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Sustainable Waste Management and Recycling - DOC

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					    Moving towards zero waste


A Sustainable Waste Management Strategy for
         the University of Worcester


                2008 – 2012
             Revised May 2009
        Introduction
        The first Waste Strategy was adopted by the University in December 2007, this is the first
        review, which takes into account the completion of a dedicated recycling and waste
        compound constructed at the rear of the Facilities Department, the re tendering and awarding
        of the trade waste contract to Worcester City Council, investment in new corporate waste and
        recycling receptacles and the introduction of a structured and joint communications and
        awareness campaign with the University and the City Council. This joint campaign uses the
        same colours and graphics in all University accommodation, including Halls of Residence to
        assist in training students and staff in the City’s recycling regime. This work which began so
        successfully in the Halls (recycling rates have increased by 123%) is being rolled out now to
        the rest of the campus, through pilot programmes.

        Policy and Targets
        UW adopted an Environmental Policy in February 2008 which was reviewed in October 2008
        which gives an overall commitment to continually improve UW’s environmental performance
        and develop an Environmental Management System (EMS) to achieve this in a structured
        way. The Executive Management Board has undertaken to provide the human and financial
        resources required to implement this EMS which covers all operations and sites of the
        University.

        In order to achieve the policy statements, UW has set objectives and targets to both prevent
        pollution and mitigate the University’s significant environmental impacts. Within the overall
        policy there are three pertinent clauses for waste, dealing with re-use, re-cycling and
        complying with legislation, as summarised in the table below. UW has chosen both
        quantitative targets and qualitative targets and these are reviewed regularly. The most recent
        review has seen a change in the volume of waste sent to landfill from a target of 2% per
        annum per tonne per full time equivalent student and staff upwards to 5%, so that the
        University aims to have reduced the amount it sends to landfill by 20% from its baseline year
        covering the lifetime of this Strategy. It has also established a new target to increase the
        amount of recycling by 5% annually (20% by 2012) covering the period of this Strategy.
        Table 1 below also sets out the qualitative targets which remain unaltered and the quantitative
        targets.

        Table 1:

              Policy                         Qualitative targets               Quantitative targets



Re-use resources whenever                   Regularly review practice     Reduce volume of waste to
possible rather than dispose of              against benchmarks            landfill by 5% annually (20%
them                                        Train all relevant staff      over the 4 year period 2008 –
                                            Segregate and label waste     2012) (metric tonne per fte)
Encourage the use of recycled                clearly and accurately
materials and recycling initiatives         Improve waste storage
                                            Monitor volume produced
Comply with all relevant                    Increase re-use and           Increase the amount of
environmental legislation,                   recycling                     recycling by 5% annually
regulations and requirements                Increase staff and student    (20% over the 4 year period
                                             awareness to reduce waste     2008 – 2012)



                                                      2
           Progress review
           Both the quantitative and qualitative targets were reviewed at the beginning of January 2009,
           and are reported on our website http://www.worc.ac.uk/about/10783.html and shown in the
           tables below.

                           Table 2 : Progress review of quantitative targets as at July 2008

       WASTE                Baseline     2006/7     2007/8                              Progress
                               year
                             2005/6
                            0.27

Metric tonnes per full                  0.25       0.25          Change from baseline year by 6.4 % waste sent to
time equivalent (fte)                                            landfill per fte
staff and students          48
                                                                 Increased amount sent for recycling from baseline year
Metric tonnes sent for                  83         83            but no increased in the amount in 07/08.
recycling




                           Table 3 : Progress review of qualitative targets as at April 2009

        Qualitative targets                                                 Comment



Regularly review practice against       Benchmark data in Business in the Community- Universities that Count,
benchmarks                              Estates Management Statistics and People & Planet Green League

Train all relevant staff                Training programme in place

Segregate and label waste clearly       Designated storage areas with clear signage installed at the rear of Woodbury
and accurately                          and within the Halls

Improve waste storage                   Dedicated waste storage areas established and operational procedures agreed
                                        for all types of controlled, hazardous and non hazardous waste

                                        Electronic records of waste and recycling established and program for
Monitor volume produced                 publishing records being developed

Increase re-use and recycling           Recycling established in Halls of residence both on and off campus. Recycling
                                        rates increased by 123%. Pilot programs for recycling schemes for office and
                                        academic space ongoing


Increase awareness-raising              Ongoing programme for staff and students using joint resources with
                                        Worcester City Council, innovative student Eco Reps and a communications
                                        strategy is being developed.




