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IWMP FOR OR TAMBO DM

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					      OR TAMBO DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN



                             FOREWORD




Prepare by USK Consulting                                   Page 1 of 160
INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN
   OR TAMBO DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY
          EASTERN CAPE
           SOUTH AFRICA
                November 2009



                  Prepared by




   USK Consulting Environmental & Waste
            Reg. No.: 2005/074010/23
                                DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

REPORT TITLE:                          OR TAMBO DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY IWMP 2009
DATE:                                  NOVEMBER 2009
REPORT STATUS:                         DRAFT REPORT
CLIENT:                                OR TAMBO DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY
PROJECT No:                            P0064

DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTION

 Copy
                Type             Recipient Name                            Organisation
  No.
1         PDF/Email          Stakeholders                Distribution List
2         Hard Copy          Mr. Siyakubonga Buso        OR Tambo District Municipality
3         Hard Copy          Mr. Qondile Paliso          DEDEA
4         Hard Copy          PSC                         All 7 Local Municipalities

Note: Electronic copies of this report are issued in portable document format and distributed via
one of the following media; CD-ROM, Email or Internet Secure Server. Copies held by USK
Consulting are stored on mass storage media archive. Further copies will be distributed on CD-
ROM.




                                                 ___________________________________
                                                                Mr. Steve Kitumba Kalule
                                                                        Project Manager




                                                                      Ms. Unathi Manyamalala
                                                                                     Director

                                 USK CONSULTING cc
                        ENVIRONMENTAL & WASTE SERVICES
                  23 Ray Craib Crescent, Beacon Bay, East London 5241
                                     Eastern Cape
                                 Republic of South Africa
                                   Cell: 072 256 3230
                                   Tel: 043 748 5545
                                   Fax: 043 748 1114
                           Email: kkalule@uskconsulting.com
                              Web: www.uskconsulting.com
                                       Disclaimer
         No part of this publication may be reproduced in any manner without full
                              acknowledgement of the source
      OR TAMBO DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN


                                  Acknowledgements

All who granted an interview as part of this Integrated Waste Management Plan study are
gratefully thanked. Your time and contributions are most valued. Without these it would
not have been possible to develop the thinking contained in this work.

The following persons and organisations are appreciated for their contributions:

Persons                           Organizations
Mr. Siyakubonga Buso              OR Tambo District Municipality
Mr Luyanda Mafumbu                OR Tambo District Municipality
Mr. Mkaba                         King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality
Mr. Merry                         King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality
Mr. Mitchell                      King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality
Mrs Cingo                         Port St John‘s Municipality
Mrs Rose                          Port St John‘s Municipality
Mr Tshitshi                       Ingquza Hill Municipality
Ms. Ndleleni                      Ntabankulu Municipality
Mr Mqeke                          Mhlontlo Municipality
Ms N. Xoko                        Mbizana Municipality
Mr. V. Madiba                     Mbizana Municipality
Mr Qondile Paliso                 Department of Economic Development & Environmental Affairs
Mr. S K Kalule                    USK Consulting (Env & Waste)
Mr. Denis Thompson                USK Consulting (Env & Waste)
Ms Arsema Andargatchew            USK Consulting (Env & Waste)
Mr. William Jordan                USK Consulting (Env & Waste)




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                                                    Table of contents

FOREWORD .................................................................................................................... 1
Acronyms ......................................................................................................................... 7
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 9
  1.1 Project Background .............................................................................................. 9
  1.2 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 9
  1.3 Extent of the Study Area....................................................................................... 9
2 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANNING ................................................ 11
  2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 11
  2.2 Objectives of an IWMP ....................................................................................... 12
  2.3 The IWMP Process ............................................................................................ 13
    2.3.1 Situation Analysis......................................................................................... 13
    2.3.2 Gap Analysis and Needs Assessment ......................................................... 17
    2.3.3 Goals, Objectives and Targets ..................................................................... 17
    2.3.4 Alternatives, Options and Scenarios ............................................................ 18
    2.3.5 Implementation Plan .................................................................................... 18
    2.3.6 Implementation Plan .................................................................................... 19
3 LEGAL FRAMEWORK .............................................................................................. 20
  3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 20
  3.2 National Laws ..................................................................................................... 20
    3.2.1 Policy Papers and Guidelines ...................................................................... 26
4 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA .................................................................... 30
  4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 30
    4.1.1 EC151 – Mbizana Local Municipality............................................................ 31
      4.1.1.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern ........................................... 31
      4.1.1.2 Gender Distribution................................................................................ 32
      4.1.1.3 Age Structure ........................................................................................ 32
      4.1.1.4 Household Income................................................................................. 33
      4.1.1.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services ................................... 33
    4.1.2 EC152 – Ntabankulu Local Municipality ....................................................... 33
      4.1.2.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern ........................................... 33
      4.1.2.2 Gender Distribution................................................................................ 34
      4.1.2.3 Age Structure ........................................................................................ 34
      4.1.2.4 Household Income................................................................................. 34
      4.1.2.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services ................................... 35
    4.1.3 EC153 – Ingquza Hill Local Municipality ...................................................... 35
      4.1.3.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern ........................................... 35
      4.1.3.2 Gender Distribution................................................................................ 36
      4.1.3.3 Age Structure ........................................................................................ 36
      4.1.3.4 Household Income................................................................................. 36
      4.1.3.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services ................................... 37
    4.1.4 EC154 – Port St John Local Municipality ..................................................... 37
      4.1.4.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern ........................................... 37
      4.1.4.2 Gender Distribution................................................................................ 38
      4.1.4.3 Age Structure ........................................................................................ 38
      4.1.4.4 Household Income................................................................................. 38
      4.1.4.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services ................................... 39
    4.1.5 EC155 – Nyandeni Local Municipality .......................................................... 39
      4.1.5.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern ........................................... 39
      4.1.5.2 Gender Distribution................................................................................ 40
      4.1.5.3 Age Structure ........................................................................................ 40
      4.1.5.4 Household Income................................................................................. 40
      4.1.5.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services ................................... 41
    4.1.6 EC156 – Mhlontlo Local Municipality............................................................ 41

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        4.1.6.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern ........................................... 41
        4.1.6.2 Gender Distribution................................................................................ 42
        4.1.6.3 Age Structure ........................................................................................ 42
        4.1.6.4 Household Income................................................................................. 42
        4.1.6.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services ................................... 42
      4.1.7 EC157 – King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality ................................... 42
        4.1.7.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern ........................................... 42
        4.1.7.2 Gender Distribution................................................................................ 43
        4.1.7.3 Age Structure ........................................................................................ 43
        4.1.7.4 Household Income................................................................................. 43
        4.1.7.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services ................................... 44
5    CURRENT STATE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT ...................................................... 45
    5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 45
      5.1.1 Definition of Waste ....................................................................................... 45
    5.2 Review of Previous IWMP .................................................................................. 47
      5.2.1 Information Gaps in Previous IWMP ............................................................ 48
    5.3 Waste Generation in OR Tambo DM .................................................................. 49
      5.3.1 Projection of Waste Generation ................................................................... 51
        5.3.1.1 Population growth trends ....................................................................... 51
        5.3.1.2 Projected increase in annual domestic waste generation....................... 52
        5.3.1.3 Projected increase in annual commercial waste generation................... 52
        5.3.1.4 Projected increase in annual combined waste generation ..................... 53
    5.4 Waste Management System in OR Tambo DM .................................................. 54
      5.4.1 EC151 – Mbizana Local Municipality............................................................ 55
      5.4.2 EC152 – Nyandeni Local Municipality .......................................................... 59
      5.4.3 EC153 – Ingquza Hill Local Municipality ...................................................... 63
      5.4.4 EC154 – Port St Johns Local Municipality .................................................... 69
      5.4.5 EC155 – Ntabankulu Local Municipality ....................................................... 73
      5.4.6 EC156 – Mhlontlo Local Municipality............................................................ 76
      5.4.7 EC152 – KSD Local Municipality .................................................................. 82
    5.5 Summary of Field Data ....................................................................................... 92
6    GAP ANALYSIS AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT ......................................................... 99
    6.1 Synopsis of Gaps and Needs ............................................................................. 99
7    GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS ................................................................. 107
    7.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 107
    7.2 Policy on Waste Management .......................................................................... 111
      7.2.1 Scope of Policy on Waste Management ..................................................... 111
      7.2.2 Purpose of Policy on Waste Management.................................................. 111
      7.2.3 Formalisation of the Policy ......................................................................... 112
8    ALTERNATIVES, OPTIONS AND SCENARIOS ..................................................... 113
    8.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 113
    8.2 Proposed Waste Management System for OR Tambo DM ............................... 113
    8.3 Waste Minimisation and Avoidance .................................................................. 115
    8.4 Waste Collection .............................................................................................. 116
      8.4.1 Waste Receptacles .................................................................................... 116
      8.4.2 Placement of Waste Receptacles .............................................................. 118
      8.4.3 Frequency of refuse collection ................................................................... 118
      8.4.4 Types of refuse collection Vehicles ............................................................ 118
      8.4.5 Other Factors Affecting waste collection and Transportation ...................... 119
        8.4.5.1 Road Networks .................................................................................... 119
        8.4.5.2 Distance to Waste Transfer Station/MRFs/Landfill ............................... 119
        8.4.5.3 Level of Service and Number of Collection Points ............................... 119
      8.4.6 Waste collection and Transfer System and level of service ........................ 120
      8.4.7 Waste Transfer Stations and Materials Recovery Facilities ........................ 121
        8.4.7.1 Rural Areas and Coastal Resorts ........................................................ 122

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      8.4.7.2 Small Towns ........................................................................................ 122
      8.4.7.3 Large Urban Centre (Mthatha) ............................................................. 122
      8.4.7.4 Mechanical Equipment for Waste Transfer Stations/MRFs .................. 124
  8.5 Recycling, Reuse and Composting ................................................................... 124
    8.5.1 Buy Back Centres ...................................................................................... 125
      8.5.1.1 Design specifications ........................................................................... 125
      8.5.1.2 Equipment ........................................................................................... 126
    8.5.2 Drop off Centres......................................................................................... 127
    8.5.3 Garden Refuse Transfer stations ............................................................... 127
    8.5.4 Materials Recovery Facilities...................................................................... 128
    8.5.5 Waste Exchange Platforms ........................................................................ 128
  8.6 Waste Treatment .............................................................................................. 128
    8.6.1 Waste Incineration ..................................................................................... 129
    8.6.2 Hydroclave and Autoclave Technologies ................................................... 129
  8.7 Waste Disposal ................................................................................................ 129
    8.7.1 Waste Disposal Infrastructure .................................................................... 129
    8.7.2 Landfill Operations Equipment ................................................................... 132
  8.8 Institutional Arrangements and Capacity .......................................................... 133
    8.8.1 By-Laws for Waste Management ............................................................... 133
    8.8.2 Norms and Standards for Waste Management .......................................... 134
    8.8.3 Registration of Waste Transporters ............................................................ 134
    8.8.4 Designation of Waste Management Officers .............................................. 135
    8.8.5 Organisational Structures ........................................................................... 136
  8.9 Awareness, Capacity Building and Training ...................................................... 136
    8.9.1 Formal Training and Continuous Professional Development ...................... 136
    8.9.2 Study Tours ............................................................................................... 137
    8.9.3 Conferences and Workshops ..................................................................... 137
  8.10 Waste Management Planning ......................................................................... 137
  8.11 Financial Mechanisms .................................................................................... 137
9 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN ...................................................................................... 138
  9.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 138
  9.2 Priority Projects for the IWMP........................................................................... 138
    9.2.1 Administrative and Institutional Capacity Projects ...................................... 138
    9.2.2 Waste Reduction, Recycling and Composting Projects .............................. 142
    9.2.3 Waste Collection and Transfer Projects ..................................................... 144
    9.2.4 Waste Disposal Projects ............................................................................ 145
    9.2.5 Integrated Waste Management Planning Projects...................................... 147
  9.3 Implementation Programme ............................................................................. 147
10 FINANCIAL PLAN ................................................................................................. 148
  10.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 148
  10.2 Objectives of the Financial Plan...................................................................... 148
  10.3 Development of a Financial Plan .................................................................... 148
  10.4 Sources of Funding for Waste Projects........................................................... 149
    10.4.1 Local Funding Sources ............................................................................ 149
    10.4.2 Government Funding Sources ................................................................. 150
      10.4.2.1 National Treasury Funding ................................................................ 150
    10.4.3 International Funding Sources ................................................................. 151
  10.5 Risks Associated with Funding ....................................................................... 152
11 APPROVAL, MONITORING AND REVIEW .......................................................... 153
  11.1 Approval of the IWMP..................................................................................... 153
  11.2 Monitoring and Evaluation of the IWMP .......................................................... 153
12 CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................... 155
References ................................................................................................................... 156

List of Tables

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Table 1: Waste Classification system as per NWMS ...................................................... 47
Table 2: Calculation of annual population growth rate..................................................... 49
Table 3: Generic waste generation rate to income group ................................................ 49
Table 4: Estimated Annual Domestic Waste Generation in tons in 2007 Based on Socio-
economic Data from Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007 ................................... 50
Table 5: Population increase over the period 2009 to 2015 ............................................ 51
Table 6: Annual domestic waste volumes in tones for each of the seven local
municipalities in the O.R. Tambo district ......................................................................... 52
Table 7: Annual business waste volumes in tones for each of the seven local
municipalities in the O.R. Tambo district ......................................................................... 53
Table 8: Annual combined waste volumes in tones for each of the seven local
municipalities in the O.R. Tambo district ......................................................................... 54
Table 9: Waste disposal Status Quo in Mbizana Local Municipality ................................ 58
Table 10: Waste disposal Status Quo in Nyandeni Local Municipality............................. 61
Table 11: Waste disposal Status Quo at Flagstaff Waste Site ........................................ 66
Table 12: Waste disposal Status Quo at Lusikisiki Waste Site ........................................ 68
Table 13: Waste disposal Status Quo in Port St John‘s Local Municipality ..................... 71
Table 14: Waste disposal Status Quo in Ntabankulu Local Municipality .......................... 75
Table 15: Waste disposal Status Quo at Tsolo Waste Site ............................................. 79
Table 16: Waste disposal Status Quo at Qumbu Waste Site .......................................... 81
Table 17: Recyclable Materials Data in Mqanduli Town .................................................. 86
Table 18: Waste disposal Status Quo at Mthatha Waste Site ......................................... 88
Table 19: Waste disposal Status Quo at Mqanduli Waste Site ........................................ 90
Table 20: Annual volumes (in tons) of waste generated as per the field survey .............. 92
Table 21: Comparison between the volumes reported as a result of the field survey and
the volumes as estimates using socio-economic data. .................................................... 93
Table 22: Number of domestic and business premises serviced in each local municipality
 ....................................................................................................................................... 94
Table 23: Number of staff members involved in waste management per local municipality
 ....................................................................................................................................... 95
Table 24: Collection frequency for local municipalities in O.R. Tambo district ................. 96
Table 25: Summary analysis of status of waste disposal sites ........................................ 97
Table 26: Gap Analysis and Recommended Actions for the waste management system
 ..................................................................................................................................... 100
Table 27: Objectives and Targets for Waste Management in the ORTDM .................... 107
Table 28 Alternatives and Options for Waste receptacles ............................................. 117
Table 29 Alternatives and Options for Refuse Collection Vehicles ................................ 118
Table 30 Alternatives for waste collection and transfer levels of service ....................... 120
Table 31: Alternatives for Location of MRFs and Waste Transfer Stations in OR Tambo
DM................................................................................................................................ 123
Table 32 Options for Mechanical Equipment for Transfer Stations and MRFs .............. 124
Table 33 Alternatives and Options for waste disposal ................................................... 130
Table 34 Options for Level of Service for Waste Management in OR Tambo DM ......... 134

