Supermarket Value Chain

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Supermarket Value Chain Powered By Docstoc
					 Assessing small-holder
Participation in Vegetable
       value chains
tomato, bell pepper, cucumber, broccoli,
       lettuce, carrot and potato




 Cases from El Salvador & Honduras, in collaboration with
 FAO, CIAT, CRS, Agropyme
 Presented by Madelon Meijer, Agricultural and Development Economics Division (ESA),
 at the „Governance, Coordination and Distribution among Commodity Value Chains‟
 workshop, FAO, Rome, April 2006.
    Structure of the presentation
•   Purpose of the study
•   Brief note on the methodology used
•   Results of the analysis
•   Points of reflection/discussion
       Purpose of the study:
Confront the barriers of linking small farmers
   with the supermarket supply chain

1. Identify bottlenecks
2. Facilitate strategic alliances
 General scheme for value chain analysis and
         intervention plan (from SNV-Peru)

                         Semi-
   CHAIN ANALYSIS        participative




 CONSTRUCTION OF AN
ACTION PLAN TO IMPROVE     Participative
  CHAIN GOVERNANCE




                                                          Strengthening of
                            Participative                 Producers Organizations
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE                        GLOBAL
     ACTION PLAN                            STRATEGIES
                                                (2)

                                                         Mechanisms for
                                                         stakeholder dialogue
                                                                   Analysis
Define the space of analysis
Territory
                                                      USE OF NATURAL
Product
                                                        RESOURCES
Product flow




INFLUENCE OF
  EXTERNAL                                 ACTORS AND INTERRELATIONS              SINTHESIS OF
   FACTOR                                                                           ANALYSIS

                               Production Wholesale     Retail   Consumption   •Competitiveness
                                                                               •Comparative
                                                                               advantages
                                                                               •Bottlenecks
                                              Services
                                                                               •Sustainability

    HISTORY
     Evolution of the relation
     supermarket – producer
                                                            Centralized
                                 t,                          proactive
                               en d
                             m n              Private
                           ge m a
                          a r
                       an fa                grades &
                      m e                   standards
                    y, t th el
                  og a v
                ol es l le
               n c a                                       Centralized
             ch an ion                                      passive
           te in t
         in n, f niza                    Distribution
       s
     ge atio rga
    n z o
                                           centers
 ha ani
C rg
  o                                                         Mixed
                                      Preferred
                                      suppliers         descentralized

                  Specialized
                  wholesalers
                                       Outsourced and
                                       descentralized
Traditional wholesalers
supply indivdual stores
                                                                          Time
  Vegetable chain in Honduras
              70s:                                                   MINAG:                      THE ENABLING
         Veg.production                                            agricultural
            on scale                                                 policy
                                                                                                 ENVIRONMENT
                                   Competitive framework
                                    for the horticultural                                   CAFTA
                                           sector                                                         Imports


Ag. hhs: 317.000;                                                                                   Supermarket
Veg. producers: 15.000                                                                              n=51; 43% FM
                                                                        Specialized
  Large producers                                                       wholesaler                    Restaurant
  0.12 %                     Lead farmer
                             n=13                                                                     Hotel
Medium producers
24.6% %                      Producer organization                                                    Hospital
                             n=395
  Small producers
  72 %                       Unorganised farmer             Traditional           Traditional        Traditional
                                                            informal trader       wholesaler         retailer


                          ORGANIZATION         HARVESTER             ROAD           STORAGE &        LABELS AND
                                             COORDINATION          TRANSPORT        BULKING UP       STANDARDS
  BUSINESS
  SERVICES                TECHNOLOGICAL          MARKET                                               QUALITY
                            EXTENSION         INFORMATION          CEL PHONES        PACKAGING        CONTROL
                                                        COHORSIL
                                                        185 members
                                                        Annual sales US$
                                                        89.000

                                                        APRHOFI
                                                        110 members
                                                        Annual sales US$
                                                        184.000




ACOPO        23   AGROLEMPA          PHOC
members Annual    70 members         143 members
sales US$         Annual sales US$   Annual sales US$
140.000           177.000            96.000
  Growth of the „lead farmer model‟

