The Bahamas, a 700-mile-long archipelago off the eastern coast of the U.S., is a major transit point
for cocaine from South America bound for both the U.S. and Europe, and for marijuana from
Jamaica. Participating in Operation Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Island (OPBAT), the Government
of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas (GCOB) cooperates closely with the USG to stop the flow
of illegal drugs through its territory, to target Bahamian drug trafficking organizations, and to
reduce the Bahamian domestic demand for drugs. In 2007, the Bahamian Parliament passed into
law precursor chemical control legislation. The GCOB has increased funding to strengthen its
interdiction capabilities in vulnerable regions of the country and the Royal Bahamas Police Force
(RBPF) seized $7.8 million in drug-related cash. The Bahamas is a party to the 1988 UN Drug
II. Status of Country
The Bahamas is an attractive country for transshipments of cocaine, marijuana and other illegal
drugs because of its 700 islands and cays spread over an area the size of California astride maritime
and aerial routes between South American drug producing countries and the United States.
Cultivation of marijuana on remote islands and cays is of concern to Bahamian authorities,
although there is no official estimate of the hectarage involved. The Bahamas is not a producer or
transit point for drug precursor chemicals. In 2007, The Bahamas continued to participate in
Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT)—a multi-agency international drug
interdiction effort established in 1982 to stop the flow of cocaine and marijuana through The
Bahamas to the U.S. In October 2007, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) personnel
and air assets took over responsibility for the OPBAT base in George Town, Exuma following the
withdrawal of U.S. Army helicopter support.
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Policy Initiatives. In January 2007, the Bahamian Parliament passed into law precursor chemical
control legislation and, in May, the GCOB approved funding for additional boats and one
surveillance aircraft for the Royal Bahamas Defense Force (RBDF) to support its counternarcotics
efforts. The government has plans to upgrade the RBDF base in Great Inagua, where maritime drug
smugglers enter Bahamian territorial waters and to establish a new base in the Northern Bahamas.
The GCOB and the Government of Haiti continue negotiations concerning the placement of
Haitian National Police officers on Great Inagua Island to improve the collection of intelligence
from Haitian sail freighters passing through Bahamian territorial waters.
Accomplishments. In 2007, the Drug Enforcement Unit (DEU) of the Royal Bahamas Police
Force (RBPF) cooperated closely with U.S. and foreign law enforcement agencies on drug
investigations. During 2007, including OPBAT seizures, Bahamian authorities seized 630
kilograms of cocaine and approximately 50.5 metric tons (MT) of marijuana. The DEU arrested
527 persons on drug-related offenses and seized $7.8 million in cash, five vessels and an airplane.
Law Enforcement Efforts. To enhance the results of drug interdiction missions, the RBDF
provided vetted officers to the DEU in 2007. The RBDF also agreed to position a DOD funded
fast-boat in Great Inagua to provide OPBAT endgame capabilities. The DEA, in conjunction with
the DEU and Bahamian Customs, initiated a program in Great Inagua to enforce GCOB
requirements that vessels entering Bahamian territorial waters report to Bahamian Customs. During
2007, the RBDF assigned three ship-riders each month to Coast Guard cutters. The ship-riders
extend the law enforcement capability of the U.S. Coast Guard into the territorial waters of The
Bahamas. In October, the U.S. Army terminated its participation in OBPAT. The DEA replaced the
U.S. Army at the base and is now responsible for carrying out OPBAT interdiction operations.
During the year, OPBAT assets intercepted maritime drug smugglers detected by USG surveillance
aircraft and on occasion, the Cuban Border Guard. The USCG provides assets for OPBAT,
including three helicopters and approximately 100 personnel. The RBPF participated actively in
OPBAT, and officers of DEU and the Royal Turks and Caicos Islands Police also flew on OPBAT
missions, making arrests and seizures.
Corruption. As a matter of policy, the GCOB does not encourage or facilitate illicit production or
distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, nor the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions. No senior official in the GCOB was convicted of drug
related offenses in 2007. The RBPF uses an internal committee to investigate allegations of
corruption involving police officers instead of an independent entity.
Agreements and Treaties. The Bahamas is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention, as
amended by the 1972 Protocol; the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances; the 1988 UN
Drug Convention; the 1990 U.S.-Bahamas-Turks and Caicos Island Memorandum of
Understanding concerning Cooperation in the Fight Against Illicit Trafficking of Narcotic Drugs;
and the Inter American Convention against Trafficking in Illegal Firearms. The GCOB is also a
party to the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption and on January 10, 2008, GCOB
acceded to the UN Convention against Corruption. The U.S. and the Bahamas cooperate in law
enforcement matters under an extradition treaty and a mutual legal assistance treaty (MLAT). The
MLAT facilitates the bilateral exchange of information and evidence for use in criminal
proceedings. There are currently 30 U.S. extraditions pending in the Bahamas. GCOB prosecutors
pursue USG extradition requests vigorously. However, in the Bahamian justice system, defendants
can appeal a magistrate’s decision, first domestically, and ultimately, to the Privy Council in
London. This process often adds years to an extradition procedure. The USG also has a
Comprehensive Maritime Agreement (CMA) with The Bahamas, which went into effect in 2004
replacing a patchwork of disparate safety, security and law enforcement agreements. Among its
provisions, the CMA permits cooperation in counternarcotics and migrant interdiction operations in
and around Bahamian territorial waters, including the use of ship riders and expedited boarding
approval and procedures.
Cultivation and Production. Although there are no official estimates of marijuana hectarage in
the islands, cultivation of marijuana by Jamaicans is a continuing trend. The majority of marijuana
seized in 2007 was in plant form grown by Jamaican nationals on remote islands and cays of the
Bahamas. OPBAT and the RBPF cooperated in identifying, seizing and destroying the marijuana.
Drug Flow/Transit. Cocaine arrives in The Bahamas via go-fast boats, small commercial
freighters, or small aircraft from Jamaica, Hispaniola and Venezuela. According to USG law
enforcement, sport fishing vessels and pleasure crafts then transport cocaine from The Bahamas to
Florida, blending into the legitimate vessel traffic that moves daily between these locations. Larger
go-fast and sport fishing vessels transport between 2 to 6 MT marijuana shipments from Jamaica to
The Bahamas. These shipments are then moved to Florida in the same manner as cocaine.
During 2007, law enforcement officials identified 34 suspicious go-fast boats in Bahamian waters.
In addition, there were 12 suspected drug smuggling aircraft detected over Bahamian territory.
Small amounts of drugs were found on individuals transiting through the international airports in
Nassau and Grand Bahamas Island and the cruise ship ports. GCOB law enforcement officers have
noted that Haitian traffickers are concealing their drugs in hidden compartments in wooden-hulled
sailing freighters and Haitian criminal organizations are commingling drugs with illegal migrant
smuggling. Bahamian law enforcement officials also identified shipments of drugs in Haitian
sloops and coastal freighters. Intelligence sources suspect multi-ton cocaine shipments to the Turks
and Caicos Islands and The Bahamas from Venezuela and Colombia took place during the year.
However, none of these shipments were successfully interdicted. Illegal drugs have also been found
in transiting cargo containers stationed at the port container facility in Freeport. DEA/OPBAT
estimates that there are a twelve to fifteen major Bahamian drug trafficking organizations.
Domestic Programs. The quasi-governmental National Drug Council coordinates the demand
reduction programs of the various governmental entities such as Sandilands Rehabilitation Center,
and of NGO’s such as the Drug Action Service and The Bahamas Association for Social Health.
The focus of the prevention/education program in 2007 was on schools and youth organizations,
especially those located outside of New Providence Island.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
Policy Initiatives. The goals of USG assistance to The Bahamas are to dismantle drug trafficking
organizations, stem the flow of illegal drugs through The Bahamas to the United States, and
strengthen Bahamian law enforcement and judicial institutions to make them more effective and
self-sufficient in combating drug trafficking and money laundering.
Bilateral Cooperation. During 2007, INL funded training, equipment, travel and technical
assistance for GCOB law enforcement and drug demand reduction officials; procured computer
and other equipment to improve Bahamian law enforcement capacity to target trafficking
organizations through better intelligence collection and more efficient interdiction operations;
provided funding to the National Drug Council (NDC) so its staff could participate in a University
of the West Indies on-line course in prevention and treatment of drug addiction; and funded a
survey of drug use among individuals admitted into hospital emergency rooms. In FY 2007, the
USCG provided resident, mobile and on the job training in maritime law enforcement, engineering
and logistics, professional development, medical and seamanship to the RBDF.
Road Ahead. We encourage the Bahamian Government to continue its strong commitment to joint
counternarcotics efforts and its cooperative efforts to extradite drug traffickers to the U.S. Standing
up, staffing and funding its National Drug Secretariat will greatly assist GCOB efforts to
implement its 2004 National Anti-Drug Plan. The Embassy is working with the GCOB to
implement regulations banning wooden-hulled sailing freighters from Bahamian waters, most of
which originate from ports in Haiti. These freighters are believed to play a key role in drug and
migrant smuggling through The Bahamas. The GCOB can further enhance its drug control efforts
by integrating Creole speakers into the DEU and by working with HNP officers to be stationed in
Great Inagua to develop information on Haitian drug traffickers transiting the Bahamas. The USG
will urge the GCOB to further integrate the RBDF into OPBAT by placing some of its marine
assets acquired under the United States Southern Command’s Enduring Friendship program in
Freeport and Great Inagua to provide OPBAT end-game capabilities in these areas.
Cuba is strategically located in the Caribbean between the United States and the drug producing
countries of South America. Although Cuba is neither a significant consumer nor a producer of
illegal drugs, its ports, territorial waters and airspace are susceptible to narcotics trafficking from
source and transit countries. In 2007, the GOC continued “Operation Hatchett III,” a multi-force
counternarcotics interdiction operation, and “Operation Popular Shield,” a nationwide
counternarcotics public awareness campaign. Cuba also carried out some operations in
coordination with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Drug Interdiction Specialist (DIS) at the U.S.
Interests Section (USINT) in Havana. Cuba is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
II. Status of Country
The GOC regularly detects and monitors suspect vessels and aircraft in its territorial waters and
airspace. In cases likely to involve narcotics trafficking, it regularly provides detection information
to the USCG. In addition to dedicating social service resources to improve prevention, the GOC
also has the legal framework within its criminal justice system to prosecute and assign stiff
penalties to narcotic users and traffickers.
According to Cuban statistics, Cuba’s internal drug consumption levels are among the lowest in the
region. Lack of discretionary income and an overwhelming state police presence limits access to
drugs by the Cuban population and contributes to the low incidence of drug consumption. In order
to elude capture near Cuban territorial waters, international drug traffickers throw contraband from
speedboats, providing the main source of supply to the local market. The GOC is active in regional
drug control advocacy, but its interdiction capability is limited by a lack of resources necessary to
upgrade its counternarcotic assets and technical equipment.
The USG has not been assured by the GOC that effective rules of engagement are in place to
prevent the inappropriate use of deadly force during counternarcotics trafficking operations. In
May, the leading Communist Party newspaper, Granma, declared that Cuba’s territorial waters
would never be a safe corridor for traffickers. This statement came after a Cuban Border Guard
patrol boat shot and killed two Bahamian drug traffickers. The GOC claims the drug smugglers
rammed their vessel and were killed in self-defense during an exchange of gunfire.
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Policy Initiatives. Prevention through education has become the key policy initiative to confront
the drug problem in Cuba. In 2007, the GOC completed the third phase of its national study on
drug abuse. The study was initiated in Havana Province and has expanded its scope to include two
other provinces. Over 40,000 people between the ages of 12-45 were interviewed on past and
recent drug use patterns. According to the GOC, the study concluded that less than one percent of
the Cuban population had used drugs in their lifetime.
In 2007, Cuban authorities participated with regional partners in three counternarcotics courses
offered by the United Kingdom and Canada. They included border security, financial fraud and
synthetic drug use. They also coordinated, with the assistance of INTERPOL, a regional forensic
narcotics program where instructors explained current practices in narcotics detection.
Accomplishments. Maritime drug seizures by Cuban authorities increased slightly during 2007,
with the GOC reporting the seizure of 1.7 metric tons (MT) of illicit narcotics. In February, a
Cuban Border Guard telex notification to the USCG resulted in the joint multinational interception
of a drug-laden aircraft destined for the Bahamas, the arrest of two traffickers and the seizure of
286 kilograms (kg) of marijuana. Cuban officials then deported Luis Hernando “Rasguno” Gomez-
Bustamante a reputed Colombian drug kingpin, to Bogotá where he was later extradited to the
United States to face trafficking charges. In April, Cuban Border Guard authorities intercepted a
Bahamian drug smuggling vessel. The vessel carried 590 kg of marijuana and was Cuba’s largest
single seizure of drugs in 2007. In June, Cuba investigated two suspect shipping containers at the
port of Havana with the Assistance of USINT’s USCG DIS. The joint U.S.-Cuba container
inspection was the first such operation of its kind and resulted in the seizure of 20 kg of cocaine.
An additional 811 kg (754 kg of marijuana and 57 kg of cocaine) were confiscated from washed-up
contraband picked by the Cuban Border Guard troops and coastal watch stations. Special drug
enforcement units of the Ministry of Interior and the General Customs Service detained 49 drug
couriers (“mules”) representing 23 nationalities in a yearlong airport operation. Four cases of
airport seizures netted 9 kg of cocaine. All four cases took place at Jose Marti International Airport
in Havana. In almost all cases involving foreign tourists detected with narcotics for personal
consumption, the individual is fined, and then allowed to continue his/her visit. Operation Popular
Shield resulted in the final 18 kg of narcotics (13 kg of marijuana and 5 kg of cocaine) seized from
Cuba’s domestic market. Since Operation Popular Shield began in 2003, the GOC has reported the
detention of over 3,000 people, of whom 65 percent were sentenced to six or more years of
imprisonment for trafficking drugs in the national market.
Law Enforcement Efforts. According to the Cuban Government, the Border Guard interdicts
ninety percent of the drugs seized by Cuban law enforcement authorities. The GOC’s lead
investigative law enforcement agency on drugs is the Ministry of Interior’s National Anti-Drug
Directorate (DNA). The DNA is comprised of criminal law enforcement, intelligence and justice
officials. Cuban Customs maintains an active counternarcotics inspection program in each of its
international maritime shipping ports and airports.
Cuba’s “Operation Hatchet,” in it seventh year, is intended to disrupt maritime and air trafficking
routes, recover washed-up narcotics, and deny drug smugglers shelter within the territory and
waters of Cuba through vessel, aircraft and radar surveillance from the Ministry of Interior’s
Border Guard and Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (Navy and Air Force). Operation
Hatchet relies on shore-based patrols, visual and radar observation posts and the civilian fishing
auxiliary force to report suspected contacts and contraband. In 2007, Cuban law enforcement
authorities reported “real time” sighting of 39 suspect vessels (25 go-fast and 14 aircraft) transiting
their airspace or territorial waters, an 18 percent increase over 33 suspect targets observed in 2006.
