OSHKOSH 2002 by hedongchenchen


									                                  J U L Y / A U G U S T       2 0 0 2

A V I A T I O N   S A F E T Y   F R O M   C O V E R   T O   C O V E R

                                    Page 1:
                                    OSHKOSH 2002
                                                                                                                       J U L Y / A U G U S T           2 0 0 2

U.S. Department
of Transportation
Federal Aviation
                                                                                                                          V O L U M E   4 1   •   N U M B E R   5

                                                                             F E AT U R E S
Norman Y. Mineta, Secretary of Transportation
Jane F. Garvey, FAA Administrator
Nicholas A. Sabatini, Associate Administrator
   for Regulation and Certification
                                                                                  1          50th AirVenture • OSHKOSH 2002
James Ballough, Director,
   Flight Standards Service                                                       9          State of the Art
Robert A. Wright, Manager,
   General Aviation and Commercial Division
Phyllis Anne Duncan, Editor
                                                                                 11          It Was a Dark and Stormy Night…
Louise C. Oertly, Senior Associate Editor
H. Dean Chamberlain, Forum Editor                                                13          IA Renewal: Cajun Style
A. Mario Toscano, Associate Editor/Art Director
Deidria Shaw, Administrative Assistant                                           15          Runway Safety Corner: Crossing the Line
                                                                                 17          The Transportation Security Regulations
The FAA’s Flight Standards Service, General
Aviation and Commercial Division, Publications
Branch, AFS–805, Washington, DC 20591; tele-
                                                                                 18          Owner Produced Parts
phone (202) 267–8212, FAX (202) 267–9463; pub-
lishes FAA AVIATION NEWS in the interest of flight
safety. The magazine promotes aviation safety by                             D E PA R T M E N T S
calling the attention of airmen to current technical,
regulatory, and procedural matters affecting the safe
operation of aircraft. Although based on current FAA
policy and rule interpretations, all printed material                            16
                                                                                 Calendar of Events
herein is advisory or informational in nature and
should not be construed to have regulatory effect.
The FAA does not officially endorse any goods,
                                                                                 Famous Flyers: Lindenbergh Redux
services, materials, or products of manufacturers
that may be mentioned. Certain details of acci-                                  26
dents described herein may have been altered to
protect the privacy of those involved.
     The Office of Management and Budget
has approved the use of funds for the printing of
FAA AVIATION NEWS.                                                    BACK COVER Editor’s Runway
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    ✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳✳3–DIGIT 342
    FAN SMITH212J JUN96 R 1 423✳
    JOHN SMITH                                                                                                           FRONT COVER: Sport pilot at
    212 MAIN ST
    FORESTVILLE MD 20747                                                                                                  AirVenture. (A Mike Steineke
                                                                                                                              photo, courtesy of EAA.)

                                                                                                                         BACK COVER: Piper Malibu
 http://www.faa.gov/avr/afs/news/index.cfm                                                                              Meridian in flight. (Piper photo)

              A   D O T / F A A        F L I G H T       S T A N D A R D S     S A F E T Y    P U B L I C A T I O N
                                             ing historical look back to the begin-     Rockford, Illinois, and, beginning in
by H. Dean Chamberlain                       nings of EAA. The May/June 1987            1970, at Wittman Field in Oshkosh,
                                             FAA Aviation News published an inter-      Wisconsin. From its humble begin-

         he Experimental Aircraft As-        view with Paul H. Poberezny, Founder       nings, our annual EAA Convention has
         sociation’s (EAA) annual fly-       and (then) President of EAA.               become the world’s largest and most
         in and convention has                    In the interview he said, “The idea   significant aviation event of any kind.”
         reached a milestone. This is        of establishing an organization for am-         From its humble beginnings in the
the 50th annual EAA gathering. The           ateur aircraft builders and restorers      Poberezny’s basement in those early
dates for AirVenture Oshkosh 2002            came to me in 1948 while I was build-      years to the international organization
are July 23-29.                              ing an airplane in the family garage at    it is today, EAA has grown to meet its
    Held on Wittman Regional Airport         my home in Milwaukee. I held several       members’ needs. An example of
in Oshkosh, Wisconsin this year’s fly-in     informal meetings and discussions          meeting those needs is EAA’s compre-
salutes air racing, military aircraft, and   with other sport aviation enthusiasts      hensive Internet website, as well as
recreational aviation. According to          on the subject, but we had to put the      one for its annual fly-in, now known as
EAA, this year’s activities will include     idea aside when I was called to Korea      AirVenture Oshkosh.
the official opening of the First Fly-In     for a tour of duty as an USAF pilot.            In EAA’s own words documenting
Area—a re-creation of EAA’s first fly-in     When I returned, we decided to try to      its history online, “There’s an element
held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1953.        capture the enthusiasm, skills, and        of excitement associated with the
The new area will host several aircraft      dedication of a number of Milwaukee        word airplane that creates the spirit
that were at the first fly-in, an opening    area amateur aircraft builders. Our        of adventure. It knows no bound-
day 50 th birthday cake, plus other          first organizational meeting was held in   aries and encourages enthusiasm
special activities designed to recog-        January 1953.                              that’s as infectious as it is appealing.
nize the 50th anniversary.                        “Eventually, it became possible to    It is what has captured the imagina-
    No significant 50 th anniversary         develop the first ‘real’ EAA Headquar-     tion of over 170,000 individuals who
should pass without a brief review of        ters and Air Museum in the Milwaukee       belong to EAA—The Leader In
the events leading up to that anniver-       suburb of Hales Corner. The Head-          Recreational Aviation.
sary. A review of past FAA Aviation          quarters building gave our organiza-            “EAA was founded in 1953 by cur-
News magazines and a current visit to        tion permanent roots and a sense of        rent Chairman of the Board Paul H.
the EAA’s Inter net web site,                tradition. The annual EAA convention       Poberezny. It has grown from a hand-
<www.eaa.org>, provided the follow-          was first held in Milwaukee, then          ful of aviation enthusiasts to a

                                                                                             JULY/AUGUST 2002                1
Mario Toscano photo

    170,000-member international organi-       to military experimentation but rather   as EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, the con-
    zation representing virtually the entire   as a synonym for the word sport.         vention is the largest and most signifi-
    spectrum of recreational aviation. Its         “For the first 11 years, Paul and    cant aviation event in the U.S. The
    headquarters and EAA AirVenture Mu-        Audrey Poberezny administered the        week-long celebration of flight is at-
    seum now occupy a 150,000 square           fledgling organization in the basement   tended by over 800,000 people, mak-
    foot, multi-million dollar facility in     of their Hales Corners, Wisconsin,       ing it the showcase for cutting-edge
    Oshkosh, Wisconsin.                        home as volunteers. Often, while Paul    aircraft from around the world, while
        “On Jan. 26, 1953, 36 aviation en-     was absent on military missions, Au-     remaining the home for its traditional
    thusiasts met at Milwaukee’s Curtiss-      drey handled many of the day-to-day      constituencies…homebuilts, warbirds,
    Wright Field to discuss forming a club.    operations during those early days.”     vintage aircraft, ultralights and general
    At that first meeting, a vote estab-           “The first EAA Fly-In was held in    aviation aircraft.”
    lished the group’s name...Experimen-       September of 1953, in conjunction            And to paraphrase a famous radio
    tal Aircraft Association.”                 with the Milwaukee Air Pageant,          commentator with a media center
        EAA notes how that name came to        which Poberezny had helped organize      named for him at EAA Headquarters,
    be chosen. “At the end of his opening      in 1950. Fewer than 50 airplanes         now you know the rest of the story.
    speech, 36 candidates became 36            were registered at the inaugural
    members. They elected officers, dis-       event—a far cry from the 12,000 air-     SPECIAL AIRCRAFT AND
    cussed a name for the organization,        planes the week-long event attracts      THEMES SCHEDULED INCLUDE:
    and talked about by-laws. Because          today at Wittman Regional Airport in
    the planes we flew were modified or        Oshkosh.                                    The first EAA AirVenture Oshkosh
    built from scratch, they were required         “The Convention became too big       appearance since 1999 of the U.S.
    to display an EXPERIMENTAL placard         for its Milwaukee home and moved to      Marine Corps’ AV-8B Harrier II vertical
    where it could be seen on the door or      Rockford Municipal Airport in Rock-      takeoff and landing “jump jet.” The
    cockpit, so it was quite natural that we   ford, Illinois in 1959. Continued        Harrier is scheduled to be at AirVen-
    call ourselves the ‘Experimental Air-      growth prompted EAA to move to its       ture Oshkosh on July 26-28. It is
    craft Association.’ We did not relate it   current location in 1970. Now known      scheduled to demonstrate its unique

     2    FAA Aviation News
vertical capabilities during the after-
noon air show each day it is at
Oshkosh. The McDonnell Douglas
AV8-B is the latest version of the Ma-
rine Corps Harrier that is based upon
the original Harrier developed by the
British in the early 1960’s.
    The Lockheed Super Constellation
“Star of America” is also scheduled to
attend. Based at the Airline History
Museum in Kansas City, Missouri, the
Super Connie will be at Oshkosh
throughout the fly-in. It is expected
that the public may be able to tour the
aircraft for a fee.
    Wednesday, July 24: Countdown
to Kitty Hawk Day. Included in this
special theme will be presentations
about the Wright brothers, the status
of the construction of an authentic
1903 Wright Flyer, plus other activities
highlighting the planned 100th com-
memoration of the Wright brothers’
first powered flight at Kitty Hawk in
    Thursday, July 25: Sounds of
Speed Day. Highlights air racing.
    Friday, July 26: Recreational Avia-
tion Day. Features recreational flying
and the new technologies being devel-
    Saturday, July 27: Salute to Ameri-
can Airpower Weekend. This day
salutes past and present military avia-
tion. This is supposed to be the
largest gathering of current military air-
craft to ever participate in an AirVen-
ture fly-in.
    Sunday, July 28: Wisconsin Day.
Recognizes the support provided by
the residents of Wisconsin for their 50
years of support for the EAA fly-in.
                                                                                                 H. Dean Chamberlain photo
    Monday, July 29: Kids’ Day. This
day includes special events for kids.
Those age 18 and under with parent,          Oshkosh, the Notice to Airmen            NTAP> or <www.airventure.org> or
guardian, or supervising adult will be       (NOTAM) has been released. The           <www.eaa.org>.
admitted free.                               NOTAM outlines the special flight pro-       The NOTAM states it does not su-
    For more information on the spe-         cedures for operating in, through, and   percede restrictions pertaining to the
cial events at AirVenture Oshkosh            out of the airspace surrounding Wis-     use of airspace contained in FDC
2002, you can check its website at           consin and neighboring areas. The        NOTAM’s. Please check for current
<www.airventure.org>. For informa-           NOTAM is effective July 20-29. The       NOTAM’s by calling Flight Service at
tion about EAA, you can check its            effective date of the NOTAM is before    1-800-WX-Brief. In light of events
website at <www.eaa.org>.                    the opening date of the AirVenture       since September 11 , everyone plan-
                                             Oshkosh fly-in. You can call EAA at 1-   ning on flying to Oshkosh should
NOTAM DATA                                   800-564-6322 for a free copy of the      check with Flight Service for any air-
                                             NOTAM. You can also download a           space changes in your immediate area
   For those flying to AirVenture            copy of the booklet at <www.faa.gov/     as well as en route to Oshkosh.

                                                                                          JULY/AUGUST 2002               3
      H. Dean Chamberlain photo

    The AirVenture NOTAM highlights         don’t want to be in one of the biggest       clude making radio contact every 10
the following changes for 2002:             mixes of different types of aircraft in      minutes. If contact is not made after
    • Landing patterns at Oshkosh are       the world and not know what is ex-           15 minutes, search and rescue is
      renamed Purple, Red, Yellow,          pected of you and what you can ex-           launched for you. The NOTAM con-
      and Blue flows.                       pect other pilots to do. You need to         tains complete instructions and how
    • The Warbird/High Performance          review the routing and operating pro-        to file a LRS flight plan.
      Arrivals are restricted to Warbird    cedures in the NOTAM for your spe-
      aircraft and high performance         cific type of aircraft.                      PREFLIGHT
      turbojet and twin turboprop air-           For IFR flights, carefully review the   PLANNING SUGGESTIONS
      craft capable of 150-knot cruise      section for filing and how to operate
      speed. Warbirds that cannot           VFR, if Oshkosh is VFR. An IFR slot               The NOTAM’s Preflight Planning
      meet the 150-cruise speed are         reservation system will be in effect as      section reminds everyone planning to
      to fly the standard VFR arrival       outlined in the NOTAM.                       land at Oshkosh to plan for an alter-
      procedure.                                 All pilots need to review the infor-    nate airfield such as Appleton (ATW),
    • There are new parking area sign       mation about the color runway circles        Fond du Lac (FLD), or Green Bay
      codes for Homebuilt and Vintage       or dots. You have to read the NOTAM          (GRB) in case you can’t get into
      aircraft areas.                       to know the difference between the           Oshkosh. Parking and scheduled
    • Aircraft manufactured in 1966         orange dot, the green dot, and the           transportation are available from these
      are now allowed in the Vintage        white dot.                                   airports. During the period of this
      (Contemporary class) areas.                Pilots planning on flying over Lake     NOTAM, a temporary control tower
                                            Michigan should review the Lake Re-          will be operational at Fond du Lac.
    If you are flying an aircraft to Air-   porting Service (LRS) outlined in the             If you are inbound to Oshkosh and
Venture 2002, you need to get a copy        NOTAM and the Aeronautical Informa-          have to divert to one of the above
of the NOTAM and review it carefully.       tion Manual (AIM). Similar to normal         fields, you have to remember to mod-
As we have said in past years, you          flight plans, the LRS requirements in-       ify your VFR flight plan accordingly.