List of Figures
Figure 1 Locality Map of OR Tambo District Municipality ................................................ 10
Figure 2 Waste Management Hierarchy with high emphasis on waste reduction and least
emphasis on waste disposal by landfill ........................................................................... 11
Figure 3 Cradle to Grave cycle of Waste ........................................................................ 16
Figure 4 Locality Map of Mbizana Municipality showing Population Distribution and road
networks. ........................................................................................................................ 32
Figure 5 Locality Map of Ntabankulu Local Municipality showing population distribution
and road networks .......................................................................................................... 34
Figure 6 Locality Map of Ingquza Hill Local Municipality showing population distribution
and road networks .......................................................................................................... 36

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Figure 7 Locality Map of Port St John Local Municipality showing population distribution
and road networks .......................................................................................................... 38
Figure 8 Locality Map of Nyandeni Local Municipality showing population distribution and
road networks ................................................................................................................. 40
Figure 9 Locality Map of Mhlontlo Local Municipality showing population distribution and
road networks ................................................................................................................. 41
Figure 10: Locality and Population Distribution of King Sabata Dalindyebo Local
Municipality ..................................................................................................................... 43
Figure 11: Population growth trends for the period 2009 to 2015 .................................... 51
Figure 12: Trend showing the estimated increase of domestic waste volumes during the
period 2009 to 2015 ........................................................................................................ 52
Figure 13: Trend showing the estimated increase of business waste volumes during the
period 2009 to 2015 ........................................................................................................ 53
Figure 14: Trend showing the estimated increase of combined waste volumes during the
period 2009 to 2015 ........................................................................................................ 54
Figure 15: Flow diagram for collection and analysis of data for status quo of waste
management practices ................................................................................................. 55
Figure 16: Refuse collection trucks in Mbizana Municiaplity ............................................ 57
Figure 17: Informal recycling at in Business area and a dumpsite in Bizana ................... 57
Figure 20: 1 x 10 cubic m high sided Isuzu Truck (2008 model) used for refuse collection
in Lebode........................................................................................................................ 60
Figure 23: New waste disposal site under construction at Libode ................................... 63
Figure 24: Refuse collection truck for Flagstaff - 10 cubic m Cage Truck - Mercedes Benz
Artego ............................................................................................................................. 64
Figure 27: Lack of access control at the Flagstaff waste disposal site............................. 67
Figure 28: Poor access control at Lusikisiki waste disposal site ...................................... 69
Figure 30: Informal Recycling at the Dumpsite in Port St Johns ...................................... 71
Figure 31: Waste disposal site at Port St Johns .............................................................. 73
Figure 32: Refuse storage and collection equipment in Ntabankulu ................................ 74
Figure 33: Broken fence at Ntabankulu waste disposal site ............................................ 76
Figure 34: Animals and burning of refuse at Ntabankulu waste disposal site .................. 76
Figure 35: Isuzu Compactor Vehicle (shared with Qumbu) and curb side bins................ 77
Figure 36: Abandoned recycling centre in Qumbu .......................................................... 79
Figure 40: Poor management of Leachate at Qumbu waste disposal site ....................... 82
Figure 41: Waste collection fleet in operation in Mthatha town ........................................ 84
Figure 44: Collection of Recyclable Materials at Mqanduli Waste Disposal Site .............. 87
Figure 45: People and animals scavengomg on Mthatha waste disposal site ................. 89
Figure 46: Leachate running out of the disposal site into water course below the site ..... 90
Figure 49: Poor Storm water Drainage and Leachate management at Mqanduli waste
disposal site .................................................................................................................... 92
Figure 50: Pie chart representation of domestic and business premises serviced by the
local municipalities .......................................................................................................... 95
Figure 51 Waste Management System for OR Tambo DM ........................................... 114
Figure 52: Map showing major routes connecting feeder Towns in OR Tambo District . 123
Figure 53 Layout Plan of a Typical Buy Back Centre .................................................... 126
Figure 54 Example of A simple Garden Refuse Transfer Station .................................. 128
Figure 55 Waste Management Officers Forum for OR Tambo District .......................... 135
Figure 56 IWMP Approval Process ............................................................................... 153




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Acronyms
The following abbreviations and acronyms commonly used in waste management
planning:

AIA            Access to Information Act (Act 2 Of 2000)
AM             Asset Management
AMP            Asset Management Plan
BATNEEC        Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Cost
BEE            Black Economic Empowerment
BOT            Build Operate and Transfer
BOOT           Build Operate Own Transfer
BPEO           Best Practical Environmental Option
CAPCO          Chief Air Pollution Officer
CO             Carbon Monoxide
CO2            Carbon Dioxide
DEAT           Department Of Environmental Affairs And Tourism
DFA            Development Facilitation Act (Act 67 Of 1995)
DHS            Dry Heat Sterilisation
DNHPD          Department Of National Health and Population Development
DWAF           Department Of Water Affairs and Forestry
ECA            Environmental Conservation Act (Act 73 of 1989
EIA            Environmental Impact Assessment
EMS            Environmental Management System
EPA            United States Environmental Protection Agency
ETD            Electro-Thermal Deactivation
G              General Waste
GAMAP          Generally Accepted Municipal Accounting Practices
GCB            General Communal Landfill
GSB            General Small Landfill
GMB            General Medium Landfill
GLB            General Large Landfill
H              Hazardous Waste
H2O            Water
Hcl            Hydrogen Chloride
HCRW           Health Care Risk Waste
HDPE           High-Density Polyethylene
H:H            Hazardous Landfill (Hazard Rating 1-4)
H:H            Hazardous Landfill (Hazard Rating 3-4)
IAP‗s          Interested And Affected Parties
IDP            Integrated Development Plan
IEM            Integrated Environmental Management
IP&WM          Integrated Pollution and Waste Management
IPC            Integrated Pollution Control
IRD            Initial Rate of Deposition
IWMP           Integrated Waste Management Plan
IWMSA          Institute of Waste Management Of Southern Africa
KPI            Key Performance Indicators




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LDPE           Low Density Polyethylene
LFG            Landfill Gas
MEC            Member of The Executive Council
MFMA           Municipal Finance Management Act (Act 56 Of 2003)
MRD            Maximum Rate of Deposition
MRF            Materials Recovery Facility
MSA            Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 Of 2000)
MSW            Municipal Solid Waste
N2             Nitrogen Gas
NEMA           National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 Of 1998)
NEMWA          National Environmental Management Waste Act (59 Of 2008)
NIMBY          Not In My Back Yard
NIMTOO         Not In My Term Of Office
Nox            Nitrogen Oxides
NWMS           National Waste Management Strategy
NWMSI          National Waste Management Strategy Implementation
ONP            Old Newspaper
PCB            Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PET            Polyethylene Teraphthalate
PP             Polypropylene
PPP            Public Private Partnership
PTO            Power Take Off
PVC            Polyvinyl Chloride
RCV            Refuse Collection Vehicle
REL            Rear End Loading Collection Vehicles
SANS           South African National Standards
SA             South Africa
SAWIS          South African Waste Information System
SO2            Sulphur Dioxide
TDF            Tyre-Derived Fuel
UNEP           United Nations Environment Programme
USEPA          United States Environment Protection Agency
VOCS           Volatile Organic Compounds
WHO            World Health Organisation
WM             Waste Management
WMA            Waste Minimisation Assessment Or Audit
WMP            Waste Minimisation Program




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1 Introduction
1.1 Project Background

O.R Tambo District Municipality (from here on ‗the Municipality‗) has identified the
need to review and update its existing Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP).
By so doing O.R Tambo recognizes that an Integrated Waste Management Plan is a
key tool with very specific and significant implications on the goal of promoting
sustainable development and service delivery with regards to waste management
with the District, and one that will inform the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) and
other strategic Plans for the District and the local Municipality within O.R Tambo
District Municipality. Given the above, O.R Tambo District Municipality sought to
appoint suitably qualified consultants in the waste management field to assist in the
development of the IWMP, and hence USK Consulting (Environmental & Waste) cc
was appointed to render this service.

1.2 Introduction

The Integrated Waste Management Plan document will be comprised of the following
Suit of documents:

    1)   Part A Introduction, Situation Analysis Report
    2)   Part B Gap Analysis and Needs Assessment Report
    3)   Part C Development Options and Alternatives Assessment Report
    4)   Part D Implementation Plan and Financial Plan
    5)   Part E Monitoring and Review

1.3 Extent of the Study Area
The Scope and extent of this IWMP is to cover the areas that fall under the
jurisdiction of the O.R Tambo District Municipality (ORTDM), which is a Category C
municipality in terms of the Municipal Structures Act, 1998. O.R Tambo District
Municipality (ORTDM) encompasses seven Local (Category B) Municipalities
namely:

    1)   King Sabata Dalidyebo Municipality,
    2)   Nyandeni Local Municipality,
    3)   Ngquza Hill Local Municipality,
    4)   Mbizana Local Municipality,
    5)   Mhlontlo Local Municipality,
    6)   Ntabankulu Local Municipality, and
    7)   Port St Johns Municipality

O.R Tambo is located in North Eastern Part of the Eastern Cape, in the former
Transkei Region as shown in the locality map (figure 1 below)..




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Figure 1 Locality Map of OR Tambo District Municipality


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2 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANNING
2.1 Introduction
Integrated Waste Management Planning can be viewed as a holistic approach of
managing and optimising waste management practices to ensure that the
implementation of such practices yields environmental, social, health and economic
results that are acceptable to the public and all relevant spheres of government.

In the past few decades waste management planning has moved on from being
purely based on a remove and dump system, to more sophisticated Integrated Waste
Management Planning systems based on waste hierarchies. The waste management
hierarchy adopted by the South African Waste Management strategy (NWMS) offers
a wide range of options for waste management ranging including:
     Waste prevention and minimization;
     Generation of waste (generation areas and waste stream analysis);
     Separation of waste;
     Waste collection, transfer and transport;
     Waste treatment;
     Reduce, re-use and recycling of waste; and
     End disposal of waste at landfill as a last resort.




Figure 2 Waste Management Hierarchy with high emphasis on waste reduction and
least emphasis on waste disposal by landfill


Integrated Waste Management also requires extensive public and key stakeholder
consultation. Such consultation is required in order to facilitate informed decision
making and to build capacity and understanding of the principles of Integrated Waste




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Management Planning. The success of a District IWMP, in terms of implementation
thereof by the relevant local authorities, lies in allowing the implementing agents
(Local Municipalities) to input directly into the planning process, such that the IWMP
is practical and applicable to all parties concerned.

2.2 Objectives of an IWMP
The main objective of an IWMP is to integrate waste management within, and where
possible, with services of adjacent municipalities, in order to:

        To identify and plan future waste management needs and requirements;
        Minimize waste management costs by optimizing the efficiency of the waste
         management system, in terms of usage of infrastructure, labor and
         equipment; and
        Minimize adverse social and environmental impacts related to waste
         management and thereby improve the quality of life for all citizens.

Section (2) of the recently promulgated National Environmental Management: Waste
Act, 2008 (Act No. 59 of 2008)[NEMWA], clearly states that, ―The Department
(DEAT) and the provincial departments responsible for waste management must
prepare integrated waste management plans‖. Furthermore, section 4 (a) thereof
states that, ―Each municipality must submit its integrated waste management plan to
the MEC for approval and must include the approved integrated waste management
plan in its Integrated Development Plan contemplated in Chapter 5 of the Municipal
Systems Act‖.

The primary objectives of NEMWA are to protect health, well-being and the
environment by providing reasonable measures for the following:

        Minimizing the consumption of natural resources;
        Avoiding and minimizing the generation of waste;
        Reducing, re-using, recycling and recovering waste;
        Treating and safely disposing of waste as a last resort;
        Preventing pollution and ecological degradation;
        Securing ecologically sustainable development while promoting justifiable
         economic and social development;
        Promoting and ensuring the effective delivery of waste services;
        Remediating land where contamination presents or may present a significant
         risk of harm to health or the environment; and
        Achieving integrated waste management reporting and planning.

In line with achieving compliance with the NEMWA and in giving effect to the primary
objectives of NEMWA set out above, the OR Tambo DM have embarked on a
process of developing an Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP) for the
District.

The main objective of the IWMP for the OR Tambo DM is thus, to give effect to the
objectives of the NEMWA (as outlined above) and other relevant legislation; whilst
also ensuring that sustainable, cost effective, environmentally/socially/economically




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feasible and practical solutions to the ―waste management problem‖ are developed,
implemented and monitored.

2.3 The IWMP Process
The compilation of an Integrated Waste Management Plan, to be efficient and
effective, requires that a set of prescribed steps be undertaken. The completion of
each step in the prescribed process will influence the actions taken at, and
completion of, each subsequent step in the process. This IWMP is formulated along
the National Guidelines published by the Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism (DEAT) for the compilation of IWMPs and guidance given in the National
Environmental Management Waste Act, 2008. The integrated waste management
planning process incorporates all the major stages of the environmental planning
process, namely:

        Analysing the current situation and legal framework;
        Making projections of future requirements;
        Setting objectives;
        Developing projects and programmes to reach the set objectives;
        Implementation of plan (activities, projects and programmes);
        Draft Report-Status Quo Analysis;
        Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of the programmes, plans implemented;
        Periodic review of the plan to ensure continuous improvement.

Given the above the process for the development of the Integrated Waste
Management Plan for OR Tambo DM shall follow the following steps:

        Situation Analysis
        Gap Analysis and Needs Assessment
        Development of Objectives, Targets and Policies
        Development of Programmes, Projects and Activities
        Implementation of Projects and Activities
        Monitoring and Evaluation (Auditing of IWMP)
        Review of IWMP (after a 5yr period).

2.3.1 Situation Analysis
This phase includes an evaluation of areas serviced and un-serviced with particular
emphasis on the following:

        Current waste management services rendered;
        Current and future waste generation volumes;
        Efficiency with which current waste management services are rendered;
        Cost-effectiveness of current services rendered;
        Social and environmental acceptability of current services; and
        Compliance of current services with legislation; etc.

Evaluation of un-serviced areas will include the following (where information
availability allows):




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        Analysis of the volume of waste generated in these areas;
        Capabilities and capacity of the municipality required to render waste
         management services (e.g. personnel, vehicles, types of bins, etc)
        Current price charges/ tariffs for waste collection;
        Disposal facility used;
        Database of all service providers within the area; and
        The duration of existing waste collection contract with complex management;
         etc.