Corruption. As a matter of policy, the GOC does not encourage or facilitate the illicit production
or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions. The U.S. Government does not have direct evidence of
current narcotics-related corruption among senior GOC officials, although regular anecdotal reports
of corruption throughout all levels of Cuban society and government continue to circulate. No
mention of GOC complicity in narcotics trafficking or narcotics-related corruption was made in the
media in 2007. It should be noted, however, that the media in Cuba is completely controlled by the
state, which permits only laudatory press coverage of itself. Crime is almost never reported.
Agreements and Treaties. Cuba is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the
1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug
Convention. The GOC cooperates with the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime
Prevention and maintains bilateral narcotics agreements with 32 countries and less formal
memoranda of agreement with 2 others. Counternarcotics coordination between the U.S. and Cuba
occurs only on a case-by-case basis. In an effort to demonstrate international collaboration, in
2003, Cuba inaugurated Havana’s Anti-Doping Lab to conduct test analysis for all international
sporting events. The World Anti-Doping Agency and the International Olympic Committee have
certified this lab. Cuba is also an active participant in the annual Latin America and the Caribbean
meetings for Heads of National Law Enforcement Agencies (HONLEA). Cuba is a party to the UN
Convention against Corruption and the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
Cultivation/Production. Cuba’s National Revolutionary Police and the National Association of
Small Farmers acknowledge the smuggling of marijuana seeds into the country. In 2007, GOC
seized 3,789 marijuana plants (up from 2,115 plants in 2006) and 5,330 marijuana seeds Cuba is
not a source of precursor chemicals, nor have there been any incidents involving precursor
chemicals reported in 2007.
Drug Flow/Transit. Cuba’s 4,000 small keys and the 3,500 nautical miles of shoreline provide
drug traffickers with the abilitiy to conduct clandestine smuggling operations. Traffickers use high-
speed boats to bring drugs northward from Jamaica to the Bahamas, Haiti, and to the U.S. around
the Windward Passage or small aircraft from clandestine airfields in Jamaica. Commercial vessels
and containerized cargo that are loaded with drugs pose an increasing risk to Cuban ports. Mules
continued to traffick small quantities of narcotics to and from Europe through Cuba’s international
Domestic Programs. The governing body for prevention, rehabilitation, and policy issues is the
National Drug Commission (CND). This interagency coordinating body is headed by the Minister
of Justice, and includes the Ministries of Interior, Foreign Relations, Public Health, and Public
Education. Also represented on the commission are the Attorney General’s Office and the National
Sports Institute. There is a counternarcotics action plan that encompasses the Ministries of Health,
Justice, Education and Interior, among others. In coordination with the United Nations, the CND
aims to implement a long-term domestic prevention strategy that is included as part of the
educational curriculum at all grade levels.
The majority of municipalities on the island have counternarcotics organizations. Prevention
programs focus on education and outreach to groups most at risk of being introduced to illegal drug
use. The GOC reports that there are 3 international drug dependency treatment centers and 198
community health facilities in Cuba consisting of family doctors, psychiatrists, psychologists,
occupational therapists, and 150 social, educational and cultural programs dedicated to teaching
drug prevention and offering rehabilitation programs.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. has no counternarcotics bilateral agreements with Cuba and does
not fund any GOC counternarcotics law enforcement initiatives. In the absence of normal bilateral
relations, the USCG DIS officer assigned at the USINT Havana acts as the main conduit of anti-
narcotics cooperation with the host country on a case-by-case basis. Cuban authorities have
provided DIS more exposure to Cuban counternarcotics efforts, including providing investigative
criminal information, such as the names of suspects and vessels; debriefings on drug trafficking
cases; visits to the Cuban national canine training center and anti-doping laboratory in Havana; and
access to meet with the Chiefs of Havana’s INTERPOL and Customs office.
Road Ahead. U.S. counternarcotics efforts in Cuba face a number of obstacles. The current Cuban
regime’s long history of anti-Americanism in rhetoric and action has limited the scope for joint
activity and made bilateral dealings always subject to political imperatives. Cuba’s Drug Czar has
raised the idea of greater counternarcotics cooperation with the USG. De facto Commander-in-
Chief, Raul Castro has called for a bilateral agreement on narcotics, migration and terrorism during
his de facto status as head of state. However, these approaches have not been offered with
forthright or actionable proposals as to what the USG should expect from future Cuban
cooperation. The USG continues to encourage Cuba’s full participation in regional interdiction
The Dominican Republic (DR) is a major transit country for cocaine and heroin from South
America destined for U.S. and European markets. During 2007, the DR experienced an increase in
air smuggling of cocaine out of Venezuela while maritime deliveries via go-fast boats and cargo
containers continued. The Government of the DR (GODR) cooperated in extraditing fugitives and
deporting criminals to the U.S. Seizures of heroin, cocaine and MDMA were consistent with 2006,
while drug related arrests increased by over 60 percent in 2007. The DR made advances in its
domestic law enforcement capacity, institution building and interagency networking; and continued
modest progress in prosecuting major bank fraud and government corruption cases. In spite of
these positive signs, corruption and weak governmental institutions remained a serious impediment
to controlling the flow of illegal narcotics. The DR is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
II. Status of Country
Dominican criminal organizations are involved in international drug trafficking operations and use
the DR as a trans-shipment hub. According to the U.S. Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-
S), the number of drug smuggling flights from Venezuela to Hispaniola increased by 38 percent
from 2006 to 2007. Approximately two thirds of the flights went to the DR. MDMA (Ecstasy) was
most often interdicted enroute from Europe to the United States. The DR does not import or export
a significant amount of ephedrine or any other precursor chemicals utilized in the manufacture of
amphetamines or methamphetamines.
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Policy Initiatives. The Financial Analysis Unit, which became operational in 2005, still lacks
Egmont certification and the resources and institutional support to perform effectively. In 2007,
despite assistance from the USG to train DR prosecutors and law enforcement officers in the
conduct of money-laundering investigations, the GODR continued to struggle to implement anti-
money laundering legislation passed in 2002. In 2006, the GODR signed the Cooperating Nations
Information Exchange System agreement which allows the DR to receive information on suspected
aerial and maritime drug trafficking. In November, the GODR signed an agreement with Haiti to
fight jointly against drug trafficking and to increase law enforcement cooperation.
Accomplishments. In 2007, Dominican authorities seized approximately four metric tons of
cocaine, 102.5 kilograms (kgs) of heroin, 17,902 units of MDMA, and 511.7 kgs of marijuana. In
November, the National Drug Control Directorate (DNCD), in coordination with the Drug
Enforcement Administration (DEA), interdicted an airdrop of drugs, seizing more than 220 kgs of
cocaine. In December, the authorities seized 580 kg of cocaine inside a shipment of transmission
fluid that originated in Maracaibo, Venezuela. The DNCD made 12,841 drug-related arrests in
2007. Of these, 12,510 were Dominican nationals and 331 were foreigners.
Law Enforcement Efforts. Maritime seizures remain a challenge for the DR, especially drugs
hidden in commercial vessels for shipment to the U.S. and/or Europe and drugs arriving by “go-
fast” boats from South America. The Dominican Navy received four high-speed interceptor boats
under the U.S. Southern Command’s Enduring Friendship program to help counter the “go-fast”
threat. However, they have not been put to effective use, in part due to fuel shortages. The DNCD
and DEA counterparts cooperated on an investigation that led to the takedown in December of a
trafficking organization linked to the FARC in Colombia that used small aircraft to deliver drugs to
the DR and Suriname. The takedown resulted in the arrest of 15 Colombians and the seizure of 191
kgs of cocaine.
In 2007, the DNCD continued to upgrade its equipment, train technicians, and develop new
software in furtherance of a multi-year, USG-supported effort to share data among Dominican law
enforcement agencies and to make information available on demand to field officers. The DEA
executed a joint, interagency coordinated counternarcotics operation called “Rum Punch” with U.S.
Mission agencies, the DNCD and other Dominican military branches focusing on the movement of
drugs, money and chemicals between source zones and the United States. The operation included
maritime and air assets from the U.S., British and Dominican militaries, integrated into one daily
planning schedule. “Operation Rum Punch” improved coordination and understanding among and
between the U.S. law enforcement community and Dominican counterparts. The operation also
facilitated training and institution building, critical to the mission’s success.
Corruption. As a matter of policy, the GODR does not encourage or facilitate the illicit
production, processing or distribution of narcotics, psychotropic drugs, and other controlled
substances, nor does it contribute to drug-related money laundering. The GODR has made efforts
to reduce the influence of narcotics traffickers in the judicial system. During the year, the Judiciary
removed six judges for improper conduct, including the mishandling of drug trafficking cases. In
October, former BANINTER bank president Ramon “Ramoncito” Baez Figueroa was sentenced to
10 years in prison and fined 2.5 million pesos (approximately $75,000) for violating the General
Banking Law (Law 708-65) and sections of the Monetary and Financial Law (Law 183-02).
Former bank vice-president Marcos Baez Cocco was found guilty of the same offenses. Dual-
national Dominican-American entrepreneur and economist Luis Alvarez Renta received the
maximum 10 year sentence allowed under the money-laundering statute and was ordered to pay the
maximum fine under that law.
The Attorney General conducted numerous corruption investigations in 2007 against Dominican
officials, many of which resulted in arrests and/or dismissals. A financial disclosure law for senior
appointed, civil service and elected officials has been implemented in the DR, but lack of auditing
controls and sanctions weakened the effectiveness of this measure. With USG assistance, the
Directorate for Prosecution of Corruption is establishing a reporting and tracking system for
disclosed assets. The DR has enacted a Freedom of Information Act, but requests for information
are not uniformly granted.
Agreements and Treaties. The DR is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention; the 1961 UN
Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol; the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic
Substances; the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime; the UN Convention
against Corruption; and the Inter-American Convention against Corruption. In 1985), the USG and
the DR signed an agreement on international narcotics control cooperation. In May 2003, the
Dominican Republic entered into three comprehensive bilateral agreements on Cooperation in
Maritime Migration Law Enforcement, Maritime Counter-Drug Operations, and Search and
Rescue, granting permanent over-flight provisions in all three agreements for the respective
operations. The DR has signed, but not ratified, the Caribbean Regional Maritime Agreement. . The
DR is not party to the OAS Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty and no bilateral mutual legal assistance
treaty is in effect. Direct requests for judicial cooperation continue to be made through letters
rogatory, but noticeable delays in compliance are routine. The DR is not party to a bilateral asset
forfeiture agreement, nor is it party to any multilateral agreement that would permit the forfeiture
of criminally obtained assets. The DR signed the Cooperating Nations Information Exchange
System agreement in 2006.
Extradition. The U.S.-Dominican Extradition Treaty dates from 1909. Extradition of nationals is
not mandated under the treaty, but, in 1998, President Leonel Fernandez signed legislation
permitting such extraditions. In 2005, judicial review was added to the procedure for extradition,
making extraditions more transparent. During the year, the U.S. Marshals Service continued to
receive excellent cooperation from the DNCD Fugitive Surveillance/Apprehension Unit and other
relevant Dominican authorities in arresting fugitives and returning them to the United States to face
justice. The DR extradited 20 Dominicans in 2007, and deported 12 U.S. and third-country national
fugitives to the U.S. to face prosecution. Of these 32 cases, 14 were narcotics-related.
Cultivation/Production. There is no known cultivation of coca or opium poppy in the DR.
Cannabis is grown on a small scale for local consumption.
Drug Flow/Transit. In 2007, the DNCD focused interdiction operations on the drug-transit routes
in Dominican territorial waters along the southern border and on its land border crossings with
Haiti, while attempting to prevent air drops and maritime delivery of illicit narcotics to remote
areas. According to JIATF-S, there were 89 suspect drug flights from Venezuela in 2007 as
compared to 75 flights in 2006. During the year, drugs were easily accessible for local consumption
in most metropolitan areas. In October, U.S. Federal agents in New York arrested 18 people
including 10 airline workers who were transporting cocaine, heroin and MDMA from suppliers in
the Dominican Republic to the U.S. The drugs were hidden in luggage on international commercial
flights from the DR.
Domestic Programs. In 2007, the DNCD conducted 267 sporting events and seminars that served
as a platform to publicize the negative effects related to the use of narcotics and drugs.
Approximately 300,000 Dominican youths participated in these events. The USG believes that the
demand for narcotics in the Dominican Republic is increasing because narcotics are often used as a
method of payment for transit. No official surveys regarding domestic drug use have ever been
undertaken due to a lack of resources. A community-policing project initiated in 2006/7 with
support from the U.S. Mission is targeting high-risk neighborhoods in Santo Domingo, in part to
reduce drug demand and drug related crimes. The project has received great praise from
community leaders and law enforcement officials who are seeking to expand it to other cities in the
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
Bilateral Cooperation. During 2007, the USG continued to provide equipment and training to
maintain the drug and explosive detection canine units, support the DNCD’s vetted special
investigation unit, expand DNCD computer training, database expansion and systems maintenance
support, improve the DNCD’s capability to detect drugs smuggled through airports, and to enhance
the DR’s anti-money laundering capacity. The DEA Center for Drug Information (CDI), housed in
the DNCD, hosted a two-day training session attended by fifty participants from twenty-seven
The multi-agency International Drug Flow Prevention Strategy proposed by DEA was
implemented by the Dominican Government in 2007. This strategy is designed to significantly
disrupt the movement of drugs, money and chemicals between source zones and the U.S. In
addition, DEA sponsored a basic drug enforcement seminar as well as training focused on
interviewing and interrogation, vehicle and hidden compartment inspection, and undercover
In 2007, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) participated in joint counternarcotics and illegal
migrant operations, including a proof of concept operation using biometrics to identify and
prosecute criminals transiting via maritime means between the Dominican Republic and Puerto
Rico. In addition, the USCG held three subject-matter expert exchange conferences for the benefit
of the Dominican Navy: the Annual Interoperability Conference aimed at improving coordination
in maritime interdictions; the Caribbean Search and Rescue Conference focused to improve and
coordinate collaborative efforts of mutual search and rescue resources; and the International
Shipping and Port Security Conference geared toward enhancing port security in the DR. The
USCG also provided maritime law enforcement, leadership, engineering and maintenance, port
security, and command and control training to the Dominican Navy.
