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					Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  A hematopoietic stem cell is a cell isolated
 from the blood or bone marrow that can
 renew itself, can differentiate to a variety of
 specialized cells, can mobilize out of the bone
 marrow into circulating blood, and can
 undergo programmed cell death, called
 apoptosis—a process by which cells that are
 detrimental or unneeded self-destruct.
 (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)
Umbilical Stem Cells
   Stem cell transplants have been used since
    the 1960’s to treat a variety of diseases.
   In 1988 cord blood stem cells were used for
    the first time in hematopoietic (blood) stem
    cell transplantation. Umbilical cord blood stem
    cells have now been used in over 3,500
    transplants worldwide as a valuable
    alternative to traditional sources of
    hematopoietic stem cells.
   (http://www.corcell.com)
Umbilical Stem Cells
   Utilizing the process of stem cell
    banking, cord blood stem cells also
    show great promise for potential
    future applications including
    treatment and repair of non-
    hematopoietic tissues, gene
    therapies, mini-transplants, among
    others.
   (http://www.corcell.com)
Collecting Umbilical Cells
   Collect mother’s blood for tests
   Prep umbilical site
   Collect cord blood (up to 250 ml)
   Prepare collection for shipment
   Medical currier to deliver to storage unit
   Test cord blood and mother's blood for
    infections
   Store cord blood in 25 ml volumes on liquid
    nitrogen
   (http://www.corcell.com)
Umbilical Stem Cells
   Harvesting umbilical cord blood poses no risk to the
    mother or child, whereas a bone marrow or
    peripheral blood stem cell donor must undergo
    invasive medical procedures and is exposed to the
    risk of infection.
   Further, studies on umbilical cord blood transplants
    are resulting in sustained engraftment similar to
    earlier results achieved with bone marrow.
   Umbilical cord blood is cryogenically stored and
    immediately available.
   (http://www.corcell.com)
Umbilical Stem Cells
   Umbilical cord blood stem cell research has shown
    potential for future treatment in Alzheimer's,
    Parkinson's, heart attack, stroke, and spinal cord
    injuries.
   Cord blood stem cells have already been effectively
    used in the treatment of more than 70 malignant and
    non-malignant diseases, including sickle cell,
    leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, other forms of
    cancer, life threatening anemias, and auto-immune
    diseases to name a few.
   (http://www.corcell.com)
Umbilical Stem Cells
   Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are more primitive than
    those found in bone marrow and therefore carry a lower
    incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD), making it
    possible to perform transplants with less than perfect matches
    of marrow type and potentially decreasing the morbidity and
    mortality overall of the recipients.

   Cord blood technologies now allow for the multiplication of
    umbilical cord blood stem cells through ex vivo expansion.

   Umbilical cord blood has been used as a replacement source of
    hematopoietic stem cells for the treatment of human disease
    since 1988.
   (http://www.corcell.com)
Umbilical Stem Cells
   Cord blood stem cells have already been effectively used in the
    treatment of more than 70 malignant and non-malignant
    diseases, including sickle cell, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's
    lymphoma, other forms of cancer, life threatening anemias, and
    auto-immune diseases to name a few.

   Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are more primitive than
    those found in bone marrow and therefore carry a lower
    incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD), making it
    possible to perform transplants with less than perfect matches
    of marrow type and potentially decreasing the morbidity and
    mortality overall of the recipients.


   (http://www.corcell.com)
Diseases Treated With Cord Stem Cells

   Acute leukemia’s
   Chronic leukemia’s
   Anemia’s
   Phagocytic disorders
   Genetic metabolic diseases
   Genetic immune system disorders
Umbilical Stem Cells
   There have been suggestions that umbilical cord
    blood contains stem cells that have the capability of
    developing cells of multiple germ layers (multipotent)
    or even all germ layers, e.g., endoderm, ectoderm,
    and mesoderm (pluripotent).
   To date, there is no published scientific evidence to
    support this claim. While umbilical cord blood
    represents a valuable resource for HSCs, research
    data have not conclusively shown qualitative
    differences in the differentiated cells produced
    between this source of HSCs and peripheral blood
    and bone marrow.
   (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)
Bone Marrow Stem Cells
   The classic source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
    is bone marrow. For more than 40 years, doctors
    performed bone marrow transplants by anesthetizing
    the stem cell donor, puncturing a bone—typically a
    hipbone—and drawing out the bone marrow cells
    with a syringe.
   About 1 in every 100,000 cells in the marrow is a
    long-term, blood-forming stem cell; other cells
    present include stromal cells, stromal stem cells,
    blood progenitor cells, and mature and maturing
    white and red blood cells.
   (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)
Bone Marrow Transplants
   Stem cells are identified by surface
    markers
   They are injected into a recipient who
    has been irradiated to destroy their
    blood cells
   The stem cells will restore all blood cell
    types in the recipient
Peripheral Stem Cells
   It has been known for decades that a small
    number of stem and progenitor cells circulate
    in the bloodstream
   In the past 10 years, researchers have found
    that they can coax the cells to migrate from
    marrow to blood in greater numbers by
    injecting the donor with a cytokine, such as
    granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF).
    The donor is injected with GCSF a few days
    before the cell harvest.
   (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)
Peripheral Stem Cells
   To collect the cells, doctors insert an intravenous
    tube into the donor's vein and pass his blood through
    a filtering system that pulls out CD34+ white blood
    cells and returns the red blood cells to the donor.
   Of the cells collected, just 5 to 20 percent will be true
    HSCs. Thus, when medical researchers commonly
    refer to peripherally harvested "stem cells," this is
    something of a misnomer. As is true for bone
    marrow, the CD34+ cells are a mixture of stem cells,
    progenitors, and white blood cells of various degrees
    of maturity.
   (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)
Peripheral Stem Cells
   In the past few years, most “bone
    marrow transplants” actually used
    peripheral cells.
   The peripherally harvested cells contain
    twice as many HSCs as stem cells taken
    from bone marrow and engraft more
    quickly.
   (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter5.asp)

				
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posted:8/18/2011
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