Using the recommended detail for a status quo /situation analysis as per the National
Guidelines for Integrated Waste Management Planning, we propose the following:

        Information Search and Review: The review all existing and available
         documentation that relate or may influence waste management at all levels
         within the Local Municipalities within the OR Tambo DM. Such documents will
         include the Status Quo and Situation Analysis reports that were completed by
         the Municipality and DEAT, any relevant previous studies done for the
         Municipality, the Integrated Development Plan (IDP), Spatial Development
         Framework (SDF), the current Integrated Waste Policy and other information
         and data may exist at National and Provincial Waste Manifest and Waste
         Information System (WIS) and the Environmental and Waste Management
         Departments of all local municipalities and the OR Tambo DM. A meticulous
         information search on previous studies will have to be done; the aim of this
         will be to avoid duplicating work done and wasting resources.

        Investigation and Documentation: Once all the relevant documents and
         sources have been thoroughly combed for useful information, a gap analysis
         is conducted on the gathered information, using fact sheets, and scope of
         recommended Status Quo analysis as per national guidelines. We will assess
         the information ensure that the relevant detail is adequately and currently
         addressed. We recognise that in developing a proper integrated waste
         management plan the ―status quo‖ must be well defined.
        A comprehensive status quo / situation analysis report is then be compiled
         and at the minimum must include the following:

                  The Scope of the Plan: A description of the extent of the study area
                   including its geographical, biophysical and social description, as well
                   as the demographics and socio-economic characteristics of the
                   planning area. The Scope of the plan also describes the horizon of the
                   plan in terms of time and space. In summary all issues that may affect
                   integrated waste management in the municipality must be interfaced.

                  Legal register: This involves the collating and updating all the
                   relevant the register with Government Policies; National Acts, and
                   Regulations; Guidelines; Provincial Ordinances; Municipal By-Laws;
                   and any other potentially useful piece of legal document and
                   procedure that may affect the process of developing and implementing
                   the IWMP.




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                  Waste Audit / Waste Stream Survey: This involves the review and
                   update of existing information on the composition and quantities of the
                   waste stream in the serviced and un-serviced areas of the
                   municipality. This is defined based on geographical/demographical
                   and socio-economic profiles within the Municipality. During the review
                   of the available information, and data, we will assess the accuracy and
                   precision of the techniques used to collect the data. Where necessary,
                   fieldwork to collect new updated data will be undertaken. The specific
                   key aspects during this exercise includes:

                       Establishing the current quantities and characteristics of waste
                        generated, collected, recycled, treated and disposed
                        throughout the municipality. This step is crucial for developing
                        an appropriate IWMP and for future planning.
                      Identifying and characterizing the waste stream;
                      Making Projections: This involves making projections of future
                        waste trends with respect to quantities, qualities and
                        characteristics, for the expected planning period. These
                        projections will be done using the acceptable methods and will
                        be correlated with other methods to check accuracy.
                      Mapping the Planning Area: This involves the construction of a
                        map showing all the waste generation areas, waste collection
                        points, transportation routes, transfer, recycling, treatment, and
                        disposal facilities within the municipality.
        Existing Waste Management Systems, Structures and Practices: This
         involves a review and documentation of existing systems, structures and
         policies for waste management, and the specifically the following:

                  Determining the Waste management hierarchy within the municipality;
                  In line with the principles of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste
                   Management (September 2001) which aims at reduction of waste
                   generation, investigating and describing the strategies, systems and
                   practices for waste prevention within the municipality;
                  Investigating and describing the strategies, systems and practices for
                   waste minimization within the municipality including awareness,
                   education, training, cleaner production, etc.;
                  Investigating and describing the collection methods and transportation
                   systems for waste in the municipality;
                  Investigating and describing any waste recycling strategies, systems,
                   structures, facilities within the municipality;
                  Investigating and fully describing any waste treatment strategies,
                   systems, structures and facilities within the municipality;
                  Investigating and fully describing the waste disposal systems for all
                   types of waste generated in the municipality, existing functional and
                   closed non functional facilities.




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             Existing Socio-economic and Financial Situation for Waste
              Management: this involves investigating and fully describing the following
              detail:

                           Obtaining information on the current population of the areas (serviced
                            and un-serviced), growth estimates, densities and the population‗s
                            socio-economic categories and income levels;
                           The financing mechanisms and viability of the current waste
                            management systems, strategies, structures and facilities.
                           The cost of the existing waste management systems, strategies,
                            structures and facilities as per the current waste management
                            hierarchy in the municipality.

             Existing Institutional Arrangements and Organisational Structures: This
              involves investigating and fully describing the current institutional
              arrangements and organisational structures for Waste Management in the
              municipality. In doing this, the following detail is illustrated and described:

                           Organograms that describe the current and future structures for waste
                            management within the municipality;
                           Description of roles and responsibilities for waste management within
                            the municipality; and
                           Lines of communication and co-operative governance, between the
                            municipality, the district municipality, provincial government and other
                            organs of state.

The approach to the Status Quo Analysis must look to address the holistic pathways
of all waste streams within the District Municipality, taking a ―cradle to the grave‖
approach as shown in the figure 3 below.

     CRADLE                                                                                                          GRAVE
    (The birth)                                                                                                    (The burial)

                             WASTE                          WASTE TRANS-                      PRETREAT-
                             GENERATORS:                    PORTERS:                          MENT:
                             - Mining                       - Hauler                          - Incineration
                             - Industrial                   - Pipelines /                     - Chemical
                             - Commercial        Formal       conveyors                         treatment
                             - Power                        - Exporters                       - Blending /
                               generation                                                       dilution
                             - Importers                                                      - Co-disposal
                             - Agriculture                                                    - Sewage
                             - Waste water                                                      sludge

  RESOURCE:                                                                                                        FINAL
                                                                                                                   DISPOSAL:
  - Product                                  Formal                                                                - Sea outfalls
  - By-product                                                                                                     - Landfills
  - Hazardous                                                                                                      - Other
    substance
                                                            DIFFUSION:
                             - Consumers
                                                            - Litter                                               FINAL
                             - Residents         Informal                         Recapture
                                                                                               REMEDIATOR
                                                            - Seepage                                              DISPOSAL:
                             - Informal
                               sector                       - All emissions                                        - Groundwater
                                                                                                                   - Rivers / sea
                                                                                  Loss
                                                                                                                   - Soil
                                                                                                                   - Atmosphere


   Product conception         Generation stage              Transportation and                Pretreatment stage     Disposal stage
         stage                                              dissemination stage



       3 Cradle : The waste cycle - Cradle grave
FigureFigure 5.1.3 (a) to Grave cycle oftoWaste




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2.3.2 Gap Analysis and Needs Assessment
Utilizing the information gained from the Status Quo study, a detailed gap analysis
and needs assessment of the IWMP must be undertaken. The gap analysis and
needs assessment will then evaluate the existing waste management strategies for
serviced and un-serviced areas, systems, policies, structures and practices, to
identify deficiencies, needs, and requirements. This includes the following tasks:

        An estimation on the quantities of future general waste generation;
        Determining Future waste collection needs;
        Determining Waste transportation and transfer needs;
        Waste characterization exercise to determine future potential for recycling
         and composting, and initiative for waste minimization;
        Determining Airspace requirements;
        Identification of possible future disposal sites; and
        Determining Institutional and organizational needs.

The following strategies are may be employed in order to complete this phase:

        The ―desired end state‖ of these issues must be defined and described;
        The identified issues, needs, deficiencies, and requirements must be
         prioritized
        and ranked;
        The gap analysis and needs assessment must be undertaken for the steps of
         the waste management hierarchy;
        A SWOT (―Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats‖) analysis must
         be used to analyze, quantify and qualify each step of the hierarchy;
        The Fact sheets methods, best practice may be used to assess needs; and
        Consultation and input with the PSC, Authorities, Stakeholders and Interested
         and Affected Parties is critical to the process. This may be done by means of
         presenting a working draft to the PSC and interactions and contributions
         around this draft.

2.3.3 Goals, Objectives and Targets
Taking cognisance of the findings and conclusions of status quo analysis and the
gap analysis and needs assessment, the next step is determine and set strategic
goals and objectives for the short term (1 – 5 years), and long term (5 – 10 years) to
address the gaps and needs identified. These goals and objectives must be in line
with the strategic objectives at each level of the waste management hierarchy as set
out in the National Waste Management Strategy and Action Plans. Specifically long
term and short term goals, objectives and targets must be determined for the
following:

        Waste Prevention, Minimization and Recycling;
        Waste collection and transportation;
        Waste treatment;
        Waste storage;
        Waste Disposal;




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        Waste Awareness campaigns, training, and capacity building of municipal
         official and ward and portfolio councillors responsible for waste management;
        Defining institutional requirements and organisational structures at various
         levels of waste management;
        Compliance monitoring and enforcement; and
        Defining the relevant policy and legislative framework for achieving the goals
         and objectives set. This should include national, provincial and local
         government policies and legislation.

2.3.4 Alternatives, Options and Scenarios
Taking cognisance of the goals and objectives set, the next step is to determine and
assess the available alternatives scenarios and options to Municipalities for
achieving these goals and objectives. This involves:

        Identifying and researching the broad range of practical options that may be
        applied to resolving the key waste management service issues, incorporating
         ―brainstorming‖ between all parties;
        Developing options tables in preparation of the evaluation process,
         incorporating multiple connotations for resolving each issue;
        Undertaking coarse evaluation of options/alternatives on the basis of logistics
        and practicality;
        Evaluating the remaining options/alternatives on the basis of advantages and
         disadvantages associated with environmental and social constraints and/or
         financial opportunities; and
        Brainstorming or workshopping the preliminary selection of options among all
         the role-players in order to confirm the preferred options.

This step also involves the development of a model waste management system that
is applicable to the study area and one which shall form the overall framework for
achieving the objectives of the integrated waste management planning process.

2.3.5 Implementation Plan
This step involves the development of an implementation plan to achieve the set
objectives, through implementing one or more of the alternatives set for each of the
components of the waste management system. The implementation plan includes:

A suit of Priority Projects which are meant to achieve the set goals and objectives,
through the various alternatives and options and these projects mainly focus on:

        Institutional Capacity
             Institutional and organisational structures for achieving the goals and
                 objectives of the IWMP.
             Human resources requirements necessary for achieving the goals and
                 objectives of the IWMP.
             Strategies and programmes for awareness raising, training, and skills
                 transfer for achieving the goals and objectives of the IWMP.




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                Other support structures necessary to achieve the goals and
                 objectives of the IWMP.
        “Waste management plans” - this will constitute specific projects
         specifically addressing each tier of the waste management hierarchy. At the
         minimum this plan will contain:
             A description of strategies and programmes for achieving the goals
                 and objectives set for each tier of the waste management hierarchy;
             A description of target projects for achieving the goals and objectives
                 set for each tier of the waste management hierarchy;
             Human resources and capacity requirements necessary for achieving
                 the goals and objectives of the IWMP.
        A Financial plan: this will address of specific financial needs and
         mechanisms for funding of the identified projects.
        An Implementation programme: this plan will set out the targets,
         programmes, milestones, budgets and a monitoring programme for
         implementation and continuous improvement of the IWMP.

2.3.6 Implementation Plan
This aspect of the IWMP basically deals with setting a framework for:
    Development of a monitoring and review systems for the Waste Management
       programmes.
    Providing training to top management implementation of the waste
       management plan and procedures and monitoring, evaluation and review
       systems.
    Framework for compilation of monitoring and evaluation report with
       recommendations for improvement;
    A Framework for the approval process of the IWMP.




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3 LEGAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 Introduction
This section outlines the relevant legislation pertaining to waste management that
need to be considered in parallel to the development of an integrated waste
management plan.

3.2 National Laws
THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL CONSTITUION ACT 108 OF 1996

The South African Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) is the supreme law of the land. All
law, including environmental waste management planning must comply with the
Constitution.

The Constitution states that the people of South Africa have the right to an
environment that is not detrimental to human health, and imposes a duty on the state
to promulgate legislation and to implement policies to ensure that this right is upheld.
All departments of state or administration in the national, provincial or local levels of
government have similar obligations. The principles of co governance are also set
out in the Constitution and the roles and responsibilities of the three levels of
government are defined.

According to the Constitution, responsibility for waste management functions is to be
devolved to the lowest possible level of government. Local government therefore is
assigned the responsibility for refuse removal, refuse dumps and solid waste
disposal. Provincial government has the exclusive responsibility to ensure that local
government carries out these functions effectively.

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ACT 107 OF 1998

The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) provides for co-operative
governance by establishing principles and procedures for decision-makers on
matters affecting the environment. An important function of the Act is to serve as an
enabling Act for the promulgation of legislation to effectively address integrated
environmental management. Some of the principles in the Act are Accountability;
Affordability; Cradle to Grave Management; Equity; Integration; Open Information;
Polluter Pays; Subsidiary; Waste Avoidance and Minimization; Co-operative
Governance; Sustainable Development; and Environmental Protection and Justice.

Chapter 2 makes provision for the establishment of the Committee for Environmental
Co-ordination (CEC). The objective of the committee is to promote the integration
and co-ordination of environmental functions by the relevant organs of state and in
particular to promote the achievement of the purpose and objectives of
environmental implementation plans and environmental management plans.




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Chapter 3 requires that national government departments that have waste
management responsibilities and every province must develop environmental
implementation plans (EIP5) every four years and an environmental management
plan (EMP). Local government is obliged to exercise its responsibilities in
accordance with these plans and to report annually within four months from the end
of its financial year on implementation of the environmental management plan or
environmental implementation plan. Provincial government must ensure that
municipalities adhere to the relevant environmental implementation and management
plans within its province, as well as the principles in the preparation of any policy,
programmer or plan, including the establishment of Integrated Development Plans
(IDP5) and Land Development Objectives (LDO5).

Chapter 7 imposes a duty of care in respect of pollution and environmental
degradation. Any person who has caused significant pollution or degradation of the
environment must take steps to stop or minimize the pollution. Where an incident
occurs that is potentially detrimental to the environment, the person who is
responsible for the incident or the employer must, within 14 days of the incident,
report to the Director-General, provincial head of department and municipality. The
relevant authority may specify measures to address the problem and remediate the
area within 7 days. The Acts also attach consequences for breaching the duty of
care, namely that government authorities are empowered to issue directions and to
remediate the situation and recover costs where the directions are not complied with.

Chapter 8 provides that the Minister and every MEC and municipality may enter into
an environmental management co-operation agreement with any person or
community for the purpose of promoting compliance with the principals laid down in
NEMA. Environmental Cooperation Agreements may contain an undertaking by the
person or community concerned to improve the standards laid down by law for the
protection of the environment and a set of measurable targets and a timeframe for
fulfilling the undertaking.
Chapter 9 allows the Minister to make model By-Laws aimed at establishing
measures for the management of environmental impacts of any development within
the jurisdiction of the municipality, which may be adopted by the municipality as By-
Laws. Any municipality may request the Director-General to assist it with its
preparation of By-Laws on matters affecting the environment and the Director-
General may not unreasonably refuse such a request. The Director-General may
institute programmes to assist municipalities with the preparation of By-Laws for the
purposes of implementing this Act.