The Law Enforcement Development Program, implemented by the Embassy’s Narcotics Affairs
Section, continued assisting the Dominican National Police (DNP) with reforms aimed at
transforming it into a professional, civilian-oriented organization. Since the program was initiated
in 2006, 6,300 police investigators and prosecutors have undergone training in basic crime scene
investigation. Internal Affairs (IA) was also restructured and is operating efficiently. During 2006
and 2007, approximately 300 police officers were terminated for testing positive for drug use. IA
investigators are conducting approximately 60-70 internal investigations monthly against police
personnel engaged in improper conduct, which are then referred to the Chief of Police and/or
Prosecutor General’s office for disciplinary action. A community based policing project established
in 13 high risk barrios in Santo Domingo has demonstrated positive trends in crime reduction in
these neighborhoods. This project will be expanded to other cities in the Dominican Republic in
2008. National Police and Prosecutors continue to receive combined training, which promises to
further enhance institutional cohesion. During the year, 364 prosecutors were trained in Basic
Principles of Criminal Investigation, and Interviewing & Interrogation Techniques. In addition, 30
Prosecutors were trained in Basic Money Laundering Investigation Techniques.
In 2007, the Dominican chapter of the Business Alliance for Secure Commerce (BASC), a
voluntary alliance of manufacturers, transport companies, and related private sector entities,
continued to expand its training program and was cited by Customs and Border Patrol (CBP)
officials as one of the most effective BASC chapters worldwide. BASC is a cooperative program
between the private sector and national and international organizations to facilitate and promote
world trade by establishing and administrating global supply chain security standards and
procedures. BASC Dominicana consists of 50 members representing over 40 businesses and 10
business associations. Currently 38 local businesses have been certified with projections of
reaching 44 by the end of 2007. Their goal is to certify all the commercial service industry
businesses connected with foreign trade.
USAID continued to provide assistance with strengthening the overall justice system, with a
particular focus on effective implementation of the Criminal Procedures Code to ensure proper
acquisition, storage and handling of evidence and adherence to time limits for prosecuting cases.
USAID also assisted the National Institute for Forensic Sciences with improving procedures to
secure and preserve evidence.
The Road Ahead. The USG will continue to help the DR to institutionalize judicial reform and
good governance in furtherance of U.S. narcotics control strategy. The DR is working to build
coherent counternarcotics programs that can resist the pressures of corruption and can address new
challenges presented by innovative narcotics trafficking organizations. Money laundering will
continue to be a priority, and the USG will provide prosecutors and police investigators the training
necessary to help the DR conduct complex financial investigations. Anti-corruption efforts within
the Law Enforcement Development Program will continue with a focus on special training for IA
investigators. The DR will expand its community-policing program to additional neighborhoods in
Santo Domingo and other cities in the Dominican Republic through the training of in-house
National Police instructors in the concepts of community-based policing.
Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles, and the Netherlands together form the Kingdom of the
Netherlands. The two Caribbean parts of the Kingdom have autonomy over their internal affairs,
with the right to exercise independent decision making in a number of counter narcotics areas. The
Government of the Netherlands (GON) is responsible for the defense and foreign affairs of all three
of the Kingdom and assists the Government of Aruba (GOA) and the Government of the
Netherlands Antilles (GONA) in their efforts to combat narcotics trafficking. Negotiations are
underway that are expected to result in the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2008, with
Curacao and Sint Maarten to attain autonomous status similar to Aruba’s, while the islands of
Bonaire and Saint Eustatius would become municipalities within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Both Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles are active members of the Financial Action Task Force
(FATF) and Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF) and are subject to the 1988 UN Drug
Convention as part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Netherlands Antilles. The islands of the Netherlands Antilles (NA) (Curacao and Bonaire off
Venezuela and Saba, Saint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten east of the U.S. Virgin Islands) continue to
serve as northbound transshipment points for cocaine and increasing amounts of heroin coming
from South America; chiefly Colombia, Venezuela, and to a much lesser extent, Suriname. Go-fast
boats are typically used to transport drugs to U.S. territory in the Caribbean, although the use of
fishing boats, freighters, and cruise ships is becoming more common. Direct transport to Europe,
and at times to the U.S., is sometimes carried-out by “mules” (drug couriers) using commercial
flights. The DEA and local law enforcement saw continued go-fast boat traffic this year with some
load sizes reduced because of a potential exposure to law enforcement. This shift was attributed to
successful investigations along with investments by the Antilles in border security like the new
ground-based radar system capable of identifying inbound vessels. These shipments were generally
en route to Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, but Sint Maarten continued to hold some
measurable popularity among couriers as a gateway to Europe. In addition to go-fast boat activity
and smuggling via commercial airlines, large quantities of narcotics continued to be moved through
in cargo containers.
Sint Maarten’s geographic location and its multi-national population make it an ideal transshipment
point between South America and the United States, for drugs and human smuggling. Dutch Sint
Maarten is considered a “Free Zone”, which means there are limited controls placed on import and
export of goods. This situation also applies to financial crimes. The absence of rigorous checks into
monetary flows means that money laundering and proceeds from illegal activities are relatively
easy to conceal. Sint Maarten announced draft legislation to be presented to Parliament in 2008 that
would extend the requirement to report suspicious financial transactions to include not only banks
and casinos but car dealers, jewelers, insurance companies, lawyers and accountants as well. In
preparation for its expected autonomous status, Sint Maarten established a Crime Action Task
Force to enhance law enforcement efforts against drug trafficking, human smuggling and money
In Curacao, the crackdown at Curacao’s Hato International Airport on “mules”—who either ingest
or conceal on their bodies illegal drugs — continued during 2007. Detentions of mules declined
from a high of 80 to 100 per day, to approximately 10 per month in 2007, according to local court
statistics. The decline can be directly attributed to aggressive law enforcement tactics employed by
Antillean authorities, in conjunction with their Dutch partners, coupled with innovative legislative
tactics like the confiscation of the passports of Antillean couriers.
During 2007, the newly appointed Police Chief in conjunction with the Minister of Justice made a
concentrated effort to improve Criminal Intelligence by creating a new Operational Intelligence
Unit within the Curacao Police Corps. This specialized Intel Unit improved the investigative
effectiveness of the police and successful joint Antillean/Dutch investigations conducted by the Hit
and Run Money Laundering Team (HARM) have become commonplace during 2007.
The specialized Dutch police units (RSTs) that support law enforcement in the NA continued to be
effective in 2007. RST Curacao had its biggest success in a joint international money laundering
operation named Operation Kings Cross, which focused on illegal activities within the Curacao
Free Zone. This operation resulted in the seizure of $120,000 in Euros and $130,000 in U.S.
Currency and the arrest of the principal target in the investigation. In another joint RST
investigation named Operation Pick Pocket results included the seizure of 542 kilograms of
cocaine, 10 kilograms of heroin, and the arrest of 61 individuals.
The Netherlands Antilles and Aruba Coast Guard (CGNAA) was responsible for several seizures of
cocaine, heroin, and marijuana during 2007. In October, the CGNAA, in coordination with the RST
Curacao seized approximately 35 kilograms and a go-fast vessel. The CGNAA’s three cutters,
outfitted with rigid-hull inflatable boats (RHIBs) and new ‘super’ RHIBs designed especially for
counter narcotics work in the Caribbean, demonstrated their utility against go-fast boats and other
The CGNAA has developed an effective counternarcotics intelligence service and is considered by
the U.S. Coast Guard and DEA to be an invaluable international law enforcement partner. Under
the continued leadership of the Attorney General, the GONA continued to strengthen its
cooperation with U.S. law enforcement authorities throughout 2007. This cooperation extended to
Sint Maarten, where the United States and the GONA continued joint efforts against international
organized crime and drug trafficking.
The Dutch Navy also operates in the Netherlands Antilles under the auspices of Component Task
Group 4.4 (CTG 4.4), which operates in international waters under the oversight of the Joint Inter
Agency Task Force South (JIATF-S). Over the past two years, CTG 4.4 has become a close and
essential ally of the DEA and other U.S. agencies. Their continual efforts to thwart drugs
trafficking from the region have been noted at the highest levels of the DEA and U.S. government.
Several notable seizures occurred during 2007. The most impressive effort was the tracking of a
maritime vessel from Colombia, which culminated with the seizure of approximately 153
kilograms of heroin.
The GONA demonstrated its commitment to the counternarcotics effort by continued support for a
U.S. Forward Operating Location (FOL) at the Curacao Hato International Airport. Under a ten-
year use agreement, signed in March 2000 and ratified in October 2001 by the Dutch Parliament,
U.S. military aircraft conduct counternarcotics detection and monitoring flights over both the
source and transit zones from commercial ramp space provided free of charge.
Aruba. Aruba is a transshipment point for increasing quantities of heroin, and to a lesser extent
cocaine that move north via cruise ships and the multiple daily flights to the U.S. and Europe. The
island attracts drug traffickers because of its good infrastructure, excellent flight connections, and
relatively light sentences for drug-related crimes served in prisons with relatively good living
While Aruba enjoys a low crime rate, crime reporting during 2007 indicates that prominent drug
traffickers are established on the island. Drug abuse in Aruba, including among tourists, remains a
cause for concern. Cruise lines that visit Aruba have strict boarding/search policies for employees
in order to thwart efforts of the traffickers to establish regular courier routes back to the United
States. The expanding use of MDMA in clubs by young people attracts increasing attention. Private
foundations on the island work on drug education and prevention and the Aruba government’s top
counter narcotics official actively reaches out to U.S. sources for materials to use in prevention
programs. The police also work in demand reduction programs among local schools and visit them
regularly. The GOA has established an interagency commission to develop plans and programs to
discourage youth from trafficking between the Netherlands and the U.S. The GOA has been very
clear that it intends to pursue a dynamic counternarcotics strategy in close cooperation with its
regional and international partners.
In 2007, Aruba law enforcement officials continued to investigate and prosecute mid-level drug
traffickers who supply drugs to “mules.” During 2007, there were several instances where Aruban
authorities cooperated with U.S. authorities to carry out U.S. prosecutions of American citizens
arrested in Aruba who were attempting to carry multi-kilogram quantities of drugs to the United
States. Aruba also devotes substantial time and effort to the identification of the person’s
responsible for the importation of drugs to Aruba.
The GOA hosts the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Bureau of Customs and Border
Protection (CBP) pre-inspection and pre-clearance personnel at Reina Beatrix airport. These
officers occupy facilities financed and built by the GOA. DHS seizures of cocaine and heroin were
frequent in 2007. Aruba officials regularly explore ways to capitalize on the presence of the FOL
and pre-clearance personnel, seeking to use resident U.S. law enforcement expertise to improve
local law enforcement capabilities. In September, CBP’s Office of International Affairs and Trade
Relations provided training on the implementation of border enforcement best practices and the
proper use of inspection tool kits in the examination of aircraft, containers, vehicles and cargo.
III. Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Accomplishments. Available drug seizure statistics for calendar year 2007, as of October 31,
2007, were: Aruba seized 390 kilograms of cocaine and 13 kilograms of heroin. The Netherlands
Antilles seized 638 kilograms of cocaine and 10 kilograms of heroin.
Corruption. As a matter of policy, the NA does not encourage or facilitate the illicit production or
distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions. During 2007, the NA continued an aggressive and
successful program to identify certain links from prominent traffickers in the region to law
enforcement officials, which prompted additional investigation in the region. The NA has been
quick to address these issues through criminal investigations, internal investigations, new hiring
practices, and continued monitoring of law enforcement officials that hold sensitive positions.
Aruba’s judiciary enjoys a well-deserved reputation for integrity. It has close ties with the Dutch
legal system, including extensive seconding of Dutch prosecutors and judges to fill positions for
which there are no qualified candidates among the small Antillean and Aruban populations.
Agreements and Treaties. The Netherlands extended the 1988 UN Drug Convention to the NA
and Aruba in March 1999, with the reservation that its obligations under certain provisions would
only be applicable in so far as they were in accordance with NA and Aruba criminal legislation and
policy on criminal matters. The NA and Aruba subsequently enacted revised, uniform legislation to
resolve a lack of uniformity between the asset forfeiture laws of the NA and Aruba. The obligations
of the Netherlands as a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by
the 1972 Protocol, the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, and the UN Convention
against Transnational Organized Crime and its three protocols apply to the NA and Aruba. The
obligations of the Netherlands under the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances have
applied to the NA since March 10, 1999. The Netherlands’s Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty
(MLAT) with the United States applies to the NA and Aruba. Both Aruba and the NA routinely
honor requests made under the MLAT and cooperate extensively with the United States on law
enforcement matters at less formal levels.
Cultivation/Production. Cultivation and production of illicit drugs are not issues.
Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). Both the NA and Aruba have ongoing demand
reduction programs, but need additional resources. In 2007, the Curacao Police Corps, in
conjunction with Drug Abuse Resistance Education program (D.A.R.E.), opened a new D.A.R.E.
facility in Willemstad, Curacao to aid in youth Demand Reduction activities.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
The United States encourages Aruba and NA law enforcement officials to participate in INL-
funded regional training courses provided by U.S. agencies at the GOA and GONA’s expense.
Chiefly through the DEA and DHS/Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the United States is
able to provide assistance to enhance technical capabilities as well as some targeted training. The
U.S. continues to search for ways in which locally assigned U.S. law enforcement personnel can
share their expertise with host country counterparts.
Appreciation of the importance of intelligence to effective law enforcement has grown in the Dutch
Caribbean. The USG is expanding intelligence sharing with GOA and GONA officials as they
realize the mutual benefits that result from such sharing. As U.S.-provided intelligence must meet
the strict requirements of local law, sharing of intelligence and law enforcement information
requires ongoing, extensive liaison work to bridge the difference between U.S. and Dutch-based
Road Ahead. Drug trafficking and related money laundering and criminal violence continue to
threaten the Dutch Caribbean. The expansion of law enforcement cooperation between the U.S.,
Dutch, and Aruba and Netherlands Antilles will serve to protect the Dutch Caribbean from these
threats and contribute to broader counternarcotics efforts in the Caribbean as well.
The seven Eastern Caribbean countries—Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, St.
Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines—are vulnerable to drug trafficking
from South America to markets in the U.S. and Europe. Illicit narcotics transit the Eastern
Caribbean mostly by sea, in small “go-fast” vessels, larger fishing vessels, yachts and freight
carriers. There is little narcotics airdrop activity in the region. Recently there has been the increased
trend of using sailing yachts to transport drugs from the Caribbean to Europe. Each of the countries
has a bilateral maritime counternarcotics agreement with the U.S. The USG has provided a number
of leadership, marine engineering and maintenance, and seamanship training courses to the Eastern
Caribbean nations in FY2007. Additionally, the USCG continues to maintain a three-person
Technical Assistance Field Team (TAFT) to provide technical/logistic support and coordinate all
depot-level maintenance for over 40 maritime security vessels in the Eastern Caribbean. The seven
Eastern Caribbean states are parties to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972
Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug
II. Status of Countries and Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Antigua and Barbuda. The islands of Antigua and Barbuda are transit points for cocaine moving
from South America to the U.S. and European markets. Narcotics entering Antigua and Barbuda
are transferred from go-fast boats, fishing vessels, or yachts to other go-fasts, powerboats or local
fishing vessels for further movement. Secluded beaches and uncontrolled marinas provide
opportunities to conduct these drug transfer operations. Marijuana cultivation in Antigua and
Barbuda is not significant. Marijuana imported for domestic consumption primarily comes from St.
