gRAin STORAgE by fdh56iuoui


									    gRAin STORAgE
    fAcT SHEET
                                                                                                                                                                                SEPTEmBER 2010

         Caution: ReseaRCh on unRegisteRed pestiCide use
         Any research with unregistered pesticides or of unregistered products reported in this document does not constitute a recommendation for that
         particular use by the authors or the authors’ organisations. All pesticide applications must accord with the currently registered label for that
         particular pesticide, crop, pest and region.

         Hygiene and structural treatments
         for grain storages
         When it comes to controlling pests in stored grain — prevention is better than cure.
         Grain residues in storages or older grain stocks held over from last season provide ideal
         breeding sites. Meticulous grain hygiene combined with structural treatments, such as
         inert dusts and slurries, can play a key role in reducing the number of stored grain pests.
                                                                keep it clean                                                                             Grain pests live in dark, sheltered areas
          kEY POinTS                                                                                                                                      and breed best in warm conditions.
          ■	   Effective grain hygiene requires                 A bag of infested grain can produce
               complete removal of all waste                    more than one million insects during a                                                    Common places where pests are found
               grain from storages and                          year, which can walk and fly to other                                                     include:
               equipment.                                       grain storages where they will start
                                                                new infestations.                                                                         ■	   empty silos and grain storages
          ■	   Be meticulous with grain hygiene
                                                                Meticulous grain hygiene involves                                                         ■	   Aeration ducts
               – pests only need a small amount
               of grain for survival.                           removing any grain that can harbour                                                       ■	   Augers and conveyers
                                                                pests and allow them to breed.
          ■	   Structural treatments, such as                                                                                                             ■	   Harvesters
               inert dusts and slurries, can be                 It also includes regular inspection of
               used on storages and equipment
                                                                                                                                                          ■	   Field bins and chaser bins
                                                                seed and stockfeed grain so any pest
               to protect against grain pests.                  infestations can be controlled before                                                     ■	   Left-over bags of grain
          ■	   check delivery requirements                      pests spread.
                                                                                                                                                          ■	   Trucks
               before using chemical treatments
               and avoid using with pulses and                  Where to clean                                                                            ■	   Spilt grain around grain storages
               oil seeds.                                       removing an environment for pests                                                         ■	   equipment and rubbish around
                                                                to live and breed in is the basis of                                                           storages
                                                                grain hygiene, which includes all grain
                                                                handling equipment and storages.
                                                                                                                                                          ■	   Seed grain
                                                                                                                                                          ■	   Stockfeed grain
                                                                                                                 PHoToS: CHrIS WArrICk , konDInIn GroUP

                                                                                                                                                          Successful grain hygiene involves
                                                                                                                                                          cleaning all areas where grain gets
                                                                                                                                                          trapped in storages and equipment.

                                                                                                                                                          Grain pests can survive in a tiny
                                                                                                                                                          amount of grain, so any parcel of fresh
                                                                                                                                                          grain through the machine or storage
                                                                                                                                                          becomes infested.

                                                                                                                                                           Harvesting equipment: Clean out harvesters
                                                                  Prevention: Successful pest management                                                   and grain handling equipment thoroughly
                                                                  starts before grain goes into storage.                                                   with pressurised air.

Level 1, Tourism House | 40 Blackall Street, Barton ACT 2600 | Po Box 5367, kingston ACT 2604 | t. +61 2 6166 4500 | f. +61 2 6166 4599 | e. | w.
                                                                                               PHoToS: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP
                                                                                                                                       When to clean
                                                                                                                                       Straight after harvest is the best time
                                                                                                                                       to clean grain handling equipment and
                                                                                                                                       storages, before they become infested
                                                                                                                                       with pests.

                                                                                                                                       A trial carried out in Queensland
                                                                                                                                       revealed more than 1000 lesser
                                                                                                                                       grain borers in the first 40 litres of
                                                                                                                                       grain through a harvester at the start
                                                                                                                                       of harvest, which was considered
                                                                                                                                       reasonably clean at the end of the
                                                                                                                                       previous season.

                                                                                                                                       It is well worth the effort to clean out
                                                                                                                                       harvesters thoroughly at the end of
                                                                                                                                       each harvest and discard the first few
                                                                                                                                       bags of grain at the start of the next
                                                                                                                                       harvest. Discarding a small amount of
                                                                                                                                       the first batch of grain at the start of
                                                                                                                                       each harvest stops any pests surviving
                                           Trucks: Grain left in trucks is an ideal harbour                                            in the equipment from infesting grain
Silo sweep-out: An extended broom handle   for grain pests to breed. Keep trucks, field                                                storages — a common occurrence.
makes sweeping out silos easer.            bins and chaser bins clean.                                                                 However, this alone is no substitute for
                                                                                                                                       thorough cleaning.
                                                                                               PHoTo: Ben WHITe, konDInIn GroUP