                                                             3
Aspects and Impacts
The University under took an environmental aspects and impacts study and the waste that the
institution produces was highlighted as having a significant impact on the environment. The
impact that waste has on the environment can be summarised as follows:

‘Less waste sent to landfill reduces methane and other greenhouse gas emissions which
contribute to climate change. Correct disposal and storage of all waste has environmental and
human benefits in terms of reduced pollution and risk to health, reduced depletion of natural
resources/deforestation, soil erosion and habitat loss. Significant benefits in terms of
rodent/pest control and minimisation of waste storage facilities.          Reduced potential
contamination and eco-toxicity but negative contribution to climate change arises from CO2
emissions and resource use from transport and some energy-inefficient recycling processes.’

Minimising the amount of waste sent to landfill, storing and dealing effectively with waste prior
to disposal and increasing the amount re-used or recycled is clearly a priority.


Legislation
Waste and waste disposal is subject to numerous pieces of legislation, with new legislation
coming into force regularly. Appendix 1 shows an extract from the University’s environmental
legal register which identifies 18 pieces of legislation, 15 of which currently affect the
University. These range from The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (Waste
Management Licensing) (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2007 SI 1085 for the
disposal of electronic and electrical goods to Environmental Permitting (England and Wales)
Regulations 2007 SI 3538 which covers the storage, treatment or disposal of controlled waste
onsite, including composting and burning green waste and compacting of cardboard.
Monitoring changes in the law and the implications of changes to the University’s operations
is an important factor in this Waste Strategy. Being able to respond to change and
resourcing, both with physical changes to infrastructure and processes, and keeping staff
informed of changes are important to the management and continual improvement of our
environmental performance.


Location of waste and recycling facilities
Appendix 2 shows the location of the recycling and waste facilities, and compost bins for the
St John’s Campus (SJC), Battenhall and the City Campus. As the University grows and new
sites become operational these plans are updated, including Hylton Road, the extension of
SJC to include Regency High School, Stephenson Terrace and Grove Farm.


Servicing strategy

Waste to landfill

All waste generated by the University is removed from the campuses either by contractors or
in the case of recyclables by the City of Worcester’s kerbside household collection service.
The University’s Cleaning and Environmental Services Manager is responsible for the
segregation of waste streams in order to reduce the volume going to landfill. The Facilities
Department provides an internal waste collection service from all areas of the campuses
which is operated by the porters. The students are responsible for emptying their own waste
directly into eurobins, both rubbish and recycling. Cleaning staff are responsible for emptying
waste bins and recycling bins in office and teaching areas. Pilots are being undertaken to

                                               4
reduce the frequency of the collection of waste, and make regular (rather than on request)
collection of recyclables. Trolleys with green and black re-useable bags are in use to facilitate
collection. Cleaners deposit in agreed locations filled re-useable green/black bags. These
bags of waste and recyclables are transported by the porters using electric vehicles to the
appropriate eurobin located in designated areas.

Waste from St John’s Campus is removed by Worcester City Council’s trade refuse
department Monday to Friday at midday. A 26 tonne laden weight vehicle of 27,900 litres
capacity is used. This collects from up to six locations on campus and only takes full bins.
Collection takes on average half an hour per day. Summary of collection data is shown in
Table 4 below.

The University has one skip (capacity 20m3) permanently on site located in the recycling
compound at the rear of Woodbury Building. The compound is now covered by CCTV and
management of waste being deposited in the skip is dealt with by the Cleaning and
Environmental Services Manager. Estates contractors are no-longer permitted to utilise these
facilities, and they are used primarily for surplus furniture which cannot be re-used, non re-
useable fixtures and fittings and green waste by the grounds team.