       Sales per producer (in US$)
               Percentage                    Percentage
Year   Regino increase from          Olvin   increase from
       Ramirez 2002                  Salgado 2002
2002    1,510           -              150           -
2003    2,230         48%              699         366%
2004    2,764         83%             1,214        709%
2005    3,280         117%            1,267        745%
                Analysis
1. Margins, costs and benefits
2. Gap analysis: requirements vs. what
   small farmers can currently offer
3. NRM Impact
            1. Distribution of final consumer price among
                   supply chain actors in Honduras
                                Products

                                        Bell
                                Toma                Potat   Broccol
Variables                                   peppe                     Lettuce   Carrots   Average
                                   te                  o       i
                                            r
Production costs.               15%        22%      24%      15%       17%       17%        18%
Farm to packing shed
                                 4%        12%       1%       4%        6%        1%        5%
   transportation costs
Net farmer income for sale to
                                20%        0%       24%      14%       18%       12%        14%
    producers organization
Transportation costs to
   Tegucigalpa or San Pedro      2%        2%        1%       4%        5%        1%        2%
   Sula
Net producer organization
    income for sale to
    specialized wholesaler in    4%        3%        3%       1%        2%        5%        3%
    Tegucigalpa or San Pedro
    Sula
Gross profit for specialized
   wholesaler for sale to       25%        32%      16%      32%       22%       33%        27%
   supermarket
Gross profit for supermarket    30%        30%      30%      30%       30%       30%        30%
Retail price paid by final
                                100%       100%     100%     100%      100%      100%      100%
    consumer
                   Tomato, wholesale price in TGU y SPS
    (Lps/Lb)

     9.00
                   ZONAL BÉLEN
     8.00
                   MEDINA CONCEPCIÓN/DANDY

     7.00

     6.00

     5.00

     4.00

     3.00

     2.00

     1.00
                            2004                                2005
     0.00

                                                               Período de
                                                Date        análisis de precios
                                                              en la cadena
Fuente: www.agroemprendedor.org, basado en precios SIMPAH
                                                                    Tomato
                                                      (03 april 2005- 04 june 2005)
Lps/Libra

  12.00


                                                                                              Supermarket-Consumer                    10.36
  10.00



   8.00     Wholesaler SELL max. average
                                                                                                                                     7.48
                                                                                    Sp. wholesaler-superm.             7.25

   6.00
                                                                                                  Wholesaler SELL
                                                              Specialized wholesaler                    5.10
            Wholesaler SELL average
                                                   Producer org.                         4.66                                        4.55
   4.00                Trader farm
                                           3.89           4.06
                       gate
                                                                         3.45
            Wholesaler SELL min. average                         Wholesaler BUY
                                                                                                                                     2.48
   2.00
                            1.60
               Production costs


     -

             Los precios Mayorista VENTA máximo promedio, promedio y mínimo promedio corresponden a un período de dos años
             Los demás valores corresponden a valores promedio de diferentes actores en cada eslabón en diferentes ciudades para el período
             del 03 de abril al 04 de junio del 2005.
       Resumen de aspectos relevantes en la cadena de Tomate de mesa