 4    FAA Aviation News
Reasons for having to divert could be            The airshow demonstration area is     VAP for Vintage Aircraft Parking; GAP
an accident at Oshkosh or no avail-          that airspace within a five (5) NM ra-    for General Aviation Parking; WB for
able aircraft parking, the field is closed   dius around Wittman Regional Airport      Warbird Area; FBO for Basier Flight
for the air show, or the field is closed     from the surface to 12,000 feet MSL.      Service Ramp (with prior permission);
for the night. If your destination airport       Normally, 60 minutes after the air-   and SP for Seaplane Area (amphibian).
is Oshkosh, you need to be prepared          show, inbound aircraft are permitted      You will also need a similar sign with
to go somewhere else in case you             to land. You need to monitor the ATIS     either VFR or IFR for your departure.
can’t get into Oshkosh.                      for current information.                      For the latest parking update, you
     Oshkosh is closed for arriving traf-                                              can check a telephone recording at
fic from 8 p.m. CDT until 7 a.m. CDT         AIRCRAFT SIGNS                            (920) 230-7820 or the Internet at
from July 20 though the end of the           AND PARKING UPDATES                       <www.airventure.org/aircraft/park-
show.                                                                                  ing_status.asp>. The OSH Arrival
                                                 If you are landing at Oshkosh, you    ATIS (125.9) will also have current
AIRSHOW                                      need to make a sign for displaying the    parking information.
HOURS AND AIRSPACE                           code for your intended parking or
                                             camping area. The light-colored signs     VFR PROCEDURES FOR VFR
    The airport is also closed during        with dark letters should be readable      AND IFR TRAFFIC
the airshow. Times and dates for the         from 50 feet away. The parking and
airshow are Tuesday, July 23, through        camping codes are HBC for Home-               Since the primary VFR route into
Sunday, July 28, from 1500-1830              built Camping; VAC for Vintage Aircraft   Wittman Regional Airport during the
hours CDT. Monday, July 29, the              Camping; GAC for General Aviation         effective times of the NOTAM is from
times are 1400-1700 CDT.                     Camping; HBP for Homebuilt Parking;       Ripon, Wisconsin (Chicago Sectional)

 H. Dean Chamberlain photo

                                                                                           JULY/AUGUST 2002               5
to Fisk then to Oshkosh, every pilot        procedures are subject to last minutes            walk-in service.
flying into Oshkosh needs to review         changes.                                        • Inbound flights should add 30
the routes, altitudes, and any special                                                        minutes to their ETE.
handling procedures such as hold in-        FLIGHT SERVICE INFORMATION                      • Pilots should not file for multiple
volved in the procedure. The NOTAM          AND HELPFUL HINTS                                 stops. Flight plans should be
shows recommended routes for VFR                                                              filed for each stop.
traffic that avoids high-density airports        The NOTAM reminds pilots of the            • VFR flights should be canceled
en route to Ripon. One shows how to         following:                                        while approaching destination.
avoid the Green Bay Class C and the              • IFR flight plans can be filed up to        Parking delays could exceed 45
Appleton Class D airspaces. Another                22 hours in advance. There is no           minutes.
route shows how to avoid the Madi-                 time limit for VFR flight plans.         • ATC does not cancel VFR flight
son, Wisconsin, Class C airspace.                • Flight plans should be filed as far        plans. VFR pilots should cancel
The third recommended route shows                  in advance as possible.                    their flight plans with a Flight Ser-
how to avoid the various classes of              • The AFSS telephone number is               vice Station (FSS).
airspace around Milwaukee. The                     1-800-992-7433 (24 hours).               • When contacting FSS, pilots
fourth route shows how to avoid Volk             • The Oshkosh Temporary AFSS in              need to provide complete aircraft
Field and the Volk Class D airspace.               the FAA Safety Center is open              call sign, general location, and
     Everyone is reminded that these               from 0600-2000 CDT daily for               the frequency you are using.
                                                                                            • Due to frequency congestion, air
                                                                                              filing of flight plans between
                                                                                              0600-2100 CDT is discouraged.
                                                                                            • Pilots are asked to avoid using
                                                                                              Oshkosh (OSH) 122.25 and
                                                                                              Fond du Lac (FLD) 122.5 for
                                                                                              weather information.
                                                                                            • There will be a North Briefing
                                                                                              Annex at the North Forty located
                                                                                              across from the registration/tie-
                                                                                              downs building. The Annex pro-
                                                                                              vides an abbreviated departure
                                                                                              briefing without pilots having to
                                                                                              enter the paid admissions area.
                                                                                              Flight plans can be filed at the
                                                                                              Annex. Hours are 0700-1500
                                                                                              CDT daily beginning on July 23.

                                                                                         HELP PROTECT YOUR FELLOW
                                                                                         PILOTS AND YOURSELF

                                                                                             Pilots are asked to periodically
                                                                                         monitor 121.5 MHz en route to and
                                                                                         from Oshkosh to check for activated
                                                                                         ELT’s. If the distinctive sweep tone is
                                                                                         heard, pilots should contact the near-
                                                                                         est AFSS or ATC facility and report the
                                                                                             Before you shut down your air-
                                                                                         craft’s radio, you should check 121.5
                                                                                         MHz to see if your ELT is transmitting.
                                                                                             Considering the thousands of air-
                                                                                         craft operating to and from the
                                                                                         Oshkosh area, there is a chance that
                                                                                         someone’s ELT will active. It is impor-
                                                                                         tant that any inadvertent ELT activa-
                                                                                         tion be discovered quickly and turned
 Jim Busha photo, courtesy EAA                                                           off to prevent its signal from interfering
                                                                                         with a real emergency signal.           3

 6    FAA Aviation News
                      ON-SITE SURVIVAL
    The following information is from the EAA AirVenture website. The information tells how one can prepare to survive
attending AirVenture and enjoy the experience.
    For those who love aviation, Oshkosh is the place to be from July 23 - 29. Like a pilgrimage, hundreds of thousands
of enthusiasts will descend upon Wittman Field and the EAA AirVenture grounds to saturate themselves in their passion
for flight. Take it from AirVenture veterans, though; you should adopt the Boy Scout motto and “Be Prepared” so you
can maximize your enjoyment of this annual event.
    This article provides some fast and easy tips that have proven their worth over the years for AirVenture attendees.
For your convenience, we’ve condensed them into a top 10 list for a more pleasant AirVenture experience.

    Apply sunscreen: One thing is for sure: Sunscreen works. Make sure you cover exposed areas of your body with at
least an SPF 15. If you bring children, don’t forget to cover them as well.

   Bring a pair of comfortable shoes. Take good care of your feet. Wear the most comfortable walking shoes you
have. Just truckin’ around the grounds can add up to several miles over the course of one day.

    Wear a hat. Temperatures can range anywhere from the 60’s to the 90’s, but AirVenture always seems to have a
stretch of very hot, humid weather. On such days, a hat can provide some protection from overheating. If, for some
reason, you forget to bring one, there will be plenty of official AirVenture 2002 hats available. (If you’re watching the air
show from the flight line, the back of your neck will likely be fully exposed to the afternoon sun. A bandana tucked
under the back of your cap can provide an effective sun block.)

    Use lip balm. Not many people think of this, but bring some Chapstick™, Blistex™, or other brand and apply often
to prevent the sun from turning your lips into leather.

   Wear sunglasses. A fairly obvious item on your checklist, one for which your eyes will thank you. A neck strap also
comes in handy.

    Check the forecast. If there’s a chance of rain during the day, be prepared with a light jacket or poncho, a small um-
brella, and an extra pair of socks.

    Drink lots of water/bring a water bottle. Dehydration can be a problem for even the heartiest AirVenture attendees,
especially on those oppressively hot afternoons. Nothing prevents dehydration as well as water, and bottled water is
available at the many concession areas. You can make plenty of use of the many water fountains located throughout
the grounds. Don’t rely on soda pop to prevent dehydration. (Alcohol actually hastens the process.)

   Organize your visit. Take advantage of all the information available before you get here. Since you’re reading this,
you’re at the right place,<www.AirVenture.org>. For example, if you plan to attend some of the hundreds of forums,
check out our forums schedule page that allows you to view the forum schedule by date, interest, keyword or presenter.

   Bring a camera and lots of film. Be sure to check your battery, and it’s not a bad idea to have extras just to be safe.
A good rule of thumb is to bring two more rolls of film than you plan to shoot. If you bring a video camera, make sure
you have an extra tape and at least one fully charged spare battery.

    A few don’ts:
    When you’re near aircraft, the rule is: “Always ask before touching.” For safety’s sake, eating and smoking are not
allowed in the flight line or near airplanes. In fact, if you’ve been thinking about quitting smoking, this would be a good
time to do it.
    Although many have tried, it is literally impossible to see everything in one day, much less a week. Pace yourself,
and focus on what really interests you.
    Please remember that rules and regulations exist to ensure everyone’s safety and enjoyment. If you have any ques-
tions, just ask a volunteer, without whom AirVenture would not be possible.
    Finally, we hope you enjoy your visit to AirVenture Oshkosh 2002. By heeding these few bits of advice, you’ll be well
on your way.

8   FAA Aviation News
State of the Art
     Aviation simulation devices combine
     technology and training

                                                                                                                                     SimufFlite Training International photo
     by Lauren D. Basham

       n the 1920’s Edwin A. Link, the      three most frequently used simulation       actively promoted the use of flight sim-
       son of a piano maker, was deter-     devices—the flight simulator, the flight    ulation by adopting extensive provi-
       mined to learn to fly but lacked     training device (FTD), and the personal     sions to encourage the use of advanc-
       the funds needed to pay for the      computer-based aviation training de-        ing flight simulation technology for
airborne hours required, so he built his    vice (PCATD). Each has very different       virtually all phases of pilot training and
first Link Trainer in his father’s base-    capabilities and approved uses.             certification.
ment. Since then, literally millions of          Historically, a generation of              In 1980, the FAA published an Ad-
pilots have been trained in a wide vari-    ground-training devices followed the        vanced Simulation Plan, which made
ety of simulation devices.                  Link Trainer. They were designed to         the concept of total simulation an op-
     While the dictionary defines “simu-    duplicate the flight characteristics of a   erational reality. This plan, contained in
lator” as a device that enables the op-     generic aircraft and increased in popu-     Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part
erator to reproduce, or represent           larity for use in flight training toward    121, described three major sets of cri-
under test conditions, phenomena            the basic pilot certificates and ratings.   teria for flight simulators that could be
likely to occur in actual performance,      The cockpit procedures trainer was          used for different levels of training.
the FAA uses more precise definitions.      next, usually mocked up as a specific       This criteria encompassed five types
In the public’s view, virtually every de-   aircraft type in which instruments,         of simulators—specifically non-visual,
vice, no matter how simple, is a “flight    switches, and controls were available       visual, Phases I, Phase II, and Phase
simulator,” and this term is used indis-    to effectively teach cockpit procedures     III—each of which described a level of
criminately with seemingly little aware-    and aircraft systems familiarity.           simulator fidelity that was progres-
ness of the true nature of the individual        Nowadays the devices can be            sively more demanding, a model of
devices and their authorized uses.          considerably more sophisticated. Over       certification that is still used today.
     The FAA differentiates among the       the past several decades, the FAA has           Under the FAR’s, a flight simulator