Recycling and composting

Since 2005, the University has been participating in Worcester City Council’s domestic
recycling collection scheme. The City Council provide free bins at two University Halls of
Residence, Foresters and Sansome Halls, which have the University’s awareness stickers
affixed to them. The University provides its own euro bins for all other locations. The City’s
recycling is co-mingled and collected on a fortnightly basis. Additional receptacles for co-
mingled glass are also provided free and are located behind the Students’ Union, and close to
the Halls of Residence on St John’s Campus. Jute bags are also provided free for the
students to assist them in recycling glass, but since the provision of the green eurobins,
students now segregate less glass. They are still heavily used by the Students’ Union bar
and the Catering facilities.

Collection of recyclables is by 26 tonne laden weight vehicle of 27,900 litres capacity once a
fortnight. Collection is from six collection points on St John’s Campus and only full bins are
emptied. Collection takes approximately half an hour. Glass bottle banks are emptied on
request usually within 48 hours of notification. Textiles are emptied once per semester on a
request basis.

Cardboard is segregated by campus users, primarily catering and the Students Union, and
moved in wheeled trolleys to the card board storage area in the recycling compound, and
stored in garages prior to compacting. Eco Reps regularly compact card board into bales
which is collected for recycling once a week by a local Hereford company.

A bottle bank is located permanently on campus outside the front of Hines building and this is
used by both staff and students. Worcester City Council provides a mixed recycling collection
service so glass jars and bottles can also be placed in the green recycling bags in Halls of
Residence and in the mixed recycling receptacles placed around the campus in office and
teaching spaces.

A textile, clothing and shoe collection bank is provided on campus, currently located at the
front of the Hines building. This will be moved back to the Halls of Residence area once
construction work is completed on SJC. This bank is provided by BCR Global Textiles and
proceeds from the sale of donations go to the Meningitis Trust. The same company also
provide a bra bank, located alongside the textile bank, and proceeds from this recycling bank
are donated to Acorns Children’s Hospice.

There are eight domestic compost bins located on St John’s Campus, located close to halls
and kitchens as shown in Appendix 2. A large compost facility is situated at Battenhall for

                                               5
           grass and green waste generated by the grounds team. The University has plans to install an
           accelerated composter to deal with catering and halls organic waste.

           Operational procedures

           Operational procedures for all aspects of waste management and recycling can be found at
           O:\Cross Departmental Information\Eco Campus\EcoCampus Steering Group.              The
           operational procedures relating to waste and recycling are listed below:

                  Waste Management - general
                  Composting food waste
                  Recycling of paper, plastic bottles and cans
                  Recycling of cardboard
                  Recycling of toner and printer cartridges
                  Inter-departmental re-use of stationery
                  Disposal of Hazardous Waste
                  Production, storage and disposal of controlled waste
                  Production and storage of Hazardous Waste
                  Disposal of WEEE (Electronic and IT Equipment)
                  Disposal of WEEE (Electrical equipment)
                  Disposal of batteries
                  Disposal of mobile phones

           These are reviewed and amended on a regular basis, and are for all the University’s sites as
           appropriate.




           Table 4 : Rubbish euro bin collections data for 5 Months from 1 December – 20th April

                   Monday     Tuesday    Wednesday     Thursday    Friday      Weekly
Total Collection      455         192          206          359         194          1406
Average
Collection              22          9             10         17            9          67
Maximum                 33         12             14         25           14          83

                                                                                             Possible
                                                                                                          Variance
Average Daily                                                                               Collections
Rear of Kitchens          2          1             1           2           2           8             10         2
Student Union             1          1             1           1           1           5             10         5
Rear of
Woodbury                  4          4             4           3           3          18            45         26
Wyvern Hall               4          2             2           2           2          12            30         18
Chandler Hall             2          1             1           1           1           5            10          4
Worcester                 8          0             0           8           0          16            50         34




                                                        6
Table 5: Recycling eurobins collection data for 5 months from 1 December – 20th April

                          Green         Total        Possible
  Collection Point                                                Variance   Maximum        Average
                          Bins       collections    collections
 Student Union                   1             9              9          0            2               1.0
 Rear of Woodbury               17            82            153         71           14               9.1
 Wyvern Hall                     2            15             18          3            2               1.7
 Chandler Hall                   2             9             18          9            2               1.0
 Worcester Halls 1               4            25             36         11            4               2.8
 Worcester Halls 2               4            19             36         17            4               2.1
 Total                          30           159            270        111

The data in Table 5 shows that there is spare capacity within the recycling and as further
initiatives and awareness-raising is rolled out the University can cope with a growth in
recycling. Additionally, the institution owns the eurobins and plans to re-spray bins from black
to green as recycling requirements increase.

