Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Prepared by Gilda Wheeler, OSPI, Education for Environment and Sustainability Kristen Clapper Bergsman, Laughing Crow Curriculum LLC Colleen Thumlert, Cascadia Consulting Group Beth Kelly, OSPI Learn and Serve America Project Partners Environmental Education Association of Washington Puget Sound Energy Learn and Serve America Version 2.0 September 2010 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Prepared by Gilda Wheeler, OSPI Education for Environment and Sustainability Kristen Clapper Bergsman, Laughing Crow Curriculum LLC Colleen Thumlert, Cascadia Consulting Group Beth Kelly, OSPI Learn and Serve America Project Partners Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction Environmental Education Association of Washington Puget Sound Energy Learn and Serve America The following individuals reviewed all or part of the 2008 version of this manual: JoLynn Berge, OSPI Sheryl Shapiro, City of Seattle Martin Fortin Jr., AWSP Ben Wheeler, Explorer West Middle School Katie Frevert, UW Greg Williamson, OSPI Crina Hoyer, ReSources Katie Atkins, Cascadia Consulting Beth Kelly, OSPI Susie Richards, SEA Jessica Levine, Seattle Public Schools Chris Burt, SEA Mary McClellen, OSPI Mike Maryanski, Tahoma SD Abby Ruskey, EEAW Teachers and administrators from the following schools and districts reviewed Version 2 as part of their participation in the Learn and Serve Sustainable Design Project grant program: East Valley School District, Spokane Franklin High School, Seattle Public Schools Kettle Falls School District Pasco School District Highland School District South Whidbey School District West Valley School District, Yakima Coupeville School District Davis High School, Yakima Central Middle School White Salmon Valley School District St Charles Catholic School Komachin Middle School, North Thurston High Tech High School, Quincy Chimacum Middle School, Chimacum Seattle Academy, Seattle Sequim School District Whittier Elementary, Spanaway Elementary, Bethel Eckstein Middle School Clover Park High School, Clover Park Cheney Middle School Seattle Public Schools Chimacum Pi Program, Chimacum Sustainable Design Project Steering Committee Members Apryl Brinkley, Mercer Slough Environmental Kathy Kimball, Board Member, Pacific Education Education Center-Pacific Science Center Institute Sheila Brown, Environmental Learning Centers, Carole Kubota, UW Bothell Seattle Parks and Recreation Jessica Levine, Eckstein Middle School Sally Brownfield, OSPI Center for the Improvement Karen Matsumoto, Seattle Aquarium of Student Learning T.A. McCann Christie Fairchild, Komo Kulshan Outdoor School Nan McNutt, Indigenous Science Consultant Lynne Ferguson, Pacific Education Institute Gretchen Muller, Seattle Public Utilities Katie Frevert, NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Victor Nolet, Western Washington University Environmental Health, U of W Pat O'Rourke, Islandwood Peter D. Finch, West Valley School District, Yakima John Pope, OSPI Marty Fortin, Association of WA School Principals Kevin Powers, WSU Extension James R. Freed, WSU Extension Steve Robinson, Northwest Indian Fisheries Jacqueline Fuller, EnviroChallenger, City of Commission Tacoma Tom Sanford, Olympic Park Institute Sharon Gilbert, Lakewood Middle School Sheryl Shapiro, Seattle Public Utilities Michael Hagmann, Ferrucci Junior High Jon Sharpe, NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Debbi Hardy, Olympia School District Environmental Health, U of W Jack Horne, Science ESD 171 Bob Sotak, Everett School District Crina Hoyer, ReSources for Sustainable Mike Town, Redmond High School Communities Margaret Tudor, Pacific Education Institute Peter Hubbard, Lawton Elementary Cathy Tuttle, Sustainable Ballard Rhonda Hunter, Department of Ecology Laura Tyler, MESA Denny Hurtado, OSPI Greg Williamson, OSPI John Inch, EnviroChallenger, City Of Tacoma Clancy Wolf, Islandwood Rachael Jamison, Department of Ecology Eric Wuersten, Former OSPI Science Supervisor Recommended Citation: Wheeler, G., Bergsman, K., Thumlert, C and Kelly, B. (2010). Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual. Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Although the information in this document has been funded in part by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under assistance agreement 96090701-0 to the Environmental Education Association of Washington, it may not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency and no official endorsement should be inferred. About the Sustainable Design Project The Sustainable Design Project (SDP) is a K-12 statewide initiative lead by the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), The Environmental Education Association of Washington (EEAW), and Puget Sound Energy to engage students in designing solutions to challenges in their community within the context of systems and sustainability. This project received support from Learn and Serve America. About the Education for Environment and Sustainability Program The Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction‘s Education for Environment and Sustainability program supports academic success and life-long learning, and develops a responsible citizenry capable of applying knowledge of ecological, economic, and socio-cultural systems to meet current and future needs. Learn more about the program at http://www.k12.wa.us/EnvironmentSustainability/default.aspx CONTENTS Preface: Education for Sustainability 6 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Sustainable Design Project 8 Chapter 2: Approaches to Learning: Project-Based and Place-Based Learning 16 Chapter 3: Student Engagement and Working as a Team 20 Chapter 4: Structuring a Sustainable Design Project 24 Chapter 5: Content Area Connections 29 Chapter 6: Connecting to Community Resources 40 Chapter 7: Project Funding and Resources 46 Chapter 8: Showcasing the Projects 52 Chapter 9: Resources for Teaching Sustainable Design 54 Appendix A Teacher Planning Tools 61 Appendix B Student Planning Tools 65 References 86 PREFACE Education for Sustainability: A Vision for the Future Where We’ve Been: Environmental Education in Washington State Washington State has a rich history of environmental education. Since the early 1900s, the state has developed landmark environmental education efforts which have served as models for the United States, ranging from one of the first outdoor schools in the 1920s to a nationally recognized Environmental Education Assessment Project in the 1990s. Washington State has benefited from the dedication and hard work of many environmental educators and natural resource professionals who recognized the importance of a deep, holistic understanding of our total environment, our place in it, and our responsibility to it. Where We’re Going: Education for Sustainability Today, our students are encountering a rapidly changing and interconnected world. Because of this, it is time to broaden environmental education to a more comprehensive view of the world that includes teaching about the environment, as well as the social constructs of culture, society, governance, and economics. Our quality of life, now and in the future, will ultimately depend upon humans‘ comprehension of their role in a world of interdependent environmental, economic, and social systems. The goal of education for sustainability is to develop the capacity for society to meet the needs of today while assuring intergenerational equity – that is, creating opportunities for a positive present and a hopeful future. Roots of the Sustainable Design Project The Environmental Education Association of Washington (EEAW) is Washington‘s professional association for environmental educators and stakeholders dedicated to increasing the awareness of and support for environmental education (EE) in the state of Washington. EEAW lead the development of a Comprehensive Environmental Education Plan for Washington state (E3 Washington). An outgrowth of the E3 Washington initiative to The systems approach to understanding how the identify ―politically and institutionally powerful world works includes inputs, outputs, and transformations of both constructed and natural initiatives,‖ the Sustainable Design Project was systems and the interplay between these launched through a partnership of the Office of systems. Describing how humans are affected Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), the and in turn affect both constructed and natural Environmental Education Association of Washington systems is a goal of education for sustainability. (EEAW), and Puget Sound Energy. One result of formal education is that students graduate without knowing how to think in whole What is Education for Sustainability? systems, how to find connections, how to ask big Sustainability is a broad construct that usually refers questions, and how to separate the trivial from the to a concern for intergenerational equity, an idea that important. Now more than ever, we need people can be traced to a number of ancient cultures. The who think broadly and who understand systems, connections, patterns and root causes. organizing premise is that when sustainability has ~ David Orr, Earth in Mind, 1994 been achieved, the current generation would be able to meet its needs without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. In the field of ecology, sustainability usually refers to the capacity of an ecosystem to sustain interdependent forms of life by balancing the rate of resource removal with the rate of resource regeneration. In the broader context in which the term is used today, sustainability often refers to a balance among various human systems that influence and are influenced by the natural environment. Ultimately, sustainability represents an ideal that will be achieved when human-caused environmental degradation has been reversed and overconsumption Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 6 and economic injustices that deprive future generations of the ability to meet their needs are eliminated (Nolet, Preparing Sustainability Literate Teachers, 2009). Sustainability can be understood by even the youngest students, as evidenced in this definition from a class of first graders from Geneva Elementary in Bellingham, Washington, ―Sustainability means thinking not just about yourself but about the world and everything in it, on it, and around it - taking care of these things for the future. Everything is connected.” When we try to pick out something by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. ~John Muir Three Domains of Education for Sustainability: Environmental, Economic, and Social The three domains that are addressed in Education for Sustainability are ecology/environment, economy, and society/culture. We often try to come at sustainability from one direction based on our own predisposition—from an ecological viewpoint, an economic viewpoint, or a social/cultural viewpoint. To successfully engage in education for sustainability we must consider all three domains together. Education for Sustainability is about learning to understand the connections and interactions between these three domains. Environment/Ecology: Environmental and ecological systems include the interactions between the biotic and abiotic components of both constructed and natural systems. These systems also include the interactions and influences between the two that create a web-like network of interactions. In this domain, sustainability includes stewardship and preservation of ecological systems. Economy: Economic systems include the economic opportunities that open gates for the flow of energy, materials, and information in constructed systems. A consideration of economic sustainability includes a viable economy in which all people are able to contribute, work, and have their basic needs met. Society/Culture: Social systems include: the cultural values and norms of a society; the rules, laws, and workings of governance to regulate, protect, and provide for civilization; and, the quality of life indicators that we use to define and measure our well-being. Sustainable practices in this domain emphasize protecting the commons (natural commons such as air, water, and soil, as well as human constructed commons such as radio waves and the Internet) and seeking a fair distribution of resources. Education for Sustainability provides students with opportunities to engage in complex problem solving from multiple perspectives. It provides opportunities for students to gain deep understanding of the interdependence of ecological systems, economic systems, and social systems. Both complex problem solving and deep knowledge of interconnected systems of the world will be required to develop sustainable solutions to human challenges that build hope for the future. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 7 CHAPTER 1: Introduction to the Sustainable Design Project Purpose and use of this manual This manual is designed to assist schools and teachers in integrating sustainable design projects into their current teaching. It contains a variety of information and resources for this purpose. Some teachers new to the concept of sustainability may want to read it from cover to cover, while others who are familiar with this concept and approach to teaching will likely want to review the table of contents and then go directly to sections of particular interest or of which they have questions. This is a ―living document‖ and therefore will be updated periodically to meet the needs of teachers. What is the Sustainable Design Project? The Sustainable Design Project (SDP) is a Washington statewide K-12 initiative in which students, together with community partners, study environmental, economic, and social systems and their interconnectedness and address issues in those systems. The goal of the SDP is for students to design sustainable solutions to real-world challenges while increasing their level of civic and student engagement. The care of the Earth is our most PLEASE NOTE: In this manual, ―Sustainable Design Project‖ will ancient and most worthy, and reference the initiative whereas ―sustainable design project‖ will after all, our most pleasing responsibility. To cherish what reference the actual student project/experience. remains of it and to foster its renewal is our only hope. Solving real-world problems through interdisciplinary project- ~ Wendell Berry based learning and/or service-learning Project-based learning allows students to interact with a rapidly changing and dynamic world. In response to recent favorable research on interactive learning, many schools are beginning to integrate project-based learning into their curriculum. Service-learning is a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility and strengthen communities. Furthermore, the SDP can be used as a means for students to complete their ―culminating project‖ graduation requirement. Through the culminating project, students become experts—with the help of people in their community—and then share what they know with others. Engaging students in their learning Effective learning takes place when it is relevant to students‘ lives. The SDP is about connecting students to their world today, their future, and to future generations. Through projects students grapple with real-world systems, starting in their local communities. They design solutions to issues such as water and energy use, resource conservation, climate change, clean air, sustainable food and product design, all the while seeking to maximize the health of their communities, social equity, and sustainable economy. Empirical research demonstrates that student achievement is greater when learning is relevant, hands-on, applied, interdisciplinary, and based in the real world. By its very nature, environmental and sustainability education bridges schools and the natural and human-built environments. As students work towards being change-agents, there is often a transformation that takes place within the student. It can be a deeper sensitivity, increased awareness, more compassion towards others, in-depth thinking and reflection on issues, and an urgency to be more engaged in the community. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 8 School and community connections Through sustainable design projects, students can work with people in their communities who bring expertise into the classroom and give students opportunities to learn in real-world contexts. The SDP relies on partnerships between students and business, industry, government agencies and municipalities, faculty, staff, and students in colleges and universities; and community–based organizations. Using an online database of project resources, www.e3washington.org/student-project/, students can call upon the technical expertise of community members to gain perspective, more fully understand the systems they are exploring and develop sustainable solutions to the challenges they discover. This new online resource is discussed more thoroughly in Chapter 6: Connecting to Community Resources. To reach the collective goal of preparing students to successfully live, learn, work, and play in the twenty-first century, schools today must tap into existing community resources. There is a wealth of exceptional, relevant learning opportunities for students in our communities. For more than thirty years, our state agencies, after-school programs, zoos, aquaria, and the business community have invested in developing programs and opportunities for youth. A new vision for education The Sustainable Design Project has the potential to take education in a new direction—one that focuses on providing students with a ―leg up‖ in their experience, confidence, knowledge base, and skill level, preparing them to be active participants in helping Washington be the national leader in sustainability. Sustainable Design is a promising initiative that leverages the new requirement for teacher preparation programs to prepare students for an ―environmentally sustainable, globally interconnected, and diverse society.‖ Education leaders see that the Sustainable Design Project offers a way forward for education that integrates academic disciplines, meets state standards, and responds to a moral imperative –given global warming and the rapid environmental, economic, and social changes underway in our communities, state, and world. Key Principles of a Student Sustainable Design Project include: 1. Consideration of whole systems, addressing the interconnections between ecology, economy, and society. 2. Authentic student engagement and cooperative group learning. 3. Alignment with core content standards and performance expectations. 4. Connection with community resources and stakeholders‘ perspectives. 5. Design of a solution to a real-world challenge. 6. A plan to implement the design solution and, if feasible, the actual development of the product or service. 7. Sharing of the project. 8. Evaluation and assessment of student and project impacts. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 9 Sustainable Design Project Goals and Objectives The project partners along with the steering committee for the Sustainable Design Project developed the following goals and objectives to serve as a guide for support and implementation of this statewide initiative. Goals Objectives Engaging and Effective Learning for Involve students in the development and planning of the All Students. SDP Program. Align study units and projects to standards. Create meaningful, real-world teaching Target underserved students including: African American, and learning and increase academic Indian (Native American), Hispanic, migrant/bilingual, achievement for all students. Pacific Islander, and Southeast Asian. Increase the number of schools and districts with sustainable design programs targeting young people at disproportionate risk. Provide support materials for the design process such as templates and project examples. Design a process for regional and statewide presentation of exemplary projects. Provide teacher professional development on Sustainable Design projects at a variety of venues. Learning Communities and Work with all sectors of the community taking into Partnerships. consideration the different values of each member. Provide mechanisms, including a website of project Create and support effective learning opportunities, through which community members can communities in and outside the connect and offer technical support to students. classroom and create long-lasting Showcase student projects in local community spaces and partnerships between K-12 teachers/ events. Invite key community leaders, businesses, students and the community including: parents, and others. higher education faculty and students; industry and business experts; resource agencies; community-based organizations; and families. Teacher Preparation, Professional Provide professional development opportunities for Development and Support. teachers to learn all aspects of the SDP, receive technical training, and connect with local community resources. Provide teachers with adequate Provide access to additional resources and networking information and support to teach and abilities on the SDP website and database. implement SDPs with their students. Provide project-related materials in different languages. Offer continuing support throughout the school year. Sustainability-Literate Citizens. Embed the concepts of sustainability in core content area teaching and learning. Build ―sustainability literacy‖ in students Connect students to their local environment and who will go on to build environmentally, communities in a meaningful way. socially, and economically sustainable Use the total school environment as a learning communities in Washington State. environment and showcase of sustainability. For example, school gardens, solar panels, wind turbines, healthy playgrounds, and rain gardens are created and used as living laboratories for learning. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 10 Systems and Sustainability The SDP aims to have students study issues specific to various systems and design solutions within the context of sustainability. This next section provides definitions of systems, sustainability, and sustainable design, and concludes with some project examples. What is a System? A system is a group of interacting, interrelated, and interdependent components that form a complex and unified whole. Systems are everywhere. For example, a classroom, a predator/prey relationship, and the ignition system in your car are all systems. Some systems are ―nested‖ within larger systems. For example, the circulatory system is nested within the system we know as the human body. A system is a collection of ―things‖ in which the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. What is Sustainability? The most well-known definition of sustainability – ―meeting the needs of the present without comprising the ability of future generations to meet their needs‖ – comes from the Brundtland Report, which was the product of a United Nations commission in 1989. For the purposes of the Sustainable Design Project we use this definition of sustainability from the Washington State Department of Ecology‘s 2007 Field Guide to Sustainability: Sustainability is a holistic approach to living and problem solving that addresses social equity, environmental health, and economic prosperity. To be sustainable, the economy must support a high quality life for all people in a way that protects our health, our limited natural resources, and our environment over the long term. What is Sustainable Design? Sustainable design considers how to design the built Native American cultures have a tradition environment in a way that cultivates ecological, economic, to consider each decision by asking: “What and cultural conditions which support human and impact will this have on the seventh environmental well-being, indefinitely (Ann Thorpe, The generation?” Designer‘s Atlas of Sustainability, 2007). ~ A Field Guide to Sustainability, WA State Department of Ecology, 2007 Sustainable Design offers the possibility of building schools, office buildings, parks, transportation systems, and entire communities with an eye toward long-term sustainability, rather than only seeking to solve immediate needs and desires. It supports city planners, architects, and designers in approaching each project with the intent to reduce environmental impacts, stimulate the economy, and provide opportunities for people to connect with each other and the land. Sustainable design takes a systems-wide perspective. It aims to solve current environmental problems and prevent future ones from occurring while integrating a wise understanding of social and economic factors and their impact on the environment. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 11 If we understand that design leads to manifestation of human intention, and if what we make with our hands is to be sacred and honor the earth that gives us life, then the things we make must not only rise from the ground but return to it, soil to soil, water to water, so everything that is received from the earth can be freely given back without causing harm to any living system. This is ecology. This is good design. ~ William McDonough Architect and Author of ―Cradle to Cradle‖ Common Principles of Sustainable Design There are some common principles associated with sustainably designed products and processes. These include: Use of low-impact materials: Chooses non-toxic, sustainable, or recycled materials, which require little energy to process. Takes into consideration how the materials (visible and invisible) originate in and return to the ecosphere (atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere). Energy efficiency: Implements manufacturing processes that use less energy and produces products which require less energy to manufacture and operate. Ideally, makes use of renewable energy sources. Quality and durability: Understands that longer-lasting and better-functioning products will have to be replaced less frequently, thereby reducing the impacts of producing replacements and disposing of worn-out products. Another option is flexible designs that have a core component, such as an automobile chassis, that remains durable, but other components that can be replaced and upgraded over time as better versions become available, such as the engine and transmission. Cradle-to-cradle life cycle design for reuse and recycling: Designs products, processes, and systems for performance in the commercial ―afterlife‖ of the product. This includes choosing materials with a cradle-to-cradle approach, so that the materials themselves create clean water, clean air, or can be composted to enrich the soil. This also includes design to facilitate the eventual separation of ―technical nutrients‖ for the industrial process of manufacturing from ―organic nutrients‖ that will biodegrade and enrich natural systems. Biomimicry: Designs products, services, and industrial systems to mimic biological designs and cycles found in nature. Natural systems, large and small, are models of interactive functionality that maximizes effectiveness and efficiency. Service substitution: Promotes the sharing of products or services among groups of people. For example, encouraging people to change from private automobile ownership to joining a car-sharing service. Such a system promotes minimal resource use per unit of consumption (e.g., per car trip driven). Local renewable resources: Chooses materials from nearby (local or bioregional), sustainably managed, renewable sources. Ideally, when their usefulness has been exhausted, biodegradable resources can be returned to nature as biological nutrients, or alternatively, returned to manufacturing as technical nutrients. Carbon footprint: Reduces an individual‘s carbon footprint by choosing products and services that have been sustainably designed, sustainably produced, and have the ability to be recycled or reused. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 12 Environmental health: Aims to reduce or eliminate human health risks from environmental factors (such as pollution, heavy metals, etc.) that can be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Environmental justice: Aims to provide all people with access to a healthy environment and equal access to decision-making processes. The development and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies should fairly involve all people and should protect groups of people from being disproportionately affected by environmental health hazards. Human needs and quality of life: Considers how a design can promote human needs and quality of life in terms of subsistence, protection, affection, understanding, participation, leisure, creation, and identity. Design for change: Considers what policy changes, behavioral changes, and technology changes will enable a design to occur, and what changes will exert the greatest leverage for overall sustainability. Examples of Systems and Sustainable Design Projects The following chart provides examples of different systems and a few corresponding sustainable design project ideas. Additional project examples can be found in Chapters 4 and 5. SYSTEM POSSIBLE SUSTAINABLE DESIGN PROJECTS Create a manual to help schools in your district choose green Built building materials and interior fixtures. Environment Design and build a rain garden at your home or school. Conduct an energy audit of your home, school, or community and develop/implement an energy efficiency plan. Energy Compare solar, biomass, wind turbines, and geothermal energy sources and develop a renewable energy plan based on this analysis. Conduct a water use audit of your home, school, or community and develop/implement a water reduction plan. Conduct water quality testing at different locations within your Water watershed (e.g. creeks, rivers, Puget Sound, and marine estuaries) and design/implement a plan to improve water quality. Design an art piece that teaches about your local watershed. Conduct a solid waste audit of your home, school, or community and design a plan to encourage the reduction, reuse and proper recycling of waste. Waste Design a program to encourage school-wide recycling. Design and build a composting system at your home. Develop a system to encourage your teachers and school office workers to reduce their paper use. Conduct an ergonomics audit of a work station or process at a local job site and design a healthy worksite product such as a Workplace Health & chair, writing implement, or electronic device. Safety Survey health and safety hazards at a local employer and offer recommendations on how to protect workers. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 13 Survey registered voters who do not vote to find out what impediments keep them from voting. Design and disseminate Social and Civic ideas to minimize those impediments. Action Work with a local non-profit agency to help design a system that encourages and rewards volunteerism in the community. Explore where food in your school/district comes from and design an incentive plan to encourage the procurement of products from local farmers. In partnership with local elementary school students and teachers, design and plant an organic garden for the school. Food & Farm Develop an educational program about community supported agriculture. Choose a food item (such as a pineapple) and map its pathways, and environmental impacts, from the farm to your plate and share that with community members. Map the cradle-to-grave (life cycle from development to waste) pathway of electronic waste and design a product that following Technology the principles of cradle-to-cradle (a product whose life is continuous, never ending in a landfill). Identify a landmark, building, park, or other place that has cultural importance in your community. Design a brochure, interpretive sign, or other type of media to tell its story and to educate people Culture about its importance. Film a documentary in which you interview community elders about local history. Organize a festival that features film, music, and art celebrating Media, Music, and your community‘s environment, culture, or economy. Art Develop an art program that inspires children to create sustainability-themed art. Conduct a rush hour count of carpools versus single-occupant vehicles along a local freeway or highway and then develop an incentive program to encourage people to bike, walk, bus, or carpool to school or work. Transportation Develop a cost/benefit assessment of transportation modes, such as car, bike, motorcycle, and bus and design an alternative transportation plan that is economically viable and socially appropriate for your community. Write an interpretive guide for a local nature trail or park. Parks & Natural Areas Develop a plan for removing invasive plant species from a local park. Investigate the effects of biosolid fertilizers on tree growth and design a plan or product to sustainably enrich forestry trees. Forestry Calculate the amount of wood re-used and the reduction of environmental impacts by Urban Tree Salvage Program (e.g. in King County) and then design an outreach campaign that encourages builders to use salvaged wood products. Conduct a survey of a local immigrant group to find out what environmental health risks most concern them and then create Environmental educational materials in languages appropriate for your Health & Justice community. Create educational materials to encourage low-income women in your community to get mammograms. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 14 Chapter 1 Resources Education for Environment and Sustainability A program of the Washington State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, EES provides tools and resources for teachers to implement environmental and sustainability education in their classrooms. http://www.k12.wa.us/EnvironmentSustainability/default.aspx Washington State Department of Ecology Sustainability Website Learn about how you can choose sustainable practices in your own life, connect with educational resources, and download a free copy of A Field Guide to Sustainability. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/sustainability/ Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit The Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit is an easy-to-use manual for individuals and organizations from both the education and community sectors. This resource addresses the potentially powerful alliance of school systems and communities working together to reach local sustainability goals. Together they can reorient existing curriculums to create locally relevant and culturally appropriate education. http://www.esdtoolkit.org/ UNESCO Education for Sustainable Development The overall goal of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning. This website identifies key action themes and highlights projects from around the world. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=27234&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html US Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development The U.S. Partnership consists of individuals, organizations and institutions in the United States dedicated to education for sustainable development (ESD). It acts as a convener, catalyst, and communicator working across all sectors of American society. http://usp.umfglobal.org/main/view_archive/1 EPA’s Environmental Justice Website Provides background information on environmental justice issues. http://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice/ The Designer’s Atlas of Sustainability Ann Thorpe‘s book is an important resource that will change the thinking of architects, product designers, and design educators. Available from Island Press, 2007. http://www.designers-atlas.net/ Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things Architect William McDonough and chemist Michael Braungart‘s book issues a call for a new industrial revolution that uses sustainable design principles to design buildings and products. Available from North Point Press, 2002. http://www.mcdonough.com/full.htm Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 15 CHAPTER 2: Instructional Approaches Integral to the Sustainable Design Project are three related pedagogical approaches. By involving students in a sustainable design project as described in this manual, teachers can bring service- learning, project-based, or place-based learning into your classroom. These teaching and learning methods are described below. Project-based learning Project-based learning is an instructional strategy that requires students to develop and use substantive content knowledge and skills in real-world applications. High quality project-based learning includes the elements of quality instruction, such as rigor, relevance, relationships, and reflection, as well as quality assessment, such as the use of rubrics. Quality project-based learning enhances student motivation by providing students with choice and ownership in the project. A strength of project-based learning is that many academic learning targets may be combined and Project-based learning is a dynamic approach to integrated into one project. This instructional teaching in which students explore real-world strategy can help students make connections problems and challenges, simultaneously among content areas and provide students with developing cross-curriculum skills while working authentic problem-solving experiences and in small collaborative groups. opportunities to collaborate with peers, teachers, ~The George Lucas Educational Foundation and experts. Characteristics of Project-Based Learning The Buck Institute for Education‘s Project Based Learning Handbook outlines the characteristics of a successful, standards-focused project-based learning project: 1. Recognize students' inherent drive to learn, their capability to do important work, and their need to be taken seriously by putting them at the center of the learning process. 2. Engage students in the central concepts and principles of a discipline. The project work is central rather than peripheral to the curriculum. 3. Highlight provocative issues or questions that lead students to in-depth exploration of authentic and important topics. 4. Require the use of essential tools and skills, including technology, for learning, self-management, and project management. 5. Specify products that solve problems, explain dilemmas, or present information generated through investigation, research, or reasoning. 6. Include multiple products that permit frequent feedback and consistent opportunities for students to learn from experience. 7. Use performance-based assessments that communicate high expectations, present rigorous challenges, and require a range of skills and knowledge. 8. Encourage collaboration in some form, either through small groups, student-led presentations, or whole- class evaluations of project results. (Buck Institute for Education, Project Based Learning Handbook, 2003) Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 16 Benefits of Project-Based Learning Through their teacher research, the Buck Institute for Education found that project-based learning: Helps students both ―know‖ and ―do‖. Emphasizes problem solving, communication, and self-management skills. Encourages lifelong learning, civic responsibility, and personal/career success. Integrates content, themes, and community issues. Encourages accountability, goal setting, and improved performance. Creates positive communication and collaboration among groups of students. Meets the needs of diverse learners. Engages and motivates students. (Buck Institute for Education, Project Based Learning Handbook, 2003). Place-based learning Place-based education takes the project-based learning approach and applies it to learning focused on and engaged with the local community. By focusing on a local place, students are able to make connections among themselves, their school, and the community. Characteristics of Successful Place-Based Education The principles of successful place-based education programs have much in common with the principles of Sustainable Design Projects. (PEEC, Principles and Best Practices of Place-Based Education, 2003). Place-based education immerses students in local heritage, culture, landscapes, 1. Learning takes place on-site on school grounds opportunities, and experiences as a foundation and in the local community and environment, for the study of language arts, mathematics, focusing on local themes, systems, and content. social studies, science, and other subjects. Place-based education encourages teachers and students to use the schoolyard, 2. Place-based learning experiences contribute to community, public lands, and other special the community‘s sustainability quality, places as resources, turning communities into environmental literacy, and support the role the classrooms. community plays in fostering a healthy and ~ Place-Based Education Evaluation connected global environment. Collaborative 3. Learning is supported by strong and varied partnerships with local associations, organizations, agencies, and businesses. 4. Learning is inter-disciplinary and custom-tailored to local needs and opportunities. 5. Place-based learning serves as the foundation for understanding and participating appropriately in regional and global issues. 6. Place-based learning is integral to achieving other educational and institutional goals. 7. Learning is grounded in and supports the development of a strong and personally relevant connection to one‘s place.‖ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 17 Benefits of Place-Based Education Through their research, the Place-Based Education Evaluation Collaborative has found that place- based education: Energizes teachers. Transforms school culture. Helps students learn. Connects schools and communities. Encourages students to become environmental stewards. Invites students to become active citizens. (PEEC, The Benefits of Place-Based Education). Service-learning Service-learning is a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility and strengthen communities Characteristics of High-Quality Service-Learning High quality service-learning includes the following principles of effectiveness: 1. Meaningful Service 2. Curriculum Integration 3. Duration 4. Diversity 5. Reflection 6. Youth Voice 7. Reciprocal Partnerships 8. Process Monitoring Service-Learning benefits for students and young people: Improved academic engagement and expanded interest in furthering their education. Enhanced civic engagement attitudes, skills and behaviors. Increased sense of self-efficacy as young people learn that they can impact real social challenges, problems, and needs. Advanced problem-solving skills, ability to work in teams, critical thinking, and planning abilities. Increased awareness of career opportunities. Service-Learning benefits for institutions and communities: Cultivates connections between the organization, schools, higher education, and other community groups. Improves school environments and broadens community support through new partnerships and resources. Provides an opportunity to expand the organization‘s mission and reach by engaging a cadre of competent, motivated young people who bring new energy, ideas, enthusiasm and specialized skills to the organization. Increases paid staff and volunteers‘ level of engagement, leadership capacity and satisfaction with their work. Allows residents to build positive relationships with young people when communities see youth in a different way – as resources instead of problems. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 18 Chapter Summary In project-based learning, the project is the medium through which learning happens. Service-learning is a type of project-based learning. It is both a way of teaching and learning and an application of learning. Service-learning has a highly motivating, emotional context. There is a direct link between context for learning - motivation for learning and - student achievement. In school-based service- learning, students apply educational curricula, demonstrate proficiency in standards based learning and extend classroom learning through hands-on services they help design. Place-based and service-learning are very similar in their focus on students understanding the importance of "community", and their significant place in their own community. Education for Sustainability blends these various pedagogical approaches of project-based learning with the localized, contextual focus of place-based learning. Chapter 2 Resources Project Based Learning Handbook This handbook from the Buck Institute for Education provides teachers with the tools to plan, manage, and assess student-driven projects using a project-based learning approach. The handbook can be ordered for $30 and excerpts can be downloaded for free at the following website. http://www.bie.org/index.php/site/PBL/pbl_handbook/ Place-Based Education Evaluation Collaborative The PEEC is a clearinghouse of research, reports, and tools for place-based education. http://www.peecworks.org Standards and Indicators for Effective Service-Learning Practice www.servicelearning.org/instant_info/fact_sheets/k-12_facts/standards/index.php Bring Learning to Life: Service-Learning in Action Guide www.servicelearning.org/pubs/materials/L109 Guidelines for High Quality Service-Learning Syllabi www.servicelearning.org/filemanager/download/slice/guidelines_syllabi.pdf Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 19 CHAPTER 3: Student Engagement & Teamwork How to Make the Sustainable Design Project Student-Driven The Sustainable Design Project is intended to be a student-driven endeavor, where students work in teams to actively plan, produce, and present their own sustainable design solutions to real-world problems. Engaging students in their own learning is a key to project success, academic achievement, and personal satisfaction. Student Engagement Student engagement is the state in which students are actively involved in the planning, implementation, and assessment of their own learning. Engaged students possess a sense of ownership of their learning and find it meaningful because they know what is expected of them, why it matters, and how they can use the skills. In addition, they see the efficacy of their work, and are advocates for their and their peers‘ learning needs. Student engagement includes the following three Meaningful student involvement is the elements: process of engaging students as 1. Behavioral: demonstrates active participation and partners in every facet of school positive behaviors. change for the purpose of strengthening their commitment to 2. Emotional: shows motivation, attachment, and education, community, and relationship building. democracy. 3. Cognitive: creates investment in self and ~Adam Fletcher, Meaningful Student responsibility for own learning. Involvement, 2005. Student engagement occurs when students are able to: ―Answer questions such as:‖How do I learn best?‖ and "When I have something difficult to learn, what are my most effective strategies?‖‖ Explain the relationship between a particular learning goal, the standard by which that goal is measured on assessments, the skill represented by the standard, and the relevance of that skill to the students‘ lives outside the classroom and beyond graduation. Understand how their classroom writing has application for a project or for an authentic audience; how their behavior affects the learning of another student; how their participation builds a skill set they know to be useful (and they know this because they have used the skills to achieve a ‗real-world‘ result). Ask for help when they need it, find it when they need to, and advocate for the needs of others.‖ (Adapted from: Greg Williamson, OSPI, Student Engagement, 2007) The Ladder of Student Involvement. The Sustainable Design Project connects students, teachers, and community experts as they work together to develop solutions to local, real-world problems. As described in this manual, a Sustainable Design Project is project-based, place-based, and student- driven. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 20 The following illustration shows the Ladder of Student Involvement in School (adapted by Adam Fletcher from the work of Roger Hart), a tool to help educators assess levels of student engagement and involvement. Fletcher explains that, ―The higher the rung on the Ladder, the greater the meaningfulness of student involvement‖ (Adam Fletcher, Meaningful Student Involvement Guide, 2005). Sustainable Design Projects provide an opportunity for students, teachers, and community experts to work together to move towards the highest rungs of the ladder. Regardless of where teachers and schools are currently at, there is room to move up the rungs to a higher degree of student led decision making. Moving up requires significant support and training. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 21 Characteristics of an effective learning group Teamwork is an essential element of an effective Sustainable Design Project. At some point in the process—if not throughout the entire project—students will work in teams with their peers and with community experts. Having agreed-upon norms and protocols is essential for successful teamwork. Guidelines for Teamwork Have students generate a list of teamwork guidelines and/or use these guidelines as a starting point, then post on the classroom wall to refer to throughout the project: Define roles and purposes for each team member (e.g.: facilitator, note-taker, time keeper, and reporter). Establish expectations for respectful listening and sharing. Ensure that each person has an opportunity to contribute. Rotate roles so that each member has the opportunity to take on new roles. Build in accountability for individual students so that the contributions of each group member are identifiable. Develop a rubric that defines successful teamwork. Teamwork is an important part of SDP. The list of guidelines for teamwork is only the foundation. Building effective teamwork in the classroom and cooperative learning requires a great deal of effort. Chapter 3 Resources Meaningful Student Involvement Guide Adam Fletcher‘s Meaningful Student Involvement Guide to Students as Partners in School Change provides educators with a framework for encouraging meaningful student involvement in school classes, projects, and school improvement programs. The Guide can be downloaded for free from SoundOut.org. http://www.soundout.org/MSIGuide.pdf 50 Ways Adults Can Support Student Voice Adam Fletcher provides fifty ideas for how adults can support student engagement and voice. This website provides many other articles on this topic as well. http://www.soundout.org/article.101.html Education Northwest magazine – this issue is about student engagement, including projects supported by the Washington State Student Engagement office at OSPI: http://educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/434 Washington State Career and Technical Education Student Organizations – these organizations have a long history of engaging students in meaningful work for authentic school and community audiences: www.wa-ctso.org Renton Teaching Academy – Renton High School effort to recruit students of color into the teaching profession; students do classroom observations and practice teaching in schools: http://www.cwu.edu/desmoines/diversity/aug09news.pdf Change Starts Now – Students at the Tacoma School for the Arts teach middle school students how they can teach sustainability concepts to younger students: http://classrooms.tacoma.k12.wa.us/sota/imagine/index.php Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 22 Students Taking Charge – National project of Action for Healthy Kids that helps students analyze and make a difference in healthy learning in their schools (ten projects in WA are part of this): www.studentstakingcharge.org Raising Student Voice and Participation (RSVP) – Washington version of national project to help young people hold forums and make a difference in the decisions that affect them in school: http://www.awsp.org/Content/awsp/StudentLeadership/RSVPforWeb.pdf WSU 4-H Know Your Government – Washington project to introduce students to civic education concepts (this year‘s focus was on lobbying): http://4h.wsu.edu/conferences/kyg/ YMCA Youth & Government – Washington program where students come to Olympia and hold their own session at the Washington State Legislature: http://www.youthandgovernment.org/HOME.asp Junior Statesman Foundation – provides civic education and leadership programs, including summer programs in Washington State and nationally: http://www.jsa.org/ Washington Legislative Youth Advisory Council (LYAC) – 22-member Council that advises the Washington State Legislature on bills of interest to young people across the state: http://lyac.leg.wa.gov/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 23 CHAPTER 4: Structuring a Sustainable Design Project Common attributes of a Sustainable Design Project across grade levels The Sustainable Design Project can allow students the freedom and flexibility to choose systems and problems that are of personal interest to them and that are situated in a community about which the students care. The intent of the Sustainable Design Project is that teachers will integrate project learning into an existing unit of study. While a student‘s individual project may look quite different from another‘s depending on the grade-level, chosen system, and presentation format, all Sustainable Design Projects should have some common attributes, as described below. Students: May either work effectively in teams or individually (for example, the project could be used for a student‘s culminating graduation requirement). Choose a project that connects with core content GLEs. Identify and investigate a system in a real-world context. Design within the context of ecology, economy, and society sustainability. Work with community experts, including visits to the expert‘s work site or having the expert visit the classroom. Create a solution to the chosen problem and communicate that solution by the use of a model or by actually redesigning the system. Present their system solution in a public forum. This chapter includes some specific suggestions on how to approach the Sustainable Design Project at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. In addition, there are a series of Teacher Planning Tools and Student Planning Tools that correspond to this chapter which can be found in the Appendix. The Chapter Resources listed at the end of this chapter provide additional resources for project planning. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 24 Step-by-step project process The flow chart below demonstrates the steps that students can take as they progress through the Sustainable Design Project process. The steps are posed as questions that students need to answer before moving onto the next step in the process. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 25 Projects in the elementary school classroom A Sustainable Design Project in the elementary school classroom is more likely to be at a smaller and simpler scale than a project in a middle school or high school classroom. For example, an elementary school project might focus on the use of compost in organic farming, rather than the entire food production system. Similarly, a project might focus on corn-based packaging, rather than product packaging in general. An elementary school level project will need to have more teacher direction, which necessitates that the teacher spend time planning the project, finding community experts, locating resources, and identifying a presentation forum, rather than relying on the students to take personal initiative for these steps in the process. The chosen system and community for the Sustainable Design Project should be personally relevant to the students‘ own lives. For example, it may be more appropriate to focus on the home or the school as the target community, rather than your city or state. In addition, rather than working in small teams, it may be more appropriate for an elementary school class to tackle a Sustainable Design Project together as a whole class. While groups of students can be responsible for different components of the total project, together the class will work together to investigate the system and propose a solution. Example Elementary School Sustainable Design Projects System Example Sustainable Design Projects Conduct a nutrition audit of school lunches; compare school- Food & Nutrition provided and home-provided lunches; and then plant a vegetable garden on the school campus. Consumer Design a child‘s toy that is safe, non-toxic, made from Products environmentally-friendly materials, and educational. Parks & Natural Design and construct a wildlife habitat area on your school campus Areas using the principles of the Backyard Wildlife Program. At the elementary school level, it is especially appropriate to identify multiple entry points into the topic so that students are provided with different ways to learn about a sustainability issue. For example, read newspaper articles, watch a video, read a storybook, listen to guest speakers, visit a field site, or interview an expert. Elementary school teachers and their students can have fun thinking of creative, innovative ways to present their class project. For example, if the entire class is working on the same project, together the students could write and perform a skit, puppet show, or musical piece. The students could all contribute toward the publishing of a newspaper, comic book, storybook, newsletter, website, wiki, or blog. Together, the students could host a debate, an information fair, or an art show. By harnessing the individual talents of an entire classroom of students, Sustainable Design Projects at the elementary level have the potential to produce fun, creative, and educational presentations. Projects in the middle school classroom In middle school, students are developmentally focused on themselves and their own social communities and have a growing awareness of issues of fairness and inequality. You can harness middle school students‘ interest in these topics by encouraging them to choose sustainability issues that are personally-relevant, that are focused on the local community, and that include issues of injustices and inequality. For example, a student with asthma may be particularly interested in tackling the topic of the use of diesel fuels in school buses. A student athlete might be interested in the health Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 26 risks of artificial turf grass that has lead in it. Students at this age often become impassioned about issues of inequality, providing an in-road for discussing environmental justice issues such as the proposed location for a medical incinerator in a low-income neighborhood or the higher rates of lead poisoning among low-income children. Example Middle School Sustainable Design Projects System Example Sustainable Design Projects Analyze the costs and benefits of switching school buses to biofuels, considering the economic, environmental, and health Energy impacts (including asthma). Conduct an energy audit in your school and design an energy system that relies on renewable sources such as solar and wind. Built Design a playground or school campus that increases social Environment interaction and green spaces. Environmental Create educational materials to help low-income parents Health & Justice understand the risks of childhood lead poisoning. The Sustainable Design Project provides an opportunity for teachers of multiple disciplines to work together. For example, students might gather and analyze data in their science class, conduct research from primary and secondary sources in their social studies class, and prepare an oral presentation in their language arts class. At the middle school level, it is appropriate for students to approach their Sustainable Design Projects in small groups or in pairs. In addition, after-school clubs may provide an opportunity for students to conduct research and connect with community experts, or may provide a forum for student presentations. Projects in the high school classroom High school level Sustainable Design Projects should be driven by the students‘ own interest and should help them acquire the new knowledge and skills. Students should also be encouraged to choose project topics that can have a positive impact on their chosen communities. At this stage in their cognitive and social development, high school students are ready to consider the global community and may want to design a solution that addresses a global issue such as poverty, climate change, or loss of biodiversity. The Sustainable Design Project provides the opportunity to investigate an issue using skills and resources from different disciplines. As students work with community experts, they also are learning about careers in the community. Consider structuring the Sustainable Design Project so that it is intergenerational. Encourage students to work with younger students at the middle school or elementary school level. This could be achieved by encouraging students to choose topics that affect younger children, that use younger students as a source of data (such as for surveys), or by making final presentations to younger students. Another option is to encourage your students to work with older community members, such as professionals, workers, experts, or community elders. At the high school level, students can use the Sustainable Design Project as a way to meet the culminating project graduation requirement. In this case students may need to work individually rather than in teams depending on your school district‘s policy in regard to this graduation requirement. The connection between the Sustainable Design Project and the culminating project is further discussed in the next chapter. If students do conduct their Sustainable Design Projects while working individually, you may want to organize students into support groups. These support groups allow each student to Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 27 present progress reports throughout the duration of their project and to receive feedback, suggestions, and help from their peers. High school students need the opportunity to record and reflect on their learning progress. You can structure opportunities for metacognition (thinking about your thinking and learning) into the Sustainable Design Project by requiring students to keep a reflective journal that tracks their learning throughout the process of completing their projects. Example High School Sustainable Design Projects System Example Sustainable Design Projects Design a sustainable forest management plan for a county, state, Forestry or federal owned forest and present it at a stakeholders meeting. Develop guidelines outlining how local farmers and food banks Food & Farm could work together to get surplus crops to low-income families. Consumer Create a buyer‘s guide for teenagers to help them choose non- Products toxic cosmetics and personal care products. Design and construct a system that captures and reuses gray Water Quality & Conservation water. Teacher planning tools For additional project examples, see The Teacher Planning Tools are offered to help teachers Stories from the Field: Examples of develop a plan for engaging students in Sustainable Integrated Environmental and Design Projects. In addition, elementary school teachers Sustainability Education in who are planning whole-class projects can use the Student Washington State Planning Tools, to help them plan their class projects. The Teacher and Student Planning Tools appear in the http://www.k12.wa.us/EnvironmentSust Appendix. ainability/Curriculum/Examples.aspx Chapter 4 Resources Project Planning Form for Teachers The Buck Institute for Education‘s Project Based Learning Handbook offers a Project Planning Form to help teachers plan successful student projects. This tool could be especially helpful for teachers who are planning a Sustainable Design Project that will include large groups of students or an entire class. http://www.bie.org/index.php/site/PBL/pbl_handbook_downloads/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 28 CHAPTER 5: Content Area Connections Integrating the Sustainable Design Project with current curriculum It is possible that your students are already involved in projects which, if extended and structured according to the guidelines outlined in this manual, would be Sustainable Design Projects. Consider some of these ―projects‖ that often occur in Washington State schools: Student-organized recycling program. Worm bins for composting food waste. School vegetable garden. Rain garden and/or cistern installed on school grounds. New school construction or remodeling incorporating principles of green building. EPA‘s Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program. Use of green cleaning products by custodial staff. Food service program utilizing local farm products. Energy-use or waste stream audit. Many of these existing programs and projects tend to emphasize, or start with, the environment. Consider how such projects can be expanded to encompass and address related social and social equity or justice? For example, regarding community or school vegetable gardens, do people living at different economic levels eat differently, or eat different kinds of foods? If so, how? Do different ethnic or social groups eat differently, and how? Who stands to benefit most in terms of both human health and the economy if local and organic foods are more accessible and affordable? Using the Sustainable Design Project to meet education mandates The Sustainable Design Project is not intended to be an add-on to the existing classroom curriculum. Rather it is a way for students to meet standards, as well for schools to meet requirements and mandates, including: Subject-area Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALRs) and Grade Level Expectations (GLEs). Washington State environmental education mandate. Culminating Project graduation requirement. Measurement of Student Progress (MSP) and High School Proficiency Exam (HSPE). Washington State environmental education mandates Environmental education is mandated by the State Board of Education to be included in public school instruction at all grade levels and across all subject areas. The history of these mandates goes back to 1988 when education about the environment and living things was first included in legislation. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 29 Legal Authority for Environmental and Sustainability Education Common School Curriculum. Requires that all schools provide instruction in ―science with special reference to the environment‖ and that ―the worth of kindness to all living creatures and the land‖ be stressed in school curriculum. RCW 28A.230.020 (1988). Mandatory Areas of Study in the Common School. ―Instruction about conservation, natural resources, and the environment shall be provided at all grade levels in an interdisciplinary manner through science, the social studies, the humanities, and other appropriate areas with an emphasis on solving the problems of human adaptation to the environment." WAC 392-410-115 (2000). Formerly WAC 180-50-115 (1990). Teacher Education Approval Standards. In 2007, the WA Professional Education Standards Board revised the Teacher Education Approval Standards requiring teacher education programs to prepare candidates so that they can help their students become ―responsible citizens for an environmentally sustainable, globally interconnected, and diverse society.‖ PESB Standard V (2007). In addition to these legal requirements and mandates, the state legislature created two grant programs to support the integration of environmental education in K-12 classrooms and outdoor education that supports student achievement. Legislative Support for Environmental and Outdoor Education Washington Natural Science, Wildlife, and Environmental Education Partnership Program established a grant program to support ―natural science, wildlife, and environmental education programs‖ to be administered by OSPI. RCW 28A.300.445 (2003). ―No Child Left Inside‖ grant program established an outdoor education and recreation program administered by the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. HB 1677 (2007) Integrated Environmental and Sustainability Education Standards In 2009 OSPI adopted the Washington State K-12 Integrated Environmental and Sustainability Education Learning Standards which describe what all students should know and be able to do in the area of Environmental and Sustainability Education. Consistent with the intent of the law governing environmental education in Washington State, these standards are intended to be integrated into core content areas and across all grade levels. The Sustainable Design Project provides a framework and resources to meet these integrated standards. The three ESE Standards address: ESE Standard 1: Ecological, Social, and Economic Systems ESE Standard 2: The Natural and Built Environment ESE Standard 3: Sustainability and Civic Responsibility (Reference: http://www.k12.wa.us/EnvironmentSustainability/Standards/default.aspx) The Sustainable Design Project meets these standards by focusing on real-world problems and developing solutions, by engaging students in skills and knowledge building across disciplines, and by investigating the relationships between humans and the natural systems on which they depend. Culminating project graduation requirement All high school students are required to meet the culminating project graduation requirement, which is mandated by House Bill 1209 and WAC 180-51-061 Minimum Requirements for High School Graduation. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 30 Each school district is required to develop guidelines for meeting this graduation requirement. The Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction outlines the following statewide goals for the culminating project: Encourage students to think analytically, logically, and creatively and to integrate experience and knowledge to solve problems. Give students a chance to explore a topic in which they have a great interest. Offer students an opportunity to apply their learning in a ‗real-world‘ way. For more information on Washington State Graduation Requirements, visit: www.k12.wa.us/GraduationRequirements The Sustainable Design Project provides students with the knowledge, skills and framework to meet the culminating project graduation requirement. If you are a high school teacher, begin by reviewing your district‘s guidelines for culminating projects. As you start planning your Sustainable Design Project, align it with the district guidelines so that the Project is an opportunity for your students to meet the graduation requirement. Example: Everett School District The Everett School District‘s approach to the culminating project graduation requirement is called the Culmination Exhibition. It encourages students to work with a mentor and to become involved in their own community. The Culmination Exhibition involves the following four components: 1. Argumentative Paper: involves researching and examining a topic and applying knowledge from core content areas. 2. Reflective Letter: involves metacognitive reflection on what the student has learned in his or her schooling and how they will apply it to their future career and schooling. 3. Self-Directed Project: involves a complex, student-driven project based on the student‘s own interests. 4. Culminating Presentation: involves creating and making a presentation, and answering questions. The Sustainable Design Project is an opportunity for Everett students to focus their Argumentative Paper, Self- Directed Project, and Culminating Presentation on a sustainable design topic in their own community. In addition, it encourages students to work with a mentor, which could be a content area expert from the local community. ~ Adapted from: Everett Public Schools, Culminating Exhibition Graduation Requirements Handbook, 2005- 2006. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 31 Example: Bellingham School District The Bellingham School District‘s Culminating Project encourages students to investigate a community issue and to work with a community advisor. The project includes the following five components: 1. Overall Proposal: involves outlining a plan for the project, reflecting on what the student already knows about the topic, and obtaining permissions. 2. Scholarly Paper: involves demonstrating proper English writing skills by investigating a topic of personal interest. 3. Portfolio: involves documenting their project by collecting artifacts of the students‘ work, ideas, journal, and community involvement. 4. Written Reflection: involves metacognitive reflection on what the student has learned about his/her community and self. 5. Presentation: involves demonstrating communication skills and bringing together all elements of the overall project. The Sustainable Design Project is an opportunity for Bellingham students to choose a sustainable design topic from their local community, team up with local experts and community advisors, and use that topic as the focus of their entire culminating project. ~Adapted from: Bellingham School District, Culminating Project Graduation Requirements. Meeting Core Content Standards through the Sustainable Design Project The Sustainable Design Project has the potential to help student meet Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALRs) and Grade Level Expectations (GLEs) from core content areas, including science, social studies, mathematics, and language arts. In addition, depending on how a student chooses to approach and present their project, a student may also have the opportunity to meet learning standards in arts, health and fitness, and career and technical education. Preparing students for the MSP and HSPE By meeting learning standards, the Sustainable Design Project is one way to prepare students for standardized testing including the MSP and HSPE as well as Classroom-Based Assessments in social studies and health and fitness. Subject-Area Connections The remainder of this chapter provides examples of how the Sustainable Design Project may meet EALRs and GLEs in various content areas. The information is organized by content area. However, the Sustainable Design Project can be implemented such that students use skills and knowledge from multiple subject areas. The following information may be useful both in finding potential topics for your students‘ sustainable design projects as well as determining how the projects will help meet learning standards. Science Connections By completing a sustainable design project, students apply the principles of scientific inquiry, which includes identifying a problem, developing a focus question, gathering resources, developing and Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 32 testing a solution, and evaluating their results based on evidence. In addition, students develop solutions to real-world problems. By working with community experts, students may have the opportunity to learn about different science careers. Connection to Science Kits Sustainability topics can also be linked to the science kits that are often taught in elementary and middle school classrooms. The following table provides an overview of how sustainability topics (bulleted items following the kit name) can be interwoven into the teaching of FOSS, STC, Insights, SEPUP, and NSTA science kits. (The tables were developed by Kathryn Kelsey, a science coach for Seattle Public Schools). Grades K-2 Science Kit Framework Biology Chemistry Physics Earth Science Kindergarten Theme: Exploring the Living World Around Us Students make observations of living organisms that are visible without a microscope, including plants, animals, and fungi. They are guided to notice how living organisms share the world with us. FOSS FOSS FOSS Animals 2 X 2 Fabric Wood and Paper Diversity of animals Living sources of Diversity of trees fabrics, such as cotton Plants used by and silk different cultures to make paper st nd 1 & 2 Grade Theme: Water in Our World Living organisms depend on water. This natural resource is all around us. Discovering water sources, including fresh and saltwater, and water uses helps us understand the importance of water for living organisms. STC Insights STC Organisms Balls and Ramps Weather Needs and sources of Planning an Phases of water in water for organisms investigation (fair weather test) Looking for weather Using quantitative patterns observations to understand the world Insights STC STC Liquids Balancing Soils Properties of water, and Weighing Importance of water in such as floating & Using quantitative soils for plants sinking, phases (ice, observations to Different types of soils liquid), ability to understand the world hold different amounts dissolve some solids of water Developed by Kathryn Kelsey, Seattle Public Schools Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 33 Grades 3-5 Science Kit Framework Biology Chemistry Physics Earth Science rd 3 Grade Theme: Interactions of Living Organisms and the Environment Living organisms depend on the non-living environment for many needs. Living organisms can change the non-living environment. The non-living environment can influence where certain types of plants and animals live. STC STC STC Plant Growth Sound Rocks and Minerals and Development Animals‘ use of sound Minerals in soils can Plant dependence on for communication determine which plants soils Natural sounds, such will grow Seed sprouting and soil as thunder, can Rocks break down over temperature influence behavior time and become soil Plants create habitat for Examples of natural animals resources used by Effects of light energy humans from the sun on plants th th 4 & 5 Grade Theme: Human Impacts on the Natural World Humans alter living and non-living parts of the natural world. We can look at the impacts of each individual or as a population of a city, state, or country. Most of the changes have both advantages and disadvantages. STC STC Insights Ecosystems Food Chemistry Circuits Effects of pollution on Agricultural methods and Pathways living and non-living can alter habitat and Changes in parts of our world introduce chemicals technology in the last Effects of introduced Family and corporate 100 years species farming Natural resources Effects of habitat change Organic and non- needed to generate on living organisms organic farming electricity and impacts on the environment STC FOSS STC Microworlds Models and Designs Land and Water Roles of microorganisms Changes in Habitat loss due to in our world technology in the last human practices Antibacterial products, 100 years Human actions that water pollution, and soil Use of natural increase and decrease pollution can adversely resources for erosion affect microorganisms technology Impacts of erosion on Effects of water quality natural systems and on life human systems Water cycle Developed by Kathryn Kelsey, Seattle Public Schools Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 34 Grades 6-8 Science Kit Framework Biology Chemistry Physics Earth Science th 6 Grade Theme: Environment Through the Eyes of Different Cultures Throughout the history of civilization, cultures have explained natural phenomena in different ways. Living organisms and non-living features have specific roles in the daily lives of people. Cultural values can determine a person’s relationship to the environment. FOSS SEPUP STC Diversity of Life Solutions Magnets and Motors Importance of different and Pollution Technology can force organisms to different Decisions on treating the people to reevaluate cultures ―Acme Wastewater‖ could their values concerning Food rituals in different depend on cultural values the environment and cultures Social justice issues with living organisms Ethical treatment of animals regard to the environment Historical explanations of magnetism NSTA Role of magnetism in Truth About Science different cultures Interface of culture and results from systematic science experiments in decision making th 7 Grade Theme: Climate Change Global warming has become a major concern for all people on Earth. Understanding our relationship to climate and our influences on climate systems can help us find solutions to decrease predicted risks to earth systems. STC/MS STC/MS STC/MS Human Body Systems Energy, Machines, and Catastrophic Events Role of carbon dioxide in Motion Differences between living organisms Energy use and climate and weather dependence Water cycle Sources of energy for Greenhouse gases and human use their presence in Earth‘s Alternative energy atmosphere sources Influences of climate Reducing energy use in change on weather our lives systems Law of conservation of energy th 8 Grade Theme: Sustainability How do we continue to meet the needs of today’s human societies without compromising the needs of future generations? SEPUP/SALI STC/MS STC/MS Ecology Properties Earth in Space and Evolution of Matter Idea of spaceship earth Influences of introduced Law of conservation of matter Effects of seasons on species on natural Law of conservation of energy climate systems Carbon and nitrogen cycles Interconnections of earth Advantages and Reusing and recycling systems disadvantages of materials genetically modified Water treatment and water organisms quality Impacts of global climate change on living organisms and where they live Carbon and nitrogen cycles Developed by Kathryn Kelsey, Seattle Public Schools Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 35 Social Studies Connections The Sustainable Design Project is about getting students involved as citizens of their local community. The Project aims to challenge students to dig deep into an issue or problem that is of personal importance. By examining that issue or problem through the lenses of environment, economy, and society, students can focus on key social studies content areas, including civics and economics. Social Studies Classroom-Based Assessments (CBAs) The Sustainable Design Project may be structured so that it can be used as a CBA in social studies. The basic CBA structure shares common elements with the Sustainable Design Project process, including: forming an essential question; researching an issue, problem, or event; preparing and analyzing information; and reporting. Humans and the Environment CBA for High School Students You may be able to guide students in choosing Responsible citizenship requires understanding topics for their Sustainable Design Project that are how humans interact with the environment. in line with the requirements of a CBA. In addition, You will EITHER propose a solution to a you will need to be to follow the directions in the current environmental issue that will improve CBA support materials and use any tools (such as the health of the system OR analyze a graphic organizers and rubrics) provided in the historical situation in terms of the environment support materials. The following table lists some and propose a reasonable alternative that CBAs which potentially align with the Sustainable would have improved the health of the system. Design Project. CBAs that Align with Sustainable Design Projects Subject Area Elementary School Middle School High School You Decide International Relations U.S. Foreign Policy Civics Whose Rules? Constitutional Issues Constitutional Issues Technology Through History What‘s the Big Idea? the Ages Humans and the Humans and the Humans and the Geography Environment Environment Environment Economics International Relations Mathematics Connections The Sustainable Design Project offers students the opportunity to use math skills in real-world applications. The EALRs and GLEs in mathematics that can be met in a student‘s Sustainable Design Project will depend on the chosen topic or system and how much mathematical information needs to be collected, analyzed, and presented. The following mathematical content areas are likely to be included in a Sustainable Design Project: Collecting data Analyzing data Taking measurements Using units of measurement Interpreting and creating graphs and tables Estimating and surveying Using statistics Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 36 Language Arts Connections The Language Arts standards include developing knowledge and skills in reading, writing, and communication. The Sustainable Design Project engages students in reading as they research their focus question and seek out sources of information. Students may gather information from nonfiction, informational texts, which may include technical texts and web-based resources. The project also engages students in communication as they work with community experts, cooperate with team members, and prepare a presentation to share their project with others. Students delivering their presentation orally may use effective delivery methods such as gestures, style, eye contact, and speed. The extent to which the project includes writing skills depends on how the project is structured. For example, students may write a persuasive essay or a research paper on their Sustainable Design Project. As they progress through the stages of their project, students will need to take notes and cite their sources. They may need to write a grant or a fundraising letter. There are many forms in which a student may choose to present their final project, which could take shape as a written document, such as a paper, a brochure, a website, a presentation to the School Board or parent group, a display at a science fair, or a wiki. A written final project will likely include the following writing skills: Pre-writing Producing drafts Revising Publishing final text Arts Connections Encourage students to be creative about the medium they choose for the presentation of their Sustainable Design Project. Depending on the chosen topic and the intended audience, students may choose to incorporate dance, music, theater, poetry, or visual arts into their presentation. Health and Fitness Connections Depending on the system and focus question that a student chooses, health and fitness EALRs and GLEs may align with a student‘s project. The Health and Fitness EALRs most likely to apply to a Sustainable Design Project include the following topics: Nutrition Disease Personal health Environmental health. Career and Technical Education Connections Career and Technical Education (CTE) courses can be closely aligned with the Sustainable Design Project. These courses are: Situated in a real-world context Integrated across disciplines Connected to careers Make use of community experts. In addition, many CTE courses challenge students to provide solutions to real-world problems, including technology and design problems. From agriculture to transportation technologies, there are many connections between CTE courses and Sustainable Design Project topics. The table provides examples of how Career Pathways in CTE programs may connect to Sustainable Design Projects. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 37 Example Sustainable Design Project CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION (CTE) Connections Career Specific Topic Area Sustainable Design Project Ideas Pathways Organic farming Agricultural production and crop Community supported agriculture science Integrated pest management Genetically modified food safety Manure management Agriculture Animal/livestock husbandry Livestock diseases and Science Safe food supply Soil erosion Forestry Water quality protection Landscaping and Pesticide free zones Groundskeeping Use of native plants Turfgrass Management Reduction of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers Socially responsible business practices Business Law Environmental law and policies Business and Energy regulations Marketing Cost/profit analysis of business decisions Marketing Health and safety regulations Product promotion and messaging Nutrition Food Production and Services; Food safety and sanitation Nutrition and Wellness Family food budget Health and ―Green‖ interior elements and furniture, such as Housing, Interiors, and Human wool carpets, low VOC paints, cork floors, and Furnishings Services fluorescent lights Resource conservation Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Carbon footprint and carbon credits Eco-tourism Product packaging Architectural Drafting and Environmental impacts of design CAD/CADD Environmental health and safety codes Green building and LEEDs certification Technologic systems interact with social, Construction Technologies environmental and scientific systems Technologies to conserve water, soil, and energy Technology Energy and Power Renewable and non-renewable energy sources and Industry Technologies Energy conservation Cradle-to-Cradle design approach Manufacturing Technologies Materials science Emissions and noise footprint of airline travel Diesel emissions from ships at port Transportation Technologies Oil and fuel spills from ships Mass transit systems The Sustainable Design Project is a teaching and learning strategy that can be used to meet multiple requirements and mandates, prepare students for assessments, and meet grade level learning expectations. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 38 Chapter 5 Resources WA State K-12 Integrated Environmental and Sustainability Education Learning Standards This document describes what all students should know and be able to do in the area of Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE) and includes an alignment of the ESE Standards with Washington State K-12 standards for science and social studies. http://www.k12.wa.us/EnvironmentSustainability/default.aspx Online Grade Level Resources (EALRs and GLEs) On this website, you can search the EALRs and GLEs, and download free copies or order print copies of the subject-area GLE handbooks. http://www.k12.wa.us/ealrs/default.aspx Social Studies CBA Resources The OSPI website provides support documents for the different CBAs, as well as bridging documents prepared by local education organizations. http://www.k12.wa.us/SocialStudies/CBAs/default.aspx Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 39 CHAPTER 6: Connecting to Community Resources A principle of the Sustainable Design Project is to extend students‘ learning outside of the classroom by connecting to and working collaboratively with their community. This chapter provides a description of an online database that can be used for connecting with community experts, as well as specific tips for working with businesses, community-based organizations, institutions of higher education, and government agencies. “Student Project Space” Online Database ―Student Project Space‖ is an online resource developed to assist students and teachers with their Sustainable Design Projects. This statewide online database, can help students find project opportunities through connections with community-based and government agency resources. The database also provides students with a place to post their own projects and build upon the work of other student projects. Student Project Space Online Database http://www.e3washington.org/student-project/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 40 Tips for Connecting with Community-Based Organizations The community beyond the classroom offers a host of expertise and resources to help students design solutions to environmental and sustainability issues. Consider the neighborhood community gardening group that is growing organic produce to donate to their food bank, or the state chapter of a national environmental organization. Your community is ripe with people who can help your students learn, explore, and get involved in their Sustainable Design Projects. Encourage students to think broadly when they identify experts within their targeted community. Community-based organizations include some of the following categories: Museums, nature centers, zoos, and aquariums. Youth organizations, such as EarthCorps, YMCA, or WSU Extension such as Master Gardeners and 4H. Environmental organizations, such as People for Puget Sound, RE Sources for Sustainable Communities, and Washington Toxics Coalition. Religious organizations, such as Earth Justice Ministries. Service organizations, such as Rotary or Lions. Industry, trade, and professional organizations, such as Built Green or Master Home Builders. Local community gardens. There are many ways that a student can get involved with a community-based organization. Some suggestions are provided below: The organization may have a speaker‘s bureau or an individual who will come to the classroom to talk about their area of expertise. The organization may allow students to tour a behind-the-scenes area, such as a metal shop or wildlife rehabilitation center. The organization may need volunteers. Students may be able to present their Sustainable Design Projects at a membership meeting or a board meeting of the organization. The organization may be able to provide resources related to a student‘s chosen topic, including interviews, reports, and data. Students may be able to write to and in advocacy for a community-based organization. Students may create blog campaigns to create awareness of the priorities of their community based organizations. Students may create art in their classrooms to support the clientele of hospitals or homeless organizations. Students may create websites and wikis for community based organizations. Community-Based Organizations Resources A small sample of community-based organizations in Washington: American Lung Association of Washington The ALAW works on issues related to clean air, asthma, smoking, and lung disease. http://www.alaw.org/ Environmental Education Association of Washington Washington‘s professional association for environmental educators and stakeholders. http://www.eeaw.org/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 41 Institute for Children’s Environmental Health ICEH works toward ensuring a ―healthy, just, and sustainable future for all children.‖ http://www.iceh.org/ People for Puget Sound People for Puget Sound is working to protect the health of Puget Sound. http://www.pugetsound.org/ RE Sources for Sustainable Communities RE Sources offers education and advocacy programs focused on waste reduction, air pollution, global warming, and marine waters in the greater Puget Sound region. http://re-sources.org Seattle Tilth Tilth offers education and programs on organic gardening, local food systems, and natural resources conservation. http://www.seattletilth.org/ Washington Toxics Coalition WTC works on improving product safety, home and garden health, and sustainable agriculture. http://www.watoxics.org/ Tips for Connecting with Business and Industry The business community is a rich source of experts from different industries and fields, with a wealth of diverse networks of connections and resources. One way to connect to the business community is to approach a professional association, such as the Washington State Bar Association or the Seattle Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. These professional associations may be able to recommend specific members who would be interested in working with students on their Sustainable Design Projects. Your city or county might even publish a ―green pages,‖ a directory of local businesses that are committed to sustainable business practices. There are many ways that a student can work together with an expert from the business community. Invite the business person to visit the classroom as a guest speaker. Offer a service to the business, such as conducting an energy audit. Ask the business person to help evaluate final project presentations. Ask the business person to serve as a mentor to a student. Business and Industry Resources A few key business and industry resources: WA RoundTable: Washington Roundtable is a nonprofit, public policy organization comprised of chief executives representing major private sector employers throughout Washington State. The organization‘s formation in 1983 was spearheaded by George Weyerhaeuser and a group of state business leaders who foresaw a growing need to engage in and lend their expertise to important public policy issues. http://www.waroundtable.com/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 42 Environmental and Land Use Law: Engaging Students in their Communities The Washington State Bar Association provides a free curriculum for high school teachers interested in bringing environmental and land use law attorneys into their classrooms. Specifically developed for Law Day and Law Week activities, the curriculum can be used any time of the year to provide teachers and visiting attorneys with age-appropriate classroom activities. The full curriculum and an accompanying PowerPoint presentation can be downloaded from the following website: http://www.wsba.org/lawyers/groups/elul/cirriculam+explanation+page.htm Puget Sound Energy - Powerful Choices for the Environment An environmental education program that is changing how Washington state's middle school students and their families think about and use natural resources in their daily lives. http://www.pse.com/community/educationalprograms/pages/powerfulchoices.aspx The Manufacturing Industrial Council of Seattle (MIC) Host of the Green Industrial Business and Career Expo program for students and educators highlights the new business and career opportunities that are being created by our transition away from fossil fuels. http://www.micouncil.org/ Tips for Connecting with Institutions of Higher Education Institutions of higher education employ professors, researchers, and graduate students who are working to solve many of the same issues and problems that your students may be investigating for their Sustainable Design Projects. In addition, institutions of higher education are charged with transferring the new ideas and technologies developed within their research labs to their students and the greater community. Community and technical colleges in particular may have programs focused on specific problems or challenges. Colleges and universities are organized into schools, departments, research centers, and programs. By perusing the website of a local college or university, you may be able to find professors and researchers working in areas that overlap with your students‘ interests. In particular, look for programs that provide community outreach and education programs. There are many ways that a K-12 student can get involved with the students, faculty, and staff at a college or university. Invite a college department to provide a speaker to a high school classroom. Ask graduate students in a particular university program, such as a College of Education or a Department of Engineering, to act as mentors to students. Encourage students to seek opportunities to work as volunteers or interns in a research lab. Arrange for students to tour a research lab. Encourage students to explore summer youth programs offered by a local college or university. Students may write professors related to a specific subject, after their scientific labs were completed. Contact local ongoing projects such as watersheds or fish hatcheries. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 43 Higher Education Resources A sample of higher education resources: Community and Technical Colleges The Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges provides a list of all programs in the state. http://www.sbctc.ctc.edu/general/c_index.aspx Four-Year Colleges and Universities Washington Higher Learning Coordinating Board provides links to all public, independent/private, and religious colleges and universities in the state. http://www.hecb.wa.gov./Links/colleges/collegesindex.asp Summer Youth Programs at the University of Washington The UW offers programs for elementary, middle school, and high school students in programs as diverse as: botany, marine biology, inventions, law, and natural science illustration. http://summeryouth.washington.edu/syp/ Washington State University-Pullman, WA Washington State University Extension engages people, organizations, and communities to advance knowledge, economic well-being and quality of life by fostering inquiry, learning, and the application of research. http://ext.wsu.edu Tips for Connecting with Government Agencies Government agencies at the state, county, and local level are an excellent source of content-area experts. There are many ways that students can access the resources of government agencies. Some suggestions are provided below: Local, county, and state level ecology departments have offices of sustainability that can provide information to students. Other local government offices such as local utilities, parks, planning, or transportation may have information on water, energy, waste management, resource conservation, restoration, and more. They may also offer grants, outreach programs, and speakers. Government agency websites are great sources of reports, data, field studies, and other information sources to assist students with their research. Agency workers, researchers, and scientists may be willing to mentor a student, host a tour of their lab, take a student along on a field study, or visit a classroom as a guest presenter. Many agencies regularly organize meetings to educate the local community about particular issues and to solicit public comments. Students may be able to attend these meetings. Students may use the data from their experiences to write legislators in advocacy for higher education, the environment and human civil rights issues that impact homelessness and students in poverty. Students may write legislators thanking them for their efforts and use HSPE approved persuasive writing to advocate for specific issues around SDP. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 44 State Government Resources A sampling of Washington State government agencies and commissions: (Your county or city government also has agencies and programs related to local sustainability issues.) Access Washington This is the official website for Washington State government. It provides a portal to state agencies and departments. http://access.wa.gov/ Washington State Department of Agriculture WSDA is responsible for food, animals, pesticides, fertilizers, plants, and insects. http://agr.wa.gov/ Washington Biodiversity Project This Project is concerned with protecting the State‘s animals, plants, and ecosystems. http://www.biodiversity.wa.gov/ Washington State Conservation Commission The Commission assists local conservation districts with managing and conserving renewable natural resources. http://www.scc.wa.gov/ Washington State Department of Ecology DOE has programs in sustainability, air quality, hazardous waste, nuclear waste, solid waste, spills and cleanups, water quality, and resources. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/ Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish and Wildlife is focused on managing salmon recovery, wildlife habitat, fish/shellfish resources, and hunting. http://wdfw.wa.gov/ Washington State Department of Health DOH is charged with helping Washington citizens to stay healthy and safe. Its programs include community and family health, environmental health, public health, and health systems. http://www.doh.wa.gov/ Washington State Department of Natural Resources DNR is responsible for managing recreation, forest practices, conservation and restoration, and aquatic and marine sciences. http://www.dnr.wa.gov/Pages/default.aspx Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission WSP manages 120 state parks and recreation areas, including historical, cultural, and natural sites. http://www.parks.wa.gov/ Washington State Department of Transportation WSDOT manages transportation systems, such as roads, bridges, ferries, and railways. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 45 CHAPTER 7: Project Funding & Resources Depending on the chosen topic and the scale, some Sustainable Design Projects may require special tools, equipment, or have other capital needs. You may be able to receive support for small capital expenditures through your school or PTA. However, if a student team is planning a project that requires a larger amount of capital, you may need to help them access school funds or raise funds. This is an excellent opportunity to actively engage your students in the process of fundraising, budgeting, soliciting donations, and applying for mini-grants. Fundraising rules and requirements When schools, staff, and/or students engage in fundraising activities, these activities are governed by Washington State laws (and possibly by grant provisions). Start early and always check with your district office before planning any type of fundraising activity. Your district office can provide guidance on how to plan and implement fundraising activities that are in compliance with these laws. A brief summary of different types of fundraising has been provided below, but please be aware that it is crucial to obtain guidance from your school district office. Fundraising Outside of School Students are allowed to raise money on their own or as part of a community group, as long as the school, ASB, or district is not involved and the fundraising is not done during school time (WASBO, 2007). Associated Student Body (ASB) Fundraising If fundraising is done by the ASB, or with school or district approval/supervision, and/or is done during school time, then specific requirements must be met. If a fundraiser meets the following requirements, then it is considered an ASB fundraiser and must follow specific rules: ―Students are involved and The school district or school name is used and It is conducted on or off school property and It is done with the approval of the school board or their designees‖ (WASBO, 2007) and It is supervised by the teacher and/or parents affiliated with the class. ASB funds are only to be used for ―optional, non-credit, extracurricular activities‖ (Fiscal Guidance for Culminating Projects, n.d.). ASB funds may not be used to pay ―for supplies or materials for culminating projects,‖ therefore it is recommended that you check with your district office to see if project expenses can be covered by general funds or charitable fundraisers (Fiscal Guidance for Culminating Projects, n.d.). The ASB Fundraising Resource Guide is available from the Washington Association of School Business Officials (see Resources section below). This guide provides specific information on money management, fundraising procedures, parent permission, restrictions and pitfalls, and fundraising forms. It is important that this resource be consulted before beginning to raise funds. Charitable Fundraising Students may want to raise funds for a charitable cause, such as making a donation to a community non-profit organization. If students are involved in charitable fundraising and certain rules are followed, then the fundraising is considered to be ―non-associated student body private money.