                     Comerciales                                                                 Técnicos
•Los supermercados en Hondura demandan 28.5 Toneladas por                 •La plántula para el transplante es producida principalmente en
semana.                                                                   invernaderos comerciales. Dado el alto costo de la semilla
                                                                          híbrida, esta práctica es cada vez más común.
•La presentación de mayor venta es a granel. También se encuentra
empacado en bandejas de foam #2 (cinco a seis tomates) y en mallas
plásticas (pesos variables). El peso promedio por unidad es de 130        •Los suelos deben estar bien nivelados para obtener un buen
gramos en bandeja y de 232 gramos a granel.                               drenaje y reducir la incidencia de enfermedades. Se prefieren los
                                                                          suelos sueltos en época lluviosa.
•La única marca Hondureña es “Zamorano”, las demás marcas son
importadas de Guatemala (“La Carreta”, “San Lucas Fresh” y                •Los tomates para el mercado fresco son cultivados en forma
“BELUGA‟S”).                                                              arbustiva, con soporte y cosechados en estado verde-maduro
                                                                          (aproximadamente de 80 a 110 días después del transplante).
•LA CARRETA y BELUGA‟S (San Lucas Fresh) están certificados por la
PIPAA de Guatemala en cuanto a inocuidad de alimentos que garantiza
                                                                          •En la zona de siguatepeque, se utiliza mayormente el riego por
el cumplimiento con buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA‟S) y buenas
prácticas de manufactura (BPM).                                           goteo, con rendimiento promedio de 42 toneladas por hectárea
                                                                          (60% de primera calidad y el 40% de segunda o tercera).
•Las normas de calidad para comercializar tomate manzano exigen
forma y tamaño uniforme, turgente, libre de enfermedades, libre de daño   •Las principales enfermedades son mancha bacteriana, tizón
mecánico, con un mínimo de 50% de coloración roja, sin deformaciones,     temprano y tizón tardío (Xanthomonas campestres, Alternaria
sin sucio.                                                                solani y Phytophthora infestans respectivamente).

•El precio por caja de 25 libras es de USD 4.62 para el tomate de         •Se debe transportar al mercado de destino clasificados en
primera y de USD 2.56 para el tomate de segunda. La variación de
                                                                          canastas.
precios se puede apreciar en la gráfica adjunta.
     Required investment - tomato
                    Investment               Estimated cost
                                                  US$ / Mz.
Production          Quality seedling                800.00
                    Micro irrigation               1,815.91
                    Micro tunnels                   437.86
                    GAP / T.A.                      968.04
Post-harvest        Assembly point                 5,000.00
                    (refrigerated)
                    Packing                        1,010.00
Commercialization   Refrigerated transport        28,000.00
                    Working capital               24,000.00
Organization        Management team               37,512.00
                    (costs per year)
             3. NRM impact
To meet requirements: Investment needed
  in
• Management techniques
  – waterharvesting and drip irrigation
  – contour planting
  – soil conservation / IPM / GAP
• Organizational issues
  – scaled planting
  – post-harvest management
  – marketing
  Vegetable chain in Honduras
              70s:                                                   MINAG:                      THE ENABLING
         Veg.production                                            agricultural
            on scale                                                 policy
                                                                                                 ENVIRONMENT
                                   Competitive framework
                                    for the horticultural                                   CAFTA
                                           sector                                                         Imports


Ag. hhs: 317.000;                                                                                   Supermarket
Veg. producers: 15.000                                                                              n=51; 43% FM
                                                                        Specialized
  Large producers                                                       wholesaler                    Restaurant
  0.12 %                     Lead farmer
                             n=13                                                                     Hotel
Medium producers
24.6% %                      Producer organization                                                    Hospital
                             n=395
  Small producers
  72 %                       Unorganised farmer             Traditional           Traditional        Traditional
                                                            informal trader       wholesaler         retailer


                          ORGANIZATION         HARVESTER             ROAD           STORAGE &        LABELS AND
                                             COORDINATION          TRANSPORT        BULKING UP       STANDARDS
  BUSINESS
  SERVICES                TECHNOLOGICAL          MARKET                                               QUALITY
                            EXTENSION         INFORMATION          CEL PHONES        PACKAGING        CONTROL
                Conclusions
• Regarding horizontal coordination:
  Low levels of organization among small holder
  producers

• Regarding vertical coordination:
  Lack of coordination among supply chain actors


• Regarding the enabling environment:
  Public policies of of step with chain reality
      Main recommendations
• strengthen the „espacios de concertación‟.
• develop alternative organizational models
• improve the linkage between supply and
  demand of service provision, esp. financial
  services (credit, leasing, compra de
  facturas and ag. insurance)
• improve public policies, aimed at both
  making the chain more competitive and
  with a fair distribution of benefits
          Discussion points
• Replicability of PO support
• Experience in alternative organizational /
  business models
• Implications for policy
• Further empirical work required

				
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Description: Supermarket Value Chain document sample