Waste Management at City Campus
In general the types of waste and treatment methods relevant to the City Campus will be
similar to those already in place at St John’s Campus. However, there will be a reduction in
the proportion of hazardous waste generated as there will be no science laboratories and
limited green waste due to very few amenity grassland areas.

Approaches to the management of waste at the City Campus will also, in general, adopt
existing practices. Management structures will be the same as those in force at St John’s. A
similar system of internal waste collection by Facilities Department staff using electric vehicles
will be utilised. Students will be required to empty their own waste and recycling into eurobins
provided in designated refuse and recycling compounds.

Interim waste management strategy for City Campus for 12
months commencing September 2009

The University will occupy 177 bedrooms from September 2009; these will be the only part of
the City Campus that is occupied for 12 months, whilst the refurbishment of Mulberry House
and the Infirmary is completed. UW intends to service the Halls in the same way that it
currently services Sansome and Foresters Halls of residence, by utilising the City Council’s
free fortnightly household collection service. However, it will provide its own eurobins. UW
will purchase 24 eurobins with tow bars (12 for recycling - green, 12 for rubbish – black) which
will be labelled with UW’s labelling and awareness stickers. Experience from Sansome Halls
with 83 bedrooms and 12 euro bins indicates there is sufficient capacity to store two weeks’
waste and recycling in 13,200 litres of eurobin for the number of residents. If more eurobins
are required there are spare bins on SJC and these can temporarily be located to the City
Campus, as not all bins both black and green are in use. See Tables 4 and 5 above.

The eurobins will be located adjacent to block 3, in an area of hoarding segregated from the
construction, and will be accessible to students. Facilities staff, using the tow bars and an
electric vehicle will move the full bins to the bridge on Infirmary Walk for emptying into the City
Council’s waste or recycling refuse vehicle on the household collection rounds. Facilities staff
will ensure the empty eurobins are moved back to the temporary bin compound adjacent to
block 3.


                                                7
Interim waste management strategy for City campus from
September 2010 until the campus is fully constructed

Over the summer of 2010, the University will move the Business School into Mulberry House
and the Infirmary building, and will establish a Well Being Centre and small cafe in block 9.
UW will then extend its trade refuse contract with Worcester City Council to include a Monday
to Friday daily collection of refuse. Eurobins will be re-sited in the purpose-built rubbish and
recycling compounds- see Appendix 2 - at the end of the court yard between blocks 2 and 3,
in front of Mulberry House. In addition two euro bins, one of each type will be located in front
of block 9 to provide a facility close to the cafe. As at SJC, the green euro bins can be rotated
when full by Facilities staff. The recycling will remain on the household collection service
which is the same for SJC and the University’s other campuses.

City Campus waste management once the campus is fully
occupied

It is anticipated that the City Campus will provide accommodation for around 3,500 students
and 270 staff with approximately 370 bedrooms. The gross internal area will be about 15,000
sq metres non-residential and 18,000sq metres residential, on the 5 acre site. In rough terms
                           rd
this equates to about 1/3 of UW’s current population of 8,000 students and 750 staff. The
University has 60 eurobins (30 of each colour) which are not being utilised to their full
capacity under a daily (Monday to Friday trade refuse contract and fortnightly recycling)
collection at SJC. The SJC’s population includes nearly 700 bedrooms. Therefore, it is
anticipated that 24 euro bins with similar management arrangements will be sufficient. Once
the campus is complete in addition to the bin storage areas noted in Appendix 2, there will be
at least one railway arch 47sq metres available for additional bin storage should this be
required.