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE ACT 58 OF 2008

The National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No 59 of 2008) asserts the
roles of both national and provincial government in waste management. National
governments competence to legislate is established in line with section 44 of the
Constitution on the grounds of the need to maintain essential national standards,
establish uniform norms and standards, and to promote and give effect to the right to
an environment that is not harmful to health and well-being. The Act establishes a
national framework for waste planning, regulation and management with roles for all
spheres of government, specifically:




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    i)   National government is tasked with establishing a national waste
         management strategy, including norms, standards and targets. National
         norms and standards may cover all aspects of the waste value chain, from
         planning to service delivery. Of particular importance from an
         intergovernmental perspective are the powers of national government with
         respect to norms and standards for:
              The regionalization of waste management services;
              Tariffs for waste services provided by municipalities, including
                 providing for tariffs to be imposed to provide for waste management
                 infrastructure or facilities and ensuring that funds obtained from the
                 provision of waste services are used for the delivery of these services.
    ii) Provincial governments are tasked with the implementation of the national
         waste management strategy and national norms and standards, and may set
         additional, complementary provincial norms and standards. The Waste Act
         notes that these norms and standards ―must amongst other things facilitate
         and advance regionalization of waste management services.
    iii) Local governments are required to ensure the universal and sustainable
         delivery of services, subject to national and provincial regulation. In particular,
         they are required to maintain separate financial statements, including a
         balance sheet of the services provided.

Regionalization of Management Systems
The regionalization of waste management services is presumption is not specifically
limited to any aspect of the waste value chain, though it would seem to apply most
directly to transportation and disposal activities.

Integrated Waste Management Planning
The Waste Act also places considerable emphasis on the development of an
integrated waste planning system, through the development of interlocking Integrated
Waste Management Plans (IWMPs) by all spheres of government and specified
waste generators. This planning system is the primary tool for cooperative
governance within the sector. While the requirement for these plans is new for
national and provincial governments, and for waste generators, this is not the case
for local governments who had been able to voluntary prepare such plans within their
Integrated Development Plans (IDPs). IWMPs are mandatory for national and
provincial government and specified waste generators, but the situation for local
government is made a little more ambiguous by the Constitutional assignment of
concurrent powers to provincial and local governments in this respect, with only
limited authority assigned to national government.

Norms, Standard, Tariffs and Financial Management Systems
Other focal areas of the Waste Act include provisions for the development of norms
and standards, tariffs and financial management systems. These powers all largely
repeat existing national or provincial powers that are provided for in other legislation.
The key change is that the Minister of Environmental Affairs now assumes these
powers in terms of the Act, although concurrently with other authorised Ministers
notably in Local Government and Finance portfolios.

Listed Activities and Waste Licensing




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Further to the above, a list of waste management activities that have, or are likely to
have, a detrimental effect on the environment was Published in GG 32188 Notice
Number 409 dated 30 April 2009 in terms of the National Environmental
Management: Waste Management Act (Act 59/ of 2008). These activities have been
divided into two categories A and B. Category A activities are equivalent to those that
require a basic assessment process, while Category B activities those that require
Scoping/Environmental Impact Assessment as stipulated in the environmental impact
assessment regulations made under section 24(5) of the National Environmental
Management Act, 1998 (Act No. 107 of 1998).

ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION ACT, 73 OF 1989

Although significant sections of the Environment Conservation Act (ECA) have been
repealed, by NEMA and acts promulgated in terms of NEMA, particularly those
dealing with waste management and environmental impact assessment relation to
Waste Management this Act, it is still an important piece of legislation as a reference
guide of where we come from and where we are going as far as waste management
is concerned in South Africa. The Environment Conservation Act 73 of 1989 made
specific provision for the regulation of waste management under Section 20 of the
Act, as stated these will be repealed by NEMWA from 1st July 2009.

Noteworthy issues
    The administration of waste management was transferred from the
      Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to the Department of Environmental
      Affairs and Tourism, through the ECA Amendment Act (Act 50 of 2003). It is
      worth noting that permits issued in terms of Section 20 of ECA, remain valid
      subject to Section 81(2),(3) of NEMWA. Amendments and updates to this act
      in reference to Waste Management are listed below:
    National Environment Laws Amendment Act, 2008 (Act No. 44 of 2008) as
      published in Government Gazette No. 31685 dated 5 December 2008.
    New Waste Tyre Regulations, 2009, published in Government Gazette No.
      31901 dated 13 February 2009.
    The Plastic Bag Regulations 2002 have been repealed and replaced by the
      Plastic Carrier Bags and Plastic Flat Bags Regulations as gazetted in 24739
      dated 9 April, 2003.
    The Regulations regarding activities identified under section 21(1) have been
      amended as published in GG 23401 dated 10 May, 2002, and this same
      Gazette carried the notice amending the list of activities identified as having a
      substantial detrimental effect on the environment.
    The amendment of section 1 by the deletion of the definitions of ―disposal
      site‖ and‖ waste‖.
    The repeal of sections 19, 19A. 20, 24. 24A, 24B and 24C.

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AIR QUALITY ACT, 39 OF 2004

The objective of the Air Quality Act as stated in the Act is to ‗protect the environment
by providing reasonable measures for the protection and enhancement of the quality
of air, the prevention of air pollution and ecological degradation; and securing
ecologically sustainable development while promoting justifiable economic and social




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development; and generally to give effect to section 24(b) of the Constitution in order
to enhance the quality of ambient air for the sake of securing an environment that is
not harmful to the health and well-being of people.‘

This Act will reform air quality governance by establishing national norms and
standards, different from those in the previous Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act.
It will provide a regulatory framework for air quality management planning and
reporting which will be enforced by a number of inspectors who can do spot checks
on various organizations. The issuing of regulatory instruments such as licenses will
be used for air pollution control in South Africa and compliance and enforcement with
these licenses will be strengthened through the training of many more inspectors.

MUNICIPAL DEMARCATION ACT 27 OF 1998

The Municipal Demarcation Act 27 of 1998 provides criteria and procedures for the
determination of municipal boundaries by an independent authority. In terms of the
Act, the Municipal Demarcation Board is established to determine municipal
boundaries.

Section 24 provides that when demarcating a municipal boundary, the Board must
aim to establish an area that would enable the municipality to fulfill its Constitutional
obligations, including the provision of services in an equitable and sustainable
manner, the promotion of social and economic development and the promotion of a
safe and healthy environment. The tax base must also be as inclusive as possible of
users of municipal services in the municipality.

ORGANISED LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT 52 OF 1997

The Organized Local Government Act 52 of 1997 provides for the recognition of
national and provincial organizations representing the different categories of
municipalities and determines various procedures concerning local government,
including procedures by which local government may consult with national and
provincial government.

MUNICIPAL STRUCTURES ACT 117 OF 1998

The main object of the Municipal Structures Act 117 of 1998 is to provide for the
establishment of municipalities in accordance with the requirements relating to
categories and types of municipality and to provide for an appropriate division of
functions and powers between categories of municipality.

This act forms part of the legislation that is aimed at the transformation of local
government into a more financially sustainable and performance orientated sphere of
government. The Act is aimed at creating the permanent structures mandated by the
Constitution, which will replace the transitional structures created by the Local
Government Transition Act. Municipalities are categorized either as A, B or C
depending on the level of development.




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Chapter 5 sets out the functions and powers of the municipalities in accordance with
the Constitution.

MUNICIPAL SYSTEMS ACT NO. 32 OF 2000

The Municipal Systems Act describes the core principles, mechanisms, and
processes that are necessary to enable municipalities to move progressively towards
the social and economic upliftment of communities and ensure access to services
that are affordable to all. Its focus is primarily on the internal systems and
administration of the municipality.

The Act enables the process of decentralization of functions through assigning
powers of general competence to local Government. Municipal By-Laws are
regulated to achieve harmony with national and provincial legislation.

As service authorities, municipalities remain responsible for the effective delivery of
services and must provide an appropriate policy and regulatory framework. This can
be achieved through the most appropriate service provider, ranging from internal
departmental delivery to corporate and joint ventures to private sector delivery
options.

Performance management systems are to be developed to measure and evaluate
performance in priority areas, which are to be reported annually to citizens and other
spheres of government.

The process to be followed in planning, drafting and adopting the Integrated
Development Plan is set out.

THE DEVELOPMENT FACILITATION ACT 67 OF 1995

The Development Facilitation Act 67 of 1995 sets out a planning and land
development system, which ensures that national, provincial, and local government
policies are implemented.

Section 28 describes the requirements for Land Development Objectives, which
must be developed by each local authority. One of the objectives of Land
Development Objectives is to create a new system of planning that encourages
sustained utilization of the environment, particularly with regard to the environmental
consequences of developments.

Municipalities are encouraged to co-operate in order to develop the capacity of each
municipality to exercise its powers and duties and manage its affairs.

THE PHYSICAL PLANNING ACT 125 OF 1991

The objective of the Physical Planning Act 125 of 1991 is to provide for the division of
the country into regions and to promote regional development. Policy plans consist of
broad guidelines for the future physical development of the area and restrictions are




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placed on the use of land in the area to which the plan relates. Local authorities are
required to develop urban structure plans for their areas of jurisdiction.

NATIONAL WATER ACT 36 OF 1998

The National Water Act contains a number of provisions that impact on waste
management, including the disposing of waste in a manner, which detrimentally
impacts on a water resource and the discharge of waste into a water resource. The
Act allows the Minister to make regulations for: Prescribing waste standards, which
specify the quantity, quality and temperature of waste that may be discharged or
deposited into or allowed to enter a water resource.

Prescribe the outcome or effect, which must be achieved through management
practices for the treatment of waste before it is discharged or deposited into or
allowed to enter a water resource. Requiring that waste discharged or deposited into
or allowed to enter a water resource be monitored and analyzed according to
prescribed mechanisms.

HEALTH ACT 63 OF 1977

The Health Act 63 of 1977 provides measures for the promotion of health, for the
rendering of health services and defines duties of certain authorities which render
health services in the Republic

Section 20 sets out the duties and powers of local authorities. It provides that every
local government is obliged to take measures to maintain its district in a clean and
hygienic condition and to prevent the occurrence of any nuisance, unhygienic or
offensive condition or any other condition, which could be of danger to the health of
any person. A ―nuisance‖ includes any accumulation of refuse or other matter that is
offensive or is injurious or dangerous to health. The local government is obliged to
abate the nuisance or remedy the condition and to prevent the pollution of any water
intended for the use of the inhabitants of its district.

Draft regulations for the control of environmental conditions constituting a danger to
health or a nuisance were published in GNR21 of 14 January 2000. In terms of the
proposed regulations, registration is required for: concerns that to carry out a
scheduled trade, including waste incineration, waste (including Health Care Risk
Waste) disposal sites and waste collecting, sorting, treating or processing sites.

3.2.1 Policy Papers and Guidelines
WHITE PAPER ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT NOTICE 749 OF 1998

The White Paper on Environmental Management was published in 1998. This policy
sets out government‗s objectives in relation to environmental management, how it
intends to achieve its objectives, and to guide government agencies and organs of
state in developing strategies to meet their objectives.




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The policy document is an overarching policy framework that refers to all government
institutions and to all activities that impact on the environment. The policy states that
government will allocate functions to the institutions and spheres of government that
can most effectively achieve the objectives of sustainable development and
integrated environmental management. This would include the allocation if certain
functions to the municipal sphere of government. Where appropriate, provincial and
local government are to develop their own legislation and implementation strategies
to address their specific needs and conditions within the framework of the policy.

WHITE PAPER ON INTEGRATED POLLUTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
FOR SOUTH AFRICA, NOTICE 227 OF 2000

The White Paper of Integrated Pollution and Waste Management was published in
March 2000 and represents formal government policy regarding integrated pollution
and waste management. Integrated pollution and waste management is defined as a
holistic and integrated system and process of management aimed at pollution
prevention and minimization at source, managing the impact of pollution and waste
on the receiving environment and remediating damaged environments. Waste
management is to be implemented in a holistic and integrated manner and extend
over the entire waste cycle from cradle-to-grave and will include the generation,
storage, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.

The overarching goal reflected in the policy is integrated pollution and waste
management, with the intention being to move away from fragmented and
uncoordinated pollution control and waste management towards integrated pollution
and waste management as well as waste minimization. Within this framework of the
overarching goal, the following strategic goals apply:

    1. Effective institutional framework and legislation;
    2. Pollution and waste minimization, impact management and remediation;
    3. Holistic and integrated planning —
the intention is to develop mechanisms to ensure that integrated pollution and waste
management considerations are ntegrated into the development of government
policies, strategies and programmes as well as all spatial and economic development
planning processes and in all economic activity. The strategic mechanisms include
the following:

        The incorporation of integrated environmental management principles and
         methodologies in spatial development planning as it relates to pollution and
         waste management;
        Making timeous and appropriate provision for adequate waste disposal
         facilities;
        Developing management instruments and mechanisms for the integration of
         pollution and waste management concerns in development planning and land
         allocation;
        Developing appropriate and agreed indicators to measure performance for
         inclusion in EIPs and EMPs as provided for in the National Environmental
         Management Act;




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        Participation and partnerships in integrated pollution and waste management
         governance; and
        Empowerment and education in integrated pollution and waste management;
         Information management; and International co-operation.

DWAF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR LANDFILL, 2ND EDITION, 1998

The Minimum Requirements provide applicable waste management standards or
specifications that must be met, as well as providing a point of departure against
which environmentally acceptable waste disposal practices can be assessed. The
objectives of setting Minimum Requirements are to:

        Prevent water pollution and to ensure sustained fitness for use of South
         Africa‗s water resources;
        Attain and maintain minimum waste management standards in order to
         protect human health and the environment form the possible harmful effects
         caused by the handling, treatment, storage and disposal of waste;
        Effectively administer and provide a systematic and nationally uniform
         approach to the waste disposal process;
        Endeavour to make South African waste management practices
         internationally acceptable; and
        Before a waste disposal site permit is issued, adherence to the Minimum
         Requirement conditions will be required from the permit applicant The
         Minimum Requirements promote the hierarchical approach to waste
         management, as well as a holistic approach to the environment.

NATIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY AND ACTION PLANS

The overall objective of this strategy is to reduce the generation of waste and the
environmental impact of all forms of waste and thereby ensure that the
socioeconomic development of South Africa, the health of the people and the quality
of its environmental resources are no longer adversely affected by uncontrolled and
uncoordinated waste management.

The internationally accepted waste hierarchical approach was adopted of waste
prevention/minimization, recycle/reuse, treatment and finally disposal. The strategy
outlines the functions and responsibilities of the three levels of government and
where possible, firm plans and targets are specified. During the development of the
strategy a number of priority strategic initiatives were identified which were
categorized into short-term (by the year 2004), medium-term (by the year 2008) and
long-term (by the year 2012) initiatives.
Action plans have been developed for the short-term initiatives for integrated waste
management planning, a waste information system, waste minimization and
recycling, general waste collection, waste treatment and disposal, and capacity
building, education, awareness and communication. A logical framework analysis
approach was adopted to develop the Action Plans that analyzed the problems,
stakeholders, and the risks to successful implementation followed by the
development of outputs, activities, inputs and assumptions, as well as a proposed
allocation of functions, roles, and responsibilities of the three levels of government.




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The roles and responsibilities in terms of the NWMS for local government include:

        Integrated waste management planning: Local government will be
         responsible for the compilation of general waste management plans for
         submission to provincial government; and
        Waste information system: Local government will be responsible for data
         collection.