According to the Government of Antigua and Barbuda (GOAB), approximately 60 percent of the
cocaine that transits Antigua and Barbuda is destined for the United Kingdom, representing a 15
percent decrease from the previous year, while the amount transited to the United States increased
from 15 to 25 percent between 2006 and 2007. Approximately 10 percent of the cocaine transiting
Antigua and Barbuda is destined for St. Martin/Sint Maarten. There were no reports of production,
transit or consumption of methamphetamines in Antigua and Barbuda. There is also no legislation
that imposes specific recordkeeping on precursor chemicals.
Antigua and Barbuda is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972
Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug
Convention. The GOAB is a party to the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, the Inter-
American Convention on Extradition, and the Inter-American Convention on Mutual Assistance in
Criminal Matters, the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and
Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials (Inter-American
Firearms Convention), and the Inter-American Convention on Extradition. The GOAB is a party to
the UN Convention against Corruption and the UN Convention against Transnational Organized
Crime. There was no new narcotics-related legislation in 2007.
Through October 2007, GOAB forces seized 5.7 kilograms (kg) of cocaine and 464 kg of
marijuana, arrested 134 persons on drug-related charges, and prosecuted six traffickers. There were
five cannabis fields discovered in 2007 and the GOAB eradicated 9,394 plants. Antigua and
Barbuda has both conviction-based and civil forfeiture legislation.
The police operate a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program, targeting youth
between ages 10 and 12, and lecture church groups and other civic organizations on the dangers of
drugs. Local organizations such as the Optimist Club and Project Hope conduct their own school
programs or assist groups that work with drug addicts. There is one drug rehab center named Cross
Roads Centre which offers treatment from two separate locations.
Barbados. Barbados is a transit country for cocaine and marijuana. There has been a general
increase in drugs transiting Barbados since 2004. A notable trend encountered in 2007 was the use
of employees working in key commercial transportation positions, e.g. baggage handlers, FedEx,
DHL to assist with drug trafficking, and the emerging trend of having cocaine soaked into clothing
to avoid detection. Most of the cannabis entering Barbados is consumed locally, while local
consumption of cocaine represents only five percent of the amount thought to transit the island.
There is legislation that imposes recordkeeping on precursor chemicals. There were no reports of
production, transit or consumption of methamphetamines in Barbados. In 2007, Government of
Barbados (GOB) agencies reported seizing 228.6 kg of cocaine and 4,194 kg of marijuana. There
have not been any seizures of Ecstasy since 2005, when Barbados, for the first time, confiscated
2,445 Ecstasy tablets. The GOB brought drug charges against 242 persons during 2007 – a two
thirds decrease from the number of arrests made in 2006. Four major drug traffickers were arrested
during this period. Total reported drug charges in 2007 were significantly lower than the previous
year. In 2007, the GOB eliminated 7,194 cannabis plants, almost triple the amount eliminated in
Barbados is party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971
UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Barbados has
signed, but not ratified, the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, and is a party to the
Inter-American Firearms Convention. Barbados has not signed the Inter-American Convention on
Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters or the Inter-American Convention on Extradition. The
Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act allows Barbados to provide mutual legal assistance to
countries with which it has a bilateral mutual legal assistance treaty, Commonwealth countries, and
states-parties to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Barbados has an asset-sharing agreement with
Canada. Barbados has signed but has not yet ratified the UN Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime and its three protocols and the UN Convention against Corruption.
The GOB’s National Council on Substance Abuse (NCSA) and various concerned NGOs, such as
the National Committee for the Prevention of Alcoholism and Drug Dependency, are very active
and effective. NCSA works closely with NGOs on prevention and education efforts and supports
skills-training centers. NCSA sponsored a “Drugs Decisions” program in 45 primary schools and
continued sponsoring prison drug and rehabilitation counseling initiatives. Barbados’s excellent
D.A.R.E. and Parents Resource Institute for Drug Education (P.R.I.D.E.) programs remained active
throughout the school system. There is also a drug rehabilitation clinic now in operation.
Commonwealth of Dominica. Marijuana is cultivated in Dominica and the island serves as
transshipment point for drugs headed to the U.S. and Europe. The Dominica Police regularly
conduct eradication missions in rugged, mountainous areas. During the year, Dominican law
enforcement agencies reported seizing 353 kg of cocaine and 181 kg of marijuana – down
substantially from 2006. Dominica Police arrested 217 persons on drug-related charges, and
prosecuted eight major drug traffickers. According to the Government of the Commonwealth of
Dominica (GCOD) Police, most of the drugs that transit through Dominica are intended for foreign
markets. Marijuana accounts for approximately 90 percent of all drug consumption on the island.
There were no reports of production, transit or consumption of methamphetamines in Dominica.
The Ministry of Health and its National Drug Abuse Prevention Unit have been successful in
establishing a series of community-based drug use prevention programs, including the Drug Abuse
Resistance Education Program (D.A.R.E.).
Dominica is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971
UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Dominica is a
party to the Inter-American Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, the Inter-
American against Trafficking in Illegal Firearms Convention, the Inter-American Convention
against Firearms, the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, and Inter-American
Convention against Terrorism.
Grenada. South American and Caribbean drug trafficker’s transit through or stop in Grenada’s
coastal waters to transship cocaine and marijuana en route to U.S. and other markets. Marijuana
remains the most widely used drug among Grenadian users. Marijuana is smuggled through
Grenada from both St. Vincent and Jamaica. Local officials estimate about 75 percent remains on
the island. The remaining 25 percent is destined for other markets, primarily Barbados and
Trinidad. There is a small amount of marijuana cultivation in Grenada, primarily for local
consumption. There are no drug processing labs in Grenada. According to the police, there were no
signs of other drugs, such as methamphetamines transiting Grenada in 2007. However, the increase
in violence and gang activity associated with the drug trade, including armed robbery and
kidnapping reported in 2006 continues to cause concern. Petty crimes, including theft and break-ins
for cash to pay for drugs, remain a problem.
The police drug squad continues to collaborate closely with Drug Enforcement Administration
officials in the targeting and investigation of a local drug trafficking organization associated with
South American and other Caribbean traffickers. From January through October 15, 2007, the
police arrested 382 people on drug-related charges, 356 men and 26 women. Of those arrested, 375
were Grenadian, 2 were from St. Vincent and the Grenadines, 1 was from Trinidad & Tobago, 1
was from St. Kitts and Nevis, 1 was from Guyana, and 2 were from the United Kingdom. Two
major drug traffickers were arrested during this period: Micheal (sic) “Sands” Levine, presently
serving a three year sentence, and Garvin Patrice, out on bail.
For the year, Grenadian authorities reported seizing approximately 935.8 kg of cocaine, 9,824
marijuana plants, 260 kg of marijuana, and 1,686 marijuana cigarettes. Regular rural patrols
contribute significantly to deterring cultivation of marijuana on the island on a major scale.
Cultivation usually consists of around 50 or fewer plants in any one plot and is not measured in
acreage. Approximately seven acres of marijuana were eradicated during the period.
Legislation was proposed in 2007 to amend the Drug Abuse (Prevention and Control) Act, to
prevent the misuse of a controlled drug, to include pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. Still pending
action since 2005, is a draft Precursor Chemical Bill to develop an institutional infrastructure to
implement controls preventing the diversion of controlled chemical substances.
The Prevention of Corruption Act was passed by both houses of Parliament in March, but has not
yet been published in the official gazette. There were no prosecutions of high-level government
officials for corruption in 2007.
Grenada is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971
UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Grenada also is a
party to the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, Inter-American Convention against
trafficking in Illegal Firearms, the Inter-American Convention against Firearms, the Inter-
American Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, and Inter-American Convention
against Terrorism. Grenada is a party to the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime and
its three protocols. An extradition treaty and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) are in
force between the U.S. and Grenada.
There are a number of drug demand reduction programs available to the public through the
National Drug Avoidance Committee. There are specific programs for students from the pre-
primary level up to the college level, teachers, and adults (community outreach program). There is
also a specific program targeting women. The sole drug-rehabilitation clinic in Grenada was
destroyed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. Some repairs were done on the building, but it suffered
further structural damage in a major fire in 2006. Presently, the Rathdune Psychiatric Wing of the
Mental Hospital provides limited rehabilitation services for “extreme cases”. The need for
rehabilitation services outstrips capacity.
St. Kitts and Nevis. St. Kitts and Nevis is a transshipment point for cocaine from South America
to the United States and the United Kingdom as well as to regional markets.
Trafficking organizations operating in St. Kitts are linked directly to South American traffickers,
some of whom reportedly are residing in St. Kitts, and to other organized criminal organizations.
Marijuana is grown for local consumption.
The Government of St. Kitts and Nevis (GOSKN) is party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as
amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988
UN Drug Convention. St. Kitts and Nevis is a party to the Inter-American Convention against
Corruption and the Inter-American Firearms Convention, but has not signed the Inter-American
Convention on Extradition or the Inter-American Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal
Matters. St. Kitts and Nevis is a party to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized
Crime and its three protocols.
St. Kitts’ Police Drug Unit has been largely ineffective. Insufficient political will and the lack of
complete independence for the police to operate are contributing factors. The GOSKN Defence
Force augments police counternarcotics efforts, particularly in marijuana eradication operations.
GOSKN officials reported seizing 29 grams of cocaine, and approximately 7.5 kg of marijuana
from January through October 2007. There were no reports of production, transit or consumption
of methamphetamines in St. Kitts or Nevis.
From January to October 2007, 105 arrests were made—almost double that of 2006. Most
significant, however, was the increased eradication of marijuana plants from approximately 6,243
in 2005 and 31,000 in 2006 to 161,500 plants in 2007. According to the GOSKN, this figure does
not represent an increase in cultivation, but rather an increase in eradication efforts.
Drug demand reduction programs are available to schools and the public. D.A.R.E., Operation
Future and the National Drug Council also have programs to prevent drug abuse in SKN. There are
no drug rehabilitation clinics in SKN and persons seeking such treatment are sent to St. Lucia.
St. Lucia. St. Lucia is a well-used transshipment site for cocaine from South America to the U.S.
and Europe. Cocaine arrives in St. Lucia in go-fast boats, primarily from Venezuela, and is
delivered over the beach or off-loaded to smaller local vessels for delivery along the island’s south
or southwest coasts. Marijuana is imported from St. Vincent and the Grenadines and grown locally
as well. Foreign and local narcotics traffickers are active in St. Lucia and have been known to
stockpile cocaine and marijuana for onward shipment.
The Government of St. Lucia (GOSL) Police reported seizing 792.5 kg of cocaine in 2007, up from
50.7 kg in 2006. The GOSL also seized 793 kg of marijuana in 2007, up from 515.8 kg in 2006.
The majority of arrests made island-wide are linked to the drug trade. In 2007, there were 376
arrests made for actual drug offences such as possession or trafficking of cannabis, cocaine and
other drugs. However, no major drug traffickers were arrested in 2007. The GOSL eradicated
approximately 44,588 marijuana plants and 11,751 seedlings in 2007, which more than doubles the
The USG and the GOSL cooperate extensively on law enforcement matters. St. Lucia law permits
asset forfeiture after conviction. The law directs the forfeited proceeds to be applied to treatment,
rehabilitation, education and preventive measures related to drug abuse. In 2005, the GOSL
adopted wiretap legislation and is considering civil forfeiture legislation. It has also taken steps to
strengthen its border controls and plans to automate its immigration control systems
St. Lucia is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971
UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The GOSL
signed a maritime agreement with the USG in 1995 and an over-flight amendment to the maritime
agreement in 1996. An MLAT and an extradition treaty are in force between St. Lucia and the
United States. St. Lucia is a party to the Inter-American Convention against Trafficking in Illegal
Firearms, the Inter-American Convention against Firearms, the Inter-American Convention against
Corruption, the Inter-American Convention on Extradition, and Inter–American Convention
against Terrorism. St. Lucia has signed but has not yet ratified the UN Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime.
St. Lucia has instituted a centralized authority, the Substance Abuse Council Secretariat, to
coordinate the government’s national counternarcotics and substance abuse strategy. Various
community groups, particularly the Police Public Relations Office, continue to be active in drug
use prevention efforts, with a special focus on youth. St. Lucia offers drug treatment and
rehabilitation at an in-patient facility known as Turning Point, run by the Ministry of Health, but it
is currently under renovation. The St. Lucian Police reports that the D.A.R.E. Program has been
St. Vincent and the Grenadines. St. Vincent and the Grenadines is the largest producer of
marijuana in the Eastern Caribbean and the source for much of the marijuana used in that region.
Extensive tracts are under intensive marijuana cultivation in the inaccessible northern half of St.
Vincent. The illegal drug trade has infiltrated the economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines,
making some segments of the population dependent on marijuana production, trafficking and
money laundering. However, total cultivation is not at the level which would designate St. Vincent
and the Grenadines as a major drug-producer because it does not significantly affect the United
States. Compressed marijuana is sent from St. Vincent and the Grenadines to neighboring islands
via private vessels. St. Vincent and the Grenadines has also become a storage and transshipment
point for narcotics, mostly cocaine, transferred from Trinidad and Tobago and South America on
go-fast and inter-island cargo boats. Boats off-loading cocaine and weapons in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines will return to their point of origin carrying marijuana.
For the year, Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines (GOSVG) officials reported seizing
524.4 kg of cocaine, which doubled last year’s figures, 397 cocaine rocks and 1,559.7 kgs of
marijuana. GOSVG authorities arrested 335 persons on drug-related charges and convicted 257.
There are 53 cases still pending, 3 cases dismissed and 19cases under investigation. In 2007, one
major drug (cocaine) trafficker –Charles Constance—was prosecuted and sentenced to prison on
money laundering charges. During the year, approximately 614,135 (up from 34,831) marijuana
plants on 90 acres were eradicated. More than 11 times the amount reported in 2006. The police,
customs, and coast guard try to control the rugged terrain and territorial waters of St. Vincent and
the chain of islands making up the Grenadines. There has been an increase in drugs transiting St.