                                                                                             JULY/AUGUST 2002                  9
“is a full-size aircraft cockpit replica of   includes ground training devices            used under Part 141, or meet the
a specific type of aircraft, or make,         (GTD) that were incapable of being          scope and content for approval under
model, and series of aircraft, includes       “level” qualified under the AC and          Part 141 if used under FAR Part 61;
the hardware and software necessary           that were given a temporary “con-           and it is limited to not more than 10
to represent the aircraft in ground op-       ferred status.” Under FAR 61.4(b),          hours of instruction, which must be
erations and flight operations, uses a        Level 1 FTD’s may continue to be            given by a flight instructor with an in-
force cueing system that provides             used as previously authorized until         strument instructor rating, and the in-
cues at least equivalent to those cues        the FAA determines otherwise.               struction given must consist of the
provided by a three-degree freedom                Training hour credit is granted for     procedural tasks listed in the Appen-
of motion system, uses a visual sys-          the use of the remaining six FTD lev-       dix of AC 61-126.
tem that provides at least a 45-degree        els, based on the maneuvers and pro-             An integrated ground and flight in-
horizontal field of view and a 30-de-         cedures or events that were author-         strument training curriculum is one
gree vertical field of view simultane-        ized in the training device when used       that follows knowledge-based skills
ously for each pilot, and has been            under an approved training program.         with motor skills for each flight task. It
evaluated, qualified, and approved by         The FAA issues a letter of authoriza-       builds upon specific knowledge ac-
the Administrator.”                           tion (LOA) for these devices that out-      quired by following with procedural re-
    The fidelity standards and ap-            lines those specific maneuvers, proce-      hearsal in a PCATD and motor skill re-
proval criteria are contained in Advi-        dures, or crewmember functions. In          hearsal in a flight training device, a
sory Circular (AC) 120-40, “Airplane          general, flight training devices are        flight simulator, or in an airplane. Cur-
Simulator and Visual System Evalua-           widely used. Both general aviation and      rently, five manufacturers’ PCATD’s
tion.” Under this AC, a given simulator       air carrier training and checking is        representing various single- and multi-
of any of the five types must represent       completed in accordance with provi-         engine airplane models have been
a specific airplane type and have a           sions stated throughout FAR Parts 61,       qualified and approved by FAA:
motion system. Simulators are desig-          121, 135, 141, and 142.                     Jeppesen, Aviation Teachware Tech-
nated as Levels A, B, C, and D, and                                                       nologies, Precision Flight Controls,
they are used extensively for both            Computer Training                           ASA, and Fidelity Flight Simulation Inc.
general aviation and air carrier training                                                      Innovative simulation technology
and checking in accordance with pro-              Computer-based simulation pack-         is experiencing phenomenal growth.
visions stated throughout Parts 61,           ages, which ultimately led to the de-       The devices continue to grow into
121, 135, 141, and 142. Virtually the         velopment of the personal computer-         more sophisticated tools for flight in-
entire training and certification             based aviation training device              struction. From the high-end, full mo-
process can occur in a properly ap-           (PCATD), began their appearance in          tion Level D flight simulator used in
proved simulator.                             aviation almost 20 years ago. In 1991,      an aircraft training center to the
                                              the FAA realized that technological de-     PCATD used by an independent in-
Training Devices                              velopments in this class of simulation      strument instructor, simulation de-
                                              devices would eventually mandate            vices ensure an effective transfer of
    AC 120-40 classified devices with-        that a way be found to authorize their      learning and maximum safety. Prop-
out motion systems as training de-            use in at least a limited fashion in gen-   erly used, they guarantee each suc-
vices, and their approval criteria were       eral aviation training. The result was      cessive generation of pilots is better
then contained in an FAA order. These         AC 61-126, “Qualification and Ap-           trained than the last.
devices, along with nonvisual simula-         proval of Personal Computer-Based
tors, offer less fidelity and are given
less training and checking credit.
                                              Aviation Training Devices.”
                                                  Under AC 61-126, a PCATD is a
                                                                                             This article was reprinted with per-
    Under the FAR’s, a flight training        device that meets or exceeds the cri-       mission from the October 2001 NAFI
device “is a full size replica of the in-     teria shown in Appendix 1 of the AC         Mentor.
struments, equipment, panels, and             for its qualification and approval, func-
controls of an aircraft, or set of air-       tionally provides a platform for at least       Lauren Basham is an Aviation
craft, in an open flight deck area, or        the procedural aspects of flight relat-     Safety Inspector in the FAA’s General
in an enclosed cockpit, including the         ing to an instrument rating curriculum,     Aviation and Commercial Division’s
hardware and software for the sys-            and has been qualified by the FAA.          Certification Branch, AFS-840, re-
tems installed, that is necessary to              PCATD’s are used solely as au-          sponsible for regulatory and policy
simulate the aircraft in ground and           thorized under FAR 61.4(c): The de-         guidance for ground and flight training
flight operations.”                           vice must have been qualified and ap-       devices, personal computer-based
    The approval process for FTD’s is         proved by FAA; it must be used in           aviation training devices, and evalua-
contained in AC 120-45A, “Airplane            connection with an integrated ground        tion and approval of new and emerg-
Flight Training Device Qualification.”        and flight instrument training syllabus     ing simulation technology for use by
Level 1, while originally reserved, now       that is approved under Part 141 if          general aviation.

10 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
Photo courtesy of Cessna

    The following article was sent to            I believe we were approximately          hand held Sporty’s transceiver and my
the magazine via the Internet and we        40+ miles north of Texarkana (TXK)            flashlight. The loss of so many instru-
would like to share the lessons learned     when our transmissions began break-           ments was a lot to swallow in the
with you. Also, it’s always nice to hear    ing up just before entering a layer of        space of a few seconds. I began
when an FAA employee gets a pat on          clouds and rain at 7,000 feet. Upon           modifying my scan to see what instru-
the back for a job well done.               entering the clouds, we began receiv-         ments were operative, I noticed I was
                                            ing heavy rain and a very short time          at 7,300 feet and 20 degrees left of
            ctober 13, 2001. A day I        later I noticed a blinking of our             where I had been only a few seconds

O           will never forget. Earlier in
            the day I decided that I
            would take my wife to the
casinos at Shreveport (LA) as a birth-
day present. We planned to fly down,
                                            comm/nav radios and then EVERY-
                                            THING went dead. Communications,
                                            navigation, turn coordinator, some en-
                                            gine instrumentation (oil pressure,
                                            temp, fuel gauges) interior and exterior
                                                                                          earlier. I began correcting back to alti-
                                                                                          tude by pulling some power and was
                                                                                          only descending at approximately 100
                                                                                          feet per minute. Then suddenly the
                                                                                          VSI pegged at 1,000 feet per minute
spend the night, do our part to help        lights. I had a VFR GPS on board and          descent, yet the altimeter was only
the local economy, and fly back on          had it set up for TXK to supplement           moving downward slightly.
Sunday. Little did I know our entire        my in-flight information in the way of             Let’s just say that the tension fac-
electrical system would “crap out” in       ground speed and orientation to my            tor, with conflicting information, was
hard IMC.                                   route of flight and it was still active for   pretty high. I immediately activated al-
    As a former law enforcement offi-       another two minutes or so. All I had          ternate static air for the static instru-
cer, I’ve had a few scary incidents in      left to fly on were my airspeed, altime-      ments to completely rule out problems
my time, but that Saturday night beat       ter, vertical speed indicator (VSI), and      with the static system, applied carbu-
them all. Just before contacting Fort       my vacuum driven gyros. That was              retor heat, and focused on the two
Worth Center, I had the opportunity to      the worst feeling I’ve ever experi-           most important things in instrument
handle a relay for Memphis Center to        enced. I instantly received a burst of        flying—heading and altitude. The in-
another pilot they were having trouble      adrenaline, the first of many to come.        struments began to settle down as I
communicating with. It’s funny how               It began to get quite dark in the        kept aircraft control. I knew approxi-
ironic twists come into sight after the     clouds with all of the rain and I had no      mately a 170 heading was getting me
fact. Little would I know that a short      interior lighting. I yelled at my wife, as    toward TXK so I picked it back up and
time later, the same relay system           it was very noisy in the cockpit with         was continually trying to transmit an
would help save our lives.                  the rain and engine noise, to grab my         emergency over the backup radio. I

                                                                                               J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 11
had my wife shining the flashlight at        assuring to know there was one per-              haps a massive static build up since
various instruments and various times        son in the air—”with me”—that we                 the aircraft was not equipped with
so that I could see them, and I was          could communicate through. With the              static wick dissipaters.
just a hair from task saturation. With       arrival of EZ-07 and the coordinated                 I did not find any evidence of a
the little rubber ducky antenna, of          plan to fly westward for VFR, I knew             lightening strike. However, I can as-
course, it was almost impossible to          the “accident chain” was reversing               sure you that I’ll see to it that the FBO
communicate with Fort Worth Center.          course. When I was on a 195 degree               installs the dissipaters on their rental
I’m just so thankful for the other pilots    heading for possible VFR conditions,             aircraft as well as an aircraft mounted
who relayed for me and hope there is         there was a brief period of “almost”             standard plug in for hand-held radios,
some way that I can communicate my           VFR, but the ceiling was extremely low           which in effect will make the whole air-
thanks to them as well.                      over a few farm lights and it too                craft an antenna. I can also tell you
    I then lost the GPS. Its last data       closed in. When I found out that the             my wife and I have a new found inter-
indicated that I was between 36-38           weather was good at Paris, TX (PRX),             est in hand-held GPS receivers, as
miles north of TXK. At that point, I         it was a welcome relief.                         well, to supplement the back up radio.
heard center clear me down to 2,500              Once again, with the coordination                We have procedures in place for
feet. In the process of that descent,        that ATC Specialist Thomas Herd set              comm radios out and navigation out,
at (I’m guessing now as a great many         up, I knew things were looking good              but when you loose them both the old
things have now become blurred be-           and working together, we could get               saying goes that “all bets are off”—es-
cause of the massive adrenaline rush         through it. True to his word, a short            pecially in IMC. I just thank goodness
and exhaustion that later followed) ap-      time later, but what seemed like for-            Mr. Herd and the pilots in the air the
proximately 4,500 feet, I came into a        ever, we popped out of the weather. I            night of October 13, 2001, didn’t give
small cylindrical VFR hole and could         could see EZ-07 off to my 11 o’clock             up on us. On behalf of my wife and
see a few farm lights. The hole was          at 10 miles and PRX on the horizon.              myself, I would like to extend the most
very small and I could tell that the ceil-   I’d also like to thank him for taking the        profound “thank you” I can give to
ing was low. I elected to remain at          time to look up the airport info, briefing       ATC Specialist Thomas Herd of the
3,000 feet and maintain the VFR while        me on it, and providing the option of            Fort Worth ARTCC. His actions, pro-
circling in the now CLOSING HOLE.            the Clarksville airport. After evaluation        fessionalism and assistance were in-
There was nothing offered by the hole.       of my aircraft status, I just didn’t feel        strumental (pardon the pun) in a safe
My thoughts were that if the ceiling         good about landing on a 50 X 3,000               conclusion of an extremely dangerous
was high enough, I would orient my-          feet runway as opposed to Paris’ 150             situation. I also appreciate the way in
self and fly to TXK and land. As I was       X 6,000 feet runway.                             which he coordinated the communica-
evaluating my options, I knew that I             I had no interior or exterior landing        tions relay between me and the Bo-
had taken off from Fort Smith with at        light and on top of that my flaps, which         nanza pilot and then the crew of EZ-
least 4:30 hours of fuel on board and if     allows a steeper and slower than nor-            07. Because of the professionalism
needed could fly west until reaching         mal approach, were electrically driven           and dedication of all involved, we had
VFR weather, as my preflight briefing        and out of service. Thus, I knew we              a safe landing and shall forever be
indicated that our route of flight would     would require a faster and shallower             grateful. Our children thank them too!
be in the trailing area of IFR moving        landing and it would be more difficult
eastward. I remembered the old say-          to land on centerline.
ing, “No one has ever collided with the      Therefore, it was only
sky.” I had airspeed and altitude and        logical to continue on for      Note from the Fort Worth ARTCC:
knew that I had time to think as long        Paris. The arrival was
as I followed the other motto. “Keep it      uneventful, I believe due           I remember this night like it was yesterday. I do
under control and don’t hit anything.”       to the high emphasis            not believe this situation could have been any
    What I didn’t like, was the fact that    placed on making night          worse nor the tension in the control room any
center had no radar on me and had            landings without the use        heavier. There were seven controllers within the
no idea what I was thinking. I wish          of landing lights and inte-     area at the time, plus the Operations Supervisor
that I could have flown direct to TXK,       rior lights in my primary       and the Operations Manager. Everyone was fo-
but having no navigation equipment, I        training many years ago.        cused on getting this pilot down safely.
would have no way of knowing when I          The next day I consulted            Thomas Herd did an outstanding job that night
arrived or passed TXK and would cer-         with a local mechanic,          in assisting this pilot. He was calm and profes-
tainly have no means of shooting an          and he stated that the al-      sional, thus having a calming effect on the pilot.
approach as they were reporting IFR          ternator was totally shot       Mr. Herd and his supporting cast, I believe, saved
conditions. Then center set up the           and he speculated on the        the life of this pilot and his wife.
relay first with a Bonanza pilot who         possibility of a lightning          Stephen Burks
was already westbound and then a             strike from the rear that           Quitman Operations Manager
military King Air, EZ-07. It was so re-      we couldn’t see or per-

