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gRAin STORAgE fAcT SHEET SEPTEmBER 2010 Caution: ReseaRCh on unRegisteRed pestiCide use Any research with unregistered pesticides or of unregistered products reported in this document does not constitute a recommendation for that particular use by the authors or the authors’ organisations. All pesticide applications must accord with the currently registered label for that particular pesticide, crop, pest and region. Hygiene and structural treatments for grain storages When it comes to controlling pests in stored grain — prevention is better than cure. Grain residues in storages or older grain stocks held over from last season provide ideal breeding sites. Meticulous grain hygiene combined with structural treatments, such as inert dusts and slurries, can play a key role in reducing the number of stored grain pests. keep it clean Grain pests live in dark, sheltered areas kEY POinTS and breed best in warm conditions. ■ Effective grain hygiene requires A bag of infested grain can produce complete removal of all waste more than one million insects during a Common places where pests are found grain from storages and year, which can walk and fly to other include: equipment. grain storages where they will start new infestations. ■ empty silos and grain storages ■ Be meticulous with grain hygiene Meticulous grain hygiene involves ■ Aeration ducts – pests only need a small amount of grain for survival. removing any grain that can harbour ■ Augers and conveyers pests and allow them to breed. ■ Structural treatments, such as ■ Harvesters inert dusts and slurries, can be It also includes regular inspection of used on storages and equipment ■ Field bins and chaser bins seed and stockfeed grain so any pest to protect against grain pests. infestations can be controlled before ■ Left-over bags of grain ■ check delivery requirements pests spread. ■ Trucks before using chemical treatments and avoid using with pulses and Where to clean ■ Spilt grain around grain storages oil seeds. removing an environment for pests ■ equipment and rubbish around to live and breed in is the basis of storages grain hygiene, which includes all grain handling equipment and storages. ■ Seed grain ■ Stockfeed grain PHoToS: CHrIS WArrICk , konDInIn GroUP Successful grain hygiene involves cleaning all areas where grain gets trapped in storages and equipment. Grain pests can survive in a tiny amount of grain, so any parcel of fresh grain through the machine or storage becomes infested. Harvesting equipment: Clean out harvesters Prevention: Successful pest management and grain handling equipment thoroughly starts before grain goes into storage. with pressurised air. Level 1, Tourism House | 40 Blackall Street, Barton ACT 2600 | Po Box 5367, kingston ACT 2604 | t. +61 2 6166 4500 | f. +61 2 6166 4599 | e. firstname.lastname@example.org | w. www.grdc.com.au PHoToS: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP When to clean Straight after harvest is the best time to clean grain handling equipment and storages, before they become infested with pests. A trial carried out in Queensland revealed more than 1000 lesser grain borers in the first 40 litres of grain through a harvester at the start of harvest, which was considered reasonably clean at the end of the previous season. It is well worth the effort to clean out harvesters thoroughly at the end of each harvest and discard the first few bags of grain at the start of the next harvest. Discarding a small amount of the first batch of grain at the start of each harvest stops any pests surviving Trucks: Grain left in trucks is an ideal harbour in the equipment from infesting grain Silo sweep-out: An extended broom handle for grain pests to breed. Keep trucks, field storages — a common occurrence. makes sweeping out silos easer. bins and chaser bins clean. However, this alone is no substitute for thorough cleaning. PHoTo: Ben WHITe, konDInIn GroUP How to clean The better the cleaning job, the less chance of pests harbouring. The best ways to get rid of all grain residues use a combination of: ■ Sweeping ■ Vacuuming ■ Compressed air ■ Blow/vacuum guns ■ Pressure washers ■ Fire-fighting hoses Using a broom or compressed air All-over clean: Clean silos, including gets rid of most grain residues, a the silo wall, with air or water to follow-up wash-down removes grain provide a residue-free surface to apply structural treatments. and dust left in crevices and hard-to- reach spots. PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP Choose a warm, dry day to wash storages and equipment so it dries out quickly to prevent rusting. When inspecting empty storages, look for ways to make the structures easier to keep clean. Seal or fill any cracks and crevices to prevent grain lodging and insects harbouring. Bags of left-over grain lying around storages and in sheds create a perfect harbour and breeding ground for storage pests. After collecting spilt grain and residues, dispose of them well away from any A clean site: A concrete slab under grain storage areas. silos makes cleaning easier. PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP Harbouring pests: Air ducts provide a perfect Be gone: Remove spilt and left-over grain harbour for grain pests so thorough cleaning and burn or bury it well away from the grain is essential. storage site. Structural treatments For small grain silos and bins a If silos are fitted with aeration systems, hand-operated duster, such as a distribute the inert dust into the ducting After cleaning grain storages and bellows duster, is suitable. without getting it into the motor, where handling equipment treat them with a it could potentially cause damage. structural treatment. Larger silos and storages require a powered duster operated by Machinery application While most grain buyers accept small compressed air or a fan. amounts of residue on cereal grains Calculation of surface areas of from chemical structural treatments, If compressed air is available it is machinery is not normally possible. avoid using them if handling and the most economical and suitable storing oilseeds and pulses. option for on-farm use — connected to For augers, conveyors and grain a venturi