External recycling between City campus and St John’s campus

In co-operation with Worcester City’s Cleaner and Greener team, UW intends to create the
first area of co-located public waste bins and recycling bins on the pedestrian route between
the City Campus and St John’s Campus, which includes the new cycle way and bund
protecting the river from flooding. The receptacles will have the joint awareness graphics
developed between the City Council and UW.

Waste streams

At the University of Worcester, waste is generated from the following activities:

       Office/administrative activities
       Laboratory teaching, which produces chemical waste
       Demolition, construction and refurbishment of buildings
       Grounds maintenance
       Maintenance of a transport fleet and parking facilities
       Catering services
       On-campus residential accommodation
       Students’ Union shop, social and catering outlets

Much of the waste produced at the University falls into two specific categories –
hazardous and non-hazardous. In addition, there is a significant amount of catering
waste.
                                               8
Hazardous Waste produced by the University is summarised below in Table 6

              Table 6: Type and Method of Disposal of Hazardous Waste

        Type of Waste                                  Method of Disposal



Batteries                           Small number generated - recycling introduced May 09
Chemicals                           Review and disposal of all chemicals on campus carried
                                    out, new storage facilities completed
Electronic/Electrical               Disposed of in accordance with the WEEE Directive
                                    and/or donated to charity
Equipment
Fluorescent Tubes                   Stored in specialist containers and removed periodically
                                    by Mercury Recycling
Fridges and refrigeration           Stored in a designated area and collected by Chemtech
Equipment                           Waste every 6 months for safe disposal
IT equipment                        Disposed of in accordance with WEEE Directive and/or
                                    donated to charity
Mercury                             To be assessed and reviewed
Mobile Phones                       Disposed of in designated boxes and collected by
                                    Green source solutions for recycling and re-use when
                                    required
Nappies/sanitary items              PHS Group
Oils                                To be assessed and reviewed
Paint                               To be assessed and reviewed
Products containing CFCs            To be assessed and reviewed
Solvents                            To be assessed and reviewed
Toner and printer cartridges        Disposed of in designated recycling boxes and
                                    collected by Greensource Solutions for recycling and
                                    re-use as and when required

Non Hazardous Waste is summarised below in Table 7

            Table 7 : Type and Method of Disposal of Non-Hazardous Waste

Type of waste                                     Method of Disposal
Books                                             Collected by Print Waste or donated to
                                                  local charity shops/Education resources for
                                                  Africa
Cardboard                                         Compacted on site and removed by
                                                  Hereford Waste Paper for recycling
Furniture                                         Deposited in skips provided by Clearaway
                                                  and removed to landfill
Magazines and light card - office/domestic        Recycled via the Worcester City Council
from Halls of Residence                           kerbside recycling scheme
Paper – office/domestic from Halls of             Recycled via the Worcester City Council
Residence                                         kerbside recycling scheme
Paper – confidential                              Shredded on site by Shred-It as and when
                                                  required and recycled
Plastic Bottles – office/catering                 Recycled via the Worcester City Council
outlets/Halls of Residence
                                              9
                                              kerbside recycling scheme
Cans (aluminium and steel) – office/          Recycled via the Worcester City Council
catering outlets/Halls of Residence           Kerbside recycling scheme

Catering services waste is summarised below:

A wide variety of waste is generated by the campus catering facilities operated by
Aramark which serves on average 300 plated meals and 250 packets of sandwiches per
day during semester time. Approximately 100 staff and students consume their own food
in the dining room and café outlets each day. It is estimated that the following wastes
were generated in 2006/07:

         Table 8 : Waste generated by University catering services annually

Type of Waste                                 Estimated amount of waste generated:



Cardboard packaging                           compactor introduced in 2008
Glass bottles and jars                        3700 – disposed of via on-site bottle bank
Tetra packs                                   2400 – sent to landfill
Polystyrene cups                              116,000 – sent to landfill
Plastic cups                                  27,000 – sent to landfill
Milk cartons (2 litre)                        7,000 – majority recycled
Plastic bottles                               33,800 – some recycling due to increase
                                              as recycling facilities expanded more as
                                              recycling rolled out across campus and not
                                              just in dining room
Aluminium cans                                180 per week sold over the counter