Vincent, mainly cocaine from Venezuela, and a prevalence of crack cocaine use in some
The Caribbean market makes up approximately 45 percent of marijuana consumption from SVG,
the U.S. 25 percent, UK 20 percent and Canada 10 percent. There is currently legislation on
precursor chemicals from various pharmaceuticals. There were no reports of production, transit or
consumption of methamphetamines in St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the
1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug
Convention. The GOSVG is a party to the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, and has
signed but not ratified the Inter-American against Trafficking in Illegal Firearms, the Inter-
American Convention against Firearms, and Inter-American Convention against Terrorism. The
GOSVG has signed but not yet ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
and its protocols on trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling. The GOSVG signed a maritime
agreement with the USG in 1995, but it has not yet signed an over-flight amendment to the
maritime agreement. An extradition treaty and an MLAT are currently in effect between the U.S.
and the GOSVG. USG law enforcement officials received good cooperation from the GOSVG in
2006. In the past, St. Vincent Police has been cooperative in executing search warrants pursuant to
A statute-mandated advisory council on drug abuse and prevention has been largely inactive for
several years. A draft national counternarcotics plan remains pending. The government mental
hospital provides drug detoxification services. The family life curriculum in the schools includes
drug prevention education and selected schools continue to receive the excellent police-run
D.A.R.E. Program. The OAS is assisting the GOSVG develop a drug demand reduction program
for St. Vincent’s prison.
Road Ahead. U.S. assistance will continue to focus on enhancing the capacity of Eastern
Caribbean law enforcement to counter drug trafficking and related crimes such as money
laundering, arms trafficking and corruption.
French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe, the French side of Saint Martin, and St. Barthelemy are
all overseas departments of France and therefore subject to French law, and all international
conventions signed by France, including the 1988 United Nations Drug Convention. The French
Judiciary Police, Gendarmerie, and Customs Service play a major role in narcotics law
enforcement in France’s overseas departments, just as they do in the rest of France. Cocaine moves
through the French Caribbean and from French Guiana to Europe and to a lesser extent, to the
United States. France is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
The Martinique Task Force, created in 2006, in response to an increase in the trafficking of cocaine
coming directly to France from the French Caribbean, intercepted over ten metric tons of cocaine
headed for France in 2007. The task force is a multilateral cooperative effort that brings together
French, Spanish, Colombian, U.S. and British law enforcement officials to promote coordinated
operations against trafficking. French Customs also takes an active part in the undertakings of the
Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council (C.C.L.E.C), which was established in the early
1970s to improve the level of cooperation and exchange of information between its members in the
In 2007, C.C.L.E.C. broadened its scope to include training programs, technical assistance and
other projects. A three-day Enforcement Liaison Workshop, organized jointly by CCLEC and
French Customs in Martinique February 12-15, was geared towards preparing for the increased
flow of persons and goods during the period of the Cricket World Cup 2007. All of the French
Islands now use or have access to the CCLEC Regional Clearance System, an automated system
for the reporting of private vessel clearances within the region.
III. Actions Against Drugs in 2007
During the year important drug seizures included the April 20 operation led by the Gendarmerie
and police officials in Saint Martin, which led to the discovery of 574 cannabis plants. Four people
were arrested and the plants were destroyed shortly after by the Gendarmerie. On August 8, French
customs officials seized close to 900 kg of cocaine on board a sailboat in the south of Martinique
estimated to be worth approximately 35 million euros (approximately $48.2 million). After
intercepting the sailboat, French coastal authorities escorted it to port in southern Martinique where
customs officials found the cocaine concealed in sports bags. The two occupants on board the boat
Agreements and Treaties. In addition to the agreements and treaties discussed in the report on
France, United States and French counternarcotics cooperation in the Caribbean is enhanced by a
1997 multilateral Caribbean Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement that provides for information
sharing to enforce customs laws and prevent smuggling, including those relating to drug
trafficking. The assignment of a French Navy liaison officer to the U.S. Joint Interagency Task
Force-South at Key West, Florida, continued to enhance law enforcement cooperation in the
Caribbean. In 2007, France joined the U.S., Jamaica and Belize in signing and ratifying the Dutch-
sponsored Caribbean Maritime Agreement (formally the “Accord Concerning the Cooperation in
Suppressing Illicit Maritime and Aeronautical Trafficking in Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in
the Caribbean Region”) originally negotiated in 2003. However, the agreement has yet to enter into
force because it lacks the requisite number of ratifications. In 2006, France, along with 11 other
nations became a signatory to the “Paramaribo Declaration” at a conference in Suriname. This
agreement established an intelligence sharing network, to coordinate and execute drug sting
operations among countries and to address money laundering.
Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation. The French Inter-ministerial Drug Control Training
Center (CIFAD) in Fort-de-France, Martinique offers training in French, Spanish and English to
law enforcement officials in the Caribbean and Central and South America, covering subjects as
money laundering, precursor chemicals, mutual legal assistance, international legal cooperation,
coast guard training, customs valuation and drug control in airports. CIFAD coordinates its training
activities with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Organization of
American States/CICAD, and individual donor nations. U.S. Customs officials periodically provide
training at the CIFAD. French Customs is also co-funding with the Organization of American
States (OAS), on a regular basis, training seminars aimed at Customs and Coast Guard Officers
from OAS member states. The French Navy also now hosts “Operation Carib Royale” – a French
Eastern Caribbean counternarcotics operation, which Joint Interagency Task Force South supports
with available air and marine assets.
France supports European Union initiatives to increase counternarcotics assistance to the
Caribbean. The EU and its member-states, the United States and other individual and multilateral
donors are coordinating their assistance programs closely in the region through bilateral and
multilateral discussions. The GOF participates actively in the Caribbean Financial Action Task
Force (CFATF) as a cooperating and support nation (COSUN).
Guyana is a transit point for cocaine destined for North America, Europe, and the Caribbean, but
not in quantities sufficient to impact the U.S. market. In 2007, domestic seizures of cocaine were
three times higher than the previous year due to improved counternarcotics measures at the
working level, although all but one of these seizures were minor in scale. The Government of
Guyana (GOG) laid the groundwork for an enhanced security sector by agreeing to a reform
program sponsored by the British government; it also arrested Terrence Sugrim, an accused drug
trafficker wanted by the U.S., and initiated the extradition process.
More than two years after launching its National Drug Strategy Master Plan (NDSMP) for 2005-
2009, the GOG has not effectively implemented it. Cooperation among law enforcement bodies is
fragmented and minimally productive; weak border controls and limited resources for law
enforcement allow drug traffickers to move shipments via river, air, and land without meaningful
resistance. Guyana is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
II. Status of Country
Guyana is a transit country for cocaine, and to a lesser degree marijuana. Guyana’s vast expanse of
unpopulated forest and savannahs offers ample cover for drug traffickers and smugglers.
Government counternarcotics efforts are undermined by inadequate resources for law enforcement,
poor coordination among law enforcement agencies, an inefficient judiciary, and a colonial-era
legal system badly in need of modernization. Murders, kidnappings, and other violent crimes
commonly believed to be linked with narcotics trafficking are regularly reported in the Guyanese
media. Guyana produces high-grade cannabis and is not known to produce, trade, or transit
precursor chemicals on a large scale.
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Policy Initiatives. In 2007, the GOG signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Great
Britain to implement a $5 million, multi-year program for reform of the security sector, which
includes enhancing the investigative capacity of law enforcement agencies. The GOG requested
and received $500,000 in U.S. Department of Defense funds to refurbish its only seaworthy Coast
Guard vessel, to patrol its 285-mile coastline. Guyana commenced issuance of machine-readable
passports, in accordance with the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) standards,
which will help thwart the use of identity fraud and cross-border criminal activities. The
government has tabled legislation that would augment the tools currently available to it in fighting
money laundering, including regulations to allow for the seizure of assets; the chances for its
passage are unclear.
The positive steps of 2007, notwithstanding, the GOG has accomplished few of the principal goals
laid out in its ambitious 2005 NDSMP. The Joint Intelligence Coordination Center (JICC), the
formation of which was a central element of the 2005 NDSMP, is defunct. In its place, a task force
covering narcotics and illegal weapons has been assembled by the Minister for Home Affairs and
meets monthly, but there remains limited productive interaction or intelligence sharing among the
Law Enforcement Efforts. Despite the lack of adequate resources, poor inter-agency
coordination, and allegations of corruption, 2007 saw modest improvements in enforcement at the
working level. In 2007, Guyanese law enforcement agencies seized 167 kilograms (kgs) of cocaine,
a nearly threefold increase over the amount seized in 2006, but mostly due to one large seizure. In
May, the Customs Anti-Narcotics Unit (CANU) seized 106 kgs of cocaine hidden in dried fish glue
at a home near Georgetown, and arrested four men in connection with the operation; one of these
individuals was sentenced in November to ten years in prison and fined $1.2 million. In July, police
arrested Terrence Sugrim, an accused drug trafficker who had been indicted in New York federal
court a few weeks earlier; he is appealing his possible extradition to the U.S.
Guyana’s counternarcotics activities are encumbered by the peculiarities of a British colonial-era
legal system that has not been updated to reflect the needs of modern-day law enforcement. There
are no laws that support plea bargaining, wiretapping, or the use of DNA evidence. Nor are there
laws against racketeering or conspiracy. Even when more contemporary crime fighting tools are
available to one law enforcement body, they are not necessarily available to others. At Guyana’s
international airport, for example, the Guyana Revenue Authority (GRA) operates surveillance
cameras to help thwart tax fraud. But the cameras are not well-placed to aid counternarcotics
operations, video footage is not shared with narcotics authorities and it is not clear that it would be
admissible in drug-related court proceedings. In all cases, law enforcement agencies are hamstrung
by meager personnel budgets. There are no routine patrols of the numerous land entry points on the
1,800 miles of border with Venezuela, Brazil, and Suriname.
The GOG has not identified or confronted major drug traffickers and their organizations. While the
Guyana Police Force (GPF) Narcotics Branch and CANU arrested dozens of drug couriers at
Guyana’s international airport en route to the Caribbean, North America, and Europe, the arrests
were limited to individuals with small amounts of marijuana, crack cocaine or powder cocaine,
usually on charges of possession for the purpose of trafficking.
Corruption. There is no evidence that the GOG or senior GOG officials encourage or facilitate the
illicit production, processing, shipment or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other
controlled substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. News media
routinely report on instances of corruption reaching to high levels of government that are not
investigated and thus go unpunished, but no conclusive evidence is available to back up these
claims. USG analysts believe drug trafficking organizations in Guyana continue to elude law
enforcement agencies through bribes and coercion, but substantiating information is anecdotal at
best. Guyana is party to the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC), but has yet
to fully implement its provisions, such as seizure of property obtained through corruption. Guyana
is not a party to the UN Convention against Corruption.
Agreements and Treaties. Guyana is party to the 1961 UN Single Convention, as amended by the
1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug
Convention. Guyana also is a party to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
and its protocol on trafficking in persons and the Inter American Convention against Corruption.
The 1931 Extradition Treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom is applicable to
the U.S. and Guyana, but there is no bilateral mutual legal assistance treaty between the U.S. and
Guyana. In March 2006, Guyana signed the OAS Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, to which the
U.S. is a party; assistance has also been regularly provided on an informal basis. Guyana signed a
bilateral agreement with the U.S. on maritime counternarcotics cooperation in 2001; however, it
has not yet taken the necessary domestic actions to bring the agreement into force. Guyana has
bilateral agreements to cooperate on drug trafficking issues with its neighbors and with the United
Kingdom. Guyana is also a member of the Organization of American States’ Inter-American Drug
Abuse Control Commission (OAS/CICAD).
Cultivation and Production. A very high-grade form of cannabis is grown in Guyana, primarily
in the intermediate savannahs, and its cultivation is reportedly increasing. In 2007, Guyanese
authorities eradicated 15,280 kilograms of cannabis.
Drug Flow/Transit. There are no reliable estimates regarding the amount of cocaine or cannabis
that transits Guyana. According to USG law enforcement authorities, Guyanese narcotics
traffickers regularly move shipments of cocaine through the country. Some cannabis cultivated in
Guyana is also smuggled out of the country, although in more modest quantities. Drugs flow easily
through Guyana’s uncontrolled borders and coastline. Light aircraft land at numerous isolated
airstrips or make airdrops where operatives on the ground retrieve the drugs. Smugglers use small
boats and freighters to enter Guyana’s many remote but navigable rivers. Smugglers also take
direct routes, such as driving or boating across the borders with Brazil, Suriname, and Venezuela.
Inside the country, narcotics are transported to Georgetown by road, water, or air and then sent on
to the Caribbean, North America, or Europe via commercial air carriers or cargo ships. Authorities
have arrested drug mules attempting to smuggle small amounts of cocaine on virtually every
northbound route out of the international airport. In 2007 there was a surge in law enforcement
seizures at the airport of suitcases carrying drugs that had been added to the baggage queue after
check-in, and tagged in the names of unsuspecting passengers. Police officials also witnessed a
notable upward trend in the use of the Guyana Post Office as an avenue for the trafficking of
cocaine in small quantities, further demonstrating the malleable tactics of trafficking organizations.
Demand Reduction (Domestic Programs). Marijuana is sold and consumed openly in Guyana,
despite frequent arrests for possessing small amounts of cannabis. Sources within the GOG and a
local NGO note that consumption of all psychotropic substances in Guyana is increasing, with a
particularly dramatic rise in the use of Ecstasy (MDMA). Marijuana use has been seen among
children as young as eleven years old. Guyana’s ability to deal with drug abusers is hampered by
the modest financial resources to support rehabilitation programs. Guyana only has two facilities
that treat substance abuse—the Salvation Army and the Phoenix Recovery Center. There are no
programs to deal with substance abuse in the prisons.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
Policy Initiatives. U.S. policy focuses on cooperating with Guyana’s law enforcement agencies,
promoting good governance, and facilitating demand reduction programs. In 2007, the USG
continued to encourage Guyanese participation in bilateral and multilateral counternarcotics
initiatives, and funded a substance abuse treatment program for women (the two previously
existing programs in Guyana only funded treatment for men). The U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID) is funding projects to improve governance in Guyana, which includes
parliamentary and judicial reform.
Bilateral Cooperation. The DEA works with Guyana’s government and law enforcement agencies
to provide training and develop initiatives that will enhance their counternarcotics activities. The
GOG routinely grants diplomatic credentials to DEA officers who cover Guyana from the U.S.
Embassy in Trinidad, and working level collaboration is generally positive. In 2007, the USCG
provided maritime law enforcement training to the Guyana Defense Force.
The Road Ahead. Neither the GOG nor the various drug enforcement bodies of the U.S. have
dedicated the resources to determine the quantity of illegal drugs flowing through Guyana. All
projections are speculative based on the few seizures made. In the absence of both sound data and
more robust DEA/INL involvement, the U.S. will not augment resources for investigation and
interdiction in Guyana. Instead, it will continue to channel any future assistance to initiatives that
demonstrate success in treating substance abusers. The U.S. will also continue to use its diplomatic
tools to encourage the GOG to organize an effective counternarcotics program, especially within
the context of the British-funded overhaul of the security sector. The GOG also needs to pass
effective legislation to deal with money laundering, including provisions allowing forfeiture of
Haiti is a major transit country for cocaine and marijuana from South America and the Caribbean
respectively. In 2007, air smuggling of narcotics to Haiti from Venezuela increased by 38 percent.