12 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
IA Renewal:
Cajun Style
story and photos
by H. Dean

          he 26 th annual

T         Gulf South Aviation
          Maintenance Sem-
          inar was held
March 28 and 29 in
Lafayette, Louisiana. Held
in the heart of Cajun coun-
try, I think the seminar is
one of the best-kept se-
                                FAA Inspector Bill O’Brien tells maintenance technicians how they can receive college credits based
crets in the country. I don’t
                                upon the date of their Airframe and Powerplant certificates.
think there is another IA re-
newal seminar that offers the training,      documented proof of at least eight              trees, blackened catfish, red beans
the peer networking, the chance to           hours of training before FAA would              and sausage, and seafood fettuccine
meet manufacturers and suppliers,            process his or her renewal.                     with steamed white rice, stir fry veg-
and the opportunity to enjoy Cajun               Although held in the heart of “heli-        etables, corn maque choux, dessert,
hospitality at the cost charged for this     copter country,” the Gulf coast, the            salad, and beverages, the meal was a
seminar.                                     seminar is designed to support the              prelude for a Cajun humorous who en-
    Coordinated by Harold Summers            needs of both fixed-wing and rotary-            tertained the audience with his “Uncle
of Petroleum Helicopters, Inc. and           wing IA’s and A&P’s. The training in-           Noon” Cajun stories and jokes. The
supported by a dedicated staff of vol-       cluded such topics as propeller repair          program described his background by
unteers, industry sponsors, Gulf coast       and overhaul, maintenance practices             stating “Johnny Hoffmann’s heritage
aviation operators, and the Baton            for the Pratt & Whitney PT6A engine,            dates back to the original German-
Rouge Flight Standards District Office,      and classes about Bell, Sikorsky, and           French settlers of southeast Louisiana,
everyone works together to make this         Eurocopter helicopters. A favorite              making him a ‘bony-fried, full bleed
annual seminar the success it is. Ac-        speaker was the FAA’s own Bill                  Cajun.’” Hoffmann, a retired civil engi-
cording to Summers, the Louisiana            O’Brien, National Resource Specialist-          neer and award winning Cajun hu-
Department of Aviation initially spon-       Sports Aviation-Airworthiness, who              morist, was sponsored by one of the
sored the seminar. He said industry          discussed FAA regulations, profession-          companies at the seminar.
assumed responsibility for the semi-         alism, and the awarding of college                  An important part of the dinner
nar in about its fourth year. Now after      credit for A&P training received after          ceremonies was the presentation of
26 years, I think it’s safe to call it a     August of 1989.                                 FAA special and annual awards by the
success.                                         IA’s from as far away as Florida at-        Baton Rouge FSDO’s Airworthiness
    The seminar provides FAA certifi-        tended the seminar to renew their IA            Safety Program Manager Brian
cated Airframe and Powerplant (A&P)          certificates as well as had the opportu-        Capone. Capone is an airworthiness
mechanics with Inspection Authoriza-         nity to meet and talk with industry ex-         aviation safety inspector. The FSDO
tion (IA) the opportunity to meet their      perts on both fixed-wing and rotary-            serves the entire state of Louisiana.
annual renewal training requirements         wing aircraft. I think it is safe to say            First, Capone recognized two Air-
by attending at least eight hours of the     the Gulf coast, from Florida to south           worthiness Aviation Safety Coun-
various training courses presented           Texas, has one of the greatest densi-           selors, Earl McCarthy and Robert
during the two-day seminar. FAA Avi-         ties of helicopters outside of the mili-        Davis, for volunteering their time and
ation Safety Inspectors and support          tary as any area on earth.                      talents to support the FAA’s airworthi-
staff from the Baton Rouge Flight                The seminar was not all training. A         ness safety program in Louisiana.
Standards District Office (FSDO) were        highlight of the two-day seminar was            Counselors typically present safety
present to process the paperwork for         the casual “Cajun Feast” awards din-            seminars, counsel individuals, assist in
each IA applicant who met the training       ner served banquet style on Thursday            remedial training, make safety recom-
requirement. Each IA had to have             night. Featuring typical Cajun style en-        mendations, and work in their local

                                                                                                 J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 13
                                                                                              sentations by recognizing the compa-
                                                                                              nies who support initial and recurrent
                                                                                              maintenance training of their eligible
                                                                                              maintenance employees by participat-
                                                                                              ing in the FAA’s Aviation Maintenance
                                                                                              Technician (AMT) Award Program.
                                                                                              The AMT Awards Program recognizes
                                                                                              the time, effort, and money companies
                                                                                              expend in supporting the training of
                                                                                              their employees.
                                                                                                  The AMT Awards Program recog-
                                                                                              nizes companies who have five-per-
                                                                                              cent employee participation by award-
                                                                                              ing them a Bronze Certificate of
                                                                                              Excellence. Companies receive a Sil-
                                                                                              ver Certificate for 10 percent participa-
                                                                                              tion, a Gold Certificate for 15 percent,
                                                                                              a Ruby Certificate for 20 percent, and
                                                                                              a Diamond Certificate for 25 percent
                                                                                              employee participation. Companies
FAA Safety Inspectors Bill O’Brien (left) and Brian Capone (right) flank Robert E. Williams   with 100 percent of its eligible employ-
who received a Charles Taylor Master Mechanic Award and the Baton Rouge Flight                ees participating in the program re-
Standards District Office’s Wright Brothers’ Golden Eagle Award at the 26th annual Gulf       ceive special recognition from FAA
South Aviation Maintenance Seminar.                                                           Headquarters.
                                                                                                  ERA Aviation, Inc. and Petroleum
areas promoting safety awards pro-              on the Wright brother’s first aircraft.       Helicopters, Inc. received Diamond
grams and individual participation in           Charles Taylor hand-built the engine          Certificates.
such programs.                                  used on that first powered flight at              Bill O’Brien presented special FAA
    Then Capone presented the Baton             Kitty Hawk, North Carolina almost 99          Headquarters Diamond Certificates for
Rouge FSDO’s 2001 Maintenance                   years ago on that cold December               100 percent program participation to
Technician of the Year Award to Nick            morning in 1903.                              Chevron USA, Inc. and Air Logistics,
Shultz. Capone noted in the award                   On behalf of the Baton Rouge              LLC. This was the second 100 percent
presentation that, “Nick Shultz is the          FSDO and the FAA, Capone pre-                 award earned by Air Logistics, LLC.
epitome of what this award was de-              sented the Charles Taylor Master Me-              The IA training seminar, dinner, and
signed for. This gentleman has con-             chanic Award to Frederick “Matt”              awards presentation are great exam-
tinued to work independently for the            Matthias, Robert E. Williams, and             ples of how industry and FAA can
small, grass roots, general aviation            Oscar Figueroa. Each of the new               work together to recognize both indi-
sector. He is one of a dying breed.             Charles Taylor Master Mechanics’              viduals and companies who have ded-
His total focus is to ensure safe air-          name, city, state, and certificate num-       icated years of hard work and effort to
craft, legal aircraft, and affordable           ber will be added to the Role of Honor        help make aviation what it is today.
maintenance, mostly at the expense of           book kept at FAA Headquarters in              Without the support of dedicated indi-
his time.”                                      Washington DC.                                viduals such as these new Charles
    Finally, Capone announced the                   Capone also recognized Frank              Taylor awardees and the listed aviation
names of three men awarded the                  Wichman, who received a Charles Tay-          companies willing to make the effort
FAA’s Charles Taylor Master Mechanic            lor Master Mechanic Award in January          through time and money to keep train-
Award. The award is presented to in-            2002 in Sidell, Louisiana, and pre-           ing their employees, aviation would
dividuals with at least 50 years in avia-       sented certificates and pins to the new       not be as safe and such a significant
tion maintenance as a mechanic or re-           “Master Mechanics” wives in recogni-          part of our lives as it is today. These
pairman. Thirty of those years must             tion of their many years of supporting        aviation professionals and companies
have been as a FAA certificated A&P             their husbands’ aviation careers.             are to be congratulated for their roles
or repairman. The remaining 20 years                In addition to receiving a Charles        in aviation.
may have been working as an aviation            Taylor Master Mechanic Award,                     The 27th Gulf South Aviation Main-
mechanic in the military or industry.           Robert E. W illiams received the              tenance Seminar is scheduled for
Awardees cannot have had their cer-             FSDO’s Wright Brothers Golden Eagle           March 13 and 14, 2003. For more in-
tificate revoked by the FAA. The                Award in recognition of his 50 years of       formation about the 2003 seminar,
Award is named for the “first aircraft”         being a pilot.                                you can contact Baton Rouge FSDO
mechanic who built the engine used                  Capone completed his award pre-           at (225) 932-5900.                     3

14 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
Crossing the Line
   Anyone can be guilty of a runway incursion
                                                          by J.C. Boylls

          here’s a class of aircraft inci-   turn me to the real world.                   troller and ground controller were the

T         dents that most of us proba-
          bly don’t think about too
          much because avoiding them
seems so obvious: runway incursions.
    The FAA defines a runway incur-
                                                 On a trip not long ago, I stopped
                                             for fuel at an airport where I’d been
                                             before, but not recently. This airport
                                             was in the throes of change (read:
                                             there was a lot of construction going
                                                                                          same person, and he was busy with
                                                                                          other traffic, both on the ground and in
                                                                                          the air. Remember my extensive skill
                                                                                          and experience? I just didn’t want to
                                                                                          interrupt him.
sion as “any occurrence at an airport        on), with closed runways and taxi-                As everyone probably knows by
including an aircraft, vehicle, person,      ways. A Class C airport, it had two in-      this time, almost any occurrence has a
or object on the ground that creates a       tersecting runways in use. The con-          chain of events leading up to it. When
collision hazard or results in a loss of     struction required roundabout taxi           discussing mishaps, this series of
separation with an aircraft taking off,      routes, but they were not so complex         events is called an “accident chain.” If
intending to take off, landing, or in-       that someone with my extensive expe-         any link were broken, the mishap
tending to land.”                            rience and obvious skill shouldn’t have      probably would not have happened.
    At a towered airport, for example,       been able to handle them. The land-               A runway incursion, just like any
who in the world would get onto an           ing and taxi in was uneventful, dodg-        other incident, has a number of events
active runway without a clearance?           ing around construction equipment            leading up to it, and the incursion itself
How could he or she do it? And more          and areas that had been torn up.             can be a link in an accident chain.
to the point, why would he or she do             Upon leaving, however, my brain          There are four parts to preventing an
it? We all know the regulations, and         just seemed to stop working, even            incursion:
besides, the ground controller will          though I had studied the airport dia-             1. Clearances
watch out for us, even if we do make         gram. The taxi directions included                2. Communications
a mistake, right?                            crossing one of the active runways                3. Ground navigation
    I like to think that I, as supreme-      (with a “hold short” provision) and a             4. Situational awareness, including
high aviator, am more skillful, more         rather long circuitous routing to the        scanning
knowledgeable, more safety con-              run-up area. In the process of trying             If any one of these parts fails, the
scious, and certainly more careful than      to relate my taxi route to what the air-     probability of an incursion increases. If
the average weekend warrior.                 port diagram showed, I managed to            more than one failure occurs, then an
Whether I really am is another story.        let my airplane roll past the hold line of   incursion becomes a virtual certainty.
This malady, perhaps better know as          the active runway. A landing aircraft             Why is each of these components
complacency, is common with people           had to go around after I managed to          critical? For those of us who fly from
who’ve been pilot examiners, written         get the first third of my Cessna 180         busy airports that have a mix of light
articles in national publications, run       past the runway edge and onto the            general aviation, corporate, airline, and
flight-training establishments, and          runway itself.                               sometimes military aircraft, just think
gained a lot of experience, some au-             So why didn’t I get progressive taxi     about what can happen when the sys-
thority, and perhaps a place from            instructions? Well, there were three         tem breaks down. The unpleasant-
which they make their views or opin-         reasons. First, for someone with my          ness that collided at Quincy, Illinois, a
ions know. We fall into a trap and           extensive aviation experience and ob-        couple of years ago is a good exam-
begin to think we’re immune to mere          vious skill, why should I show my ig-        ple (and it’s not even a terribly busy
human frailties.                             norance? I mean, that’s decidely un-         airport), and many of us can still recall
    It seems, though, that no sooner         cool. Second, I’d been at the airport        the airliner landing on top of a com-
do I start thinking about myself in this     before and was familiar with it, or so I     muter turboprop at Los Angeles Inter-
way, or believing my own press (so to        thought, even though it wasn’t under         national.
speak), then something happens to            construction “before.” Third, at my               These are only two catastrophic
take me down a notch or two and re-          departure time, the tower local con-         examples of what can happen when

                                                                                               J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 15
any one part fails. As we all know, we           I failed in at least three of these     (LOW) is the least level of administra-
are human and make mistakes. It              areas.                                      tive action that the FAA can take.
takes effort on everyone’s part to pre-          Oh, by the way, what happened to        After two years, the LOW is expunged
vent these and other human factors-          me? Did the FAA violate me? Are             from the pilot’s file and no record is
related accidents.                           pilot examiners with extensive experi-      kept.] Did I file a timely NASA Aviation
    So let’s look at each of these parts     ence and obvious skill immune to            Safety Reporting System report? You
briefly. First, clearances: Pilots must      prosecution? This one definitely is         bet! Will I be even more careful in the
understand what they have been in-           not. Did I receive, via certified mail, a   future?
structed to do. If they don’t under-         letter of investigation? Yes. Was I             What do you think?
stand , or can’t comply, then it’s nec-      found guilty? I sure was. What did I                           3
essary to get a clarification or an          receive? A letter of warning that was          J.C. Boylls is a NAFI Master CFI.
amended clearance.                           in my airman file for two years. [Edi-      This article is reprinted with permission
    Second, communications: Use              tor’s Note: The letter of warning           from the NAFI Mentor.
the proper procedures, standard
words and phases, and read back
your clearance, particularly if it is com-
plex or if you aren’t familiar with the
airport. Request progressive taxi in-
                                                    CALENDAR OF EVENTS
structions if you need to. (It’s okay—
really it is.)                                    September 8-15, 39th Annual National Championship
    Third, ground navigation: Under-
stand the airport layout before starting
                                                  Air Races, Reno, NV
your engine; use that airport map on
the back of your instrument approach                 Races will be held on September 12 to 15, with qualifying dates of
chart or in your airport directory.               September 8 to 11. For more information call (775) 972-6663 or see the
Know and understand the meanings                  web site at <www.airrace.org>.
of the airport signage, especially now
that the signage has been standard-               October 5-6, Fina-CAF AIRSHOW 2002, Midland, TX
ized. The Aeronautical Information
Manual now comes with color pictures                  The event will be held at the Commemorative (formerly Confederate)
showing these new signs, so they’re               Air Force’s (CAF) Headquarters at Midland International Airport. It will
easy to learn and much more intuitive             feature the CAF’s World War II Airpower Demonstration and world
than before.                                      renowned “Tora! Tora! Tora!” plus over 100 warbirds on display.
    Fourth, situational awareness, in-            Admission charged. For more information, contact Tina Corbett at (915)
cluding scanning: Brief and use pas-              563-1000 or visit <www.airsho.org>.
sengers to help you monitor your
progress across the airport. Monitor              October 10-13, 30th Annual Copperstate Regional
your own progress, too. If you, or                EAA Fly-In, Phoenix, AZ
your passenger, have a question
about what is happening, resolve it                    The event will be held at the Phoenix Regional Grande Valley Airport
before proceeding. Use all of your re-            (A39). For more information, contact Bob Hasson at (520) 400-8887 or
sources, including ATC, to help. Scan             visit the web site at <www.copperstate.org>.
for other traffic, including arriving or
departing aircraft and helicopters, and           November 3-7, ATCA 47th Annual International
watch for pedestrians or vehicles that
might not be where they should be.
                                                  Technical Program and Exhibits, Washington, DC
Avoiding runway incursions is a team
effort between controllers, who are re-              The Air Traffic Control Association, Inc. (ATCA), event will be held at
sponsible for coordinating traffic; pi-           the Marriott Wardmann Park Hotel. For more information, contact Carol
lots, who are responsible for aircraft            Newmaster at (703) 522-5717 or e-mail at <carol.newmaster@atca.org>.
safety; and ground personnel in airport
operations or ground services.