duster such as the handling equipment, use a blow/vac It is always safer to check with the Blovac BV-22. to apply a steady dust stream into grain buyer’s delivery standards accessible openings, coating all the for maximum residue level (MrL) internal surfaces as much as possible. allowances before using grain The application rate is protectants. calculated at two grams Continue until a dust stream emerges from the exit/discharge points of the An inert dust, such as diatomaceous per square metre of surface equipment. earth (De) (amorphous silica), area treated. See table 1. commonly known as Dryacide®, can be For an average harvester the applied either as a dust or a slurry to Although inert, breathing in excessive recommended quantity of inert dust is treat storages and handling equipment amounts of dust is not ideal, so use about 2.5 kilograms. for residual control. a disposable dust mask and goggles during application. Applying inert slurry Dryacide (De) acts by absorbing the With the right equipment, insect’s cuticle (protective exterior), Silo application diatomaceous earth can also be causing death by desiccation (drying Apply inert dust in silos starting at the applied in a slurry form. out). top (if safe) by coating the inside of If applied correctly with complete the roof then working your way down PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP coverage in a dry environment, inert the silo walls, finishing by pointing the dusts such as Dryacide (De) can stream at the bottom of the silo. provide up to 12 months protection — killing most species of grain insects Table 1 InerT dusT (de) and with no risk of building resistance. applIcaTIon guIde STORAGE CAPACITY DUST QUANTITY Applying inert dust (t) (kg) Inert dust requires a moving air-stream 20 0.12 to direct it onto the surface being 56 0.25 treated. 112 0.42 Throwing it into silos by hand will not 224 0.6 achieve an even cover so will not be 450 1 effective. 900 1.7 Ready, aim, fire: A blow/vac or air venturi gun is the best applicator for inert dust. 1800 2.6 A little more involved than applying PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP dust, the slurry needs to be mixed in a POST-HARVEST cHEckliST mixing tank then sprayed on through a 4 Sweep or blow out all empty grain flat fan nozzle capable of at least five storages and equipment. litres per minute. Mix the diatomaceous 4 Wash down with water on a earth with water at a rate of 10-20 per warm, dry day. cent to form a slurry and apply at six grams per square metre (dry basis). 4 if not storing oilseeds or pulses, apply structural treatment. The aim is to apply the slurry to give complete coverage but ensure it 4 Monitor all stored grain fortnightly during summer, doesn’t run off the walls of storages monthly during winter. and equipment. An inline filter with 1000 micron (one millimetre) mesh and a Monitoring storages recirculation hose will help prevent nozzle blockages and keep the slurry Grain kept for seed or stockfeed is a mixed during application. common breeding ground for pests so monitor all grain storages every two Impeller pumps are most suitable — weeks during warmer periods of the typically a fire-fighting pump with a year and at least monthly during cool 3.7 kilowatt (five horsepower) motor. periods of the year. Preparation: Inert dust (DE) is available Do not use positive displacement in more than one brand and may need Use grain insect sieves and traps to pumps, such as gear or piston pumps, to be ordered in from your local rural monitor for pests in all stored grain as they will block easily. supplier. and regularly check grain handling equipment during the off season. If applying a lot of slurry regularly, use a designated, older pump as pumping Finding grain pests early allows them slurry will reduce a pump’s working life. from spraying too close or too much to be identified, treated appropriately slurry. and removed before they spread and Apply the slurry in the same order as A solid pipe extension on the become a much larger problem, which the dust — start at the top of the silo application hose will enable a more may be more difficult to treat. See or storage and work down the walls even coating on hard-to-reach areas Fact sheet, “Stored grain pests — applying an even coat, avoiding runs such as silo walls. identification” for more information. Useful resources: ■ GRDC Grain storage extension project www.storedgrain.com.au ■ Grain Trade Australia www.graintrade.org.au Grain storage specialists ■ QLD and northern NSW, Philip Burrill (07) 4660 3620 Email email@example.com ■ Southern NSW, VIC, SA and TAS, Peter Botta 0417 501 890 Email firstname.lastname@example.org ■ WA, Chris Newman 0428 934 509 Email email@example.com Grain biosecurity contacts ■ Plant Health Australia (02) 6215 7700 Email firstname.lastname@example.org www.planthealthaustralia.com.au DISClAImER www.kondinin.com.au Any recommendations, suggestions or opinions contained in this publication or arising by reason of any person using or relying on the information in this do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the Grains Research and publication. Development Corporation. No person should act on the basis of the contents of CAUTION: RESEARCH ON UNREGISTERED PESTICIDE USE this publication without first obtaining specific, independent professional advice. The Corporation and contributors to this Fact Sheet may identify products by Any research with unregistered pesticides or of unregistered products reported proprietary or trade names to help readers identify particular types of products. in this document does not constitute a recommendation for that particular use by We do not endorse or recommend the products of any manufacturer referred to. the authors or the authors’ organisations. All pesticide applications must accord Other products may perform as well as or better than those specifically referred with the currently registered label for that particular pesticide, crop, pest and produced by to. The GRDC will not be liable for any loss, damage, cost or expense incurred region. Acknowledgements: Philip Burrill, DeeDI, Peter Botta, PCB Consulting, Chris newman, DAFWA.
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