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4 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA
4.1 Introduction
This section provides a more detailed analysis of the study area in terms of its
demarcations, demographics and socio-economic profiles. Data is taken from the
Demarcation Board website (www.demarcation.org.za), Census 2001 and
Community Survey 2007. The following issues in terms of demographics and socio-
economics are highlighted as they have implications in terms of municipal solid
waste management:

        Population size
        Population density and distribution
        Gender distribution
        Age distribution
        Household size and income
        Personal income
        Refuse removal

The district municipality DC15 is found in the eastern portion of the Eastern Cape.
The area is entirely located within the former Transkei. It consists of 7 Local
Municipalities. The geographical area of the province is 15946.8396 square
kilometres. O.R. Tambo District municipality comprises of the following local
Municipalities:

    1.   EC151 Mbizana Local Municipality
    2.   EC152 Nyandeni Local Municipality
    3.   EC 153 Ngquza Hill Local Municipality
    4.   EC 154 Port St Johns Local Municipality
    5.   EC 155 Ntabankulu Local Municipality
    6.   EC 156 Mhlontlo Local Municipality
    7.   EC 157 King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality

The municipalities need to ensure that all communities have access to some form of
solid waste disposal. In order to do this the municipalities need to develop a solid
waste management plan and strategy. This plan must indicate the schedule of refuse
removal and identify where dumping could occur. It needs to be supplemented by a
policy on waste management, by-laws which impose sanctions on those who litter
and dump in non-demarcated areas and an environmental management strategy
which addresses the hazards of indiscriminate waste disposal. The municipalities
also need to empower communities by providing them with information on the health
and environmental risks associated with poor standards of waste disposal and the
benefits of recycling and waste reduction. Recycling and waste management would
contribute in turning garbage into income whilst contributing in environmental
sustainability and management.




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4.1.1 EC151 – Mbizana Local Municipality
Mbizana Local Municipality is located in the North Eastern part of the Eastern Cape,
bordering KwaZulu Natal. The municipality of EC151 consists of 25 wards. The
geographical area of the municipality is 2416.7480 square kilometres. The seat of the
municipality is Bizana, which is located along the road, R61, 55 km north of the
Umtamvuna River and bordered on the north by Umzimvubu and Ntabankulu
Municipalities.

4.1.1.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern

Mbizana Municipality has a population of 279,739.00 (Statistics SA, 2007) and this
accounts for 15% of the total population of OR Tambo District Municipality.
Population distribution is generally low in the rural areas, while Bizana Town, which
is the only Town (urban area) within the municipality and a few other communities,
located along the R61 Road towards the Coast and the Wild Coast Sun
Hotel/Casino, show high - medium population density.

The IDP of Mbizana Municipality identifies that the implication of this settlement
pattern is that development needs to be weighed heavily in favour of rural areas
while taking into account that the urban area of Bizana and the R61 is most populous
and will be a service node for development in the municipal area.

The IDP Also recognizes that the spread of settlements and villages does not
necessarily correlate with population density. In terms of the above maps it shows
that there are a lot of settlements in wards 02, 25, 24, 16 with very low population
while population seems to correlate with the major and feeder roads with wards 05,
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Figure 4 Locality Map of Mbizana Municipality showing Population Distribution and
road networks.
The IDP of Mbizana Municipality identifies the challenge concentrating major
development and services funding in areas which are highly populous while ensuring
adequate access to basic service and needs for part of the population who may not
be influenced to follow currently population trends but elect remaining in their areas.

Notwithstanding above, the proposed and now approved N-2 Toll Road which will
pass through Mbizana Municipality (wards 16, 24 and 25) might yet create new or
redefine the spatial distribution, settlement patterns, and population migration
patterns within the Municipality. The implications of this will in turn mean that the
municipality will be faced with new challenges and opportunities for service delivery,
and this goes for Waste Management Services which is one of the integral services
that local municipalities are mandated to provide.

4.1.1.2 Gender Distribution
In line with national and provincial demographics, gender distribution in all wards in
Mbizana Municipality is estimated to be 56% and 44% females and males
respectively. This has implications in terms of planning and a gender-sensitive
approach to development and projects must be adopted.

4.1.1.3 Age Structure
Like many municipalities in the Eastern Cape, Mbizana predominantly has a young
population; the Demarcation Board municipal profile data estimates that about 58.5%
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years which can be considered as an economically active group. The percentage of
the population above 65 years is 7%.

4.1.1.4 Household Income
According to the statistics from the Community Survey 2007 there are 48 408
households in the Municipal area, and the average household size is 5 persons per
household. Household income levels in the area are generally low. 77% of
households have a monthly income of less than R800 per month. According to
Census 2001 more than 90% of the population earns less than R20000 per annum.

4.1.1.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services
According to Community Survey 2007, 98% of households are not serviced by a
waste removal service. That being either a municipal service or a private company.
27,4% have no waste removal and 70.6% either dispose of their waste themselves or
less than 1% make use of a communal dump. The majority of households resort to
environmentally insensitive and illegal mechanisms for disposing of waste which in
turn pose health risks to the community.

4.1.2 EC152 – Ntabankulu Local Municipality
Ntabankulu Local Municipality (EC152) consists of 15 wards. The name of the
municipality is Ntabankulu Local Municipality and the geographical area of the
municipality is 1455.7030 square kilometres. The seat of the municipality is
Ntabankulu.

4.1.2.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern
Ntabankulu Local Municipality has a population of 141358 (Community survey, 2007)
and this accounts for 7.6% of the total population of OR Tambo District Municipality.
Population distribution is generally low in the rural areas while Ntabankulu, and a few
surrounding settlements shows high to medium population density. See population
distribution in Ntabankulu Local Municipality below.




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Figure 5 Locality Map of Ntabankulu Local Municipality showing population
distribution and road networks

4.1.2.2 Gender Distribution
In line with national and provincial demographics, gender distribution in all wards in
Ntabankulu Local Municipality is estimated to be 55% and 45% females and males
respectively. This has implications in terms of planning and a gender-sensitive
approach to development and projects must be adopted.

4.1.2.3 Age Structure
Like many municipalities in the Eastern Cape, Ntabankulu Local Municipality
predominantly has a young population; the Demarcation Board municipal profile data
estimates that about 58.4% is aged 19 years or younger; a third of the population,
35.2%, is between 20 and 64 years which can be considered as an economically
active group. The percentage of the population above 65 years is 6.4%.

4.1.2.4 Household Income
According to the statistics from the Community Survey 2007 there are 27930
households in the Municipal area, and the average household size is 5 persons per
household. Household income levels in the area are generally low. 78% of
households have a monthly income of less than R800 per month. According to
Census 2001 more than 90% of the population earns less than R20000 per annum.




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4.1.2.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services
According to Community Survey 2007, 98.8% of households are not serviced by a
waste removal service. That being either a municipal service or a private company.
22% have no waste removal and 76.8% either dispose of their waste themselves or
less than 1% makes use of a communal dump. The majority of households resort to
environmentally insensitive and illegal mechanisms for disposing of waste which in
turn pose health risks to the community.

4.1.3 EC153 – Ingquza Hill Local Municipality
Ingquza Hill Local Municipality (EC153) consists of 27 wards. The new name of the
municipality is Ngquza Hill Local Municipality and the geographical area of the
municipality is 2476.8310 square kilometres. Ngquza Hill is located to the north west
of the OR Tambo District and was established through the amalgamation of the
former Lusikisiki and Flagstaff Transitional Local Councils and the surrounding rural
areas, which fell under the Transitional Representative Councils. The seat of the
Municipality is in Flagstaff

4.1.3.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern
Ingquza Hill Local Municipality has an estimated total population of 279 795 people
according to the Community Survey 2007. The population density was calculated at
234 people per square kilometre, which is very high in terms of the fact that the
majority of the population is rural. The municipal area is predominantly rural in nature
and the majority of the population resides in the rural areas. See population
distribution in Ngquza Local Municipality in the figure below.




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Figure 6 Locality Map of Ingquza Hill Local Municipality showing population
distribution and road networks

4.1.3.2 Gender Distribution
In line with national and provincial demographics, gender distribution in Ngquza Hill
Local Municipality is estimated to be 55% and 45% females and males respectively.
This has implications in terms of planning and a gender-sensitive approach to
development and projects must be adopted.

4.1.3.3 Age Structure
Ngquza Hill Local Municipality likewise has a predominantly young population; the
Demarcation Board municipal profile data estimates that about 59% is aged 19 years
or younger; a third of the population, 35.4%, is between 20 and 64 years which can
be considered as an economically active group. The percentage of the population
above 65 years is 5.6%.

4.1.3.4 Household Income
According to the statistics from the Community Survey 2007 there are 48701
households in the Municipal area, and the average household size is 5 persons per
household. Household income levels in the area are generally low. 81% of
households have a monthly income of less than R800 per month. According to
Census 2001 more than 90% of the population earns less than R20000 per annum.




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4.1.3.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services
According to Community Survey 2007, 95,4% of households are not serviced by a
waste removal service. That being either a municipal service or a private company.
33.9% have no waste removal and 61.5% dispose of the waste themselves and less
than 1% makes use of a communal dump. The majority of households resort to
environmentally insensitive and illegal mechanisms for disposing of waste which in
turn pose health risks to the community. Littering is prevalent throughout the entire
municipality as is the discarding of dangerous forms of waste such as scrap metal.
There is no municipal beach cleaning service in the coastal area.

4.1.4 EC154 – Port St John Local Municipality
Port St Johns Local municipality (EC154) consists of 16 wards. The name of the
municipality is Port St Johns Local Municipality and the geographical area of the
municipality is 1291.1750 square kilometers. Settlements are around the regional
access routes. There are approximately 20 dwelling units/ha and a number of
densely populated low income areas and informal settlements in the Mbutane areas.
The seat of the municipality is in Port St Johns Town.

4.1.4.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern
The Landscape and topography in Port St Johns Local Municipality is a major
influencing factor to the settlement patterns and population distributions. Port St
Johns Local Municipality is generally sparsely populated. Port St Johns town is the
only urban area, while the rest of the communities are rural type and scattered
around. Port St Johns Local Municipality has an estimated total population of 165084
people according to the Community Survey 2007. See population distribution in Port
St Johns Local Municipality below.




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Figure 7 Locality Map of Port St John Local Municipality showing population
distribution and road networks

4.1.4.2 Gender Distribution
Port St Johns Local Municipality is also in line with national and provincial
demographics in terms of gender distribution. The gender distribution is estimated to
be 55% and 45% females and males respectively. This has implications in terms of
planning and a gender-sensitive approach to development and projects must be
adopted.

4.1.4.3 Age Structure
Port St Johns Local Municipality likewise has a predominantly young population; the
Demarcation Board municipal profile data estimates that about 60.5% is aged 19
years or younger; a third of the population, 33.9%, is between 20 and 64 years which
can be considered as an economically active group. The percentage of the
population above 65 years is 5.6%.

4.1.4.4 Household Income
According to the statistics from the Community Survey 2007 there are 30951
households in the Port St Johns Municipal area, and the average household size is 5
persons per household. Household income levels in the area are generally low.
79.5% of households have a monthly income of less than R800 per month.
According to Census 2001 more than 90% of the population earns less than R20000
per annum.




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4.1.4.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services
According to Community Survey 2007, 97.9% of households are not serviced by a
waste removal service. That being either a municipal service or a private company.
23.5% have no waste removal and 74.4% dispose of the waste themselves, or less
than 1% make use of a communal dump. The majority of households resort to
environmentally insensitive and illegal mechanisms for disposing of waste which in
turn pose health risks to the community. The IDP recognizes that the current Landfill
Site in Port St Johns has a very short life span, particularly because there is no
recycling and waste minimization strategies in place.

4.1.5 EC155 – Nyandeni Local Municipality
Nyandeni Local Municipality (EC155) consists of 26 wards. The name of the
municipality is Nyandeni Local Municipality and the geographical area of the
municipality is 2473.9940 square kilometres.

4.1.5.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern
Nyandeni Local Municipality is generally sparsely populated with a population density
of 127 persons per square kilometer, despite it having the 2nd largest population of
the 7 Municipalities in the O.R Tambo district. Nyandeni Local Municipality has an
estimated total population of 314273 people according to the Community Survey
2007. See population distribution in Nyandeni Local Municipality below.




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Figure 8 Locality Map of Nyandeni Local Municipality showing population distribution
and road networks

4.1.5.2 Gender Distribution
Nyandeni Local Municipality is also in line with national and provincial demographics
in terms of gender distribution. The gender distribution is estimated to be 54% and
46% females and males respectively. This has implications in terms of planning and
a gender-sensitive approach to development and projects must be adopted.

4.1.5.3 Age Structure
Nyandeni Local Municipality also has a predominantly young population; the
Demarcation Board municipal profile data estimates that about 59.2% is aged 19
years or younger; a third of the population, 33.6%, is between 20 and 64 years which
can be considered as an economically active group. The percentage of the
population above 65 years is 7.2%.

4.1.5.4 Household Income
According to the statistics from the Community Survey 2007 there are 56851
households in the Nyandeni Municipal area, and the average household size is 5
persons per household. Household income levels in the area are generally low. 74%
of households have a monthly income of less than R800 per month. According to
Census 2001 more than 90% of the population earns less than R20000 per annum.




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4.1.5.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services
According to Community Survey 2007, 98.1% of households are not serviced by a
waste removal service. That being either a municipal service or a private company.
34.4% have no waste removal and 63.7% either dispose of the waste themselves, or
less than 1% make use of a communal dump. The majority of households resort to
environmentally insensitive and illegal mechanisms for disposing of waste which in
turn pose health risks to the community.

4.1.6 EC156 – Mhlontlo Local Municipality
Mhontlo Local Municipality (EC156) consists of 21 wards. The name of the
municipality is Mhlontlo Local Municipality and the geographical area of the
municipality is 2826.1660 square kilometres.

4.1.6.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern
Mhlontlo Local Municipality is sparsely populated with a population density of 83
persons per square kilometer. Mhlontlo Local Municipality has an estimated total
population of 237138 people according to the Community Survey 2007. See
population distribution in Mhlontlo Local Municipality below.




Figure 9 Locality Map of Mhlontlo Local Municipality showing population distribution
and road networks




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4.1.6.2 Gender Distribution
Mhlontlo Local Municipality is in line with national and provincial demographics in
terms of gender distribution. The gender distribution is estimated to be 54% and 46%
females and males respectively. This has implications in terms of planning and a
gender-sensitive approach to development and projects must be adopted.

4.1.6.3 Age Structure
Mhlontlo Local Municipality also has a predominantly young population; the
Demarcation Board municipal profile data estimates that about 57.6% is aged 19
years or younger; a third of the population, 35.6%, is between 20 and 64 years which
can be considered as an economically active group. The percentage of the
population above 65 years is 6.8%.

4.1.6.4 Household Income
According to the statistics from the Community Survey 2007 there are 49861
households in the Mhlontlo Municipal area, and the average household size is 5
persons per household. Household income levels in the area are generally low. 75%
of households have a monthly income of less than R800 per month. According to
Census 2001 more than 90% of the population earns less than R20000 per annum.

