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STRAWBERRY - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					         K.D.T. HETTIGE
Scientific name - Fragaria virginiana
Common name - Strawberry
Planting time - Spring
Bloom time - Late spring
Habitat - Meadows, Woodland edges
• Native of temperate regions
• But varieties are available which can be cultivated in
  subtropical climate
• Strawberries are grown throughout Europe, in every
  state of the United States, as well as in Canada and
  South America
• Strawberry is a delicious fruit taken fresh in several
• It is a soft and a highly perishable fruit
• Makes excellent ice cream and Jam on account of its
  rich aroma
• Also a good source of vitamin C

•Strawberry fruits are aggregates made up of
several small fruits
•Each with one seed called an achene
•The flesh of the strawberry is actually an
enlarged receptacle

•Strawberries grow close to the ground and
spread by sending out runners
•Berries are borne in clusters underneath the
•Strawberry leaves have three parts and are
light green with coarsely toothed margins

•Five white petals and a yellow center
•After the strawberry flower is pollinated, it
becomes the aggregate fruit
Climate and Soil
• Strawberry thrives best in temperate climate
• As a short day plant, requires exposure to about
  10 days of less than 8 hours sunshine for
  initiation of flowering
• Strawberry requires a well-drained medium loam
  soil, rich in organic matter
• The soil should be slightly acidic with pH from
  5.7 to 6.5
• Strawberry should not be cultivated in the same
  land for a number of years

   Chandler   Tioga      Torrey

   Selva      Elsanta   Darselect
•Propagation is done by means of runners that are
formed after the blooming season
•The plants may be allowed to set as many runners
as possible but not allowed to set any fruits
•a single plant usually produces 12 to 18 runners
•Given the best attention and care
•The land should be thoroughly prepared by deep
ploughing followed by harrowing
•organic manure should be incorporated in the soil
before plating
•Strawberry can be planted on flat beds, in the form
of hill rows or matted rows, or it can be planted on
raised beds
•In irrigated areas, plantings on ridges is advised
•Spacing – 60-75 cm x 45cm
Special Horticultural practices

•In cold climate the soil is covered with a mulch to protect
the roots from cold injury
•The mulch ;
     keeps the fruits free from soil
     reduces decay of fruits
     conserves soil moisture
     lowers soil temperature in hot weather
     protects flowers from frost in mild climates
•Several kinds of mulches are used, but the commonest
one is straw mulch
•Matted row: This is the simplest and least expensive
method. The runners are usually planted at 90 cm x 45 cm
spacing. In Himachal Pradesh, a spacing of 60 cm x 25 cm
for Chandler is optimum
•After the initial growth of the first year, runners are allowed
to cover the vacant space all around the mother plants
•Spaced row: This system is suitable for cultivars
that are moderate to weak in producing runners.
•Hill system: This system is followed for the
cultivars developing a few runners. All runners are
removed from the mother plants. The individual
plants become large and bear more than those in
matted row
•Plastic film: Green or black plastic film is used as
a mulch for the hill system to control weeds and
conserve moisture
•Since strawberry is relatively shallow-rooted, it is
susceptible to conditions of drought
•it is necessary to ensure that newly planted runners are
irrigated frequently after planting
•During September and October, irrigation should be given
twice a week if there is no rain
•It may be reduced to weekly intervals during November
•In December and January, irrigation may be given once
every fortnight
•When fruiting starts, the irrigation frequency may
should again be increased
•At this stage frequent irrigation gives larger fruits
•Sprinklers & Drip Irrigation used in large scale
Application of manures and
•Strawberry requires moderate amounts of nitrogen
•Addition of organic matter to the soil, in the form of
50 tons of Farm Yard manure per hectare is highly
•It improves the water holding capacity of the soil
and also gives better runner formation
•Chemical fertilizers
Nitrogen - 84 to 112 kg per hectare
Phosphorus - 56 to 84 kg per hectare
Potash      -56 to 112 kg per hectare
Pests & Diseases
•Red spider mites and cutworms are important pests of
•The mites can be controlled with 0.05 per cent
Monocrotophos + 0.25 per cent wetable sulphur
•The cut worms can be controlled by dusting the soil before
planting with 5 per cent chloradane or Heptachlor dust at
the rate of 50 kg per hectare
•Red stele
       caused by the fungus Phytophthora fragariae
•black root rot
•Virus diseases such as yellow edge, crinkle and dwarf
•The fruit ripens during late February to April in the plains
and during May and June at high elevations
•For local market the fruit should be harvested when fully
•But for transport to distant markets, it should be harvested
when still firm and before colour has developed fully all
over the fruit
•Harvesting should be done preferably daily
•Since fruit is highly perishable, it is packed in flat shallow
containers of various types
       (cardboard, bamboo, paper trays etc.)
•Harvesting should be done early in the morning in dry
•The yield varies according to season and locality
•A yield of 20 to 25 tons per hectare
Post Harvest handling and Marketing
•Strawberries are highly perishable and hence a great deal
of care in harvesting and handling as well as its marketing
•Usually the fruit is picked in the early morning and sent to
the market in the afternoon of the same day
•Or, picked in the late afternoon, stored overnight in a cool
place, and sent to market the following morning.
•Strawberries can be stored in cold storage at 32*C up to
10 days




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