The Preval Administration continued the struggle to overcome pervasive corruption, weak
governance and mismanagement. Haiti’s law enforcement institutions are weak and its judicial
system dysfunctional. With the support of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
(MINUSTAH), the Haitian National Police (HNP) conducted a successful campaign in the Port-au-
Prince area to disrupt gang elements involved in kidnapping, drug trafficking, and intimidation.
Although the campaign decreased criminal activity in those areas, the Government of Haiti (GOH)
has yet to deliver the sustained police presence needed to curb the gangs’ criminal activity. The
GOH with assistance from international donors – principally MINUSTAH, the United States and
Canada – continues to promote the restoration of the rule of law. The HNP, with the support of
MINUSTAH, completed the first year of its reform plan, which includes a vetting and certification
process for all officers, and reform of institutional elements including the General Administration
Department and Logistics Bureau. The HNP’s counternarcotics unit carried out operations during
the year that resulted in limited seizures of drugs. Haiti is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
II. Status of Country
Haiti is a major drug transit country. Haiti’s 1,125 miles of unprotected shoreline, uncontrolled
seaports, numerous clandestine airstrips, along with a struggling police force, dysfunctional
judiciary system, corruption, and weak democracy make it an attractive strategic point for drug
traffickers. Cocaine and, to a lesser extent, marijuana are trafficked through Haiti to the United
States and, in smaller quantities, to Canada and Europe. In addition to being shipped directly to the
United States, drugs brought into Haiti also are moved overland into the Dominican Republic for
onward delivery to the U.S. and Europe. Following a 167 percent spike in suspected drug
smuggling flights from Venezuela to Hispaniola in 2006, flights decreased temporarily, primarily
as a result of the joint DEA-HNP Operation Rum Punch. Launched in March, Rum Punch involved
the deployment of USG air assets to Haiti teamed with maritime assets operating south of
Hispaniola for three months. However, following that operation, the flights resumed and Haiti
experienced a 38 percent increase in drug smuggling flights in 2007, as reported by the U.S. Joint
Interagency Task Force–South (JIATF-S).
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
During 2007, the HNP trained 901 new recruits (782 men and 119 women), and 243 existing
officers. In November, the HNP graduated a class of 646 new officers, including 86 women. The
new officers are assigned to the Motorized Intervention Brigade (BIM) with primary duties to
introduce community policing and to patrol the slum areas of the capital. The Academy training
now consists of 24 weeks of basic police tactics, less-than-lethal tactics, community policing,
weapons training, search and evidence gathering techniques, ethics, human rights, and gender and
children’s issues. In 2006, the HNP and MINUSTAH agreed upon a reform plan to create a police
force of 14,000 trained and vetted officers within five years. The report on the first year of the
plan’s implementation released in September revealed progress on training of both new and
experienced officers, development of standard operating procedures, continued emphasis of
vetting, and improved capacity in criminal investigative techniques among specialized units. Since
January, MINUSTAH military troops, United Nations Police (UNPOL), MINUSTAH Formed
Police Units, and HNP officers have made progress in dismantling gangs that support drug
trafficking and kidnapping.
In November, the GOH formally approved the terms of reference and work plan for a USG-funded
project to enhance the effectiveness of GOH anti-money laundering and anti-corruption efforts.
The project will provide mentoring on the investigation and prosecution of financial crimes by U.S.
Treasury advisers and will involve the restructuring the GOH Central Financial Intelligence Unit
(French acronym UCREF) by separating its investigative and intelligence gathering functions.
In April 2007, the Center for Information and Joint Coordination (French acronym CICC), under
the Ministry of Interior, became fully operational. The Center is tasked with conducting
investigations, research, data collection, information sharing and international and regional
coordination related to drug trafficking in/through Haiti. It has 26 staff personnel assigned,
including 16 investigators. It has established the Anti-Drug Task Force consisting of all the
agencies within the GOH that deal with aspects of drug trafficking, money laundering, border
control and law enforcement. It is also working to establish greater bilateral cooperation with the
Dominican Republic, signing a joint agreement in November to fight drug trafficking and other
Law Enforcement Efforts. The HNP counternarcotics unit (French acronym BLTS) with support
from the USG, continued canine detection operations at the airport inspection baggage and cargo
areas in 2007. DEA-provided air assets working with JIATF-S air and maritime assets assisted the
GOH in stopping air deliveries to Haiti. Through October 10, 2007, 914 kilos of cocaine and
marijuana were seized.
The Special Investigative Unit (SIU), a partnership between DEA and the GOH, became
operational in 2007. Selected HNP officers, graduates of a five-week course at the Drug
Enforcement Academy in Quantico, Virginia, formed the nucleus of the SIU and are charged with
investigating Haitian drug organizations that have a nexus to the United States. The unit has
conducted several joint interdiction operations with DEA/FBI/JIATF-S and Customs Border
Protection (CBP). The SIU is currently the only fully vetted unit in the HNP.
The HCG conducted drug and migrant interdiction operations from its bases in Port-au-Prince and
Cap Haitien during the year. The HCG has one 40-foot vessel and one 35-foot go-fast boat in Cap
Haitien for patrol and port security operations. In FY07, the HCG successfully interdicted more
than one thousand Haitian migrants aboard vessels that departed the north coast. The HCG in Cap
Haitien provided information on three vessels that contained illegal drugs or tested positive in ion-
scanning by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Additionally, the HCG in Port-au-Prince partnered
with the HNP BLTS to board a Colombian-flagged freighter aground near Miragoane on Haiti’s
South Claw. However, the HCG struggles maintain an operational fleet. The lack of funding and
fuel shortages remain significant barriers to the ability of the HCG to conduct maritime operations.
Corruption. As a matter of policy, the GOH does not encourage or facilitate the shipment of
narcotics through Haiti, and does not discourage the investigation or prosecution of such acts.
Moreover, the GOH has demonstrated willingness to undertake law enforcement and legal
measures to prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish public corruption. President Preval has
publicly identified the fights against corruption and drug trafficking as major priorities for his
administration. Vetting has taken place in some of the northern and southern areas and among
certain ranks in Port-au-Prince and will be further expanded in the capital area, where the majority
of police officers are assigned. In 2007, the HNP Director General dismissed 600 officers for
misconduct or being absent without leave, although many remain on the payroll. The HNP Director
of Administration and Director of Logistics were both removed from their positions in 2007 for
suspected corruption. The Prosecutor of Port-au-Prince has made several high-profile arrests of
private citizens on corruption charges, but has not yet extended that campaign to the public sector.
Agreements and Treaties. Haiti is a party to the 1961 Single Convention as amended by the 1972
Protocol; the 1988 UN Drug Convention; the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption; and
the Inter American Convention against Trafficking in illegal firearms. A U.S.-Haiti maritime
counternarcotics agreement entered into force in 2002. Haiti has signed but not ratified the UN
Convention against Corruption, the Caribbean Regional Maritime Agreement and the UN
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime). There is no bilateral mutual legal assistance
treaty between the U.S. and Haiti. Requests for assistance historically have been made through
letters rogatory but there have been no formal requests for assistance in years.
Extradition. Haiti and the U.S. are parties to an extradition treaty that entered into force in 1905.
Although the Haitian Constitution prohibits the extradition of its nationals, in the past Haitians
under indictment in the U.S. have been returned to the U.S. by non-extradition means. The SIU has
spearheaded efforts to transfer both Haitian and non-Haitian nationals wanted in the United States
for drug trafficking to the U.S., in keeping with President Preval’s desire to stem drug trafficking
through Haiti. During 2007, nine Haitian fugitives were sent to the U.S., including ex-HNP officer
Raynald Saint-Pierre, wanted out of the Southern District of Florida on drugs and money
Cultivation/Production. There is evidence that cultivation of marijuana has increased, although it
is low quality cannabis grown on a small scale and sold locally. The BLTS destroyed five hectares
of marijuana but, due to lack of resources, is often unable to respond to tips about marijuana
Drug flow/transit. In 2007, traffickers continued to use small aircraft to make offshore air drops of
illegal drugs as well as land deliveries using clandestine airstrips. At least 29 such landing strips
were identified in 2007. Suspect drug flights from Venezuela increased by 38 percent compared to
2006. Fast boats transporting cocaine from South America arrive at a number of locations on the
southern coast of Haiti. The cocaine is then transported overland to Port-au-Prince where it is
frequently concealed on cargo and coastal freighters destined for the United States and Europe.
Marijuana is shipped via fast boats from Jamaica to waiting Haitian fishing vessels and cargo
freighters to seaports along Haiti’s southern claw. It is then shipped directly to the continental
United States or transshipped through the Dominican Republic or Puerto Rico. Seizures of very
small quantities of crack for personal use also occurred in 2007. The BLTS also experienced an
increase in amphetamine trafficking near the end of 2007, due to a crackdown in the Dominican
Republic that has disrupted the distribution routes to Europe. The appearance of crack and the
smuggling of amphetamines are new phenomena in Haiti for which the authorities have little
training or experience. Pharmacies in Haiti are essentially unregulated, and some controlled
medications are sold in quantities through those businesses as well.
Demand Reduction. Drug abuse is a growing but largely unrecognized problem in Haiti. Increased
use of marijuana in schools has been reported, leading to increased levels of local production.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
Policy Initiatives. The cornerstone of USG efforts to combat drug trafficking in Haiti continues to
focus on reform of the HNP. In cooperation with MINUSTAH, the USG provided substantial
equipment and technical assistance in 2007, aimed at transforming the HNP into an effective law
enforcement institution. The NAS coordinated the procurement of vehicles, radios, forensic lab and
other technical equipment for the HNP, police academy and in-service training, support for
specialized HNP units and material support to the HCG. The USG contributed 50 officers to
MINUSTAH’s UNPOL contingent, many of whom are involved in training recruits at the HNP
academy. The police advisers also oversaw the construction of two model police stations in Croix
des Bouquets and Thiotte and the continued installation of solar-powered radio base stations for the
HNP throughout the country. The USG also is contributing three corrections experts to form the
nucleus of a sixteen-member UN team that works on improving the infrastructure and management
of Haiti’s prison system. A U.S. senior corrections advisor will also oversee the refurbishment and
equipping of certain prison facilities as well as the training of correction personnel to improve the
detainees living conditions. In addition, the USG has provided an adviser to help the HNP Director
General implement anti-corruption and strategic planning measures. Advisers from U.S. Treasury’s
Office of Technical Assistance (OTA) visited Haiti three times in 2007, in order to review cases of
financial crimes with prosecutors and judges and to discuss the investigative process and training
requirements for financial investigators. USCG Mobile Training Teams supported HCG operations
with maritime law enforcement, port security, engineering, logistics and maintenance training in
2007. The USCG is currently retrofitting three vessels, a 47-foot patrol boat and two “Eduardono”
fast boats at USCG Integrated Support Command Miami. It is USCG’s hope that HCG will place
the 47-foot patrol boat in Cap Haitien for future drug and migrant operations on the northern coast
Road Ahead. Haiti needs to continue the reform and expansion of the HNP and its judicial system
as prerequisites for effective counternarcotics operations throughout the country. The GOH must
demonstrate the political will to fight corruption within state institutions and to overcome the
under-resourcing and under-staffing of the HNP, problems which remain major impediments to
sustained progress. More importantly, the restoration of the rule of law, including reform of the
judicial system, must continue in order to provide the security and stability Haiti needs to meet the
economic, social and political development needs of the Haitian people.
Jamaica is a major drug transit country and the Caribbean’s largest producer of marijuana and
marijuana derivative products. In 2007, cooperation between Government of Jamaica (GOJ) and
U.S. Government (USG) law enforcement agencies remained strong resulting in drug seizures,
arrest of drug-traffickers, and disruption of their organizations in Jamaica. The ambitious
legislative agenda initiated in 2007 only resulted in the passage and implementation of the
Proceeds of Crime Act and the new Anti-trafficking law. Despite numerous well-documented
corruption scandals, there were no prosecutions of high level officials. New Prime Minister Bruce
Golding has promised various security initiatives, such as a consolidated anti-corruption National
Investigative and Intelligence Agency (NIIA) to tackle Jamaica’s pervasive public corruption.
Jamaica is a party to the 1988 United Nations Drug Convention.
II. Status of Country
Jamaica is a major drug transit country, due to its difficult to patrol coastline, over 100
unmonitored airstrips, busy commercial and cruise ports, and convenient air connections. Jamaica
remains the Caribbean’s largest producer and exporter of marijuana and marijuana derivative
products. Consumption of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana is illegal in Jamaica, with marijuana most
frequently abused, and consumption of cocaine rising. Ironically, the possession and use of Ecstasy
(MDMA) is controlled by Jamaica’s Food and Drug Act and is currently subject to light non-
criminal penalties. In 2007, an increase in murder and other violent crime coupled with a thriving
“guns for ganja” trade between Jamaica and its neighbors, that was abetted by systemic corruption
within the police, customs service, and judicial system, continued to tax an already over burdened
law enforcement and judicial system.
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Policy Initiatives/Accomplishments. In 2007, the GOJ continued to pursue, but did not pass key
security and counternarcotics legislative and policy initiatives introduced in 2006. These included
the use and collection of DNA evidence, port security and establishment of a new anti-corruption
agency. In May, the GOJ passed and began implementation of the Proceeds of Crime Act, an anti-
money laundering law, which provides the GOJ a more expeditious seizure and forfeiture process.
The GOJ did not implement initiatives to criminalize the manufacture, sale, transport, and
possession of Ecstasy (MDMA), methamphetamine, or the precursor chemicals used to produce
them. The GOJ also did not enact the initiative to permit extended data-sharing between U.S. and
Jamaican law enforcement on money laundering cases through the Financial Investigative Division
(FID) Act. Additionally, the GOJ’s national forensics laboratory has a backlog of cases due to
understaffing and lack of resources. Jamaica is not in full compliance with the Egmont Group
The USG Container Security and MegaPorts (CSI) initiative began in late 2006. However, the GOJ
has not yet provided a permanent facility for U.S. officers and their Jamaican counterparts, thus
inhibiting their ability to jointly combat contraband cargo and drug-trafficking through Kingston’s
commercial port. Additionally, pervasive corruption at this port continues to undermine the CSI
Law Enforcement Efforts. In 2007, the Jamaica Defense Force (JDF), Air Wing and Coast Guard
(JDFCG) were involved in maritime interdiction efforts, and participated in the DEA-led regional
operation “All Inclusive.” Also, the JDF, Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) and Financial
Investigations Division (FID) worked closely with the USG to investigate drug and money
laundering organizations that move transit payments through Jamaica back to source countries and
launder local profits from the sale of marijuana and weapons. While hampered by internal
corruption and a lack of sufficient resources, the JCF and JDF continued to give priority to
counternarcotics missions in 2007. Nonetheless cannabis seizures decreased by 8 percent, to 41.4
metric tons (MT), compared to 2006, and cocaine seizures went from 109 kilograms (kg) in 2006
to 98 kg in 2007. The GOJ seized 98.21 kg of cocaine in 2007, as compared to 109 kg seized in
In 2007, little progress was made on many of the important reforms outlined in the 2005-2008
Corporate Strategy for Reform. Nearly all the gains made in 2006 to control crime and improve
community policing were lost in 2007, as the police struggled to contain violent crime. In
December 2007, the JCF’s new Commissioner of Police Hardley Lewin took office. Commissioner
Lewin has a mandate for reform, and if the GOJ supports his efforts, 2008 should see an
improvement in JCF operations.