4.1.6.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services
According to Community Survey 2007, 94.7% of households are not serviced by a
waste removal service. That being either a municipal service or a private company.
This municipality seems to be slightly better serviced in terms of waste removal
compared with most of the other municipalities. 16.9% have no waste disposal and
77.8% dispose of the waste themselves, of these 3.4% make use of a communal
dump. The majority of households resort to environmentally insensitive and illegal
mechanisms for disposing of waste which in turn pose health risks to the community.

4.1.7 EC157 – King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality
King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality (EC157) consists of 32 wards. The name
of the municipality is King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality and the
geographical area of the municipality is 3027.3330 square kilometers. The seat of the
municipality is in Umthatha.

4.1.7.1 Population Density and Distribution Pattern
King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality has a population density of 147 persons
per square kilometer. King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality has an estimated
total population of 444830 people according to the Community Survey 2007. See
population distribution in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality below.




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Figure 10: Locality and Population Distribution of King Sabata Dalindyebo Local
Municipality

4.1.7.2 Gender Distribution
King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality is in line with national and provincial
demographics in terms of gender distribution. The gender distribution is estimated to
be 55% and 45% females and males respectively. This has implications in terms of
planning and a gender-sensitive approach to development and projects must be
adopted.

4.1.7.3 Age Structure
King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality also has a predominantly young
population; the Demarcation Board municipal profile data estimates that about 54.8%
is aged 19 years or younger; a bit more than a third of the population, 40%, is
between 20 and 64 years which can be considered as an economically active group.
The percentage of the population above 65 years is 5.2%.

4.1.7.4 Household Income
According to the statistics from the Community Survey 2007 there are 93383
households in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipal area, and the average
household size is 5 persons per household. Household income levels in the area are
also generally low. 65% of households have a monthly income of less than R800 per
month. According to Census 2001 more than 90% of the population earns less than
R20000 per annum.




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4.1.7.5 Reported Level of Waste Management Services
According to Community Survey 2007, 74.2% of households are not serviced by a
waste removal service. That being either a municipal service or a private company.
This is substancially better serviced in terms of waste removal compared with all of
the other municipalities. 18.7% have no waste disposal and 55.5% dispose of the
waste themselves, of these less than 1% make use of a communal dump. The
majority of households resort to environmentally insensitive and illegal mechanisms
for disposing of waste, which in turn pose health risks to the community.




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5 CURRENT STATE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction
This section encompasses a detailed assessment of the of the current status of solid
waste management in the OR Tambo District Municipality. Development of
Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP) demands the assessment of current
solid waste management systems apart from their quantification and characterization
which would further be useful for:

        Analysing the availability, enforcement and impact of regulations and
         economic tools;
        Assessing the institutional framework, resources and jurisdictions for current
         institutions;
        Analysing the efficiency and effectiveness of collection, treatment and
         disposal system including technologies;
        Understanding the role of different stakeholders at different levels of solid
         waste management chain; and
        Identifying the challenges and opportunities to improve waste management

The status quo analysis of waste management within OR Tambo District Municipality
was based on the following:

        Review of the first generation IWMP for OR Tambo District Municipality and
         the suit of IMWP starter documents for the local municipalities which was
         prepared as part of the OR Tambo DM IWMP in 2003.
        Estimation of current and future waste generation using socio-economic data.
        Field and site Inspections of waste generation areas and waste management
         facilities within all the seven local municipalities within OR Tambo DM;
        Field assessment and new data capturing;
        Mapping analysis and literature reviews; and
        Interview and interrogation of key municipal personnel in the waste
         management departments as well as other key role players and stakeholders.

5.1.1 Definition of Waste
The NEMA Waste Management Act defines waste as:
      ―any substance whether solid, liquid or gaseous or any combination thereof
      which is
          emitted, discharged or deposited in the environment in such volume,
             constituency or manner as to cause an alteration to the environment,
          a surplus substance or which is discarded, rejected, unwanted or
             abandoned,
          reused, recycled, reprocessed, recovered or purified by a separate
             operation from that which produced the substance or which may be or
             is intended to be re-used, recycled, reprocessed, recovered or
             purified, or
          identified as waste by prescribed by regulation




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Further to the above, waste the South African waste classification systems divides
waste types into two broad types including General waste and Hazardous waste.
These two are then further broken down into 3 classes derived from the waste
source types namely:

        Domestic Waste
        Commercial
        Industrial

General Waste includes all urban waste that is produced within the jurisdiction of
local authorities. It comprises rubble, garden, domestic, commercial and general
industrial waste. It may also contain small quantities of hazardous substances
dispersed within it such as batteries, insecticides and weed-killers discarded on
domestic and commercial premises. General waste may be disposed of in a
permitted landfill and may be equated to what is commonly referred to as domestic
solid waste (DSW) and municipal solid waste (MSW) i.e. that which is normally
managed by a local authority.

Hazardous Waste is regarded as all undesirable or superfluous by-products,
emissions, residues or remainders of any process of activity, whether gaseous, liquid
or solid, or a combination of these (Environmental Conservation Act (No 73 of 1989).
Hazardous waste was defined, for purposes of this investigation, as any waste,
which poses a threat to human health or to the environment through risk of one or
more of the following:

        Explosions or fires;
        Chemical instability, reactions or corrosion;
        Infections;
        Acute toxicity;
        Chronic toxicity, or cancers, mutations or birth defects;
        Eco-toxicity, or damage to natural systems; and
        Accumulation in biological food webs, or persistence in the environment and
         hence requiring special attention.

Special attention referred to above would mean that the waste could not, in its
present form be released into the environment, or disposed in a sewer, or disposed
of at an ordinary municipal refuse landfill site. Hazardous waste has been classified
according to its source and to its Hazardous Rating.

High Hazard Waste requires the strictest control an urgent attention. Contents are
deemed to
be significantly toxic and persist in the environment and accumulate in biological
tissues.

Moderately Hazardous Waste possesses highly dangerous characteristics and
contains significant concentrations of highly/moderately toxic constituents.




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Low Hazardous Waste has dangerous characteristics or with                     significant
concentrations of leachable / biologically available toxic constituents.

Potentially Hazardous Waste has characteristics of concern or with toxic
constituents, which are either in a form that will remain insoluble/ unavailable or are
in insignificant concentrations.

Medical Waste is classified as a hazardous waste under the infection category (Class
6). Medical Waste comprises of any waste generated during diagnosis, treatment or
immunization of humans or animals and comprises of two main categories:
     Anatomical waste is waste containing human or animal tissues such as body
       parts, used sanitary towels and used bandages and dressings; and
     Sharps are items that could cause cuts and needlestick injuries including
     items such as scalpels, hypodermic needles and other blades.




         Table 1: Waste Classification system as per NWMS

5.2 Review of Previous IWMP
A first generation Integrated Waste Management Plan for the O.R. Tambo District
Municipality was prepared in 2004 by a joint venture between Ikamva Consulting
Agency and Arcus Gibb. As part of the IWMP separate IWMPs were developed for




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each of the seven local municipalities. The aim of the reports was to present an
Integrated Waste Management Framework Plan for all seven local municipalities in
the O. R. Tambo District. The IWMPs were to provide the Local Municipalities with
an instrument with which to manage and prevent waste and pollution respectively,
with particular emphasis on sorting, separation, reduction, recycling, re-uses, as well
as the cradle to grave approach, thereby achieving high levels of sustainability with
waste management.

The following the key issues were identified in Part A, the Status Quo reports. The
key issues identified were the same in all of the seven local municipalities:

        Lack of institutional capacity (human resources, management, and budget);
        Absence of minimisation and recycling programmes;
        Poor disposal practices (landfill operations).

In Part B, the reports looked the future waste streams and proposed strategic and
detailed plans for sustainable waste management. Part C dealt with implementation
of the plans and encompassed instruments, projects, programs, communication and
monitoring and review.

5.2.1 Information Gaps in Previous IWMP
The reports seemed to highlight the major issues being faced in the municipalities in
terms of waste management and the proposed plans and implementation followed
sound waste management principals. However important gaps were identified in
terms of the status quo and the assessment and estimation of future waste volumes.
The major gaps are summarized as follows:

        The volume of waste reported in these documents seems to underestimate
         the actual volumes being generated.
        The Status Quo did not seem to take into account the total amount of waste
         being generated verses the volumes of waste that are being collected and
         disposed of by the municipality.
        The report did not take into account the number of households, the average
         size of the households and the average income of the population. These
         factors are important for estimation of waste generation volumes.
        A comprehensive assessment of the resources (staff and equipment)
         available for waste management was not reported.
        A comprehensive assessment of the waste disposal sites was not reported.
        Future waste generation volumes were underestimated
        The socio-economic data was based only on Census 2001. Community
         Survey 2007 was not available at the time the report was completed.

These gaps in terms of the Status Quo and data collection will have a direct impact
on integrated waste management planning. The goal of data collection on solid
waste (quantification and characterization of various waste streams) and existing
management systems (collection, transportation, treatment, disposal, recycling and
recovery) is to develop an integrated solid waste management plan.




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         The reports did do a good analysis of the waste stream composition. Both domestic
         and commercial waste were collected and analysed in terms of their composition.
         This analysis is considered to be relevant and is taken into account for the purposes
         of this report.

         5.3 Waste Generation in OR Tambo DM

         Waste generation growth estimates should take the economic growth, population
         growth rate, socio-economic profiles of the population, industrial growth and urban
         sprawl. They should also take into consideration waste minimisation measures and
         recycling interventions over the planning horizon. The following assumptions were
         made during the estimation of waste generation using socio-economic data:

                 Socio-economic data is taken from the Demarcation Board website
                  (www.demarcation.org.za), Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007.
                 Annual population growth rates were calculated and assigned for each
                  individual of local municipality using the socio-economic data (Table 2).
                 The planning period for this IWMP is a five year planning period (2009 –
                  2013) which coincides with the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) for OR
                  Tambo Municipality.
                 Predictions were done for the period: 2009 up to and including 2015.
                 Unless otherwise specified, the per capita waste generation rate assigned to
                  each of the municipalities is 0.3 kg/person/day. This value was used because
                  in all of the 7 local municipalities, 95% of personal incomes are less than
                  R30000 per annum. This is based on the estimated per capita waste
                  generation rates per socio-economic profile (see Table 3).

         Table 2: Calculation of annual population growth rate
           Municipality               Population    Population     Population Growth      % Population
                                        2007          2001         Rate (Persons/year)       growth
Mbizana Local Municipality             279739        245730              5668.17              2.31
Ntabankulu Local Municipality          141358        135799               926.50              0.68
Ingquza Hill Local Municipality        279795        254480              4219.17              1.66
Port St Johns Local Municipality       165084        146967              3019.50              2.05
Nyandeni Local Municipality            314273        274416              6642.83              2.42
Mhlontlo Local Municipality            237138        202851              5714.50              2.82
KSD Municipality                       444830        416348              4747.00              1.14
         Table 3: Generic waste generation rate to income group
                      Income Category                            Kg/person/day
         Middle income R30000 – R132000 Per annum                     0.7
         Low income < R30000 Per annum                                0.3
         No income                                                    0.2
         Unspecified                                                 0.75

         By and large the local municipalities have not been able to prioritize waste
         management and Table 4 below reflects the levels of access to refuse removal




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            services. In estimating the annual waste generation, the value of 0.3 kg/person/day
            was used for the rate of waste generation per person.
                     Table 4: Estimated Annual Domestic Waste Generation in tons in 2007 Based
                     on Socio-economic Data from Census 2001 and Community Survey 2007
  Municipality        Population    Estimated    Estimated     Percentage Distribution of Households By Type of Refuse
                        2006          Waste      Disposal at                           Disposal
                                    Generation   Municipal
                                                    sites
                                                               Municipal    Communal      Own    None       Other   Total
Mbizana                    279739    30631.42       612.63       2.00        0.20       70.20    27.40      0.20     100
Ntabankulu                 141358    15478.70       185.74       1.20        0.90       74.90    22.00      1.00     100
Ingquza Hill               279795    30637.55      1409.33       4.60        0.70       60.60    33.80      0.30     100
Port St Johns              165084    18076.70       379.61       2.10        0.60       73.00    23.50      0.80     100
Nyandeni                   314273    34412.89       653.84       1.90        0.60       62.80    34.40      0.30     100
Mhlontlo                   237138    25966.61      1376.23       5.30        3.40       72.70    16.90      1.70     100
KSD                        444830    48708.89     12566.89      25.80        0.70       52.90    18.70      1.90     100




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      5.3.1 Projection of Waste Generation

      5.3.1.1 Population growth trends
      Table 5 and Figure 11 show the predicted increase in population for each of the seven
      local municipalities. These population trends were use to predict future waste
      volumes.
      Table 5: Population increase over the period 2009 to 2015
      Municipality            2009        2010         2011        2012           2013         2014       2015
Mbizana Local               294910.1   301712.6     308672.1     315792.2      323076.4     330528.7    338152.9
Ntabankulu                  143390.4   144368.7     145353.7     146345.4      147343.8     148349.1    149361.2

Ingquza Hill                290258.3   295070.7     299962.8     304936.0      309991.8     315131.3    320356.0

Port St Johns               172933.3   176486.3     180112.2     183812.7      187589.2     191443.3    195376.6

Nyandeni                    332285.9   340329.6     348568.0     357005.9      365648.0     374499.3    383564.8

Mhlontlo                    253337.6   260474.4     267812.2     275356.7      283113.8     291089.3    299289.6

KSD                         455874.5   461072.2     466329.1     471645.9      477023.4     482462.2    487963.0




      Figure 11: Population growth trends for the period 2009 to 2015




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   5.3.1.2 Projected increase in annual domestic waste generation
   Annual domestic waste volumes in tonnage are estimated based on socio-economic
   data and represented in Table 6 and Figure 12 below:

            Table 6: Annual domestic waste volumes in tones for each of the seven local
            municipalities in the O.R. Tambo district
  Municipality        2009       2010        2011       2012          2013         2014          2015

Mbizana             75349.5    77087.6    78865.7     80684.9      82546.0      84450.1      86398.1

Ntabankulu          36636.3    36886.2    37137.9     37391.2      37646.3      37903.2      38161.8

Ingquza Hill        74161.0    75390.6    76640.5     77911.2      79202.9      80516.0      81851.0

Port St Johns       44184.5    45092.2    46018.7     46964.2      47929.1      48913.8      49918.7

Nyandeni            84899.0    86954.2    89059.1     91215.0      93423.1      95684.6      98000.8

Mhlontlo            64727.8    66551.2    68426.0     70353.6      72335.6      74373.3      76468.5

KSD                 116475.9   117803.9   119147.1    120505.5     121879.5     123269.1     124674.6




            Figure 12: Trend showing the estimated increase of domestic waste volumes
            during the period 2009 to 2015

   5.3.1.3 Projected increase in annual commercial waste generation




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   Socio-economic data does not allow a direct calculation of estimates for
   business/commercial waste. However it is important to find a model for estimating
   the future waste generated by business. This data is important and needs to be
   accounted for in waste management planning.