16 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
                Transportation Security Regulations
                                                       by Rebecca Tuttle

     The September 11, 2001, terrorist       chapters. Subchapter A contains ad-          ment support. However, there are some
attacks involving four U.S. commercial       ministrative and procedural rules.           changes in section 1542.209 that ad-
aircraft that resulted in the tragic loss    Subchapter B contains rules that             dresses fingerprint-based criminal history
of human life at the World Trade Cen-        apply to many modes of transporta-           records checks.
ter, the Pentagon, and southwest             tion. Rules for civil aviation security          Part 1544 addresses requirements
Pennsylvania demonstrate the need            are contained in Subchapter C.               for aircraft operators in the United States.
for increased air transportation secu-            Subchapter A, 49 CFR 1500 out-          These requirements were contained in
rity measures. The Al-Qaeda organi-          lines to whom this rule applies and de-      14 CFR part 108 prior to the transition.
zation, which was responsible for the        fines the terms used in the TSR’s.           Part 1544 continues to require that the
attacks, possesses a near global net-             Part 1520 addresses the protection      aircraft operator not permit persons to
work. The leaders of the groups con-         of sensitive security information, infor-    have unauthorized explosives, incendi-
stituting this organization have publicly    mation that was found in 14 CFR part         aries, or weapons when on board an air-
stated that they will attack the United      191 prior to the transition. This part       craft. Although TSA will conduct most
States, its institutions, and its individ-   outlines the type of information that        inspections, if the aircraft operator be-
ual citizens. They retain a capability       may not be released under the Free-          comes aware that a person has an
and willingness to conduct airline           dom of Information Act. Contained in         unauthorized explosive, incendiary, or
bombings, hijackings, and suicide            this section is the duty to protect any      weapon, the aircraft operator must not
bombings against U.S. targets.               information that is given to a person in     permit it on board.
     The September 11 th attacks led         performance of his/her duties and the            Part 1546 provides the rules for for-
Congress to enact the Aviation and           responsibility to report to DOT when         eign air carriers that operate within the
Transportation Security Act (ATSA).          he/she becomes aware that sensitive          United States. The security sections that
Under ATSA the responsibility for in-        security information has been released       were found in 14 CFR part 129 have
specting persons and property was to         to unauthorized individuals.                 been incorporated and reorganized for
be transferred to the Under Secretary             Part 1540 outlines the delegation of    ease of use. Also several administrative
of Transportation for Security, who          the Under Secretary of Transportation        requirements were updated, for exam-
heads a new agency created by that           for Security’s authority. Part 1540 also     ple, the procedure for adopting and
statute, the Transportation Security         contains prohibitions regarding making       amending a security program.
Administration (TSA).                        fraudulent or intentionally false state-         Part 1548 provides the rules for in-
     On February 17, 2002, TSA as-           ments or entry in compliance reports or      direct air carriers that operate within
sumed the responsibility for inspecting      to apply for an access or identification     the United States. Requirements that
persons and property, this responsibil-      media that will be used in the aviation      were previously found in 14 CFR part
ity was previously held by aircraft op-      system. Also prohibited by part 1540 is      109, have been incorporated and re-
erators. Five days later, on February        interference with screening personnel in     organized for ease of use. In addition,
22, the Under Secretary of Transporta-       the performance of their duties and the      like part 1546, the administrative pro-
tion for Security issued rulemaking          carriage of weapons, explosives, or in-      cedure for adopting and amending a
transferring the Federal Aviation Ad-        cendiaries by individuals into specified     security program was updated.
ministration rules to title 49 of the        areas at airports. Individual responsibil-       Finally, the events of September
Code of Federal Regulations. On that         ity is also outlined in part 1540: the se-   11th demonstrated the ability to use air-
day, the Transportation Security Regu-       curity responsibilities of employees and     craft to endanger persons on the
lations (TSR) were created.                  persons who access the airport, the re-      ground. An aircraft so used is just as
     The February 22nd rulemaking also       sponsibilities of persons who wish to        dangerous whether it holds cargo or
established the basic organization of        enter any area that requires screening       passengers. Part 1550 was created to
the TSR’s. When looking at this, it is       and the responsibility of airmen to pres-    require security programs for both pas-
important to keep in mind that the           ent certain certifications to TSA for in-    senger and all-cargo operations using
TSA is an inter-modal organization,          spection when so requested. Prior to         aircraft with a maximum certified take-
that is to say that it is responsible for    the transition this information was con-     off weight of 12,500 pounds or more.
the protection of United States inter-       tained in 14 CFR parts 107 and 108.              September 11th changed how aviation
ests and citizens regardless of the               Part 1542 addresses what was con-       security will be conducted. The TSR’s are
mode of public transportation used.          tained in 14 CFR part 107 prior to the       the beginning of those changes.
     The TSR’s appear in title 49, Code      transition. These airport requirements for                       5
of Federal Regulations (CFR), Chapter        the most part were transferred unaltered         Rebecca Tuttle is specialist in the
XII, which includes parts 1500 through       from 14 CFR part 107 and primarily ad-       Air Carrier Policy Division, Transporta-
1699. This is broken out into sub-           dress access control and law enforce-        tion Security Administration.

                                                                                               J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 17
 by Don Dodge

    The article was written to address     formation with one hand and his first                    came up in the investigation.
the producing of parts by owner and        cup of coffee with the other. As the                           Time and again aircraft owners
operators. The article is not intended     aroma and warm flavor of his coffee                      and maintenance technicians are
to imply that maintenance technicians      cleared the night’s cobwebs from his                     pressured into making parts. Why do
or repair stations may not be able to      mind, he eyeballed the incident infor-                   we do it? Why do we take on that lia-
manufacture parts in the course of ac-     mation. As he read, he thought:                          bility? Let’s look at the facts.
complishing repairs or alterations.        “Let’s see, Cherokee 140, taxi, nose                           The average general aviation, pis-
That in itself is another topic for an-    gear collapse, prop, cowling, etc.,                      ton single-engine aircraft is more than
other day.                                 etc.—wait a minute, Cherokee 140?                        32 years old; the average piston twin
                                           How can a 140’s nose gear collapse                       is more than 27 years old; and the av-
         he sun was setting on an-         during taxi operations and cause this                    erage turbo prop is 19 years old. The

T        other hot August afternoon
         when the South Carolina
         Flight Standards District Of-
fice received the call from a local air-
port manager notifying the office that a
                                           kind of damage? An Arrow, maybe,
                                           but a 140?”
                                                 Years of experience told the in-
                                           spector there was a lot more to this
                                           story than had been reported. So
                                                                                                    GA aircraft fleet was never designed to
                                                                                                    last this long, and, when it comes to
                                                                                                    getting replacement parts to maintain
                                                                                                    these aircraft, here are a few of the
                                                                                                    problems we all face.
Piper Cherokee had suffered a nose         on that hot, humid, August morning,                            • The aircraft has been out of pro-
gear collapse during taxi operations.      he headed for the airport. His in-                               duction for years.
It was reported that the Cherokee suf-     v e s t i g a t i o n u n c o v e re d a c l a s s i c         • The aircraft is an orphan. No
fered minor damage; the damage in-         case of an aircraft owner making                                 one even knows who owns the
cluded a prop strike and lower cowling     parts and doing everything wrong.                                Type Certificate.
abrasion.                                  The issues surrounding manufactur-                             • There is no technical support. If
     Early the next morning, the in-       ing approved parts, who can pro-                                 you ask for technical assistance,
spector assigned to investigate the        duce these parts, what makes a                                   you are often told that no one
incident picked up the preliminary in-     part approved or unapproved, all                                 really knows much about the air-

18 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
       craft anymore. The people who             1. Parts Manufacturer Approval              solely produced by the owner to
       were around when the aircraft                (PMA)                                    be considered an Owner Pro-
       was built are all retired or dead.        2. Technical Standard Order (TSO)           duced Part.
     • Economy of scale forces aircraft          3. Type Certificate (TC) or Supple-       • The aircraft owner must partici-
       manufacturers to build parts in              mental Type Certificate (STC)            pate in the manufacture of the
       quantities that make economic             4. TC with an Approved Produc-              part in at least one of five ways
       sense for the manufacturer.                  tion Inspection System (APIS)            for it to be considered an Owner
       What this means is that parts             5. Production Certificate (PC)              Produced Part.
       are available, in about six or            6. Bilateral Agreement                    1. The owner provides the manu-
       eight months!                             7. Any method acceptable to the              facturer of the part with the de-
     • The price of parts is a subject              Administrator.                            sign or performance data.
       that we aren’t even going to talk         8. Standard Parts (nuts and bolts)        2. The owner provides the manu-
       about.                                    9. Owner Produced Parts                      facturer of the part with the ma-
     Sitting in the middle, between a            10. Parts produced per STC in-               terials.
tired broken airplane, its owner, and all             structions as part of an STC         3. The owner provides the manu-
these parts problems, is the mainte-                  modification.                           facturer with fabrication
nance technician. Technicians, by                11. Fabricated by a qualified per-           processes or assembly meth-
their nature, are “can do” people.                    son in the course of a repair           ods.
They live by the motto the difficult we               for the purpose of returning a       4. The owner provides the manu-
do immediately; the impossible just                   TC product to service (which            facturer of the part with quality
takes a bit longer. But when it comes                 is not for sale as a separate           control procedures.
to making parts, this “can do” philoso-               part) under part 43.                 5. The owner personally super-
phy can really get them in trouble.              All this sounds like bureaucratic            vises the manufacture of the
     Let’s examine the rules governing      alphabet soup, but, of all the ways               new part.
the general privileges and limitations of   listed, “Owner Produced Parts” is the
a maintenance technician (or certifi-       one most misunderstood. FAR                    As anyone can see, the discrimi-
cated mechanic as stated in FAR             §21.303(b)2 makes a provision for an       nators for determining owner partici-
§65.81), and the rule governing a re-       aircraft owner or operator to produce      pation in a new part’s manufacture are
pair station’s privileges of certificates   parts for maintaining or altering his or   very specific in the interpretation. At-
(FAR §145.51). Under both rules a           her own product. Under this provi-         tachment (A) to the 1993 Memoran-
technician or repair station may per-       sion, the Owner Produced Part can          dum clearly stipulates that the FAA
form maintenance, preventative main-        only be installed in an aircraft owned     would not construe the ordering of a
tenance, and alterations on an aircraft,    or operated by that person and the         part as participating in controlling the
or appliances for which he is rated.        Owner Produced Part cannot be pro-         design, manufacture, or quality of a
Nowhere in either rule does it say that     duced for sale to others.                  part. The key point is that the aircraft
the maintenance technician or repair                                                   owner must participate in the part’s
station can produce new parts! How-              Question: How is it that an air-      manufacture.
ever, the maintenance regulations           craft owner can produce a part, but a
allow the manufacture of parts for re-      skilled maintenance technician can’t?         Question: If the part is owner pro-
pair (see number 11 in next question.                                                  duced, is it also a FAA approved part?
     A maintenance tech or repair sta-           Answer: The responsibility fol-       Can I install it in the owner’s aircraft?
tion can make patch plates, reinforce-      lows the money. Most rules are writ-
ment splices, and incorporate them          ten so the responsibility for an action         Answer: If the Owner Produced
into the repair of a part. But again, a,    is placed with the person who has the      Part has all the characteristics of an
a maintenance technician cannot             economic authority to make it happen.      approved part, is only installed on the
make a brand new part for sale.             (The Golden Rule)                          owner’s aircraft, and is not for sale, it
     Here are some answers to those                                                    would be considered a FAA approved
earlier questions.                              Question: How does this owner-         part.
                                            produced rule work? Does the owner              There are eleven ways (as listed
    Question: Who can make a                have to make the part himself?             earlier) to produce an FAA approved
brand new part?                                                                        part. It doesn’t matter if a part is pro-
                                                 Answer: The answers can be            duced under the authority of a PMA,
    Answer: FAA Advisory Circular           found in a FAA Memorandum dated            TC, or owner produced, it must have
21-29, Detecting And Reporting Sus-         August 5, 1993, in which the assistant     all the characteristics of an approved
pected Unapproved Parts, states that        Chief Counsel for Regulation makes         part. The four characteristics of an
there are eleven ways that a new part       the following interpretation:              approved part are:
can be made. They are:                           • A part does not have to be               1. The part must be properly de-