                                                                                                                                       How to clean
                                                                                                                                       The better the cleaning job, the less
                                                                                                                                       chance of pests harbouring. The best
                                                                                                                                       ways to get rid of all grain residues use
                                                                                                                                       a combination of:
                                                                                                                                       ■	   Sweeping
                                                                                                                                       ■	   Vacuuming
                                                                                                                                       ■	   Compressed air
                                                                                                                                       ■	   Blow/vacuum guns
                                                                                                                                       ■	   Pressure washers
                                                                                                                                       ■	   Fire-fighting hoses

                                                                                                                                       Using a broom or compressed air
                                                      All-over clean: Clean silos, including                                           gets rid of most grain residues, a
                                                      the silo wall, with air or water to
                                                                                                                                       follow-up wash-down removes grain
                                                      provide a residue-free surface to
                                                      apply structural treatments.                                                     and dust left in crevices and hard-to-
                                                                                                                                       reach spots.
                                                                                               PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP

                                                                                                                                       Choose a warm, dry day to wash
                                                                                                                                       storages and equipment so it dries out
                                                                                                                                       quickly to prevent rusting.

                                                                                                                                       When inspecting empty storages, look
                                                                                                                                       for ways to make the structures easier
                                                                                                                                       to keep clean.

                                                                                                                                       Seal or fill any cracks and crevices
                                                                                                                                       to prevent grain lodging and insects

                                                                                                                                       Bags of left-over grain lying around
                                                                                                                                       storages and in sheds create a perfect
                                                                                                                                       harbour and breeding ground for
                                                                                                                                       storage pests.

                                                                                                                                       After collecting spilt grain and residues,
                                                                                                                                       dispose of them well away from any
A clean site: A concrete slab under                                                                                                    grain storage areas.
silos makes cleaning easier.
                                                                                                                                                                                     PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP
PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP

                                                                Harbouring pests: Air ducts provide a perfect                        Be gone: Remove spilt and left-over grain
                                                                harbour for grain pests so thorough cleaning                         and burn or bury it well away from the grain
                                                                is essential.                                                        storage site.

                                       Structural treatments                             For small grain silos and bins a            If silos are fitted with aeration systems,
                                                                                         hand-operated duster, such as a             distribute the inert dust into the ducting
                                       After cleaning grain storages and
                                                                                         bellows duster, is suitable.                without getting it into the motor, where
                                       handling equipment treat them with a
                                                                                                                                     it could potentially cause damage.
                                       structural treatment.                             Larger silos and storages require
                                                                                         a powered duster operated by                Machinery application
                                       While most grain buyers accept small              compressed air or a fan.
                                       amounts of residue on cereal grains                                                           Calculation of surface areas of
                                       from chemical structural treatments,              If compressed air is available it is        machinery is not normally possible.
                                       avoid using them if handling and                  the most economical and suitable
                                       storing oilseeds and pulses.                      option for on-farm use — connected to       For augers, conveyors and grain
                                                                                         a venturi duster such as the                handling equipment, use a blow/vac
                                       It is always safer to check with the              Blovac BV-22.                               to apply a steady dust stream into
                                       grain buyer’s delivery standards                                                              accessible openings, coating all the
                                       for maximum residue level (MrL)                                                               internal surfaces as much as possible.
                                       allowances before using grain
                                                                                         The application rate is
                                       protectants.                                      calculated at two grams                     Continue until a dust stream emerges
                                                                                                                                     from the exit/discharge points of the
                                       An inert dust, such as diatomaceous               per square metre of surface                 equipment.
                                       earth (De) (amorphous silica),                    area treated. See table 1.
                                       commonly known as Dryacide®, can be                                                           For an average harvester the
                                       applied either as a dust or a slurry to           Although inert, breathing in excessive      recommended quantity of inert dust is
                                       treat storages and handling equipment             amounts of dust is not ideal, so use        about 2.5 kilograms.
                                       for residual control.                             a disposable dust mask and goggles
                                                                                         during application.                         Applying inert slurry
                                       Dryacide (De) acts by absorbing the
                                                                                                                                     With the right equipment,
                                       insect’s cuticle (protective exterior),           Silo application
                                                                                                                                     diatomaceous earth can also be
                                       causing death by desiccation (drying              Apply inert dust in silos starting at the   applied in a slurry form.
                                       out).                                             top (if safe) by coating the inside of
                                       If applied correctly with complete                the roof then working your way down
                                                                                                                                                                                     PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP

                                       coverage in a dry environment, inert              the silo walls, finishing by pointing the
                                       dusts such as Dryacide (De) can                   stream at the bottom of the silo.
                                       provide up to 12 months protection —
                                       killing most species of grain insects              Table 1 InerT dusT (de)
                                       and with no risk of building resistance.                   applIcaTIon guIde
                                                                                           STORAGE CAPACITY       DUST QUANTITY
                                       Applying inert dust                                        (t)                  (kg)
                                       Inert dust requires a moving air-stream                    20                   0.12
                                       to direct it onto the surface being                        56                   0.25
                                       treated.                                                  112                   0.42
                                       Throwing it into silos by hand will not                   224                    0.6
                                       achieve an even cover so will not be                      450                     1
                                       effective.                                                900                    1.7            Ready, aim, fire: A blow/vac or air venturi
                                                                                                                                       gun is the best applicator for inert dust.
                                                                                                1800                    2.6
A little more involved than applying

                                                                                                                PHoTo: CHrIS WArrICk, konDInIn GroUP
dust, the slurry needs to be mixed in a
                                                                                                                                                        POST-HARVEST cHEckliST
mixing tank then sprayed on through a                                                                                                                   4	 Sweep or blow out all empty grain
flat fan nozzle capable of at least five                                                                                                                   storages and equipment.
litres per minute. Mix the diatomaceous                                                                                                                 4	 Wash down with water on a
earth with water at a rate of 10-20 per                                                                                                                    warm, dry day.
cent to form a slurry and apply at six
grams per square metre (dry basis).                                                                                                                     4	 if not storing oilseeds or pulses,
                                                                                                                                                           apply structural treatment.
The aim is to apply the slurry to give
complete coverage but ensure it
                                                                                                                                                        4	 Monitor all stored grain
                                                                                                                                                           fortnightly during summer,
doesn’t run off the walls of storages
                                                                                                                                                           monthly during winter.
and equipment.

An inline filter with 1000 micron
(one millimetre) mesh and a
                                                                                                                                                       Monitoring storages
recirculation hose will help prevent
nozzle blockages and keep the slurry                                                                                                                   Grain kept for seed or stockfeed is a
mixed during application.                                                                                                                              common breeding ground for pests so
                                                                                                                                                       monitor all grain storages every two
Impeller pumps are most suitable —                                                                                                                     weeks during warmer periods of the
typically a fire-fighting pump with a                                                                                                                  year and at least monthly during cool
3.7 kilowatt (five horsepower) motor.                                                                                                                  periods of the year.
                                                                Preparation: Inert dust (DE) is available
Do not use positive displacement                                in more than one brand and may need                                                    Use grain insect sieves and traps to
pumps, such as gear or piston pumps,                            to be ordered in from your local rural                                                 monitor for pests in all stored grain
as they will block easily.                                      supplier.                                                                              and regularly check grain handling
                                                                                                                                                       equipment during the off season.
If applying a lot of slurry regularly, use
a designated, older pump as pumping                                                                                                                    Finding grain pests early allows them
slurry will reduce a pump’s working life.                    from spraying too close or too much
                                                                                                                                                       to be identified, treated appropriately
                                                                                                                                                       and removed before they spread and
Apply the slurry in the same order as
                                                             A solid pipe extension on the                                                             become a much larger problem, which
the dust — start at the top of the silo
                                                             application hose will enable a more                                                       may be more difficult to treat. See
or storage and work down the walls
                                                             even coating on hard-to-reach areas                                                       Fact sheet, “Stored grain pests —
applying an even coat, avoiding runs
                                                             such as silo walls.                                                                       identification” for more information.

Useful resources:
■	   GRDC Grain storage extension project                                                                                                                  
■	   Grain Trade Australia                                                                                                                                   

Grain storage specialists
■	   QLD and northern NSW, Philip Burrill                                                 (07) 4660 3620                                                 Email
■	   Southern NSW, VIC, SA and TAS, Peter Botta                                           0417 501 890                                                            Email
■	   WA, Chris Newman                                                                     0428 934 509                                                 Email

Grain biosecurity contacts
■	   Plant Health Australia                                                               (02) 6215 7700                                                     Email


Any recommendations, suggestions or opinions contained in this publication               or arising by reason of any person using or relying on the information in this
do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the Grains Research and              publication.
Development Corporation. No person should act on the basis of the contents of
                                                                                         CAUTION: RESEARCH ON UNREGISTERED PESTICIDE USE
this publication without first obtaining specific, independent professional advice.
The Corporation and contributors to this Fact Sheet may identify products by             Any research with unregistered pesticides or of unregistered products reported
proprietary or trade names to help readers identify particular types of products.        in this document does not constitute a recommendation for that particular use by
We do not endorse or recommend the products of any manufacturer referred to.             the authors or the authors’ organisations. All pesticide applications must accord
Other products may perform as well as or better than those specifically referred         with the currently registered label for that particular pesticide, crop, pest and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    produced by

to. The GRDC will not be liable for any loss, damage, cost or expense incurred           region.

Acknowledgements: Philip Burrill, DeeDI, Peter Botta, PCB Consulting, Chris newman, DAFWA.

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