   In order to estimate the future waste volumes generated by businesses in the O.R.
   Tambo District Municipality, the population growth rate has been applied the amount
   of business waste as determined in the field survey for each municipality. In this way
   the increase in volumes of business waste has been estimated over the period 2009
   to 2015.
            Table 7: Annual business waste volumes in tones for each of the seven local
            municipalities in the O.R. Tambo district
  Municipality        2009       2010       2011        2012         2013         2014           2015
Mbizana              1226.2     1254.4     1283.4      1313.0       1343.3       1374.3         1406.0
Ntabankulu           2125.3     2139.8     2154.4      2169.1       2183.9       2198.8         2213.8
Ingquza Hill         1907.4     1939.0     1971.1      2003.8       2037.0       2070.8         2105.1
Port St Johns        1110.4     1133.2     1156.5      1180.2       1204.5       1229.2         1254.5
Nyandeni             613.1      627.9      643.1       658.7        674.6        691.0          707.7
Mhlontlo             1847.0     1899.1     1952.6      2007.6       2064.1       2122.3         2182.1
KSD                  708.5      716.5      724.7       733.0        741.3        749.8          758.3




            Figure 13: Trend showing the estimated increase of business waste volumes
            during the period 2009 to 2015

   5.3.1.4 Projected increase in annual combined waste generation
   The domestic and business waste volumes are combined in order to represent the
   total waste volumes predicted for the period 2009 to 2015 in O.R. Tambo District
   Municipality




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   Table 8: Annual combined waste volumes in tones for each of the seven local
   municipalities in the O.R. Tambo district

  Municipality       2009     2010     2011      2012     2013     2014       2015
Mbizana            1226.2    1254.4   1283.4   1313.0    1343.3   1374.3    1406.0
Ntabankulu         2125.3    2139.8   2154.4   2169.1    2183.9   2198.8    2213.8
Ingquza Hill       1907.4    1939.0   1971.1   2003.8    2037.0   2070.8    2105.1
Port St Johns      1110.4    1133.2   1156.5   1180.2    1204.5   1229.2    1254.5
Nyandeni           613.1     627.9    643.1    658.7     674.6    691.0     707.7
Mhlontlo           1847.0    1899.1   1952.6   2007.6    2064.1   2122.3    2182.1
KSD                708.5     716.5    724.7    733.0     741.3    749.8     758.3




            Figure 14: Trend showing the estimated increase of combined waste volumes
            during the period 2009 to 2015

   5.4 Waste Management System in OR Tambo DM
   The Development of an Integrated Waste Management Plan demands the
   assessment of current solid waste management systems beyond a mere
   quantification and characterization of waste streams to:
       Analysing the availability, enforcement and impact of regulations and
           economic tools;
       Assessing the institutional framework, resources and jurisdictions for current
           institutions;
       Analysing the efficiency and effectiveness of collection, treatment and
           disposal system including technologies;
       Understanding the role of different stakeholders at different levels of solid
           waste management chain; and
       Identifying the challenges and opportunities to improve SWM




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Data in terms of the current status of waste management practices in each of the
local municipalities was assembled by means of field studies and site Inspections of
waste generation areas and waste management facilities.

The O.R. Tambo District Municipality consists of 7 local municipalities. Data in terms
of the current status of waste management practices in each of the local
municipalities was assembled by means of field studies and site Inspections of waste
generation areas and waste management facilities. The following flow chart (Figure
15) is used as a basis for the collection and analysis of the data for waste
management practices in the O.R. Tambo District Municipality.




Figure 15: Flow diagram for collection and analysis of data for status quo of
waste management practices

5.4.1 EC151 – Mbizana Local Municipality

                Waste Generators




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        Domestic refuse is stored and collected in 85 liter black plastic bags supplied
         by the Municipality.
        Businesses use any form of container for refuse storage i.e. black bags,
         boxes and open refuse storage areas.

               Collection and Transportation

        Refuse is collected as follows:
              Domestic: 1 x per week (5 days per week)
              Business: 6 x per week (6 days per week)
              Street sweeping: Daily - 6 days per week.
        Collections are curbside except for businesses within the town which have
         refuse storage areas.
        Litter facilities are provided in the form of 210 liter bins which are used by
         both businesses and pedestrians alike.
        Maps were not available, but the following information was provided on
         serviced Erven:
              Domestic 292
              Small Business 151
              Large Business and Government 37
        Staff and Equipment Complement:
              2 Supervisors
              5 Drivers
              10 RCR Laborers
              6 Street sweeping Laborers
              1 Mercedes Benz 2628 Axor Compactor - 19 cubic m - New vehicle
              1 Nissan, High sided Cage Truck - 10 cubic m - New vehicle.
        All services are Municipal.
        No Public Drop off points, Garden refuse or General waste Transfer Stations
         are in operation.
        A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
         as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
         statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
         appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
         2004.
        In terms of volumes, interviews with staff directly involved with refuse
         collection revealed the following information:
              Domestic Refuse 95 cubic m per week - compacted, mixed with
                  business waste
              Business Refuse 180 cubic m per week - uncompacted
              Waste appears to be 80% Commercial and 20% Domestic
              There is no industrial waste reported
              Hazardous and medical waste is mixed with commercial waste.




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Figure 16: Refuse collection trucks in Mbizana Municiaplity

        Reuse, Recycling and Recovery

The following site observations and comments were made:

        Very limited waste separation and collection of recyclable materials is
         currently being undertaken by informal recyclers, who are not employed by
         the municipality.
        There is no proper infrastructure and facilities for recycling in the town and at
         the Landfill Site.
        There is no composting taking place.
        There is no technology or equipment such as bailers or shredders being used
         for the collection and packaging of recyclable materials.
        No records and data available for recycling within Mbizana Municipality.




Figure 17: Informal recycling at in Business area and a dumpsite in Bizana


               Treatment and Disposal




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      The following Table summarises the status quo in terms of waste disposal in
      Mbizana Local Municipality.
      Table 9: Waste disposal Status Quo in Mbizana Local Municipality

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                          Status Quo
Location         N/A                                               The Mbizana waste disposal site is located at
                                                                   30050‗45.02‗‗S and 29052‗10.96.E
Waste            N/A                                               There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is not permitted
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/ There is no one on site controlling what is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit coming in. Thus, it is highly possible that
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the hazardous waste could be found on site.
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is no site notice at the site.
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area,
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of There is no proper fencing and gate control.
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all Animals and informal recyclers were present
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized at the time of inspection.
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective
                 access control
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and     There is no equipment, weigh bridges,
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of   compactor machines or staff on site. No
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster        Waste Disposal documents are available for
                 Manager                                           scrutiny. Waste is not being covered and
                                                                   large amounts of windblown litter were
                                                                   evident.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the There is no gas monitoring on site.
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an done and as this is not a permitted site DWAF
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant and DEAT do not carry out any auditing.




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                                                                         OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for There is no leachate control or storm water
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic cut off drain in place.
                 leachate and does not require a leachate
                 management system.
Staffing         N/A                                                 There is no staff working on site
Air Space        N/A                                                 The Disposal Site should be properly closed
                                                                     and a new area developed. The current area
                                                                     appears to be filled to 100% capacity.
General          N/A                                                 The Municipality wants to implement projects
                                                                     such as recycling, services for Commercial
                                                                     waste, a proper sanitary landfill etc., but no
                                                                     funds are available. A new Housing
                                                                     Development (Mbizana Ext 2) is currently
                                                                     being developed and should be completed in
                                                                     the next 2 years. None of the dwellings has
                                                                     been completed to date and currently has no
                                                                     occupants.




      5.4.2 EC152 – Nyandeni Local Municipality

      This survey was conducted in the Town of Libode. The Results of the survey are
      summarized below:

                          Waste Generators

               Domestic refuse is stored and collected in 85 liter plastic bags supplied by the
                Municipality.
               Business/Commercial refuse is stored in any form of container i.e. cardboard
                boxes, plastic bags, 85 liter drums or just put out on the pavement for
                collection by the Municipality.

                     Collection and Transportation

               Refuse is collected as follows:
                    Domestic: 2 weekly removal




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      Prepare by USK Consulting                                                       Page 59 of 160
                                                             OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


               Business/Commercial: Daily 5 days per week
               Street sweeping: Daily 5 days per week
        All collections are curbside and street litter facilities provided are 210 liter
         drums which are used by Pedestrians and Businesses alike.
        Maps of the area were available at the municipal office and the following
         information was obtained for serviced erven:
               Domestic 1 277
               Business 28
        Staff and equipment complement:
               refuse collection 1 x Driver
               4 x Laborers
               1 x 10 cubic m high sided Isuzu Truck (2008 model)
               Street sweeping 5 x Laborers
        All services are Municipal.
        No public drop off centers, garden refuse or general waste transfer stations
         are in operation.
        A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
         as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
         statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
         appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
         2004.
        In terms of volumes, after interviewing staff directly connected with waste
         collection and disposal, the following was reported:
               Domestic refuse 5 cubic m weekly (non-compacted)
               Business/Commercial 90 cubic m weekly (non-compacted)
               Industrial Waste: Nil.
               Hazardous Waste is being mixed with general waste.
               Medical Waste is being mixed with general waste.




Figure 18: 1 x 10 cubic m high sided Isuzu Truck (2008 model) used for refuse
collection in Lebode

        Reuse, Recycling and Recovery




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      The following site observations and comments were made:

               No formal recycling is being conducted.
               There is no proper infrastructure and facilities for recycling in the town and at
                the Landfill Site.
               There is no composting taking place.
               There is no technology or equipment such as bailers or shredders being used
                for the collection and packaging of recyclable materials.

                     Treatment and Disposal

      The following table summarizes the status quo in terms of waste disposal in
      Nyandeni Local Municipality.

      Table 10: Waste disposal Status Quo in Nyandeni Local Municipality

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                          Status Quo
Location         N/A                                               The Libode waste disposal site is located at
                                                                   31032‗31.09‗‗S and 29002‗59.70.E
Waste            N/A                                               There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is not permitted
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/ There is no one on site controlling what is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit coming in. Thus, it is highly possible that
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the hazardous waste could be found on site.
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is no site notice at the site; however, a
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area, new site is being constructed adjacent to the
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.   currently used dump site and a construction
                                                                    notice board is in place.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of       This is not a formal site. Waste is simply
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all        dumped at an open pit with no fence or gate.
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized     No scavengers were seen on site and all
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective       waste is burned daily. The new site however
                 access control                                    has proper Access Control and Fence.
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and There is no equipment, weigh bridges or
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of compactor machines on site. No Waste
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster Disposal documents are available for scrutiny.




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                                                                       OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


                 Manager                                           Waste is burned daily. The new site is not yet
                                                                   operational due to the fact that it is only 80 -
                                                                   85% complete.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the There is no gas monitoring on site.
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an done and as this is not a permitted site DWAF
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant and DEAT do not carry out any auditing.
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for      There is no leachate control in place. Even
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic   the new site does not seem to have a
                 leachate and does not require a leachate          leachate control only storm water cut off
                 management system.                                drains are in place at this time.
Staffing         N/A                                               There is no staff working on site
Air Space        N/A                                               The pit needs to be properly closed and all
                                                                   activities transferred to the brand new site as
                                                                   soon as possible.
General          N/A                                               The Municipality wants to implement projects
                                                                   such as recycling, services for Commercial
                                                                   waste, a proper sanitary landfill etc., but no
                                                                   funds are available. A new Housing
                                                                   Development (Mbizana Ext 2) is currently
                                                                   being developed and should be completed in
                                                                   the next 2 years. None of the dwellings has
                                                                   been completed to date and currently has no
                                                                   occupants.




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      Prepare by USK Consulting                                                     Page 62 of 160
                                                          OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)




Figure 19: New waste disposal site under construction at Libode

5.4.3 EC153 – Ingquza Hill Local Municipality
Surveys were conducted in two towns in Ngquza Hill Local Municipality. The survey
results for Flagstaff and Lusikisiki are summarised below:

                    Waste Generators

Flagstaff:
    Domestic refuse is stored and collected in 85 liter plastic bags supplied by the
      Municipality.
    Business/Commercial refuse is collected in 85 liter black bags supplied by the
      Municipality.

Lusikisiki:
    Domestic households do not receive 85 liter black bags from the Municipality
       and must provide their own.
    Business - no bags are supplied by the Municipality. Businesses use any type
       of container for refuse including the use of refuse storage areas (loose).

               Collection and Transportation

Flagstaff:
   4. Refuse is collected as follows:
            Domestic; 5 x per week
            Business/Commercial: 7 x per week
            Street sweeping: Daily 6 days per week
   5. Serviced Erven: 1 244 which includes Businesses.
   6. Collections are curbside and 85litre plastic bags are provided to both
      domestic and business premises. Maps of the area were not available.
   7. Staff and Equipment Complement:
            Refuse collection: 1 Supervisor
            1 Driver




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                                                            OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


             6 Laborers
             1 x 10 cubic m Cage Truck - Mercedes Benz Artego
             Street sweepers: 10 Laborers (7 x per week)
    8. All services rendered are Municipal.
    9. No Public Drop off Centers, Garden Refuse or General Waste Transfer
        Stations are in operation.
    10. A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
        as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
        statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
        appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
        2004.
    11. Volume of refuse provided by staff is as follows:
    12. Commercial and domestic waste is mixed and the total volume is 175 cubic m
        per week of which 20% is estimated to be domestic waste. The waste is not
        compacted.
    13. Industrial Waste - Nil.
    14. Hazardous Waste is mixed with general waste.
    15. With the new Hospital Complex in Lusikisiki, Hospital waste is sent there for
        Handling, Transportation and Disposal.




Figure 20: Refuse collection truck for Flagstaff - 10 cubic m Cage Truck - Mercedes
Benz Artego
Lusikisiki:
    Refuse is collected as follows:
              Domestic: Daily 5 x per week
              Business/Commercial: Daily 7 x per week
              Street sweeping: Daily 7 days per week
    Staff and Equipment:
              1 Supervisor
              1 Driver
              6 Laborers
              1 x Mercedes Benz Artego Cage Truck 10 cubic m
              25 Street sweepers/Laborers




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                                                             OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


        Approximately 1 440 premises are serviced in total, 1 244 are domestic
         households. Approximately 120 business premises serviced.
        All services rendered are Municipal.
        No Public Drop off centers, Garden refuse or General Waste Transfer
         Stations are in operation.
        A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
         as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
         statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
         appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
         2004.
        Volumes - The following figures were provided:
        Commercial and domestic waste is mixed.
        Weekly volume of 175 cubic m (uncompacted) of which approximately 20% is
         Domestic.
        Industrial Waste - Nil.
        Hazardous Waste is mixed with Commercial waste.
        Medical Waste is sent to new Hospital Complex.

        Reuse, Recycling and Recovery


Flagstaff:
The following site observations and comments were made:

        Very limited Waste Separation and collection of recyclable materials is
         currently being undertaken by informal recyclers, who are not employed by
         the municipality,
        A separation area (facility) is found within the waste disposal site but is not
         being used.
        There is no technology or equipment such as bailers or shredders being used
         for the collection and packaging of recyclable materials.
        There was no evidence of composting being done.

Lusikisiki:
The following site observations and comments were made:

        Very limited Waste Separation and collection of recyclable materials is
         currently being undertaken by informal recyclers, who are not employed by
         the municipality,
        Only small quantities cardboard was being collected by some informal
         recyclers.
        There is no technology or equipment such as bailers or shredders being used
         for the collection and packaging of recyclable materials.
        There was no evidence of composting being done.
        No data and records available on recycling within the town.