In early 2007, the GOJ extradited drug kingpin Leebert Ramcharam to the U.S. Extradition is
pending appeal on six other major drug traffickers.
Operation Kingfish, a multinational task force (GOJ, U.S., United Kingdom and Canada)
celebrated its third anniversary in 2007. The GOJ has pledged to continue participating in
“Operation Kingfish,” and reinvigorate its activities particularly against the “guns for ganja” trade
and extortion. In 2007, Operation Kingfish mounted 864 operations, compared to 870 in 2006.
In 2007, the Jamaican Custom’s Contraband Enforcement Team (CET) seized 6.54 kg of cocaine
and 1103 kgs of cannabis at Jamaican air and seaports. However, the CET remains understaffed
and ill equipped to combat effectively the ever-complex methods of smuggling illicit drugs in
commercial goods. The GOJ has failed to focus sufficient resources on the CET, even though
container traffic through the seaports is believed the primary method of transshipment of cocaine
Corruption. No senior GOJ officials, nor the GOJ as a matter of policy, encourage or facilitate the
illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or
the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. However, pervasive public corruption
continues to undermine efforts against drug-related and other crimes, and plays a major role in the
safe passage of drugs and drug proceeds through Jamaica. Corruption remains a major barrier to
improving counternarcotics efforts. High profile corruption scandals plagued the GOJ throughout
2007, but there were no prosecutions of high-level officials for corruption, or of officials linked by
reliable evidence to drug-related activity.
The JDF investigates any reports of corruption, and takes disciplinary action when warranted in
furtherance of its zero tolerance policy. There was no action in 2007 on proposed revisions to the
Corruption Prevention Act, granting Jamaica’s Commission for the Prevention of Corruption
greater authority and making Jamaica’s legislation consistent with its commitments under the Inter-
American Convention against Corruption. However, the new government has announced plans to
revive and redraft the legislation to create a national anti-corruption agency (NIIA), an initiative of
its predecessor, which could satisfy the Convention’s requirements. Draft legislation for the
creation of an Anti-Corruption Special Prosecutor should be presented to Parliament by January
In mid-2007, the JCF established a new Anti-Corruption Division headed by an internationally
recruited police officer. This new Division should be operational with a fully vetted team of
investigators early in 2008. Once active, it will continue working on pending cases, and launch
investigations against known, corrupt high-ranking police officers.
Agreements and Treaties. The extradition treaty between the USG and the GOJ has been actively
used, with the vast majority of cases involving requests to Jamaica. Jamaica and the U.S. have a
Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) in place, which assisted in evidence sharing. The U.S.
and Jamaica have a reciprocal asset sharing agreement, and a bilateral law enforcement agreement
governing cooperation on stopping the flow of illegal drugs by maritime means. Jamaica is a party
to the Inter-American Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters. The GOJ
signed, but has not ratified, the Caribbean Regional Maritime Counterdrug Agreement. Jamaica is a
party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1972 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and
the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol. Jamaica is also a party to the
UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three protocols, and the Inter-
American Convention against Corruption.
Cultivation/Production. According to the UN World Drug Report, Jamaica is the Caribbean’s
largest producer and exporter of marijuana but exact cultivation levels are unknown due to a lack
of crop surveys. Marijuana is grown mostly in smaller plots in hilly and rocky terrain and along the
tributaries of the Black River in Saint Elizabeth which for most parts is inaccessible to vehicular
traffic. Eradication of marijuana continued an upward trend in 2007 with 701 hectares eliminated,
compared to 524 in 2006. Jamaica uses manual eradication without the use of herbicides. The GOJ
does not have any alternative development or crop substitution programs. In August, Hurricane
Dean struck Jamaica, damaging much of its legitimate agricultural crop. Many farmers, left with
little or no assistance to replant, resorted to cultivating marijuana instead.
Drug Flow/Transit. In 2007, cocaine smugglers continued the trend first observed in 2006 to use
container cargo transshipments or sea drops that are then brought on shore for smuggling via
checked luggage, couriers, and in commercial shipments to move cocaine through Jamaica to the
United States. In addition, as interdiction efforts intensified at the airports in 2007, smugglers
began welding to the hulls of commercial ships sealed metal containers packed with compressed
marijuana. With 113 unmonitored landing strips/fields, the potential to also use land drops remains
high. A trend that began in late 2006, whereby marijuana-traffickers bartered cocaine for illegal
weapons, continued in 2007. To combat this trade, the GOJ created a special cell within Operation
Kingfish called “Musketeer.”
Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Jamaica has several demand reduction programs,
including the Ministry of Health’s National Council on Drug Abuse, which receives U.S. funding.
The GOJ operates five treatment centers through the Ministry of Health. In 2007, a university-level
certificate program in drug addiction and drug prevention was launched. The program was
developed by GOJ in conjunction with the Organization of American States Inter-American Drug
Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). The United Nations Office Drug Control (UNODC) works
directly with the GOJ and NGOs on demand reduction; however, due to limited resources these
programs have little impact.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
Bilateral Cooperation. There is robust cooperation between U.S. and GOJ officials. In 2007, the
U.S provided training and material support to elements of the JCF and JDF to strengthen their
counternarcotics capabilities and promote greater bilateral cooperation. The Jamaica Fugitive
Apprehension Team (JFAT) received specialized training, equipment, guidance and operational
support from the U.S. Marshals permanently stationed in Kingston. The U.S. Marshals report that,
in 2007, there were 48 open cases and they closed 63 cases regarding U.S. fugitives. In 2007, there
were 8 arrests, 10 extraditions and 2 deportations.
The GOJ participated in joint deployments with the USG in Jamaican waters during 2007 under the
auspices of “Operation Riptide,” which allow both nations to conduct law enforcement operations
within each other’s maritime zones and is authorized under the Joint Jamaica-United States
Maritime Cooperation Agreement. The JDF also continued to work with the USG’s Joint
Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S) in 2007 to disrupt maritime trafficking. JDF and JCF
elements participated in the DEA-led regional exercise “All-Inclusive”. JDF Coast Guard
personnel participated in a number of maritime law enforcement, seamanship and specialized
technical resident courses in the U.S. in 2007.
Multi-lateral Cooperation. In mid-2007, the USG-funded, Kingston-based Airport Interdiction
Task Force began operations. This multi-nation (GOJ, U.S., United Kingdom and Canada) Task
Force combats narcotics and arms smuggling, human trafficking, and immigration fraud. The U.S.
continues to support the Mini-Dublin Group, and reinvigorated cooperation with the UK and
Canada to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the most effective use of our combined
The Road Ahead. Implementation of new reforms within the GOJ’s Ministry of National Security
will contribute greatly to the fight against drug trafficking. To prevent Jamaica from becoming a
full-fledged kleptocracy, the GOJ must investigate, prosecute and convict corrupt officials at all
levels of government service. This will require organizations such as the Anti-Corruption Unit and
the FID, as well as the proposed NIIA, the Anti-Corruption Special Prosecutor, to be independent,
fully resourced, and backed by political will. The government must also make a commitment to
implement the reform recommendations of the Ministry of National Security’s Strategic Review of
the Jamaica Constabulary Force to ensure a professional non-corrupt organization. Finally, the GOJ
needs to take action to begin the task of attacking endemic corruption throughout its customs and
In 2008, the U.S. will continue to work with our international partners to assist the GOJ with
tackling corruption. The USG will ensure the most effective use of our foreign assistance
expenditures on operational equipment for the GOJ, thereby ensuring more uniform provisioning of
JCF and JDF units. GOJ plans to push passage and implementation of the FID Act, which would
make Jamaica eligible for Egmont membership and enable the USG to intensify information
The Government of Suriname’s (GOS) inability to control its borders, inadequate resources,
limited law enforcement training, lack of a law enforcement presence in the interior of the country,
and lack of aircraft or patrol boats allow traffickers to move drug shipments via land, sea, river, and
air with little resistance. South American cocaine transits Suriname en route to Europe, Africa, and,
to a lesser extent, the United States. In 2007 there were no major drug seizures in Suriname, but the
GOS continued its efforts to eliminate major local narcotics organizations. The GOS continued
forging cooperation agreements with other countries, regionally and internationally, in order to
reduce the import and export of illicit narcotics. Suriname is a party to the 1988 UN Drug
Convention but has not implemented legislation regarding precursor chemical control provisions to
bring itself into full conformity with the Convention.
II. Status of Country
The lack of resources, limited law enforcement capabilities, inadequate legislation, drug-related
corruption of the police, courts and military, a complicated and time-consuming bureaucracy, and
overburdened and under-resourced courts inhibit the GOS’s ability to identify, apprehend, and
prosecute narcotic traffickers. Cocaine from South America, destined primarily for Europe, Africa,
and, to a lesser extent, the United States is transshipped through Suriname. Suriname’s sparsely
populated coastal region and isolated jungle interior, together with weak border controls and
infrastructure, make narcotics detection and interdiction efforts difficult. Intelligence analysis has
indicated a movement of drug traffickers utilizing very remote locations for delivery and securing
of narcotics. Additionally, the GOS is unable to detect the diversion of precursor chemicals for
drug production, as it has no legislation controlling precursor chemicals and no tracking system to
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Policy Initiatives. The National Anti-Drug Council and its Executive Office coordinate
implementation of the National Drugs Master Plan (2006-2010) that covers both supply and
demand reduction and includes calls for new legislation to control precursor chemicals. In 2007,
national support was broadened by involving NGOs and civil society in the implementation of the
plan. The participatory approach was institutionalized by incorporating NGOs and civil society –
the Business Association, religious groups, treatment centers—in the National Anti-Drug Council.
Accomplishments. As a result of the GOS Ministry of Justice and Police and law enforcement
institutions which continued targeting large trafficking rings and working with international
partners, in 2007, the GOS seized 206 kilograms (kg) of cocaine, 131 kg of cannabis, 3,154
MDMA (ecstasy) tablets and 81 grams of ecstasy powder. A total of 667 people were arrested for
drug-related offenses and 462 cases were sent to the Office of the Attorney General for
Prosecution. While the statistics for cocaine seizures are far below those of last year, the decrease
in seizures of cocaine can be attributed to the establishment of the Airport Narcotics Team, as well
as anti-narcotics training provided for customs and police officers, which forced narcotics
traffickers to develop innovative new ways to get narcotics through the airport. There are
clandestine airstrips within Suriname, and a government crackdown on these airstrips has also
forced traffickers to develop new routes for the trade.
Law Enforcement Efforts. In 2007, law enforcement officials noted a slight decrease in the
number of drug mules and an increase in the mailing of packages containing narcotics abroad via
the postal service. These packages usually contain household items or foodstuff (ginger roots,
noodles and bananas) laced with or containing cocaine. In 2007, GOS law enforcement agencies
arrested 99 drug couriers who ingested cocaine. Many who evaded detection in Suriname were
arrested at the airport in Amsterdam, which since 2004 has implemented a 100 percent inspection
of all passengers and baggage arriving on all inbound flights from Suriname. In March, a special
Airport Narcotics Team was established, consisting of officers from the police, military police,
customs and the Airport Authority. This team was trained by Dutch law enforcement experts in
detecting narcotics and weapons, identifying fraudulent passports and searching aircrafts, and was
tasked with decreasing the import and export of narcotics through the Johan Adolf Pengel
In May, a judge convicted one of the suspects associated with the 2006 Shaheed “Roger” Khan
case and sentenced him to 3 years imprisonment for participation in a criminal organization and
sale/transport of 235 kg cocaine. The GOS also arrested Shaheed “Roger” Khan, and deported him
to Guyana, via Trinidad. In Trinidad, he was arrested for narcotics violations during his transit at
Piarco International Airport. Trinidad authorities surrendered Khan to the DEA. The GOS also
sentenced three men for an August 2006 possession of 130 kg of cocaine; the men received two to
seven year sentences.
Corruption. As a matter of policy, no senior GOS official, nor the GOS, encourages or facilitates
the production, processing, or shipment of narcotic and psychotropic drugs or other controlled
substances, and does not discourage the investigation or prosecution of such acts. Public corruption
is believed to have played some role in reducing the number of seizures that could have taken
place, as it is believed that the narcotics traffickers’ influence and infiltration in the military and
police affected the cooperation of the sparsely populated communities nearby the clandestine
airstrips, thereby stymieing law enforcement interdiction efforts.
The GOS has demonstrated some willingness to undertake law enforcement and legal measures to
prevent, investigate, prosecute, and punish public corruption. Several police officers suspected of
narcotics trafficking and membership in criminal organizations, were investigated in 2007. The
police officers who were investigated have been transferred to other units, but there have been no
resulting prosecutions in these cases. Public corruption is considered a problem in Suriname and
there are continued reports of drug use and drug sales in prisons. Reports of money laundering,
drug trafficking, and associated criminal activity involving current and former government and
military officials continue to circulate.
Agreements and Treaties. Suriname is party to the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by
the 1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the Inter American
Convention against Corruption. Suriname is also a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and has
accordingly passed legislation that conforms to a majority of the Convention’s articles, but it has
failed to pass legislation complying with precursor chemical control provisions.
Suriname is a party to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocol
against migrant smuggling. The GOS has not ratified the Inter-American Convention on Mutual
Assistance in Criminal Matters or the Optional Protocol thereto. Since 1976, the GOS has been
sharing narcotics information with the Netherlands pursuant to a Mutual Legal Assistance
Agreement. The two countries intensified their cooperation to fight drug trafficking with
agreements between their police forces and their offices of the Attorney General. In August 1999, a
comprehensive six-part, bilateral, maritime counternarcotics enforcement agreement was entered
into with the U.S. The U.S.-Netherlands Extradition Treaty of 1904 is applicable to Suriname, but
current Suriname law prohibits the extradition of its nationals.