‖ In this case, the fundraising is not subject to ASB fundraising rules, but instead is subject to charitable fundraising rules. There are five main rules for charitable fundraising activities: Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 46 1. ―There must be a school board policy 2. Should be a bonafide charity 3. Prior notice must be given 4. Direct services provided by the school district must be paid for 5. It is NOT public money‖ (Charitable Fund Raising, n.d.). It is important that you contact your district office to obtain specific rules and requirements for charitable fundraising activities. Fundraising Resource ASB Fundraising Resource Guide This Fundraising Handbook can be found under the ―Publications‖ section of the Washington Association of School Business Officials website. http://www.wasbo.org/ Explaining Fundraising and Budgeting to Your Students Why do we need to fundraise? Depending on your project, you may not need any money at all. Some projects, however, need funds which can be acquired through a fundraiser or a community grant. Other projects might benefit from the donation of supplies or equipment by a local business. Before thinking about fundraising, grants or donations, first determine if financial help will be needed. Start by creating a simple budget for the project. Budgeting might sound difficult, but it is something that you do all the time without realizing it. Whenever you make the decision to purchase something, you first need to determine your resources (how much money you have), your need (how much do you need and desire this product), and your buying power (the price of the product). Developing a simple budget for your project can be an easy process. How do we develop a project budget? Your budget will help determine your fundraising needs for the project. Much can be obtained through donations and resource sharing without having to spend any money. Some projects can be broken up into phases to stay within a tight budget scheme. Budget first, assess available resources, reassess needs and wants, and then determine fundraising plan. To develop a project budget, begin by listing everything you think you will need for the project, including supplies, equipment, tools, food, advertising, and more. Make sure to note what items you already have, can borrow, or can get donated and what items you will need to purchase. Next, put a monetary value by the items you will need to purchase. You can determine the money value of an item by estimating or by doing a little research. Call up your local hardware store and ask them to price an item for you. You can also try looking through catalogs or searching the Internet to find out the price of an item. Your budget should represent the total cost of all the items you need. This figure tells you how much money you will need to raise. ~Reprinted with minor adaptations, with permission of Pacific Science Center, from ―Chapter Four: Spreading the Word and Raising Money‖ of Making Waves: Watershed Education in Your Community—A Handbook for Teens. Soliciting donations A student project may need donations of money, equipment, supplies, or time. If you are looking for adults who can volunteer their time or expertise, you may want to start with the parents of your students as well as the community experts that are working with your students on their Sustainable Design Projects. It is important that you contact your district office for guidance on rules Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 47 governing donation solicitations, handling of donated funds, and ownership of donated materials. Your local business community may be a potential source of tools, equipment, food, or expertise. Involve your students in identifying what they need, who may be able to provide it, and soliciting the donations. A template for a donation letter is included below. Explaining Donations to Your Students How do we go about asking for donations? Do you need a measuring tape, rubber boots, and a bucket? You might consider asking a local business to donate particular items for your project. First, determine the specific items that you need and identify which local businesses have those items for sale. You also need to determine how each item will specifically be used. For example, if you want a local bagel shop to donate a dozen bagels and cream cheese, they will want to know that you are using the bagels to feed volunteers for a streamside restoration project. The best way to approach a business is to write a letter to the business owner or store manager. You can find out this person‘s name, and how to spell it, by calling the store. Then, draft a letter that explains exactly what you want donated and how it will be used. See the donation letter template below. Several days after the letter has been delivered, follow up with a friendly phone call to the business owner or store manager offering to answer any questions they may have about your project. During the phone call, you may want to reiterate how the items will be used. Also let the person know when you need the items for them to be most useful. Ask the owner/manager when they will be able to get back to you with your decision. If you do not hear back by that date, it is perfectly fine to call them once again. If you do receive a donation, offer to pick it up in person. Then, make sure to promptly write a thank-you letter to the business. You may want to follow-up later with another letter that includes a photograph of your team using the items, or a handmade thank-you poster with all of your team members‘ signatures. ~Reprinted with minor adaptations, with permission of Pacific Science Center, from ―Chapter Four: Spreading the Word and Raising Money‖ of Making Waves: Watershed Education in Your Community—A Handbook for Teens. Template for Donation Letter Use this template to draft a letter that asks a local business for a donation. YOUR NAME & ADDRESS: Maria Machala 2435 East Rivertown Road Waterville, WA 98777 BUSINESS NAME & ADDRESS: Jim‘s Hardware and More 5623 Bracken Marsh Blvd. Waterville, WA 98777 DATE: October 21, 2009 SALUTATION: Dear Mr. McAllister, PURPOSE OF LETTER: I am writing on behalf of a student team at Waterville High School to request a small donation of supplies for a revegetation project. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 48 DESCRIPTION: Our team is made up of students from Waterville High School. We are dedicated to improving the water quality of Connelly Creek, which runs near your business. We are planning a creek-side weeding th project on November 18 to pull weeds from the creek banks. We are preparing the area so that we can plant native trees and shrubs in early spring. REQUEST FOR DONATION: Our team is in need of several items to make our project a success. We are th hoping that Jim‘s Hardware & More can donate the following items for our event on November 18 : 12 pairs of gardening gloves, sizes small – large 25 composting yard waste bags ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: We will acknowledge your generosity by including a thank-you notice to Jim‘s Hardware & More on our school‘s website as well as announcing your donation to all of the volunteers who participate in the project. YOUR CONTACT INFORMATION: I look forward to hearing from you regarding this request. I can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org or (206) 555-1425. CLOSING: Sincerely, Maria Machala Student at Waterville High School ~Reprinted with minor adaptations, with permission of Pacific Science Center, from ―Chapter Four: Spreading the Word and Raising Money‖ of Making Waves: Watershed Education in Your Community—A Handbook for Teens. Applying for school or community grants Locating and applying for a grant can seem like a daunting task. After all, many non-profit organizations employ development managers who write and manage grants full-time. However, there are many small grants available for student, school, and community projects. These mini-grants often have quicker turn-around timelines and simplified applications. The best starting place in your search for grants is your school district office. Also, some corporations, community-based organizations, family foundations, and government agencies provide mini-grants for community projects. The Grant Resources section at the end of this chapter provides a few suggestions for starting your grant search. Please be aware that you must contact your school district office to receive guidance on laws and regulations that govern grant writing and grant management for school projects. How to Explain a Grant to Your Students What is a community grant? A grant is a sum of money that is ―granted‖ to an individual or group for a specific project. A grant may come from the government, a business, or a private foundation. There are millions of dollars in grants available for a variety of projects, including Sustainable Design Projects just like yours! There are federal- and state-level grants. Community grants are generally funded by local organizations and are created specifically for citizen projects. With a little research, you may find some grants available in your own community. Where do we find out about community grants? You will have to do some research to find out about local grant resources. Call your school district office and find out if they have a person in charge of grant writing and fundraising. He or she may be able to share some resources with you. You can also try websites for your city and county government and local universities or colleges. A science center or nature center might be able to help you find some local grant opportunities. What is the process of getting a grant? Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 49 You have to apply for a grant. Many small grants have simple applications, while larger grants often have more exhaustive application processes. Generally, you will have to provide information about your team and the specific project, a budget, and a timeline. Depending on the grant, you may need to be associated with a school district or other organization who can oversee the money, since some grants can only go to non-profit organizations with a tax-exempt status. Your teacher can help you determine if this is an issue. How do you keep your grant application out of the slush pile? There are some basic things you can do to ensure that your application gets serious consideration. If you submit a sloppy application two days after the deadline, you are guaranteeing that you will not receive the grant. By investing the time to create a well organized, thorough grant application, you greatly increase your chances of receiving the grant. ~Reprinted with minor adaptations, with permission of Pacific Science Center, from ―Chapter Four: Spreading the Word and Raising Money‖ of Making Waves: Watershed Education in Your Community—A Handbook for Teens. Tips for Writing a Winning Grant Application Check eligibility guidelines first. Many people go to a great deal of effort and don‘t meet the priorities of the grant, feeling like it‘s an automatic. Start early. Research and documentation take time. Be sure to allow plenty of time to present the many aspects of your project. Hint: Get approval signatures EARLY in process. Grants are a team process and if a key permission signature is missing because that party is too busy, then you have difficulty. Check to see if it is an annual grant. If it is, mark your calendar to follow up with a stronger proposal, after you have had time to research it. Evaluate if you have time to put a good proposal together in the one week, 30 days or 90 days required by the deadline. A poor proposal is not worth as much as waiting a year. Look for and participate in informational webinars or websites suggested by grantor. Check out the procedural elements of peer review. Government grants have extra layers of paperwork, as opposed to smaller community grants. Edit carefully. Make sure to check, and then recheck, your entire application for spelling and grammar. Ask several people to read the application for you before submitting it. A pair of fresh eyes can often find mistakes in the text that you never even noticed. Follow the directions. Most grant applications come with specific directions, such as the maximum number of pages and the required font size. Follow the directions carefully. Neatness counts. Your grant application should arrive clean and neat. If possible, type your application and print it on a quality printer. Depending on the directions, e-mail your application or mail it in a flat manila envelope instead of folding it. Meet the deadline. In fact, you should aim to beat the deadline. Choose a date one week before the actual deadline and use that as your personal deadline. Getting the application in early will reduce your stress level and give you some extra time in case something unexpected happens. Partners help. Funders typically love knowing that groups of people are working together on a project. If you have a project partner, make sure to mention it on the application. If the grant allows, ask your project partner to write a letter of support to accompany the application. Be persistent. Understand that not many grants are funded for numerous reasons, even in the best of economic conditions. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 50 ~Reprinted with minor adoptions, with permission of Pacific Science Center, from ―Chapter Four: Spreading the Word and Raising Money‖ of Making Waves: Watershed Education in Your Community—A Handbook for Teens. Grant Resources This is just a small sample of the grants available for student, school, and community projects. Grants.Gov This is the clearinghouse for grants offered by the federal government agencies. You can search or browse by category or agency. http://www07.grants.gov/applicants/find_grant_opportunities.jsp Terry Husseman Sustainable Schools Awards This program, coordinated by the Washington State Department of Ecology, provides monetary awards to schools participating in resource conservation and sustainability. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/swfa/terryhusseman.html Home Depot and National Gardening Association’s Youth Garden Grant Program This program provides funds to school and community organizations to create child-centered garden programs. http://www.kidsgardening.com/YGG.asp National Wildlife Federation’s Schoolyard Habitats Program This program helps schools and outdoor education centers develop habitat areas for wildlife and education. http://www.nwf.org/schoolyard/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 51 CHAPTER 8: Showcasing Sustainable Design Projects Students have the opportunity to showcase their Sustainable Design Projects on the statewide ―Student Project Space‖ website. Exemplary projects could be chosen to be showcased at a variety of venues across the state, including: regionally at ESDs and other community forums; at the annual conference of the Environmental Education Association of Washington; at OSPI; and to the Washington State legislature. OSPI plans to support the Sustainable Design Project with its own public relations plan to help get students‘ projects seen by the public. The public relations plan includes supporting the ―Student Project Space‖ website, inviting local media to cover exemplary student projects, and providing opportunities for students to present their projects at school board meetings, community and industry groups, and conferences. Preparing for students’ presentations Students may need help identifying appropriate presentation formats and a target audience. They also may need help determining how to connect with their target audience and how to plan a time to give their presentation. If your students are planning on making presentations to non-school groups, then they may need extra help identifying a contact person, scheduling their presentation, arranging transportation and any related costs, and preparing an appropriate presentation style for that audience. The community experts with whom each student worked may know of likely forums where a student could present his or her project. Student Planning Tool #6, Preparing for your Presentation will help take students step-by-step through the process of identifying an audience, choosing a presentation format and visual aids, and developing a plan for including the necessary elements into their presentation. This tool can be found in the Appendix. Assessing students’ presentations A sample rubric is provided in the Appendix to help identify the different components of a student presentation that can be assessed. The rubric was designed for a middle school level project where students worked in groups, focused on an environmental health topic, and made an oral presentation. You can pick and choose from the different criteria elements and levels of success to customize your own presentation rubric. Depending on how you and your students approach the Sustainable Design Project, you may need to fine-tune the rubric so that it is an effective assessment tool for your own students‘ project topics and presentation formats. The Chapter Resources section below includes a resource that provides templates for creating rubrics for student presentations. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 52 Chapter 8 Resources Student Project Space Database Student Project Space is a statewide online project database in which students can find project opportunities through connections with community-based and agency resources. The resource also provides students with an outlet where they can post their own projects and build upon the work of other student projects. http://www.e3washington.org/student-project/ Sample Rubrics for Composing and Making a Presentation The Buck Institute for Education‘s Project Based Learning Handbook offers several templates to help teachers develop their own rubrics. You can download the ―Creating a Rubric for Composing a Presentation‖ (pg. 73) and ―Creating a Rubric for Making a Presentation‖ (pg. 74) templates from the following website: http://www.bie.org/index.php/site/PBL/pbl_handbook_downloads/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 53 CHAPTER 9: Resources for Teaching Sustainable Design Education for Sustainability—General Resources Education for Sustainability: An Agenda for Action This report states that the ―time has come to ensure that the concepts of education for sustainability are discussed and woven into a framework upon which current and future educational policy is based.‖ This report is a product of the National Forum on Partnerships Supporting Education about the Environment, from the President‘s Council on Sustainable Development. http://www.gcrio.org/edu/pcsd/toc.html UNESCO Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Learn about the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014). The overall goal of the DESD is ―to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning.‖ http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=27234&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html Center for Sustainable Systems CSS develops life cycle based models and sustainability metrics to evaluate the performance and to guide the continuous improvement of industrial systems for meeting societal needs. We promote sustainability by developing these tools and knowledge in collaboration with diverse stakeholders so that better informed decisions are made. It is the vision of CSS and the University of Michigan to be nationally and internationally recognized for creative and effective teaching and research in systems based approaches to sustainability. http://css.snre.umich.edu/ National Museum of the American Indian NMAI is a new museum that focuses on the spiritual and cultural heritage from the First Nation Peoples of the Americas. http://www.nmai.si.edu/ Education for Sustainability—Teacher Resources Facing the Future: People and the Planet Facing the Future develops young people‘s capacity and commitment to create thriving, sustainable, and peaceful local and global communities. In particular, FTF provides a Washington State specific middle school level unit, ―Understanding Sustainability.