                                              800 per week sold from vending machines
Plastic food trays                            Quantity unknown
Polythene and clingfilm                       Quantity unknown
Cooked food waste                             Quantity unknown – sent to landfill
Uncooked food waste                           4.62 tonnes composted

Quantities of waste produced
In 2006/2007 the University produced some 1937 tonnes of waste which was sent to
landfill. This figure represents waste produced from all sources on the campus. As the
recycling is rolled out across campus the University intends to monitor waste produced
on a per building basis. In 2005/6, approximately 3% of the University’s waste was
recycled or composted and this figure rose to just below 8% in 2006/07 which equates to
0.25 metric tonnes per full time equivalent student/staff. The amount of 0.25 metric
tonnes per fte was the same for 2007/8 but it is notable that the University is the fastest
growing university in the UK and both the staff and student population grew.

All waste generated by the University is currently removed from its property, either by
contractors, or in the case of recyclables, by the local city authority. The Facilities
Department maintains records such as consignment notes and is responsible for
ensuring that contractors have the relevant licences. The University’s main waste
contractor is currently Worcester City Council.


                                            10
Table 9 below summarises recycling and re-use for 2006/07 and 2007/8.

               Table 9 : Recycling/re-use Initiatives 2006/07 and 2007/8

          Material for Recycling       Organisation      Total amount
                                       Used              recycled in tonnes

                                                         06/07        07/08
           Paper                       Worcester City    19.54         15.4
                                       Council
                                                         7.00          10.4
                                       Print Waste
           Withdrawn library books     Print Waste        6.5           6.00



          Confidential paper           Shred It          4.6           7.6



          Plastic bottles              Worcester City    2.72         2.1
                                       Council
          Computers                    CDL               6.00         8.00
          Fluorescent Tubes            Mercury           0.33          1.1
                                       Recycling
          Fridges, freezers            ChemTech          1.77          4.4
                                       Waste
                                       Management
          Polyfilm                     Polyprint         0.006        0.008
                                       Mailing Films
          Organic Waste                Aramark           4.62         4.5

                                       UW grounds        78.00        tbc
          Glass bottles/jars           Worcester City    17.64         9.8
                                       Council
          Textiles proceeds to         BCR Global          -           tbc
          Meningitis Trust/Acorns      Textiles
          Children’s Hospice
          Toner and printer            Greensource       1.00          1.9
          cartridges                   Solutions




The future

There is a huge potential for waste reduction at source, better waste segregation, more
repair and re-use/ re-distribution of educational and office equipment and resources and
recycling will all assist in this process. There is already a strong focus on improving
recycling and composting to make Worcester among the best performing of the
universities in the UK for its recycling and composting activity over the long-term. The
provision of the recycling compound, more high profile recycling areas has already
assisted in this, as has the high - profile joint sticker campaign for internal and external
waste and recycling receptacles.


                                            11
The figures above indicate that there is great scope for the University to improve its
performance in the sustainable management of waste. Beyond this, however, is the
issue of the University’s future growth. The amount of waste generated and the costs of
disposing of it are dependent on the number of staff, the number of students living on and
visiting the campus, and the number of visitors. Possible measures of institutional activity
include financial turnover, floor space occupied, and the total numbers working on
campus. However, at the University of Worcester, the full-time equivalent (fte) of
students is probably the best indicator because it represents the most important driver of
waste creation – people. The total number (headcount) of both full- and part-time
students in 2006/07 was 8593. This figure is projected to rise to a total of 11,809 by
2012. This increase will impact significantly on waste generation and waste disposal
costs unless new waste management procedures are adopted.

An important element in moving towards zero waste is the repair and/or re-use of
redundant goods to prolong their lives which will reduce financial outlay on new goods
and reduce the environmental cost of landfill. However, the re-use – or re-distribution of
goods – necessitates connecting those with items they no longer have a use for, with
those who do have a use for them, or who can repair or refurbish the goods into a usable
product again. The University has already engendered strong links with local, regional
and national community groups and organisations in an effort to ensure that still useable
goods are passed on for repair and re-use. It will be important to strengthen and extend
these links in future.




Katy Boom/Jan Dyer

May 2009




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