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					Greece and ―Greekness‖

   What does it mean to be Greek?
  Greece

The Remains of the Past
  Lead to the Present
               Location
    Asks the geographic question:
             Where is it?
Two ways of describing the position
and distribution of people and places
on Earth’s surface.
 – Absolute location on Earth
 – Relative location
Where is Greece?
Greece
Absolute Location




                         o
                    39
                    N
                         o
                    22
                    E
Can you describe the relative location?
           How big is Greece
About the size of
Louisiana –
52,000 sq. miles




                    Interesting fact:
                    2000 islands – 227 inhabited
      PLACE: What is like?
A PLACE is defined by
 1. PHYSICAL Characteristics also
 known as NATURAL Features
 2. HUMAN Characteristics also known
 as CULTURAL Features
PLACE: Physical Characteristics
Can you name examples of
physical characteristics?
 Mountains, Rivers, Oceans,
 Islands and . . .
 Human Characteristics:
Examples of Human •   Social structure
Characteristics
                  •   Language
                  •   Beliefs
                  •   Art
                  •   Food
                  •   Traditions
     What is Culture?
Culture describes how a group
defines itself and the groups
way of life .
           Greek Identity
• Language - Greek
• Religion – Greek Orthodox
• Common Habits and Customs
  (Culture)
• Hellenism -- Connection to Classic
  Greece (descended from Hellen, son of
  Deucalion)
 What does it mean to be
        Greek?

Greece and ―Greekness‖

    LANGUAGE
               Language
• 99% of the population speaks Greek
• Greek is the official language
• English is widely spoken
What does it mean to be
       Greek?

Greece and ―Greekness‖


     RELIGION
Eastern Orthodox Church of Christ

• Religion plays an important role
  in the everyday life of Greeks
• 98% of the population Greek
  Orthodox
         Brief Overview of Beliefs
• Orthodox Christians believe in a single God who
  is both three and one—Triune—Father, Son, and
  Holy Spirit, "one in essence and undivided."
• Ultimate goal of the Orthodox Christian is to
  achieve theosis, or Union with God
• Salvation, or "being saved," refers to process of
  being saved from the fate of separation from God.
  Available to all – not the same as going to
  Heaven.
• A person does not earn entrance into Heaven
• Resurrection of Christ is the most important event
  of the Orthodox Church
 History of Greek Orthodox Church
• Christianity first spread in Greek speaking half of
  the Roman empire.
• 313 Emperor Constantine (Byzantine) ended
  persecution of Christians
• Differences and disagreements between the two
  parts of the Roman Empire occurred over
  successive centuries.
• Great Schism (break) from Roman Catholic
  Church (Church of the West) and Constantinople
  (Church of the East) in 11th Century.
• Orthodox religions spread in East.
       Church Services

• Mostly sung or chanted
• Incense – symbolizes pray
  rising to God
     Customs Tied to Religion
• Easter most important in Greek
  Orthodox religion
• Name Day
• Saints Day/Festivals
• Fasting
         Major Feast Days
Nativity of the Theotokos               September 8


Exaltation of the Holy Cross            September 14
Presentation of the Theotokos in the
                                        November 21
   Temple
Christmas (Nativity of Jesus Christ)    December 25
Epiphany (Baptism of Christ)            January 6
Presentation of Christ in the Temple    February 2
Annunciation (Evangelismos)             March 25
                                        (Varies from year
EASTER (Pascha)
                                            to year)
                                        (40 Days after
Ascension
                                            Easter)
                                        (50 Days after
Pentecost
                                            Easter)
Transfiguration of Christ               August 6
Dormition of the Theotokos (Kimissis)   August 15
                  Fasting
• Regain a sense of purity
• Seen as a great privilege-not a burden
• Number of fast days varies from year to
  year but usually makes up about half the
  year dedicated to fasting.
• Almsgiving, giving to those in need, is
  especially important during periods of
  fasting.
Common roadside
memorials to a dead
family member.
                      Cemetery alters
                    Icons
• Found in churches and homes.
• Images of saints
• Icons are typically paintings on
  wood, often small.
• Icons are often illuminated with a
  candle or oil lamp
• ex-voto is a votive offering to a saint
  or divinity -symbolize the miracle
  one is seeking or for which one is
  offering thanks
Ancient offerings – original ex votos
                         Names
• Named after saints or martyrs.
• Babies receive their name at baptism (usually around 12
  months of age).
• Naming pattern – first boy after father’s father. First girl
  after father’s mother. Second boy – mother's father –
  second girl – mother’s mother.
• Days of the year dedicated to a saint or martyr.
• Celebrate Name Day – more important than a birthday –
  on the saint day for which you’re named.
• Babies and mothers usually don’t leave house for 40 days
  (―lehona‖)
  What does it mean to be
         Greek?