                                                                                            J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 19
       signed. A properly designed         an Owner Produced Part. The four                   Answer: The answer is both!
       part means that the part’s de-      characteristics of an approved part are       The maintenance technician violated
       sign is FAA approved. Depend-       like the four legs of a table with all four   the rule the moment that he signed
       ing on the complexity of the        legs “equally sharing” the burden of an       the maintenance records and ap-
       part, a FAA approved design         approved part. If one leg is missing,         proved the aircraft to return to service
       will have the following ele-        the table will fall over. In the same         with the knowledge the part he in-
       ments:                              way, if any of the four characteristics       stalled was unapproved, that is he ap-
    • Drawings, specifications to de-      of an approved part is missing, then          parently understood that the part was
      fine the part’s configuration and    the part may not be FAA approved.             produced by the owner. The question
      design features.                          A good example is the case of the        he should have asked the owner was
    • Information on dimensions, ma-       Cherokee 140 with the collapsed nose          “how the part was produced so as to
      terials, and processes necessary     gear, mentioned and shown in the be-          meet the performance rules of part
      to define the structural strength    ginning of this article. The investiga-       43.13 of the Federal Aviation Regula-
      of the product.                      tion determined the following:                tions.” The aircraft owner violated the
    • Airworthiness limitations and in-                                                  rule when he knowingly operated the
      structions for continued airwor-         • The original factory nose strut         aircraft with an unapproved and un-
      thiness.                                   lower tube was pitted.                  documented part installed.
    • Any other data necessary to              • The aircraft owner had a strut
      allow by comparison, the deter-            tube locally manufactured.                  Question: This incident with the
      mination of airworthiness of later       • A technician who knew of the            Cherokee 140 was wasteful, tragic,
      products of the same type.                 part’s origin installed the strut       and dangerous. If the aircraft owner
    2. The part must be produced to              tube.                                   wanted to make an Owner Produced
       conform to the design. A prop-          • The strut tube failed during the        Part, what should he have done?
       erly produced part means the              first operation, resulting in
       part conforms to the FAA ap-              $7,000+ in damages.                         Answer:
       proved design. Usually a prop-                                                        • The owner should have used the
       erly produced part will have the       Question: Was the strut-tube an                  original manufacture’s prints and
       following characteristics:          Owner Produced Part?                                specifications (FAA approved
    • The part complies with all appli-                                                        design). It would have saved
      cable structural requirements of         Answer: Yes, legally it was an                  him time, money, and maybe his
      its design.                          Owner Produced Part. The aircraft                   life.
    • The materials and products con-      owner did participate in the manufac-             • Reverse engineer to develop a
      form to the specifications in the    ture of the part. The owner supplied                design if you must, but do your
      design.                              the manufacturer a design for the part.             research and submit the result-
    • The part conforms to the draw-       He did this by giving the manufacturer              ing design to the FAA for ap-
      ings in the design.                  the old lower strut tube and told him               proval. Depending on the com-
    • The manufacturing processes,         to duplicate it. (Reverse engineer)                 plexity of the part, reverse
      construction, and assembly of                                                            engineering may result in a new
      the part conform to those speci-         Question: Was this a FAA ap-                    design. This design is the air-
      fied in the design.                  proved part?                                        craft owner’s, not the original
    3. The part’s production should                                                            manufacturer’s, and is not auto-
       be properly documented. A                Answer: No, the part was not                   matically FAA approved. The
       properly documented part pro-       approved because the owner did not                  finished part must still meet the
       vides evidence that the part        provide the manufacturer with an ap-                requirements of the perform-
       was produced under an FAA           proved design or its equivalent. The                ance rules of section 43.13. Al-
       approval and memorializes the       part was not approved because it did                ways contact your local FSDO
       production of the part.             not conform to the material specifica-              for guidance.
    4. The part must be properly           tions prescribed in the approved de-              • Produce the new part to con-
       maintained. A properly main-        sign. The part failed during its first op-          form to the approved design.
       tained part means that the part     eration and didn’t last long enough for             Nothing more, nothing less.
       is maintained in accordance         maintenance to be a factor.                         Stronger is not always better.
       with the rules prescribed under                                                       • The aircraft owner (part’s pro-
       FAR Part 43.                             Question: Did the part producer                ducer) or the technician who in-
                                           (aircraft owner) or the maintenance                 stalls the part should document
    It is relatively easy for a part to    technician who installed the strut-tube             or memorialize the production of
meet the requirements of the August        violate the FAR? Who should be held                 the part in the aircraft records. It
5, 1993, Memorandum and qualify as         accountable?                                        would be wise if the installing

20 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
         technician requires the part pro-                    stringer and wing skin using the dam-       troduction of substandard and unap-
         ducer (aircraft owner) to memo-                      aged parts as a template. The tech-         proved parts into the fleet. Under this
         rialize the parts production in the                  nician installs these parts and repairs     rule the responsibility is the techni-
         aircraft records with a statement                    the wing in accordance with the man-        cian’s to determine airworthiness be-
         worded in a similar form as the                      ufacturer’s instructions.                   fore returning the product to service.
         one below, on this page.                                  Is this a repair or did the techni-    There is no one else to shift the bur-
                                                              cian produce a new part? The                den of blame to. The technician’s
    After the part producer memorial-                         stringer and wing skin do have a part       name is on the blame line.
izes its production. The installing                           number in the parts catalog for that
technician must make a maintenance                            aircraft, so let’s consider the following      Owner Produced Parts can be
record entry indicating that he or she                        facts:                                      summarized as follows:
installed the part. After all, installing                          • The material specifications were        • Under the Federal aviation regu-
the Owner Produced Part is a mainte-                                 published and readily available.          lations, aircraft owners can pro-
nance function. Aircraft owners can                                • The parts were simple and the             duce a brand new part for their
perform preventative maintenance, but                                fabrication processes for the             aircraft; technicians and repair
not maintenance.                                                     parts involved common tools,              stations can’t.
                                                                     skills, and standard industry           • For a part to be considered
Eliminating the Confusion                                            practices.                                “owner produced,” the owner
                                                                   • Templates for the reliable repro-         must have participated in its
      A maintenance technician can                                   duction of the parts were avail-          manufacture in at least one of
repair a part, but sometimes the                                     able (Design).                            the five ways prescribed in the
distinction between repairing a part                               • The parts were incorporated into          1993, Memorandum.
and producing a brand new part is                                    a repair in accordance with the         • An Owner Produced Part must
hard to determine. The circum-                                       manufacturer’s instructions.              have all four characteristics of
stances surrounding the repair, the                                                                            an approved part before it is
p a r t ’s c o m p l e x i t y, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f       In this case, the “Test of Reason-           considered a FAA approved part
manufacturer’s data, and industry                             ableness” would determine this to be             and eligible for installation.
practices all are determining factors.                        considered a repair, even though the           • Sometimes the distinction be-
For a lack of a better term I call                            technician did fabricate a stringer and          tween producing a new part and
making this determination the “Test                           skin.                                            making a repair is hard to deter-
of Reasonableness.”                                                                                            mine. When in doubt call the
                                                              Reality Check                                    local FSDO and ask for guid-
     Example Scenario: An aircraft                                                                             ance.
wing is damaged. The damaged                                       Maintenance technicians must              • Maintenance technicians are the
parts include a wing rib, a 24-inch                           face a cold hard fact. Aircraft owners           gatekeepers for parts entering
stringer, and wing skin. The aircraft                         can make parts, but they cannot in-              service in the fleet. Technicians
Structural Repair Manual provides                             stall them. Installing Owner Produced            bear the lion’s share of the re-
material specifications for the skin                          Parts is a maintenance function and              sponsibility. The technician’s
and stringer. A new wing rib is pur-                          only technicians can do that. That               name is on the blame line.
chased from the aircraft manufacturer                         makes technicians the “gatekeepers”
and the technician fabricates a                               for parts and guardians against the in-          The availability of parts is a con-
                                                                                                          stant problem with our aging general
                                                                                                          aviation fleet. As time passes, Owner
       Suggested Owner Produced Part                                                                      Produced Parts may be the only alter-
                                                                                                          native available for maintaining some
       Maintenance Record                                                                                 of it. With the passage of time, tech-
                                                                                                          nicians are going to be increasingly
              Date                Total Time              Work Accomplished                               forced to face the challenge of deter-
                                                                                                          mining the airworthiness of Owner
              01-01-02           9899.9 hrs.          Manufactured new lower nose strut tube              Produced Parts. There are five points
                                                      PN# 65280-00. The nose strut tube was               summarized here. Remember the five
                                                      produced per FAR §21.303(b)2 (owner                 and stay alive!
                                                      produced) and the part conforms to the
                                                      original manufactures design.                                        5
                                              Ima B. Good PP123456789 Aircraft Owner                          Don Dodge is the Airworthiness
                                                                                                          Safety Program Manager at the South
                                                                                                          Carolina FSDO.

                                                                                                               J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 21

                                                                                                                             Photo provided courtesy of X PRIZE Foundation.
  Erik Lindbergh gives the crowd the “thumbs up.”

                       LINDBERGH REDUX
                                                    by Phyllis Anne Duncan

         ust before 8 a.m. on a late         his aircraft as space and weight would      Augustus Lindbergh.
         spring morning in 1927, a tall,     allow. He was about to embark on a              Some 33 and one half hours after
         slender young man strode to         flight which many aviation “experts”        he took off, heavily laden with fuel,
         his aircraft, one that had been     were claiming couldn’t and wouldn’t         from Roosevelt Field, Long Island, NY,
developed and designed for just one          ever be accomplished. Many noted            Lindbergh landed at Le Bourget Air-
purpose. He carried the usual pilot          and more experienced pilots than this       port, France. Averaging 108 mph, he
accoutrements with him—maps,                 young air mail aviator had tried and        had crossed 3,600 miles, navigating
charts, etc. Tucked among his things         died in the attempt. If he succeeded,       by dead reckoning only, sometimes
were sandwiches for the trip and             the incredible sum (for that time) of       weather and fatigue making him dip
some drinking water. Not along for           $25,000 awaited him, but perhaps            close to the waves of an unforgiving
the ride was a radio and a parachute.        more so for him would be the sense of       ocean. Upon his arrival in France on
In 1927 both radios and parachutes           accomplishment. It would be he alone        May 21, 1927, he was mobbed by an
(which were commonly used then)              against the elements, in a one of a         enthusiastic crowd and hailed as a
weighed a great deal, and for this par-      kind aircraft, crossing a seemingly im-     hero. It took the length of time to
ticular flight, it wasn’t so much extra      penetrable divide—the Atlantic Ocean.       place a transatlantic phone call (in
weight that was an issue. Merely, the        The aircraft was the Spirit of St. Louis,   those days it could take days) for his
pilot wanted to cram as much fuel into       and its 25-year old pilot was Charles       supporters in New York to know he