‖ Find curricula, resources, and more at their website. http://www.facingthefuture.org/ Sustainable Schools Project The Sustainable Schools Project is a model for school improvement and civic engagement that uses sustainability as an integrating context. Find lesson plans, resources, and links to sustainability projects at this website. http://www.sustainableschoolsproject.org/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 54 Vermont Education for Sustainability Project The EFS Project works on educational policy in favor of sustainability education. http://www.vtefs.org/ Education for Sustainability—Higher Education Resources Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education AASHE is a membership-based association of colleges and universities working to advance sustainability in higher education in the US and Canada. http://www.aashe.org/ Education for Sustainability in Higher Education Second Nature works with institutions of higher education to make the principles of education a foundation of all learning. Second Nature‘s vision of a healthy, just, and sustainable future is described at this website. http://www.secondnature.org/efs/efs.htm Toxic Substances and Environmental Health Tox Town This interactive online resource allows you to investigate different ―neighborhoods‖ to discover toxic chemicals where you live, work, and play. The student-friendly site is available in both English and Spanish. http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/ Integrated Environmental Health Middle School Project Access free, downloadable teacher resources from this University of Washington program. The Environmental Health Fact Files provide lesson plans on lead and asthma for teachers of science, math, language arts, social studies, and health and fitness. The Health and Environment Research Tool helps teachers plan a research project very similar to the Sustainable Design Project. The Quicksilver Question is an interactive, online game that engages students in solving a mock environmental health problem. http://depts.washington.edu/ceeh/education_ceeh.html TOXNET Hazardous Substances Data Bank Type a hazardous substance into this database (such as antifreeze) and find out its toxicology properties and dangers to human health. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB Sustainable Businesses Simply Sustainable Industries The New Zealand Ministry for the Environment provides information, by industry, of how to incorporate sustainable and commercially sound processes into businesses. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/sustainable-industry/tools-services/types.php Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 55 Sustainable Industries This portal provides information for business leaders on the following topics: green building, clean energy, technology, food and farms, marketing, finance, transportation, and recycled materials. http://www.sustainableindustries.com Sustainable Style Foundation The SSF is focused on helping people ―look fabulous, live well, and do good‖ through its programs, magazine, and guides. http://www.sustainablestyle.org/education-awareness Sustainable Communities Network The SCN provides resources for citizens to create healthy, vital, sustainable communities. Their resources include a Sustainable Building Resource Directory, tools for smart growth, resources for growing a sustainable economy in different industries, and tips on sustainable government. http://www.sustainable.org/economy/manufacturing.html Sustainable Design The Designer’s Atlas of Sustainability This book, by Ann Thorpe, presents designers with an overview of how to incorporate environmental, economic, and social sustainability into their work. The book was published by Island Press in 2007. An accompanying website provides reading lists and a teaching guide. http://www.designers-atlas.net/index.html Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things Architect William McDonough and chemist Michael Braungart‘s book issues a call for a new industrial revolution that uses sustainable design principles to design buildings and products. Available from North Point Press, 2002. http://www.mcdonough.com/full.htm The Sorrell Foundation Young Design Center The Sorrell Foundation provides several programs to involve students in designing the quality of life in their schools and communities. http://www.thesorrellfoundation.com David Orr: The Designers Challenge Transcript of a speech given by David Orr to the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania in 2007. http://www.eoearth.org/article/The_designer's_challenge_(speech_by_David_Orr) Construction, Architecture, Green Building Architecture 2030 This nonprofit is focused on transforming the building sector from a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions to a central part of the solution to the global warming crises. http://www.architecture2030.org/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 56 Built Green—Master Builders Association of Washington This Built Green website provides resources for green home construction. From this website, you can link to your local county‘s own Built Green website. http://www.builtgreenwashington.org/ BuildingGreen BuildingGreen is a publishing company focused on providing information on green design and construction. http://www.buildinggreen.com U.S. Green Building Council This nonprofit is working to make green building accessible to everyone. http://www.usgbc.org Renewable Energy and Fuel Harvesting the Wind PBS Video The e2 energy video series examines alternatives to the fossil fuel culture. http://www.pbs.org/e2/index.html Windustry’s Wind Farmers Network Learn all about harvesting the wind, including community wind projects, at this website. http://www.windustry.org/community National Renewable Energy Laboratory This website features information on many types of renewable energy, including: biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_wind.html Natural Resources Defense Council — Energy Issues Check out a variety of tips on how to deal with oil and energy issues. http://www.nrdc.org/energy Northwest Biodiesel Network Find out about local biodiesel events and resources, as well as the Breathable Bus Coalition. http://nwbiodiesel.org/index.htm The Federal Clean Air Act Read the full code of the Clean Air Act, amended in 1990. http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ Energy Kids Page This Department of Energy website provides kid-friendly information, activities, and games about energy sources. http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/index.html Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 57 Carbon and Global Warming Natural Resources Defense Council — Global Warming Explore the issue of global warming at this informative site. http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/default.asp Program on Climate Change This University of Washington program provides resources for educators. http://www.uwpcc.washington.edu/ Equitable and Sustainable Communities International Society for Ecology & Culture This UK organization promotes locally based alternatives to the global consumer culture. http://www.isec.org.uk/ Project for Public Spaces PPS is dedicated to helping people create and sustain public places that build communities, from public markets and parks to waterfronts and community squares. http://www.pps.org Institute for Transportation and Development Policy ITDP is focused on promoting sustainable and socially equitable transportation systems worldwide. http://www.itdp.org Center for Neighborhood Technology CNT promotes the development of more livable and sustainable communities. http://www.cnt.org Smart Communities Network This organization offers resources and tools for building energy smart communities. http://www.smartcommunities.ncat.org King County’s Equity and Social Justice Initiative This initiative takes aim at long-standing and persistent inequities and injustices in King County. http://www.kingcounty.gov/equity City of Seattle Race and Social Justice Initiative Mayor Nickels‘ initiative aims to bring race and social justice to the people of Seattle. http://www.seattle.gov/mayor/issues/rsji/ Ella Baker Green Collar Jobs Campaign This organization seeks to train 250,000 people in green collar jobs and lift them out of poverty. http://ellabakercenter.org/index.php?p=gcjc Green for All This organization aims to build a green economy strong enough to lift all people out of poverty. http://www.greenforall.org/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 58 Environmental and Sustainability Education in Washington WA State K-12 Integrated Environmental and Sustainability Education Learning Standards These standards describe what all students should know and be able to do in the area of Environmental and Sustainability Education and are intended to be integrated into core content areas and across all grade levels. http://www.k12.wa.us/EnvironmentSustainability/Standards/default.aspx OSPI EES Program Curriculum Integration and Instructional Alignment Guide Discover tools for how to bring sustainability education into your classroom, including an instruction alignment guide. http://www.k12.wa.us/EnvironmentSustainability/Curriculum/default.aspx Washington Green Schools Washington Green Schools is a voluntary, web-based program schools can use to reduce its environmental and carbon footprint. http://www.wagreenschools.org/ Project-Based Learning Buck Institute for Education Project Based Learning Resources The Buck Institute provides an overview of project-based learning. http://www.bie.org/index.php/site/PBL/overview_pbl/ Fundraising ASB Fundraising Resource Guide This Fundraising Handbook can be found under the ―Publications‖ section of the Washington Association of School Business Officials website. http://www.wasbo.org/ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 59 Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 60 Appendix A – Teacher Planning Tools The Teacher Planning Tools are provided as a resource in planning Sustainable Design Projects. Feel free to modify these tools for your specific needs. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 61 Teacher Planning Tool #1 1. What is your current teaching assignment (grade level, content areas, etc.)? 2. Reflect on the upcoming units of study that you will be teaching to your students. Select one or two units which you believe are most conducive to ―beyond the classroom‖ connections and is a good fit with the goals of the Sustainable Design Project. Provide a brief description of this current unit of study: 3. What is the ―big idea‖ for this curriculum unit (i.e. the deep learning and enduring understandings)? a. What are the student outcomes, results, learning targets, and/or standards that you plan to achieve with this unit of study? b. What are some potential community needs that exist in and around your community that are related to the ―big idea‖ of this unit of study? Consider that a community can be defined on many different levels, including a group of people, your school, your town, etc. 4. Who are the stakeholders and/or decision makers in the community? Who can help you to reassess your ―big idea‖ within the context of a real community need? Adapted from Chris Burt and Susie Richards, Service-Learning Washington Training Cadres Coordinators for Learn and Serve. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 62 Teacher Planning Tool #2 1. Timeline: What is the timeline for your students‘ Sustainable Design Projects? Lay out your timeline on a calendar. 2. Liability Issues: Are there any liability issues associated with your students‘ projects that will need to be addressed? Review your project plan with your building administrator. Will projects occur off or on campus? If off campus, are appropriate permissions in place? If using volunteers, are background checks in place before project implementation? Are there any liability issues surrounding transportation (using private vehicles, etc.)? 3. Resources: What resources are required to implement your students‘ Sustainable Design Projects? (For more information on budgeting and fundraising, please see Chapter 7: Project Funding and Resources). Please be sure to talk with your school district office before becoming involved in any fundraising activities or accepting donations, as these activities are governed by specific rules and laws. 4. Budgeting: Develop a project budget and identify the following: What are direct costs (those costs that actual funds are needed for)? What are potential sources for funding these costs? What materials are needed for the project (art supplies, etc.)? Who are potential donors or sources of funding for these materials? How do you capture in-kind donations? In-kind donations are important to document for future funding, because these demonstrate program strength and support from your community. In-kind donations include donations of volunteer time, materials, percentage off the cost of materials, donated materials, etc. How can you leverage these resources for future projects? 5. Project Impacts: How might your project impact other teachers and staff within your building? How can you address these issues? Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 63 6. Assessment: Will there be ongoing, real world student assessment built into the project? Will community partners be included in this process? 7. Evaluation: Will evaluation tools be created? Will you engage in ongoing evaluation throughout the project as well as summative evaluation at the end of the project? 8. Reflection: What reflective tools will be used? Are the tools going to be used in all stages of the project? Are you using multiple approaches to reflection, such as journals, video, webpage development, etc.? 9. Celebration: What type of celebration will be planned to recognize the culmination of the project? Who will be involved in the celebration? Adapted with permission from Chris Burt and Susie Richards, Service-Learning Washington Training Cadres Coordinators for Learn and Serve. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 64 Appendix B – Student Planning Tools The Student Planning Tools are appropriate for students in middle and high school. The Student Planning Tools can be used to help students transition from one step of the project process to the next. Elementary school teachers can use the Student Planning Tools as a resource for planning a whole-class Sustainable Design Project. Rather than distributing these Tools to the students, elementary school teachers can use the Tools themselves to plan out the important components of the project. Feel free to modify these tools for your specific needs. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 65 Student Planning Tool #1: Introduction Name: _________________________________________ Date: __________ Class/Period: ________________ You are about to embark on an exciting challenge—a Sustainable Design Project. As part of this project, you will investigate an issue, problem, or situation that is part of a system in your local community. You will work with experts, propose a solution, and share your findings. The following diagram shows the questions you will be investigating for each step of your Sustainable Design Project. As you progress from one step to the next, make note of the date you move onto a new step in the process. Diagram adapted with permission from the Health & Environment Action Research Tool of the Integrated Environmental Health Middle School Project (NIESH Grant #ES10738 and #ES07033, University of Washington, 2005). Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 66 Student Planning Tool #2: Considering Your Own Interests Name: _________________________________________ Date: __________ Class/Period: ________________ 1. What kinds of things interest you? 2. What do you know how to do well? 3. What problems or issues do you see in the world that you would like to help change? What is a System? A system is a group of interacting, interrelated, and interdependent components that form a complex and unified whole. Systems are everywhere. For example, a classroom, a predator/prey relationship, and the ignition system in a car are all systems. Some systems are ―nested‖ within larger systems. For example, the circulatory system is nested within the system we know as the human body. A system is a collection of ―things‖ in which the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. 4. Read through the table below. Consider which of the following systems interest you most. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 67 SYSTEM EXAMPLE ISSUES Built ―Green‖ building design and construction Environment Sick building syndrome Parks and green spaces Climate Change Global warming and its affects on agriculture Global climate change and the affects of severe weather Energy Alternative energy sources (solar, wind, etc.) Biofuels (biodiesel, ethanol, etc.) Energy conservation Water Quality & Water pollution in local waterways Conservation Water conservation Air Quality Air pollution from cars, boats, trains, ferries, and cruise ships Woodstoves and outdoor burning Wildfires Waste Management Composting and worm bins Recycling Electronic waste Workplace Health Ergonomics & Safety Health and safety hazards at work Voting & Civic Voting Action Volunteerism Activism Food & Farm Nutrition Organic gardening and farming School gardens Obesity epidemic Technology Cradle-to-grave pathway of electronic waste Cradle-to-cradle principles Cultural Places of cultural importance Preservation Local history Media, Music, and Film, music, and art festivals Art Art installations Parks & Natural Non-native plant species Areas Developing neighborhood ―pocket‖ gardens Community gardening plots Forestry Urban forests Biosolid fertilizers Soil erosion and water quality protection Environmental Asthma and tobacco smoke Health & Justice Diabetes and obesity Inequitable concentration of polluting industries located in neighborhoods with low incomes or people of color Lack of ―green‖ businesses, open space, and safety Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 68 5. Choose the system that you would like to be the focus of your Sustainable Design Project. Write the system below: System: ______________________________________________ 6. What other students in your class are also interested in the same system? 7. If you will be doing the Sustainable Design Project as a group project, choose who will make up your group. Write all the group member names below: Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 69 Student Planning Tool #2: Identifying Your Target Community Name: _________________________________________ Date: __________ Class/Period: ________________ You have already considered your interests to help you choose the system on which to focus your Sustainable Design Project. Write the name of your chosen system or topic below: System/Topic: ______________________________________________ Now you need to determine the target community for your project. A community is a group of people who are somehow brought together by shared values, beliefs, goals, geography, or other factors. A community can take on many different forms, such as an entire city, a neighborhood, a school, a seventh-grade class, or the residents of an apartment building. In order to answer the questions below, you will need to conduct some research on your targeted community. 1. What community will be the focus of your Sustainable Design Project? This is the community in which your system occurs and/or the community that will be affected by your project. 2. Who makes up your targeted community? Describe the defining characteristics of the community? Who are the people? Ages? Ethnic/Racial background? Population? 3. What makes this community unique? Is there anything special about its history? Is it facing a current problem? 4. What are the core values of this community? (Economic status, education, family, beliefs, work, etc.). How do you know? Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 70 5. Who are the decision-makers in this community? (This may be specific people, groups, businesses, organizations, or government agencies). 6. What environmental issues is this community currently facing? 7. What social issues is this community currently facing? 8. What economic issues is this community currently facing? 9. Who do you think are the experts in the community for the different issues you listed above? Where else could you go to find more information on these issues? Adapted with permission from the Health & Environment Action Research Tool of the Integrated Environmental Health Middle School Project (NIESH Grant #ES10738 and #ES07033, University of Washington, 2005). Original materials were adapted from ―A Model for Applying the Scientific Method in Your Community,‖ NSF Project HRD-9450053. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 71 Student Planning Tool #3: Developing Your Focus Question Name: _________________________________________ Date: __________ Class/Period: ________________ You now have chosen the system and the community that you will be focusing on for your Sustainable Design Project. Write your chosen system and community on the lines below: System/Topic: ______________________________________________ Community: ____________________________________________ Next, you will be developing your focus question. A focus question has three parts. First, you need to define the main issue, problem, or situation that you will be investigating for your Sustainable Design Project. Second, you need to identify the particular question that you have about that issue, problem, or situation. Third, you need to propose a design solution. 1. What questions do you have about your chosen system? 2. What questions do you have about your chosen community? 3. What do you already know about the system? 4. Is there a particular topic or part of the system that you want to focus on, rather than the entire system? Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 72 5. What issue, problem, or situation do you want to help solve that is a part of your chosen system or topic? 6. Review your answers to questions #1-5 above. Circle words or phrases that stand out to you and seem to capture your interest and curiosity about your chosen system and community. Use these words to help guide you in choosing the specific focus of your Sustainable Design Project and in crafting your focus question. 