Greece and ―Greekness‖
   SHARED
   CUSTOMS AND
   TRADITIONS
       Greek Cultural Life
Elements of Greek lifestyle
• Food
• Family
• Fun
• Customs/Traditions
• City vs. Rural Lifestyle
Greek Dancing and Music
          Popular Foods and Drinks
                                 Calamari and Octopus




Greek Salad




                      Moussaka
                    Souvlaki
It is usually meat of some sort, beef, lamb, pork or on
a giant vertical rotisserie. The souvlaki 'cook' slices
off the meat as it becomes done and puts it on a round
pita bread with lettuce, tomato, onions, and tzadziki, a
cucumber-yogurt-garlic sauce In some souvlaki shops
the meat is skewered




               Souvlaki
                  Coffee
• Frappe's are the lifeblood of Greek society.
  Made with instant Nescafe mixed with milk,
  water lots of sugar and ice
• Greek Coffee
Olives



         •Production of olives
         and olive oil is often a
         family affair.
         •Greece is 3rd in world
         in olive oil production
         •120,000,000 olive
         trees!
                Greek Men
Spend time in               Komboloi
the kafenion                (worry beads)
(men's                      beads running
coffeehouse)                through his
or taverna                  fingers

Tavli (backgammon) is
the favorite game of
Greek men in the
kafenion and on the
streets
            Greek Women
• In charge of the domestic affairs of the
  family
• Socialize with other women
• Church functions
• Modern Greek women have opportunities
  for jobs outside the home
         Way of Life Rural
                                  Mountain Villages




About 30% of
population in   Island Villages
rural areas.
Rural craftman and
his shoe shop
Restaurant on the small island village on island of Spetses
                      Athens
• About 5 million
  people
• 45% of population of
  Greece lives in
  Athens
• Large population
  boom in 1950’s and
  60’s as countries
  moves from
  agricultural to more
  industrial nation
• 60% of Greeks live in
  urban areas
               Customs
Work Day
• Work usually 7-8 hours a day.
• 2:oo -5:oo PM shops close for the
  afternoon.
• Late night dining (9:00 PM) is common.
                Way of Life Urban

Cycladic Museum-Athens




                               Plaka (old town)-
                                  Athens
Street Scenes in Athens
               Street scene in
               Athens. Notice the
               Chinese writing?
More Street Scenes
City School
                     School cafeteria




Children at recess
What does it mean to be
       Greek?

Greece and ―Greekness‖


    HELLENISM
Roots to Ancient Greece
• Belief in gods and goddesses that dealt with
  a specific aspect of life.
• Originally told in oral tradition then
  recorded tales in writing as poems, stories,
  songs, plays.
• Time of democratic ideals, philosophy, fine
  architecture, sculpture, arts, literature, and
  theater.
            The Greek Empire
Alexander the Great –
spread Greek ideas and
culture to lands he
conquered.
     Keeping Hellenism Alive
• Hellenistic Societies Organizations around
  the world
• Newspaper and magazines, television
• Greek Festivals
• Family ties to Greece
• Foundations to preserve and share Greek
  culture – Example The Onassis Foundation

				
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posted:8/18/2011
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