coordinator time of 200 hrs. @ $29.45/hr.=$5890) + (newsletter
announcements and communication=$300)
NEPA compliance (Tribal NRD 80 hrs.+ Resource Technician 160                 $16,846
hrs.=$7,646)+(USFWS 160 hrs.=$7,200)+(other regulators=$2,000)
Technical Assistance from Cooperators, includes staff time, use of           $12,000
equipment and resources (BIA= $4,000)+(NV Dept of Agriculture & UNR
Cooperative Extension=$3,000)+(USDA & NRCS=$3,000)+(Humboldt
County Noxious Weed Task Force=$1,500)+(Other agencies, organizations,
volunteers=$500)
Rental and use of Tribal Equipment and Facilities                             $4,000
(ATV=$600)+(truck=$800)+(office space=$1000)+(temporary
lodging=$1000)+(use of computers, printers, GPS, GIS and other
software=$600)
Total Estimated Cost Share                                                   $45,655


Proposed Schedule

Initial treatment of noxious weeds is planned to be completed in less than one year,
assuming funds are successfully awarded for this proposal by March, 2008. Coordination
will begin immediately to treat noxious weeds on a total of 800 acres during the growing
period, typically in June. A timeline to complete this project is presented in Table 4.



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Table 4. Timeline to treat noxious weeds on the Summit Lake Paiute Reservation.
March – May 08’                June - July 08’              August – December 08’
Initiate NEPA analysis         Complete NEPA compliance Continue gathering data
                                                            as needed to manage
Identify partners to develop Treat noxious weeds on 800 noxious weeds
an approach to treat noxious acres of infested land
weeds on the reservation                                    Identify funding
                               Identify funding             opportunities and draft
Send tribal staff to training  opportunities and draft      proposals
to learn identification of     proposals
noxious weeds and become                                    Draft accomplishment
certified as herbicide         Gather data to map and       report with
applicators                    assess effectiveness of      recommendations for
                               noxious weed treatment       future noxious weed
Perform reconnaissance and                                  treatments
map noxious weed
occurrence prior to
treatment and develop a
strategy for efficient
treatment.

Procure herbicide,
equipment and supplies to
perform treatment

Coordinate an on-site visit
with weed experts to
validate weed identification
and management approach




                                   REFERENCES

BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs). 2007. Summit Lake Paiute Reservation vegetation
      inventory – 2006. Unpublished manuscript. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Western
      Regional Office, Division of Land and Water, Phoenix, Arizona. 196 pp.

Chaney, E., W. Elmore, W.S. Platts. 1990. Livestock grazing on Western riparian areas.
      Produced for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Northwest Resource
      Information Center, Inc., Eagle, Idaho. 45 pp.

Graham, J, and W.S. Johnson. 2004. Managing poison and Western water hemlocks.
      Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 04-09, University of Nevada, Reno. 4 pp.


                                          10
       Available on the internet on November 21, 2007 at:
       http://www.unce.edu/publications/files/nr/2004/FS0409.pdf

SLPT (Summit Lake Paiute Tribe). 2000. Summit Lake Paiute land use plan.
      Unpublished manuscript. Summit Lake Paiute Tribe, Winnemucca, Nevada. 49
      pp.

USFWS (United States Fish and Wildlife Service). 1994. Lahontan cutthroat trout,
    Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi, recovery plan. Portland, OR. 147 pp.

West, N.E. 1983. Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe. Pages 351 – 374. In N.E.
       West, editor. Ecosystems of the World 5. Temperate Deserts and Semi-Deserts.
       Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. New York, New York. 522 pp.




                                         11
                           ADDITIONAL MATERIALS

Letters of support from the UNR Cooperative Extension, USFWS, BIA, BLM, NRCS,
NDOW, Great Basin Bird Observatory, and the Nevada Outdoor School are provided in
the following pages to demonstrate there is a partnership base to collaborate with to
initiate a tribal noxious weed and wildlife management program designed to enhance and
conserve the biodiversity of flora and fauna endemic to the Summit Lake Paiute
Reservation and surrounding area.




                                          12
November 27, 2007

Dear Bureau of Indian Affairs:

University of Nevada Cooperative Extension is the branch of the University that reaches out to
provide technical expertise and education to Nevadans on a wide range of topics. My role with
Cooperative Extension is to conduct research and educational programming regarding the
management of noxious, poisonous, and invasive weeds throughout Nevada.

Non-native, invasive weeds are the source of significant environmental and economic damage.
In agriculture alone, estimates of production losses and control costs of weeds in the U.S. are in
the neighborhood of $12 billion, annually. In non-agricultural settings, weeds have been
documented to negatively impact wildlife, recreational activities, water quality and quantity, soil
erosion, and wildfire suppression efforts. Current estimates of invasive weed spread suggest that
the total acreage infested with these weeds continues to increase at rates between 12-18% per
year. Our success in reducing the spread and impact of invasive weeds in Nevada will require
the collective efforts of land managers, agencies, and citizens throughout the state.

I fully support the initiative of the Summit Lake Paiute Tribe to start and implement an invasive
plant management program. In their efforts, I am willing to provide technical assistance and
training regarding weeds and weed management.

I am excited about the opportunity to contribute to this project and look forward to working with
the Summit Lake Tribe in the future.

Sincerely,




Earl Creech, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor and Extension Weed Specialist




Churchill County
111 Sheckler Road
Fallon, NV 89406-8951
(775) 423-5121
Fax - (775) 423-7594
http://www.unce.unr.edu/Central/index.htm   A Partnership of Nevada Counties, University of Nevada and
                                                                                               U.S.D.A.

				
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