22 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
had made it safely. Charles Lind-             flying, and the type of flying he’d done     commemorate the 75th anniversary of
bergh, at age 25, when aviation was           to that point had offered him plenty of      Lindbergh’s flight, but it appeared as if
barely a quarter century old, had             practical experience to deal with the        he might have to do it from the side-
crossed the Atlantic non-stop and             rigors of a transatlantic flight. Though     lines. His active participation in any
alone.                                        he considered it far from routine, he        commemoration was important to
     The rest of the story is well-           did consider himself the person who          him, not just as a history exercise.
known, part legend, part tabloid scan-        could get it done. That simple act of              The young man’s name is Erik
dal, part nasty politics, all of it combin-   bravery meant that there would be a          Lindbergh, and he is Charles Lind-
ing to make Lindbergh retreat into            world where six hours (three if you’re       bergh’s grandson.
seclusion in Hawaii the last years of         on Concorde) you step off a plane on               Since he was 21, Erik has been
his life. He died in 1974 and is buried       a continent an ocean away. It was a          affected by the rheumatoid arthritis
in Hawaii.                                    truly remarkable feat for its time, and      which progressed to the point where
     Roosevelt Field lives on in name         the public recognized it as such.            walking was nearly impossible, pilot-
only—it is now a shopping center in           Lindbergh was met with an adulation          ing an airplane unlikely. A bit more
Garden City, Long Island, so when avi-        that rivals what we today give the           than a year ago he began taking what
ation buffs and historians began talk-        shallowest of rock stars. Lindbergh          he terms a miracle drug that relieved
ing about somehow commemorating               was a true hero in the classic sense-        most of his symptoms and meant he
Lindbergh’s flight on its 75th anniver-       the common man who found it in him-          could resume the active lifestyle he’d
sary this year, everyone knew compro-         self to do an extraordinary thing.           lived before the disease’s harmful ef-
mises had to be made. But what                     In the 75 years since Lindbergh’s       fects became so debilitating. Among
would be the right event? What was            flight, we have, among hundreds of           the activities in that lifestyle was fly-
the proper way to acknowledge the             aviation accomplishments, “broken”           ing. Erik is a commercial pilot and
bravery Lindbergh had exhibited?              the sound barrier and walked on the          CFI with an Associate of Science de-
Today, transatlantic flights are the          moon—other things the experts said           gree from Emery Aviation College.
norm. There are hundreds of them              couldn’t be done. We have followed           With the help of that medication and
every day. Hop on a wide-body jet,            well on Lindbergh’s course for he is a       what he terms “major carpentry” on
tune in the in-flight movie, and five to      superb example. Yet, what could be           his body, Erik was in a position to ac-
six hours later you’re on the opposite        done to commemorate a significant            knowledge his grandfather’s legacy in
shore of the “Big Pond.” If your air-         anniversary of this event that would do      the most appropriate of manners. He
craft encountered high winds or fog or        justice to that example?                     decided to fly across the Atlantic solo
icing, as Lindbergh did, you aren’t                On May 1, 2002, a tall, slender         in the Lancair.
aware of it. Your crew by regulation          young man walked to his aircraft, a                This is the Information Age, after
has to be rested and not subject to           glass and carbon composite machine,          all, and Charles Lindbergh’s solo At-
the fatigue that can bring on a fatal         a Lancair Columbia 300. Inside was           lantic crossing came in the last ves-
error. In short, “hopping” across the         the latest in global positioning system      tiges of the Industrial Era. Erik’s flight
Atlantic has become routine. What             navigation and a radio—still no para-        was state of the art—not only in terms
could attract sufficient attention to         chute, though. Poised on Republic            of aircraft but its equipment and
commemorating Lindbergh’s feat and            Airport in Farmingdale, Long Island,         ground support as well, e.g., GPS, a
perhaps raise some money for a wor-           NY, this $280,000 aircraft was capable       space-age mission control center in
thy cause at the same time?                   of an average cruise speed of 184            St. Louis, radios that kept him in con-
     Lindbergh’s solo crossing of the         mph. Republic Airport is some eight          stant contact with his mission con-
Atlantic is one of those seminal events       or so miles east of the former Roo-          trollers, weather forecasting informa-
and not just a date to be memorized           sevelt Field, and on May 1 there was a       tion his grandfather couldn’t have
for a standardized test. What his flight      bright, nearly cloudless day, unlike the     dreamed of. All of this was a far cry
symbolized was conquering some-               one 75 years before that greeted             from his grandfather’s acknowledged
thing that the “experts” said couldn’t        Charles Lindbergh. If the young man          loneliness en route, his lack of radios (I
be done solo. You know, those not-            limped a bit on the way to his aircraft,     believe they were removed for weight
so-progressive authorities who said           that could be understood. For most           purposes), and his skill at dead reck-
that the Atlantic was too wide, that the      of his life he had been nearly immobi-       oning. Many of the challenges were
aircraft couldn’t be built to fly that far?   lized by rheumatoid arthritis, a disease     still the same—the aircraft’s perform-
After all, far more famous airmen than        which for many years was untreatable.        ance, fatigue, and, the factor that had
an airmail pilot of no renown (then)          As it progressed you took higher and         caused so many transatlantic at-
had perished in the attempt. What set         higher doses of painkillers, for this is a   tempts to fail in Charles Lindbergh’s
Lindbergh apart was, perhaps, the             very painful disease, and there was lit-     day, weather.
need to discover for himself whether          tle hope that you could ever regain                Erik’s trip was to follow his grand-
this challenge could or couldn’t be ac-       mobility. For many years this young          father’s route as closely as possible,
complished. He was comfortable with           man had wanted to do something to            and he began by symbolically flying

                                                                                                J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 23
from the west coast to St. Louis then        at the same airport his grandfather            bergh’s flight, go to <www.histo-
on to New York, as Charles Lindbergh         did—Le Bourget. He, too, was met               rychannel.com>, <www.slsc.org>, or
did in 1927. The elder Lindbergh’s trip      by a large and enthusiastic crowd and          <www.lindberghfoundation.org>. On
probably received more publicity for its     received the accolades of the general          May 20 the History Channel aired a
day than Erik’s did in this global infor-    public and aviation enthusiasts around         two-hour program on Erik’s flight,
mation age. Erik’s trip was covered          the world. Like his grandfather 75             which is available for purchase as a
extensively, to be sure, but not com-        years before, Erik overcame adver-             VHS tape.
mensurate with the column-inches his         sity—this time more physical than                   In addition to being Charles and
grandfather received in 1927. We             physics—and accomplished what is               Ann Lindbergh’s grandson, Erik Lind-
have to cast our minds back and re-          still a rare feat, flying in a single-engine   bergh is a Director of the Lindbergh
member there was no television, little       aircraft alone across the once insur-          Foundation and the President of Lind-
radio, and in some places the news-          mountable Atlantic.                            bergh Woodworks, which produces
paper came once a month; yet,                      Two brave acts 75 years apart, a         wooden furniture and sculpture. He is
Charles Lindbergh’s attempt had a far        proud grandson not intimidated by the          a trustee and vice president of the X
reach. If not before he took off, then       legacy of a grandfather he knew for            Prize Foundation, a non-profit organi-
after his triumphal return from Paris,       only a short time.                             zation dedicated to creating a private
Charles Lindbergh was a household                  For more information on Erik Lind-       space tourism industry.             3
name. Commonplace and often taken
for granted today, aviation was so new
and still uncommon then, and it could                    Aircraft Comparison Chart
hold the world’s imagination.
      Erik’s takeoff was routine—he gave
a little waggle of the wings when the          Statistics                    Spirit of St. Louis         New Spirit of
controller at Farmingdale wished him a                                       (1927)                      St. Louis (2002)
good trip. His grandfather’s was any-
thing but. According to witnesses from         Empty Weight                 2,150 pounds                 2,350 pounds
1927, the fuel-laden Spirit of St. Louis       Gross Weight                 5,250 pounds                 4,260 pounds
staggered into a foggy, rainy sky, some        Wingspan                     46 feet                      36 feet
on the ground fearing that a crash was
imminent. In the Jimmy Stewart movie,          Wing Area                    319 square feet              141 square feet
the Spirit disappears dramatically into        Wing Loading                 16.1 pounds/square           30.2 pounds/square
the foggy sky, spectators peering into         foot and Length              foot28 feet 8 inches         25.2 feet
the murk until the engine sound fades,         Airframe Material            Steel tubing, fabric,        Glass and
then everyone leaves the field to await                                     and wood                     carbon composite
word of what many felt would be a fatal
end to the flight.                             Engine                       Wright JC-5C 233 hp          TCM IO 550 N 310 hp
      Takeoff weather for Erik was near-                                    9 cylinder radial            6 cylinder opposed
perfect, and he wouldn’t encounter             Oil Capacity                 20 gallons                   2.75 gallons
any significant weather barrier until he       Range “0” Wind               4,110 statute miles          4,110 statute miles
first approached the Atlantic. Unlike          Fuel Capacity                450 gallons in 5             310 gallons in 3
his grandfather, who had to slog
through the weather he encountered,                                         tanks                        tanks
Erik was able to call his “controllers” in     Average Fuel Flow            10.9 gallons per hour        12 gallons per hour
St. Louis who were able to plot a safe         Paris Fuel Reserve           85 gallons                   65 gallons
course above the weather. To take              Takeoff Distance             2,500 feet                   2,000 feet (estimated)
advantage of winds, the planned alti-          Average Cruise               108 miles per hour           184 miles per hour
tudes were between 7,000 and
13,000 feet. To avoid the adverse              Speed
weather, Erik climbed the Lancair to           Flight Time                  33 hours,                    19 hours, 35
17,500 feet. Once clear, he resumed                                         29 minutes                   minutes (planned)
the planned altitudes, with only a brief                                                                 17 hours, 10 minutes
encounter with additional weather                                                                        (mission elapsed
half-way across the Atlantic. In some
ways his trip was significant for its                                                                    time)
“routineness,” unlike his grandfather’s.       Cost of Aircraft             $10,580 in 1927              $289,000
      Some 17 hours and 10 minutes
after his takeoff, Erik was able to land

24 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
                                    FAA Aircraft Certification is seeking Aerospace
                                    Engineers & Aviation Safety Inspectors
                                    (Manufacturing) for challenging positions

                                        AEROSPACE ENGINEERS

FAA Aerospace Engineers design and certificate airplanes, engines, propellers, and class II products. They work
with others to prepare certification regulations, certificate new airplanes, and resolve in-service problems.

Successful candidates are U.S. citizens with engineering degrees who have a minimum of 5 to 10 years experi-
ence in their specialty area, a thorough knowledge of aircraft certification regulations, an extensive technical
knowledge of their specialty, and the ability to work well with the various segments of the aviation industry in team
efforts to solve technical problems.

Specialty Areas:
• Human Factors/Flight Deck
• Structures/Cabin Safety
• Propulsion/Powerplant Installations
• Systems (Electrical, Mechanical, Avionics, Software, Communication, Navigation)
• Powerplant Installations
• Flight Test/Performance

Annual salaries range from $31K through $102K.


FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors (Manufacturing) develop, administer, and enforce safety regulations and standards
for the production and airworthiness certification of civil aircraft.

Inspectors perform inspections of aircraft, parts, and equipment and work with others to prepare production and
airworthiness certification regulations, issue airworthiness certifications, provide oversight for designees, and per-
form production surveillance.

Successful candidates are U.S. citizens experienced in the quality control/quality assurance of manufacturing air-
craft, engines, propellers, or class II products; and/or experience in issuing or managing programs leading to the
issuance of original airworthiness certificates or original expert airworthiness approvals for aircraft, aircraft engines,
propellers, class II products.

Annual salaries range from $28K through $91K.

                              For more information and application instructions go to:

                                        FAA is an Equal Opportunity Employer

                                                                                        J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 25
• April Editorial Off Base                Washington National [DCA] that such            As Yogi Berra would say, “It’s not
                                          a flight would now be impossible. It is     open until it’s open.”
    As much as I’m happy for you that     a travesty that these airports are not         Name withheld
you feel things are back to normal,       yet open to the law-abiding taxpaying          via Internet
you can take it from this GA pilot that   general aviation pilot. It is a shame
College Park [Airport in Maryland] is     that you think close enough is good             Thank you very much for this infor-
not open. Despite the fact that I have    enough. Could this have something           mation. At the time the editorial was
already been badged, security in-         to do with the fact that several FAA        written, the full reopening of the three
spected, financially inspected, finger-   employees base their aircraft at Hyde?      DC area GA airports seemed very
printed, medically examined, etc., for    Until Congress takes back its right to      much a “done deal.” However, as a
my Class C airport, I am still not al-    oversee aviation through the FAA, I         23-year veteran of the government, I
lowed to fly, as a transient, into Col-   feel the Executive Branch has stolen        should have known better. All I can do
lege Park (as I had pre-9/11) to do       through the National Security Council       is assure you that the FAA is working
business or visit my senators as I have   our basic privileges as pilots and be-      with the various security concerns to
in the past.                              queathed them to themselves. This is        restore GA operations fully at these
    I am further moved to write you as    clearly a discriminatory use.               three airports and at Washington Na-
one who had an introductory instruc-           Further I am still unclear as to why   tional. It is sometimes a frustrating
tion flight in a helicopter from Hyde     we can not fly the Hudson River flyway      process.
Executive [Airport also in Maryland] to   from New England to the south. We               Thanks again for giving us a real-
                                          can fly at 1,000 feet all the way down      world view of things.
                                          the Hudson to past the George Wash-
      FAA AVIATION NEWS wel-              ington Bridge, but then we must do a        • Saudi Tale
  comes comments. We may                  180 within two miles of the World
  edit letters for style and/or           Trade Center [location] and head                I am utterly disgusted with the FAA
  length. If we have more than            north. Similarly we can fly up the          for allowing the representatives of a
  one letter on the same topic,           Hudson past the Statue of Liberty (Ah,      foreign country to insult the women of
  we will select one representa-          the irony! Oh, you get it.) to within two   America, particularly women air traffic
  tive letter to publish. Be-             miles of the World Trade Center and         controllers. When the Saudi prince
  cause of our publishing                 again we must turn around. Surely           demanded recently that women air
  schedules, responses may                you can open the flyway again, it is a      traffic controllers not be SEEN or
  not appear for several issues.          national treasure, a national park in the   allowed to do their jobs while he visit-
  We do not print anonymous               sky (no noise complaints here), and a       ed, and the FAA caved in to those
  letters, but we do withhold             safety valve for those of us on the         demands, you have insulted every
  names or send personal re-              eastern seaboard flyway (beats going        woman in this country. I’m writing to
  plies upon request. Readers             15 miles and 3,000 feet over the            my representatives in Congress as well
  are reminded that questions             ocean or 30 miles and west into the         as to the White House to complain
  dealing with immediate FAA              weather shrouded hills of PA). If the       about your treasonous and hateful
  operational issues should be            government can spend money to build         decision in this matter.
  referred to their local Flight          viewing platforms for the public in New         Margaret Whitcomb
  Standards District Office or            York City, surely the flyway can be re-         Salem, Oregon
  Air Traffic facility. Send letters      opened.
  to H. Dean Chamberlain,                      We all must continue to work until          We recommend you check your
  FORUM Editor, FAA AVIA-                 all airports are open and we have im-       information sources. FAA Aviation
  TION NEWS, AFS-805, 800                 proved rather than restricted the free-     News has been told “...FAA never
  Independence Ave., SW,                  dom on the environment in which we          received a formal request from the
  Washington, DC 20591, or                fly. I would appreciate your using my       Saudis and never directed any con-
  FAX them to (202) 267-9463;             tax dollars as my public servant in ef-     trollers to handle the plane differently
  e-mail address:                         forts to that end. We need to spend         than any other aircraft. In short, we
                                          far less money on fences and tree-cut-      never directed that the plane only be
     Dean.Chamberlain@faa.gov             ting and false security Band-Aids™          handled by male controllers. The
                                          and far more money on weather sta-          Saudis went on a Washington-based
                                          tions, runways, and supporting law-         Fox TV program saying they never
                                          abiding taxpaying users of the system.      made any such request.”