7. From what you now know about your chosen system and community, choose the issue, problem, or situation that you want to be the focus of your Sustainable Design Project. Briefly describe the issue, problem or situation: 8. Use the diagram on the next page to examine your chosen topic through the lenses of environmental, social, and economic factors. First, choose two colors of pens to use on the diagram. a. Use one color of pen to list examples of how the topic is currently affecting these three factors. b. In another color of pen, list examples of how these three factors are currently affecting the topic. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 73 Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 74 9. Develop your focus question: a. What is the main issue, problem, or situation that you will be investigating? b. What specific question do you have about that issue, problem, or situation? Write your focus question in the box below: 10. What design solution will you propose to help solve the issue, problem, or solution? Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 75 Student Planning Tool #4: Collecting Information Name: _________________________________________ Date: __________ Class/Period: ________________ Identifying What You Need 1. What information and/or skills do you need in order to answer your focus question? Keep in mind the following types of information and skills: Maps, photographs, and videos Interviews and anecdotes Surveys Scientific data Books, newspaper articles, journal articles, and websites Specific skills (such as map reading, carpentry, gardening, etc.) _____________________ Observations Other:________________________________________________ Choosing Sources of Information As you begin the research and investigation phase of your project, you will need to find credible sources of information. You will need to find sources of information to help you understand and apply the different principles of sustainable design, including: Low impact methods Energy efficiency Quality and durability Cradle-to-cradle life cycle design for recycling and reuse Biomimicry Service substitution Local and renewable resources Carbon footprint Environmental health Environmental justice Human needs and quality of life Design for change 2. List at least two credible websites related to your project: 3. List at least two non-internet resources related to your project: Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 76 Considering Stakeholders Consider how your project might affect different groups of people. These are the stakeholders who have an interest in the outcome of your project, because they will be impacted positively or negatively. 4. Identify at least four stakeholders for your project (such as ―elementary school students who use the playground,‖ or ―people who visit the food bank each week.‖) Try to include people who might be most concerned with the three different aspects of sustainability: environment, economy, and society. Then, develop a list of positive and negative impacts these stakeholders might experience as an outcome of your project. Record your thoughts in the table below: Stakeholders Positive Impacts Negative Impacts Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 77 Identifying Community Experts Identify community experts who can help you by answering questions, providing information, teaching you new skills, or mentoring you. You might consider choosing one of the stakeholders that you listed above as one of your community experts. Community experts may include people from: Local businesses Industry Government agencies and municipalities Faculty, staff, and students from local colleges and universities Community-based organizations Neighborhood council Citizen activists 5. What are three overall goals that you hope to achieve by meeting with these community experts? 1. 2. 3. 6. Name at least two people who are experts in your chosen community and that can help you with a specific part of your Sustainable Design Project. List their names, titles/jobs, and contact information. 7. Develop a plan for contacting or working with these experts. Will you be able to visit their workplace? Will they be able to visit your school or project site? Adapted with permission from the Health & Environment Action Research Tool of the Integrated Environmental Health Middle School Project (NIESH Grant #ES10738 and #ES07033, University of Washington, 2005). Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 78 Student Planning Tool #5: Developing Sustainable Design Solutions Name: _________________________________________ Date: __________ Class/Period: ________________ You have been investigating a particular problem, issue, or situation within a system. Now it is time to apply your research and learning toward solving the problem through your Sustainable Design Project. 1. How can you re-design the system in order to solve the problem or to make it better? Think of a few design solutions and briefly describe them in the table below. 2. Investigate the pros and cons of each of your proposed design solutions. You may need to do some research or talk to community experts in order to fully evaluate the impacts of each solution. Be sure to consider impacts (both positive and negative) to the environment, economy, and society. List the pros and cons in the table. Proposed Solution Pros Cons 3. After considering the pros and cons and doing any necessary research, choose the design solution you will develop a plan for and/or implement. Write it on the line below: Chosen Design: ___________________________________________________________ Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 79 4. Decide how you will create your design solution and how you will communicate it to other people. What will be the best format for displaying and explaining your design solution? Who is your intended audience, and what format will work best for them? Depending on your system issue and design solution, any of the following may be appropriate: Scale model or prototype Newspaper article or letter to the Map or flow chart editor PowerPoint presentation Photojournalism essay Poster Theatrical performance Speech or lecture Musical composition Video Artwork Website Mural Interview Mock town meeting Diorama Mock newscast Graphs or charts Board game Survey Lesson plan Informative brochure How-to manual Museum exhibit Other:________________ Animation Blog or wiki Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 80 Student Planning Tool #6: Preparing for your Presentation Name: _________________________________________ Date: __________ Class/Period: ________________ Target Audience: 1. Consider the audience to whom you would like to make your final presentation. Depending on your chosen Sustainable Design Project topic, your audience may include groups such as: Students Business owners Parents of young children Commuters School district officials Farmers School PTA members City planners Community groups Other:____________________ Professional associations 2. Describe the target audience for your presentation: 3. What will they already know about your topic? 4. What will they most want to know about your topic? 5. Will your audience need translation or interpretation? How can you ensure their active participation? Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 81 Presentation Format: 6. What format will you use for presenting your Sustainable Design Project to your target audience? Consider the needs of your target audience and the format that will best convey your information to them. Also keep in mind that you want to be creative and have fun with your presentation. Scale model or prototype Newspaper article or letter PowerPoint presentation to the editor Poster Photojournalism essay Speech or lecture Theatrical performance Video Musical composition Website Artwork Interview Mural Diorama Mock town meeting Survey Mock newscast Informative brochure Board game Museum exhibit Lesson plan Animation How-to manual Blog or wiki Pre & post reflection Other:________________ 7. What visual aids will you use during your presentation? Visual aids may include some of the following: Photograph Scale model Map Website Flow chart Poster PowerPoint software Slideshow Video Other:__________________ Audio recording Chart or graph Presentation Elements: 8. As you plan how you will present the findings of your Sustainable Design Project, keep in mind the following presentation elements. No matter what format you choose for your presentation, it should include—in some shape or form—the presentation elements listed below. Use this checklist to keep track of these elements as you develop your presentation. Identification of your chosen system. Description of your chosen community. Description of your chosen issue, problem, or situation. Statement of your focus question. Description of your interest and existing knowledge about the topic. Explanation of environmental, economic, and social impacts. Summary of the information you collected. Summary of your analysis of the information you collected. Identification of the stakeholders and their viewpoints. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 82 Description of your proposed solution and how you approached redesigning the system, issue, problem, or situation. If you created some kind of product or model, include a description of it. Statement of the answer(s) to your focus question. Call to action explaining how your audience can get involved or enact change. Citation of your information sources, in correct bibliographic format. Presentation Tips: If you are creating some kind of visual aid or display: Make it attractive by using color, graphics, and large lettering. Neatness counts. Use as many pictures, graphs, and tables as possible, rather than too much text. Organize your information by using titles, subtitles, and bullets. Leave some white space so that it does not look too crowded with text and graphics. If you are using PowerPoint or other presentation software: Use as many pictures, graphs, and tables as possible, rather than too much text. Do not include a script for what you will say; instead, include a few bullet points that you can expand on as you talk. Use 16 point font or larger. Do not use fancy animations or slide transitions that detract from your presentation. Use the visual aid or PowerPoint as talking points. If you are delivering a speech or talk: Practice, practice, practice! Practice on many different people or even to the mirror! Time your presentation and note the length of each section. Memorize the main points of your talk so that you do not have to read from your notes. Make eye contact with your audience. Use your hands to make gestures and emphasize your point, but do not overdo it. Talk slowly and do not forget to breathe. Smile, relax, and use friendly body postures (do not cross your arms over your chest). Some information adapted from, with permission, the Health & Environment Action Research Tool of the Integrated Environmental Health Middle School Project (NIESH Grant #ES10738 and #ES07033, University of Washington, 2005). Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 83 Example Presentation Rubric Somewhat Not Yet CRITERIA Very Successful Successful Successful Successful Excellent description of Good description of Understandable though issue including many Did not describe the central Description of issue including several fairly brief description of aspects of the problem. issue, or did so minimally. Issue aspects of the problem. issue. Focus question Succinct and very clear Focus question is not clear. Clear focus question. stated but not totally clear. focus question. Excellent description of the community, Description of Understandable though Did not describe the supported by research. Good description of the brief description of the community, or did so Target May include information community but may not community. May lack in minimally without any Community on geography, be comprehensive. supported research. research. demographics, values, and history. Description of Excellent description of Did not describe personal Good description of Brief description of personal interest, and interest and existing Interest and existing knowledge personal interest and personal interest and knowledge, or did so Knowledge existing knowledge. existing knowledge. about the issue. minimally. Excellent use of note Did not use note taking and Collection of Good use of note taking Fair use of note taking and taking and organizational tools, or did Information and organizational tools. organizational tools. organizational tools. so minimally. A wide variety of Several different At least two different Clarification of Only one or no viewpoint viewpoints on the issue viewpoints on the issue viewpoints on the issue Viewpoints was expressed. were expressed. were expressed. were expressed. Four or more high Three or four verified One or two verified No verified sources were Sources of quality, verified sources sources were used and sources were used and used and citations were not Information were used and citations citations were provided. citations were provided. provided. were provided. A solution was A solution was presented A solution was Presentation presented but it was not but it was not well presented that was well No solution was presented. of Solution well researched or not researched and not researched and feasible. feasible. feasible. Demonstration Showed reasonable Showed a deep level of Showed fair or partial Did not show a basic level of understanding of understanding of the understanding of the topic, understanding of the topic, of the topic, focus Understanding topic, focus question, focus question, and focus question, and related question, and related and related issues. related issues. issues. of Issue issues. Presentation was Presentation was very Presentation was poorly Presentation was clear understandable but could Organization easy to follow and very and organized. have been better organized and difficult to well organized. follow. organized. Presenter(s) used Presenter(s) used at Presenter(s) used several novel and least one novel and standard presentation Presenter(s) did not Creativity interesting ways of interesting way of methods, but maintained maintain interest. presenting important presenting important interest. points. points. Presenter(s) appeared Presenter(s) did not show Presenter(s) had a confident, used a Presenter(s) had a confidence, did not use a slight problem with one professional tone, spoke problem with several of professional tone, did not of the following: Delivery clearly without reading, confidence, tone, the following: confidence, make eye contact, read made eye contact with tone, speaking, eye presentation from notes, speaking, eye contact, audience, and went at a contact, and pace. and went either too fast or and pace. good pace. too slow. Varieties of visual aids Visual aids were neat, Visual aids were were used and were Visual aids were not neat, Visual Aids very neat, clear, and clear, and somewhat neat, clear, and clear, or understandable. understandable. understandable. understandable. All participants were Some members of the active and they Most participants were team clearly did more coordinated well with active, some more than Little evidence of Teamwork each other. They were others. They worked work than others, and teamwork. teamwork could have positive and mutually well together. been improved. encouraging. Reprinted, with permission, from the Health & Environment Action Research Tool of the Integrated Environmental Health Middle School Project (NIESH Grant #ES10738 and #ES07033, University of Washington, 2005). Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 84 Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 85 References Bellingham School District. Culminating Project Graduation Requirements. Bellingham: Bellingham School District, [n.d]. Buck Institute for Education. Project Based Learning Handbook. Buck Institute for Education, 2003. Accessed April 28, 2008 from: http://www.bie.org/index.php/site/PBL/pbl_handbook/. Edutopia. Why Teach with Project Learning? Published February, 28, 2008. Accessed April 28, 2008 from: http://www.edutopia.org/project-learning-introduction. Everett Public Schools. Culminating Exhibition Handbook, 2005-2006. Everett: Everett Public Schools, 2005. Fletcher, A. Meaningful Student Involvement Guide to Students as Partners in School Change. Seattle, WA: HumanLinks Foundation, 2005. Available from: www.soundout.org. Nolet, Victor. ―Preparing Sustainability-Literate Teachers.‖ Teachers College Record. Volume 111 Number 2, 2009. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and Cascadia Consulting. Sustainable Design Project Goals, Objectives, and Outcomes. Unpublished internal document, 2008. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Communication—K-10 Grade Level Expectations: A New Level of Specificity. Olympia: OSPI, 2005. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Environmental Education Guidelines for Washington Schools. Olympia: OSPI, 2000. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Essential Academic Learning Requirements, Health and Fitness: Grades K- 2 and Grades 3-5. Public Draft. Olympia: OSPI, November, 2003. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Essential Academic Learning Requirements, Health and Fitness: Grades 6- 8. Public Draft. Olympia: OSPI, January, 2004. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Essential Academic Learning Requirements, Health and Fitness: Grades 9- 10. Public Draft. Olympia: OSPI, January 2004. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Grades K-4 Mathematics Grade Level Expectations. Public Draft. Olympia: OSPI, September 2006. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Grades 5-10 Mathematics Grade Level Expectations. Public Draft. Olympia: OSPI, September 2006. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Grades 11/12 Mathematics Grade Level Expectations. Public Draft. Olympia: OSPI, September 2006. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Program Standards: Career and Technical Education. Olympia: OSPI, May 2005. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Reading—K-10 Grade Level Expectations: A New Level of Specificity. Olympia: OSPI, [n.d.]. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Social Studies Essential Academic Learning Requirements: A Recommended Grade-by-Grade Sequence for Grade Level Expectations—Grades 6-12. Olympia: OSPI, [n.d.]. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Social Studies Grade Level Expectation (GLEs)—Grades K-5. Public Draft. Olympia: OSPI, March 2008. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Writing—K-10 Grade Level Expectations: A New Level of Specificity. Olympia: OSPI, 2005. Orr, David. Earth in Mind: On Education, Environment, and the Human Prospect. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 1994. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 86 Osler, Jonathan. A Guide for Integrating Issues of Social and Economic Justice into the Mathematics Curriculum. Self- published paper, 2007. Our Common Future | The Brundtland Report. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, August, 1987. Pacific Science Center. Making Waves: Watershed Education in your Community—A Handbook for Teens. Unpublished manuscript. Seattle: Pacific Science Center, [n.d.]. Place-Based Education Evaluation Collaborative. Principles and Best Practices of Place-Based Education, 2003. As quoted in PEEC—The Place-Based Education Evaluation Collaborative Synopsis, December, 2003. Accessed on April 28, 2008 from: http://www.peecworks.org/PEEC/PEEC_Concept_Full_12-11-03.pdf. Place-Based Education Evaluation Collaborative. The Benefits of Place-Based Education, [n.d.]. Accessed on April 28, 2008 from: http://www.peecworks.org/PEEC/Benefits_of_PBE-PEEC_2007_web.pdf. Thorpe, Ann. The Designer’s Atlas of Sustainability: Charting the Conceptual Landscape through Economy, Ecology, and Culture. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 2007. Tyrnauer, Matt. ―Industrial Revolution, Take Two.‖ Vanity Fair, May 2008. Washington Association of School Business Officials. ASB Fundraising Resource Guide. ASB Committee, 2007. Available from: www.wasbo.org. Washington Association of School Business Officials. Charitable Fund Raising Non-association Student Body Private Money, [n.d.]. Washington Association of School Business Officials. Fiscal Guidance for Culminating Projects, [n.d.]. Washington State Department of Ecology. A Field Guide to Sustainability. Washington State Department of Ecology, 2007. Wheeler, G. and Ruskey, A. Sustainable Design Project Prospectus. A joint paper of the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Environmental Education Association of Washington, 2008. Williamson, Greg. Student Engagement Definitions and References. Unpublished report prepared for OSPI, 2007. Wuersten, E. and Wheeler, G. A Vision for the Future—Contextual Learning: Education for Sustainability. Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, March 2008. Available from: http://www.k12.wa.us/curriculumInstruct/EnvironmentSustainability/pubdocs/EESAVisionfortheFuture061807.doc. Sustainable Design Project Teacher Manual Version 2.0 – September 2010 87
"Sustainable Product Design Templates"