Officials from Suriname, the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba met in March and agreed to share
intelligence regarding transnational crime and financial crimes, following the January 2006 signing
of a Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement allowing for direct law enforcement and judicial
cooperation between the countries. Suriname has also signed bilateral agreements to combat drug
trafficking with neighboring countries Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia. Brazil and
Colombia have cooperated with Suriname on specific drug-related cases. Suriname is an active
member of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission of the Organization of American
States (OAS/CICAD), to which it reports regularly. Suriname has signed agreements with the
United States, Netherlands and France that permit law enforcement attachés to work with local
Cultivation and Production. Suriname is not a producer of cocaine or opium poppy. There is little
specific data on the amount of cannabis under cultivation, or evidence that it is exported in
Drug Flow/Transit. The border between Suriname and Guyana is open and, according to law
enforcement officials, traffickers increasingly use this border to traffic cocaine and cannabis to
Suriname. Much of the cocaine entering Suriname is delivered by small aircraft, which land on
clandestine airstrips that are cut into the dense jungle interior and sparsely populated coastal
districts. The lack of resources, infrastructure, law enforcement personnel, and equipment makes
detection and interdiction difficult. Drugs are transported along interior roads to and from the
clandestine airstrips. Drugs are also shipped to seaports via numerous river routes or overland for
onward shipment to Caribbean islands, Europe, Africa and the United States. Sea-drops are also
used. Drugs exit Suriname via commercial air flights, by drug couriers or concealed in planes, and
by commercial sea cargo. European-produced MDMA (Ecstasy) is transported via commercial
airline flights from the Netherlands to Suriname.
Domestic Programs. In 2007 the Drug Demand Reduction (DDR) Program continued its
nationwide drug awareness and drug prevention activities with funding from the European
Commission. One of the highlights of the decentralized strategy was a widely attended march
through Nickerie, the country’s most western district, to celebrate the International Day Against
Drugs. The DDR program trained a cadre of counselors and citizens, increased awareness about the
danger in the general population and increased focus on prevention of drug use, counseling at early
detection of drug use and treatment of drug dependents. In 2007, all six drug treatment centers in
the country adopted minimum standards for treatment that were endorsed by the Ministry of
Health. The Psychiatric Hospital opened the first detoxification center in the country, expanding
the treatment capabilities for drug dependents.
In 2007, with the support of CICAD, a national survey was conducted to assess the magnitude of
drug consumption in the country. A total of 4,000 persons from all geographic regions of the
country were interviewed on drug consumption, age of first use and perception of risks. The results
will be available in early 2008, and will be used to refine national policy. In the area of supply
reduction, the drug supply reduction network was strengthened, linking key players such as the
Narcotics Squad, Office of the Attorney General and Customs in an automated system.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
U.S. Policy Initiatives. The United States’ focus is on strengthening the GOS law enforcement and
judicial institutions and their capabilities to detect, interdict, and prosecute narcotics trafficking
activities. In 2006, Suriname hosted an anti-narcotics conference attended by many regional and
international players, including the United States. The “Paramaribo Declaration,” which was
endorsed in principle by the participants at the end of the conference, provided a framework to
establish an intelligence-sharing network, coordinate, and execute sting operations, destroy
clandestine airstrips and tackle money laundering. As follow-on to the objectives in the
Declaration, in 2007, the GOS destroyed two clandestine airstrips and also signed a law
enforcement cooperation agreement with neighboring Brazil.
Bilateral Cooperation. In 2007, the United States provided training and material support to several
elements of the national police to strengthen their counternarcotics capabilities. In July 2007, the
U.S. government funded leadership training for elements of the police force at the International
Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in El Salvador. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
intensified its cooperation with Surinamese law enforcement in 2007 after having established an
office in Suriname the previous year. In February 2007, DEA trainers provided a two-week Basic
International Narcotics Course for 26 police, military police, and customs officials in Suriname.
The Road Ahead. The United States encourages the GOS to pursue major narcotics traffickers and
to dismantle their organizations. The GOS should continue to strengthen its focus on port security,
specifically seaports, which are seen as the primary conduits for large shipments of narcotics
exiting Suriname. The United States will continue to encourage Surinamese judges to use the
existing asset forfeiture laws to penalize narcotics traffickers and remove their financial bases. The
United States will also support GOS efforts to draft and pass new legislation to strengthen law
enforcement ability to utilize undercover agents in narcotics investigations and to enhance the
judiciary’s asset forfeiture capabilities.
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago is a transit country for illegal drugs from South America to the U.S. and
Europe. While there has been an increase in illicit drug traffic out of Venezuela, the quantity of
drugs transiting Trinidad and Tobago does not have a significant effect on the U.S. Cannabis is
grown in Trinidad and Tobago, but not in significant amounts. Trinidad and Tobago’s
petrochemical industry imports and exports chemicals that can be used for drug production and the
Government of Trinidad and Tobago (GOTT) has instituted export controls to prevent diversion.
The GOTT continues to cooperate with the U.S. on counternarcotics issues and allocates significant
resources of its own to the fight against illegal drugs. The GOTT is party to the 1988 UN Drug
II. Status of Country
Trinidad and Tobago, located seven miles off the coast of Venezuela, is a convenient transshipment
point for illicit drugs, primarily cocaine and marijuana but also heroin. Increased law enforcement
success in Colombia has led to greater amounts of illegal drugs transiting the Eastern Caribbean.
This does not have a significant effect on the U.S. market.
Trinidad and Tobago has an advanced petrochemical sector, which requires the import and export
of chemicals that can be diverted for the manufacturing of cocaine hydrochloride. Precursor
chemicals originating from Trinidad and Tobago have previously been found in illegal drug labs in
Colombia. The GOTT is working to track chemical shipments through the Trinidad and Tobago,
and export controls have been instituted to prevent future diversion to narcotics producers.
III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2007
Policy Initiatives. In 2007, the GOTT acknowledged that Trinidad and Tobago is a significant
drug transshipment location and underscored its intention to take action against traffickers. In this
regard, the GOTT commissioned a new Air Guard Unit, with two helicopters and comprised of 119
former Coast Guard officers and 4 members from the Regiment (Trinidad and Tobago Army). This
unit is operational and replaced the disbanded Coast Guard Airwing detachment. Additionally, in
an effort to further secure the country’s borders from trans-national organized criminal networks
and the increasing phenomenon of identity fraud, in 2007 the country began issuance of the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standard machine-readable passports.
In 2007, the GOTT also enacted several laws that focused on streamlining the police service and
holding it more accountable, submission of evidence, and increasing the penalties for certain
crimes, specifically kidnapping. Three highly publicized legislative acts of 2007 were the
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Act, which provides for the taking of “intimate” and “non intimate”
samples from persons connected with the commission of an offense as well as convicts; the
Evidence (Amendment) Act, which made hearsay evidence admissible in court under specific
circumstances; and the Bail (Amendment No.3) Act which restricts granting of bail for 60 days to
those charged with kidnapping offenses.
In order to improve the capacity to detect narcotics and appropriately manage crime scenes, the
GOTT continued to implement training recommendations made by an American private sector
criminal justice specialist. The Government also implemented several recommendations from the
Department of Justice’s International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program that
suggested changes to the structure, recruiting and retention of Specialized Anti-crime Unit Trinidad
and Tobago (SAUTT) officers. Specifically, the SAUTT set minimum standards of level of
education, began process to become a separate and legal entity and provided monetary benefits
corresponding to the high-level of risk and sacrifice an officer might experience.
In 2007, the GOTT awarded a contract to a UK shipbuilding firm to design and build three
Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) for the Coast Guard. These vessels will be used for maritime drug
interdiction as well as anti-smuggling operations. The GOTT also has expressed an interest in
patrolling eastern Caribbean waters to assist neighboring countries in countering trafficking, should
funding and vessels be available. Additionally, the GOTT provided the Police Service with eight
hi-tech vehicles fully equipped with forensic equipment, which will aid with crime scene
investigations. After being grounded for maintenance, a SAUTT air blimp resumed flight in 2007,
providing crime surveillance throughout Trinidad. It primarily had a deterrent value and was used
extensively during the election.
Accomplishments. The GOTT, during joint operations with foreign law enforcement counterparts,
made 110 drug trafficking arrests in 2007, an increase of 92 persons compared to last year. Also in
2007, the GOTT seized approximately 167 kilograms (kgs) of cocaine and 3,792 kgs of cannabis in
various forms. The GOTT also conducted 148 eradications, destroying 162,210 marijuana trees,
15,500 seedlings and 194 kilograms of cured marijuana.
Law Enforcement Efforts. The Coast Guard (TTCG), Organized Crime and Narcotics Unit
(OCNU), Counter Drug and Crime Task Force (CDCTF), SAUTT and other specialized
police/military units continued drug interdiction and eradication operations throughout 2007. The
DEA and U.S. Customs and Border Protection assisted with several of these joint exercises. The
GOTT purchased technical equipment to augment human resources, however, some agencies
continue to complain that they have been overlooked in budgetary allocations and do not have
adequate funds for upkeep or necessary new equipment. Retired Scotland Yard officers hired in
2006, continued to mentor T&T law enforcement agents and to provide support for the Caribbean
Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), which has its secretariat in Port of Spain.
The Organized Crime Narcotics and Firearms Bureau (OCNFB) reported an increase in seizures of
various types of illicit drugs and disruption of the drug trade in 2007. The OCNFB arrested 85
persons, seized over 100 kilos of cocaine and over 2,193 kilos of marijuana from January to
The GOTT Incident Coordination Center established in 2006, and staffed by personnel from a
number of specialized agencies, facilitated information sharing and more effective response by law
enforcement to counternarcotics and financial investigations in 2007. The GOTT also completed
six drug related extraditions in 2007, an increase from two in 2006.
Corruption. As a matter of policy, the GOTT does not encourage or facilitate the illicit production
or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of
proceeds from illegal drug transactions. Trinidad and Tobago is a party to the Inter-American
Convention against Corruption and has signed the UN Convention against Corruption. During
2007, there were no charges of drug-related corruption filed against GOTT senior officials. The
country actively fights against the production or distribution of illicit narcotics and works against
laundering the proceeds of such crimes. The 1987 Prevention of Corruption Act and the 2000
Integrity in Public Life Act contain the ethical rules and responsibilities of government personnel.
The Integrity in Public Life Act requires public officials to declare and explain the source of their
assets and an Integrity Commission initiates investigations into allegations of corruption. At GOTT
request, the USG has polygraphed police and mid- and high-level officials selected for training or
entering elite units to ensure that reputable and reliable personnel are chosen.
Agreements and Treaties. Trinidad and Tobago is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the
1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1972 Protocol amending the Single
Convention, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the UN Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols on trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling,
the Inter American Convention against Corruption, and Inter American Convention on Mutual
Assistance in Criminal Matters, and signatories to the Inter-American Convention against
Terrorism and Inter American Convention against Trafficking in illegal firearms. Mutual legal
assistance and extradition treaties with the U.S. entered into force in November 1999. The GOTT
updated its domestic extradition legislation in April 2004 to make it consistent with the extradition
treaty and to streamline the extradition process. A bilateral U.S.- GOTT maritime agreement is also
in force. Trinidad and Tobago is also a member of the Organization of American States’ Inter-
American Drug Abuse Commission (OAS/CICAD).
Cultivation and Production. Trinidad and Tobago is not a producer of cocaine or opium poppy.
Small amounts of cannabis are cultivated year-round in the forest and jungle areas of northern,
eastern, and southern Trinidad and, to a lesser extent, in Tobago. The total amount of cultivation
cannot accurately be determined because plants are grown in small lots in remote areas.
Drug Flow/Transit. Trinidad and Tobago is a transshipment country for the movement of cocaine
and heroin from Colombia to the U.S., Canada and Europe. As a result of Venezuela’s recent lack
of cooperation with the U.S., there has been an increase in the transshipment of cocaine and heroin
from Colombia, through Venezuela. The majority of the cocaine that arrives on Trinidad is via
commercial vessels, sailing vessels and small fishing vessels, in amounts upwards of several
thousand-kilogram quantities. These loads are generally coordinated by organized Colombian and
Venezuelan drug trafficking organizations, and are often facilitated and protected by members of
the Venezuelan military. The cocaine is then stored and broken up into smaller loads for smuggling
into the U.S., Canada and Europe.
Heroin smuggling is limited but organized by Colombian trafficking groups operating in
Venezuela, and in Trinidad and Tobago. Heroin is smuggled from Venezuela, in amounts from two
to fifty kilograms, using commercial airlines and vessels.
Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The GOTT does not maintain statistics on domestic
consumption or numbers of drug users. Demand reduction programs are managed by government
agencies such as the Ministry of Community Development, Culture and Gender Affairs; the
National Drug Council in the Ministry of National Security; the Ministry of Education; and the
Office of Social Services Delivery, often with assistance from NGOs. The GOTT also funds the
National Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program, which coordinates the activities of NGOs
to reduce demand. In addition, the GOTT promotes job skills training programs for high-risk
youths, and supports police youth clubs with its community-policing branch. The GOTT also has a
D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program.
The USG continues to support demand reduction efforts in Trinidad and Tobago through the
sponsorship of schools, police youth clubs, football leagues and public awareness campaigns.
IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs
Policy Initiatives. To assist the GOTT to eliminate the flow of illegal drugs through Trinidad and
Tobago to the United States, joint U.S./GOTT efforts focus on strengthening the GOTT’s ability to
detect and interdict drug shipments, bring traffickers and other criminals to trial, attack money
laundering, and counter drug-related corruption. The U.S. also seeks to strengthen the
administration of justice by providing training and technical assistance to help streamline Trinidad
and Tobago’s judicial process, reduce court backlogs, and protect witnesses from intimidation and
Bilateral Cooperation. In 2007, the USG provided additional drug and explosive-detection
canine/handler training to the Police Service, and supported Trinidad’s newly established Canine
Academy. The USG also provided the TTCG with marine engineering, small boat maintenance,
leadership, and crisis management training. In addition, the USG provided training courses in
crime scene investigation, explosive detection and combating terrorism.
Over the past year, the DEA and its local counterparts have been involved in investigations that led
to the seizure of over 10 tons of cocaine transiting into or through Trinidadian waters. The GOTT-
funded U.S. Customs Advisory Team provided technical assistance to Customs and Excise in
tracking and intercepting marine vessels, including cargo container ships.
The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to work closely with the GOTT’s law enforcement
agencies to strengthen their counternarcotics/anticrime capabilities and provide training and
operational support to the TTCG to enhance the GOTT’s maritime interdiction capabilities.
Initiatives the GOTT should undertake include: establishment of a drug court to deal with drug
offenses; strengthening border protection by automating the method to include container scanning;
providing additional training for officers to deal with counterfeit merchandise and copyright items
and counterfeit money; establishing an internal affairs unit to combat internal fraud and bribes;
initiating more border patrols on the western side of the island; and, participating in the U.S.
Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) initiative called “Carib Venture,” which is a multi-national
mission in the Southern Caribbean focused on stemming the flow of drugs in the region.