26 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
UNIQUE AIRMEN CERTIFICATE                   instructor certificates and inspection               phibious fuselage
NUMBERS                                     authorizations for renewals and to                • Up to 15 pounds for each out-
                                            accept expired airman written test                   rigger float and pylon on pow-
     FAA changed its policy on airmen       reports for civilian and military person-            ered ultralight vehicles used for
certificate numbers on June 1, 2002.        nel who serve in Operation Enduring                  training.
After that date, new airmen certificates    Freedom. This action is necessary to              The FAA has found that safety de-
will be issued with a unique certificate    avoid penalizing airmen who are               vices, such as emergency para-
number assigned by the Airmen Certi-        unable to meet the regulatory time lim-       chutes, have been available for over
fication Branch instead of the person’s     its of their flight instructor certificate,   15 years for use on two-seat ultra-
Social Security Number (SSN). The           inspection authorization, or airman           light vehicles used in training. The
policy change resulted from security        written test report solely because of         FAA notes that in that time over
and privacy concerns since airmen           their service in Operation Enduring           200,000 hours of demonstrated op-
data is public information.                 Freedom. The effect of this action is to      erational experience have illustrated
     Applicants will still be asked to      give these airmen extra time to meet          that such safety devices provide in-
provide their SSN on their application      certain eligibility requirements in the       creased safety during training. These
forms, but the SSN will not be used         current rules. This SFAR will expire on       devices have provided similar levels
on their issued certificates. FAA’s         May 6, 2004.                                  of safety on single-seat ultralight vehi-
Flight Standards Service has issued             For more information, see SFAR            cles without adversely affecting their
procedures to its offices and desig-        No. 96 which was published in the May         performance characteristics.
nated examiners on how to process           6, 2002, Federal Register and can be              Each individual who operates an
certificates issued after June 1. The       found at <www.faa.gov/avr/arm/                ultralight vehicle under the authority of
word PENDING shall be placed in the         nprm.cfm>.                                    this exemption must be familiar with
certificate block on the temporary cer-                                                   its provisions and must have in his or
tificate issued to an airman. If the ap-    ULTRALIGHT FLIGHT TRAINING                    her personal possession, for each op-
plicant does not want to provide his or     WEIGHT EXEMPTION                              eration, a copy of the authorization is-
her SSN, then the words DO NOT                                                            sued by ASC or EAA and a copy of
USE shall be placed in the certificate          On April 4 the FAA granted an ex-         this exemption. These documents
block.                                      emption to Aero Sport Connections,            must be presented for inspection
     Certificates issued before June 1      Inc. (ASC), and to the Experimental           upon request by the FAA.
with the applicant’s SSN will continue      Aircraft Association (EAA) regarding
to be used unless the airman requests       two-seat, powered ultralight training         FAA DEPLOYS FREE FLIGHT
a unique certificate number. If an air-     vehicles that carry certain safety de-        TECHNOLOGY AT
men with a SSN certificate number re-       vices, amphibious gear or outrigger           WASHINGTON CENTER
quests a unique number than the cer-        floats. The exemption allows the fol-
tificate and/or rating will processed as    lowing weight increases to powered                  FAA Administrator Jane F. Gar-
outlined above.                             ultralight vehicles that have a maxi-         vey announced the successful de-
     For those who already hold an air-     mum empty weight of not more than             ployment of an advanced system at
man certificate that uses your SSN          496 pounds, have a maximum fuel ca-           Washington (DC) Air Route Traffic
and would like FAA to change that to        pacity of not more than 10 U.S. gal-          Control Center that improves air-
a unique number, you can access the         lons, are not capable of more than 75         space efficiency and capacity by al-
request form at <www.faa.gov/certifi-       knots calibrated airspeed at full power       lowing pilots to select more direct
cation/people.htm>, then scroll down        in level flight, and have a power-off         routes to their destinations.
to “Services.”                              stall speed that does not exceed 35                 Controllers and pilots began using
                                            knots calibrated airspeed:                    the User Request Evaluation Tool
RELIEF FOR PARTICIPANTS IN                      • Up to 35 pounds for safety de-          (URET) in April at the Leesburg, VA, fa-
OPERATION ENDURING                                vices intended for deployment           cility. This new digital system is one of
FREEDOM                                           in a potentially catastrophic           numerous building blocks in the FAA’s
                                                  situation                               Free Flight technology, which is aimed
    The FAA is adopting a Special               • Up to 70 pounds for each float          at transforming the nation’s air traffic
Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR No.           • Up to 90 pounds for each am-            operation with a quick influx of new
96) that allows Flight Standards District         phibious float                          technology. In addition to Washing-
Offices (FSDO) to accept expired flight         • Up to 120 pounds for an am-             ton, URET is in use at Kansas City,

                                                                                               J U L Y / A U G U S T 2 0 0 2 27
Cleveland, Chicago, Indianapolis, and       operating at high altitudes between           airline ramp towers to assist airlines in
Memphis, TN.                                airports, which can enhance airport           better managing ground assets (gates,
     URET is a computer program that        capacity. Results from Fort Worth, TX,        baggage operations, refueling, food
aids controllers in granting pilot re-      Air Route Center show a five-percent          service, etc.). Using SMA, Northwest
quests to change their flight path for      increase in flights arriving into             Airlines estimates that it was able to
more direct routes or for different alti-   Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.      avoid three to five costly diversions
tudes. The software allows controllers      TMA is also providing savings in fuel         weekly, especially during periods of in-
to look 20 minutes into the future of a     costs and decreasing delays at Den-           clement weather.
flight path. If a pilot wants a different   ver, Minneapolis, Atlanta, Los Angeles,             Building on the success of Free
route, the controller punches in the re-    Miami and Oakland air route traffic           Flight Phase I, the FAA plans to deploy
quest. Immediately, the controller is       control centers.                              URET to the remaining Air Route Traf-
advised if the request is safe. Previ-           CTAS helps controllers more effi-        fic Control Centers in Phase II. URET
ously, the controller relied on paper       ciently manage aircraft on approach to        was conceived and built by MITRE
flight strips and mental calculations.      an airport by providing the most effi-        Corp., McLean, VA, and is being fully
As a result of URET, pilots now receive     cient use of available runways.               developed and deployed by Lockheed
more direct routes and the airlines are          Surface Movement Advisor (SMA)           Martin, Rockville, MD, for use at high
saving time and money.                      provides aircraft arrival information to      altitude centers nationwide.
     Working with the aviation industry,
Administrator Garvey established Free       Airports Authority Fire Fighters Honored
Flight Phase I in October 1998 to pro-
vide measurable benefits to airlines             Six members of the Metropolitan Washington (DC) Airports Authority Fire
and the flying public. By using URET,       Department, who were among the first on the scene at the Pentagon on
the airlines have increased direct rout-    September 11, were honored with Life Saving Awards at the 20th Annual Valor
ings by 20 percent, and are saving          Awards held by the Arlington County (VA) Chamber of Commerce on April 10.
$1.5 million per month (combined) in             The Alexandria, VA Chamber of Commerce recognized the Fire Department for
Indianapolis and Memphis airspace.          its initial response and ongoing work at the site from September 11 through 21. A
     “The controllers and technicians       total of 112 Airports Authority emergency personnel worked at the Pentagon as
made the difference,” said John             part of the emergency response force. In addition to fire suppression, search and
Thornton, Director of the FAA’s Free        rescue, and triage and transport operations, Authority personnel worked with
Flight Program. “Because they were          other fire and rescue personnel from the region in planning, safety, logistics, and
with us from step one, there were no        command functions.
     Other Free Flight Phase I tools in-
clude: Collaborative Decision Making
(CDM) which provides airline opera-
tions centers and the FAA with na-
tional airspace system status informa-
tion, including information on weather,
equipment availability, and delays.
More than 30 airlines and NavCanada,
which operates Canada’s civil air navi-
gation system, are enrolled as users of
the system. CDM helps air traffic con-
trol to more easily respond to chang-
ing conditions, and leads to better
tactical decision making in the air-
space system.
     Traffic Management Advisor (TMA)
forms part of the NASA-developed            Members of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Fire and Rescue Department
Center-TRACON Automation System             recently honored by the Arlington County (VA) Chamber of Commerce. From left to right:
(CTAS). TMA helps controllers man-          Firefighter Cary Henry, Firefighter Joseph Ruffolo, Fire Captain Eugene Harris, EMS Cap-
age traffic flow and planning for planes    tain Charles Howes, Firefighter Nicholas Buongiorne, and Fire Captain Michael Defina.

28 F A A A v i a t i o n N e w s
Editor’sfrom the pen of Phyllis-Anne Duncan

                     History Lesson
        In this issue we’ve commemorated two historical events in aviation history as part of a continuing series
  leading up to the 100th anniversary of the Wright Brothers’ flight. Seventy-five years ago, Charles Lindbergh
  flew solo across the Atlantic, an event commemorated by his grandson, Erik, this past May (page 22). Fifty
  years ago, the Experimental Aircraft Association held its first convention, initially called simply “Oshkosh” and
  now AirVenture (page 1).
        One of the difficulties in figuring out which event in aviation history to denote, is that there are so many to
  choose from, and since aviation is still growing and changing, this will be a dilemma for years to come. There
  are so many high points that we can’t begin to cover them all. Even if we tried, we’d be unable to do them
  justice. The cursory attention we’ve given our selected subjects to date has been unsatisfactory to me as a
  writer and a historian. Aviation has so many firsts, so many significant events, pinning them down to a pre-
  cious few is hard.
        As a historian, I have to put a pitch in for passing aviation history on. A recent study showed that the
  average high school student in the U.S. would get about 46% on a U.S. history test. I’d like to think that those
  of us in aviation would do a lot better on an aviation history test. Perhaps that’s because aviation history is
  never dry and pedantic. It has a lot in common with “regular” history—it’s a chronology of socially, econom-
  ically, and politically important events—but it’s also dear to our hearts. The allure of aviation cuts across all of
  society—that is why THE most visited museum in Washington, DC is the National Air and Space Museum.
  The FAA building is older by about 15 or so years than NASM, but it couldn’t be in a better location. When
  we get too bogged down in bureaucracy, there is nothing better to clear the cobwebs than a lunchtime trip
  across the street to remind us from whence we came. Because we’re adults and not tourists, we keep our
  reactions to ourselves, but there is nothing more awe-inspiring than to walk into that building and see the Spirit
  of St. Louis, the Glamorous Glennis, Voyager, and many, many more. The people inside are mostly families
  with young children, whose faces are rapt as they can see and in some cases touch things many only read
  about. As a former teacher, every time I see one of those faces, I am moved beyond words.
        Family and history have always been part of EAA’s mission. It began as a family affair after all in the
  Poberezny’s basement. When you go to AirVenture, you encounter children with that same awe as you see
  in NASM—with one difference. At AirVenture, you’re outside on an airport among the airplanes and pilots.
  Hands-on history. Living history.
        As pilots and mechanics our personal history in aviation is part of the overall story of the growth and
  development of aviation in America and the world—a dizzying progression from the sand dunes of Kill Devil
  Hills in the winter of 1903 to the Mars Odyssey spacecraft that just found ice beneath the surface of Mars.
  Though this past 100 years isn’t even the blink of an eye in time, we would be hard-pressed to find another
  period in history where a technology grew so rapidly to become a key element in business, society, and pol-
  itics. The information age has “shrunk” the world, but the airplane accelerated that shrinkage in the past 99
        Take your children and grandchildren to the museums and to fly-ins and to events like AirVenture, but also
  take the time to sit down with them and tell them your personal aviation history. Then, they can go out and
  make some history of their own. Who knows? They might be the first human to walk on Europa (the moon
  of Jupiter most likely to support some form of life) because you told them your history of aviation.
        ‘Til next time…
U.S. Department
of Transportation

Federal Aviation

800 Independence Ave., S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20591

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300


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