               Treatment and Disposal




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                                                                         OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)




      The following tables summarize the status quo in terms of waste disposal in Ngquza
      Hill Local Municipality.

      Flagstaff:
      Table 11: Waste disposal Status Quo at Flagstaff Waste Site

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                            Status Quo
Location         N/A                                                 The Flagstaff waste disposal site is located at
                                                                     31005‗40.51‗‗S and 29029‗21.00.E
Waste            N/A                                                 There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is not permitted
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/         There is one disposal site attendant but no
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit          controlling mechanism is being used. Thus, it
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the   is highly possible that hazardous waste could
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site    be found on site.
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is no site notice at the site.
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area,
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of There is no proper fencing and gate control.
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all Animals were present at the time of
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized inspection.
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective
                 access control
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and       There is no equipment, weigh bridges,
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of     compactor machines or staff on site. No
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster          Waste Disposal documents are available for
                 Manager                                             scrutiny. Waste being burned and large
                                                                     amounts of windblown litter were evident.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the There is no gas monitoring on site.
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.




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      Prepare by USK Consulting                                                       Page 66 of 160
                                                                     OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an done and as this is not a permitted site DWAF
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant and DEAT do not carry out any auditing.
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for Leachate drains have been cut but no
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic containment areas for Leachate has been
                 leachate and does not require a leachate provided.
                 management system.
Staffing         N/A                                             There is one staff working on site
Air Space        N/A                                             As an estimate, approximately 50% of
                                                                 airspace is still available for the disposal of
                                                                 waste.
General          N/A                                             Site buildings were found to be much
                                                                 neglected.
                                                                 Adjacent to the existing site, it would appear
                                                                 that a new Disposal Site is in the process of
                                                                 being developed but the new Manager could
                                                                 not provide any information in this regard.
                                                                 The existing site, without too much finance,
                                                                 could be made acceptable for the Local
                                                                 Authority




      Figure 21: Lack of access control at the Flagstaff waste disposal site




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                                                                         OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)




      Lusikisiki:

      Table 12: Waste disposal Status Quo at Lusikisiki Waste Site

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                            Status Quo
Location         N/A                                                 The Lusikisiki waste disposal site is located at
                                                                     31021‗22.5‗‗S and 29034‗10.44.E
Waste            N/A                                                 There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is not permitted
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/         There is one site attendant on site but there is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit          no controlling mechanism. Thus, it is highly
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the   possible that hazardous waste could be found
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site    on site.
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is no site notice at the site.
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area,
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of         Uncontrolled Gate access and a dilapidated
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all          fence surrounds the site. Animals and
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized       scavengers have free access to the site and
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective         no records are kept of waste being deposited.
                 access control                                      One Site Attendant is provided but was not
                                                                     seen at the time of inspection.
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and       There is no equipment, weigh bridges, or
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of     compactor machines on site. No Waste
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster          Disposal documents are available for scrutiny.
                 Manager                                             Waste is being dumped indiscriminately and
                                                                     burnt and large amounts of windblown litter
                                                                     were evident.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the There is no gas monitoring on site.
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m




      Draft Report
      Prepare by USK Consulting                                                       Page 68 of 160
                                                                        OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an done and as this is not a permitted site DWAF
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant and DEAT do not carry out any auditing.
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for There is no leachate control or storm water
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic cut off drain in place. .
                 leachate and does not require a leachate
                 management system.
Staffing         N/A                                                There is one staff working on site
Air Space        N/A                                                The current dumping area should be covered
                                                                    and the site be closed. The Western side of
                                                                    the existing Disposal Site could be trenched
                                                                    for current continued disposal until such time
                                                                    as a new sanitary can be identified and
                                                                    developed.
General          N/A                                                No Cover Material or plant is available on site.
                                                                    The western side of the site could be
                                                                    developed for proper sanitary landfilling while
                                                                    the remainder of the site should be closed.




      Figure 22: Poor access control at Lusikisiki waste disposal site

      5.4.4 EC154 – Port St Johns Local Municipality
      This survey was conducted in the Town of Port St John‘s. The Results of the survey
      are summarised below:




      Draft Report
      Prepare by USK Consulting                                                      Page 69 of 160
                                                             OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


                    Waste Generators
        Domestic refuse is stored and collected in 85 liter plastic bags supplied by the
         Municipality.
        Business/Commercial refuse is stored in any form of container i.e. cardboard
         boxes, plastic bags, 85 liter drums or just put out on the pavement for
         collection by the Municipality. Some businesses have caged refuse storage
         areas.

               Collection and Transportation

        Refuse is collected as follows:
              Domestic: Daily - 5 days a week
              Business: Daily - 7 days a week
              Street sweeping: Daily - 2 shifts, 7 days a week : Shift I - 07h00 –
                  15h00 Shift II - 11h00 - 19h00
        Approximately 1 200 domestic premises are serviced. Approximately 144
         business premises are serviced. Collections are either curbside or yard litter
         facilities are 200 liter plastic drums used by Businesses and Pedestrians.
        Staff and Equipment Complement:
              Refuse Collection: 1 Foreman (Lady)
              2 Drivers
              32 Laborers (4 groups of 8)
              1 Tractor/Trailer Combo: 10 cubic m
              1 Tractor/Trailer Combo: 4 cubic m
              1 LDV : 2 cubic m
        All services are Municipal.
        No Public Drop off centers, Garden Refuse or General waste Transfer
         Stations are in operation.
        A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
         as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
         statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
         appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
         2004.
        Volumes:
              Domestic and Business refuse is mixed and the combined volume is
                  204 cubic m weekly (uncompacted).
              It must be noted that a maximum of 20% of the above figure would be
                  Domestic waste.
              Industrial Waste - Nil.
              Hazardous Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.
              Medical Waste: This appears not to be mixed with the waste stream
                  but at the time of inspection, Hospital Waste in blue and yellow bags
                  was deposited on the refuse site.

        Reuse, Recycling and Recovery




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                                                                            OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)



     The following site observations and comments were made:

              Very limited Waste Separation and collection of recyclable materials is
               currently being undertaken by informal recyclers, who are not employed by
               the municipality,
              There is no proper infrastructure and facilities for recycling in the town and at
               the Landfill Site.
              There is no technology or equipment such as bailers or shredders being used
               or the collection and packaging of recyclable materials.
              There was no evidence of composting being done for any of the
               biodegradable wastes




     Figure 23: Informal Recycling at the Dumpsite in Port St Johns


                    Treatment and Disposal

     The following table summarizes the status quo in terms of waste disposal in Port St
     John‘s Local Municipality.

     Table 13: Waste disposal Status Quo in Port St John‟s Local Municipality

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                               Status Quo
Location        N/A                                                     The Port St. Johns waste disposal site is
                                                                        located at 31037‗41.03‗‗S and 29029‗51.55.E
Waste           N/A                                                     There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit          Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements            According to information received, the site
                states the following: The Permit Holder or              has been licensed, but no proof could be
                Responsible Person must ensure at all times that        presented for verification on the day of
                the site is correctly classified. Should the class of   inspection.
                the site change over time, the Department must
                be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                Requirement must be applied.




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     Prepare by USK Consulting                                                          Page 71 of 160
                                                                          OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/         There is a tip attendant on site controlling
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit          what is coming in. He registers non-municipal
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the   vehicles entering the site with approximate
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site    quantities and hazardous waste is not
                 has not been approved                               allowed. Thus, it is unlikely that hazardous
                                                                     waste could be found on site.
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is no site notice at the site.
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area,
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of The site is fenced with Access Control but the
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all fence is in need of repair. No scavengers
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized were seen on site.
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective
                 access control
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and       There is no equipment, weigh bridges or
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of     compactor machines on site. No Waste
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster          Disposal documents are available for scrutiny
                 Manager                                             except for the records of non-municipal
                                                                     vehicles. Waste is not being covered and
                                                                     large amounts of windblown litter were
                                                                     evident. A Bulldozer is shared with the Roads
                                                                     Department.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the Monitoring boreholes located on either side of
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate the site but there is no gas monitoring on site.
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an done and as this is not a permitted site DWAF
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant and DEAT do not carry out any auditing.
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for There is no leachate control in place.
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic
                 leachate and does not require a leachate
                 management system.
Staffing         N/A                                                 There is one tip attendant on site
Air Space        N/A                                                 As   an   estimate,   approximately 35%     of




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                                                                  OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


                                                              airspace is still available for the disposal of
                                                              waste.
General         N/A                                           The current deposited waste needs to be
                                                              covered and the shared Bulldozer needs to be
                                                              allocated for this function on a more regular
                                                              basis.




     Figure 24: Waste disposal site at Port St Johns

     5.4.5 EC155 – Ntabankulu Local Municipality

     This survey was conducted in the town of Ntabankulu. The Results of the survey are
     summarized below:

                         Waste Generators

             Domestic refuse is stored and collected in 85 liter plastic bags supplied by the
              Municipality.
             Business/Commercial refuse is stored in any form of container i.e. cardboard
              boxes, plastic bags, 85 liter drums or just put out on the pavement for
              collection by the Municipality. Some businesses have enclosed refuse
              storage areas, which are cleared by the Municipality.

                    Collection and Transportation

             Refuse is collected as follows:
                  Domestic: 2 x per week
                  Business: 7 x per week (2 x daily)
                  Street sweeping: 2 Shifts: 07h00 - 15h00 6 x per week15h00 - 21h00
                    6 x per week




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        All collections are curbside except for Businesses where refuse is collected
         on site from refuse storage areas. Litter facilities are provided by means of 4
         cubic m Skip Containers (13 in total) which are placed at strategic points and
         are used by business and pedestrians alike.
        Maps were not available. Serviced Erven: 1 120 which includes business
         premises. It would appear that approximately 85 -90 Business Premises are
         situated within the town.
        Staff and Equipment Complement:
              1 x 8 cubic m Isuzu High sided Cage Truck (New)
              1 x Tractor/Trailer for Skips (New)
        All services are Municipal
        No Public Drop off points, Garden Refuse or General Waste Transfer Stations
         are in operation.
        A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
         as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
         statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
         appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
         2004.
        After interviews with the staff directly involved with Refuse Collection, the
         following information in terms of waste volumes was provided.
              Domestic and Business 280 cubic m per week
              Business and Street sweeping 312 cubic m per week
              All waste is uncompacted and it would appear that Domestic Waste
                  makes up 20% of volume and Business 80% of volume. Considering
                  the size of the area serviced, these volumes seem very high and could
                  even be reduced by 50% to appear more reasonable. (Staff currently
                  employed are either newly appointed or 'loaned' - thus the reason to
                  doubt these figures.)
              Industrial Waste - Nil.
              Hazardous Waste is mixed with general waste.
              Medical Waste is mixed with general waste.
Figure 25: Refuse storage and collection equipment in Ntabankulu


        Reuse, Recycling and Recovery

The following site observations and comments were made:

        No recycling is being done.
        There is no Waste separation facility
        Composting is not being done

               Treatment and Disposal

The following table summarizes the status quo in terms of waste disposal in
Ntabankulu Local Municipality.




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      Table 14: Waste disposal Status Quo in Ntabankulu Local Municipality

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                           Status Quo
Location         N/A                                                The Ntabankulu waste disposal site is located
                                                                    at 30056‗36.79‗‗S and 29018‗8.70.E
Waste            N/A                                                There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is not permitted.
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/ There is no one on site controlling what is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit coming in. Thus, it is highly possible that
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the hazardous waste could be found on site.
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is no site notice at the site.
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area,
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of There is no proper fencing and gate control.
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all Animals were present at the time of
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized inspection.
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective
                 access control
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and      There is no equipment, weigh bridges,
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of    compactor machines or staff on site. No
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster         Waste Disposal documents are available for
                 Manager                                            scrutiny. Waste is not being covered and
                                                                    large amounts of windblown litter were
                                                                    evident.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the Monitoring boreholes located on either side of
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate the site but there is no gas monitoring on site.
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an done and as this is not a permitted site DWAF
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant and DEAT do not carry out any auditing.
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to




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                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for There is no leachate control or storm water
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic cut off drain in place.
                 leachate and does not require a leachate
                 management system.
Staffing         N/A                                                 There is no staff working on site
Air Space        N/A                                                 As an estimate, approximately 50% of
                                                                     airspace is still available for the disposal of
                                                                     waste.
General          N/A                                                 The Waste Site is close to the CBD and waste
                                                                     is deposited in Trenches and burned



      Figure 26: Broken fence at Ntabankulu waste disposal site


      Figure 27: Animals and burning of refuse at Ntabankulu waste disposal site

      5.4.6 EC156 – Mhlontlo Local Municipality
      Surveys were conducted in two towns in Mhlontlo Local Municipality. The survey
      results for Tsolo and Qumbu are summarised below:

                          Waste Generators

      Tsolo:
          Domestic refuse is stored and collected it 85 liter Black Plastic Bags, supplied
             by the Municipality.
          Business refuse is stored in any form of container, i.e. Cardboard Boxes,
             85litre Refuse Bins or just placed on the pavement for collection by the
             Municipality.

      Qumbu:
         Domestic refuse is stored and collected in 85 liter Plastic bags supplied by
           the Municipality.
         Business refuse is stored in any form of container, i.e. cardboard boxes, 85
           liter bins, 85 liter black plastic bags or just placed out on the pavement for
           collection by the Municipality.

                     Collection and Transportation




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Tsolo:
    Refuse is collected as follows:
            Domestic: 1 x weekly removal
            Business/Commercial: Daily 6 x per week
            Street sweeping Daily: 6 x per week
    All collections are curbside and street litter facilities provided (85 liter bins and
       210 liter bins) are used by business and pedestrians alike.
    Maps of the area could not be provided, but the following figures were
       obtained from the Finance Department. Serviced Erven, which includes both
       business and domestic totals 777.
    Staff and Equipment Complement:
            Refuse Collection 1 x driver
            4 x laborers
            1 x 10 cubic m Isuzu Compactor Vehicle (shared with Qumbu).
            Street sweepers/cleaners 4
    All services rendered are Municipal.
    No Public drop off centers for Garden Refuse or General Waste Transfer
       Stations are in operation.
    A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
       as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
       statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
       appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
       2004.
    After interviewing Staff directly connected with waste, the following was
       reported.
            Domestic Refuse: 4 cubic m Compacted Waste per week.
            Business Refuse: 60 cubic m Compacted Waste per week.
            Industrial Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.
            Hazardous Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.
            Medical Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste. This excludes the
                Hospital waste, which is transported and disposed of by the Hospital
                itself.




Figure 28: Isuzu Compactor Vehicle (shared with Qumbu) and curb side bins




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Qumbu:
   Refuse is collected as follows:
          Domestic: 1 x weekly removal
          Business/Commercial: Daily 6 x per week
          Streets weeping: Daily 6 x per week
   All collections are curbside and street litter facilities are provided by means of
     210 liter drums. These are used by Pedestrians and Businesses alike.
   Maps of the area could not be provided, but the following figures were
     obtained from the Finance Department, 732 erven are serviced which include
     both domestic and business premises.
   It must, however, be noted that an additional 1 024 RDP Low Cost Housing
     units are occupied and are not yet included in the serviced erven figures
     provided.
   Staff and Equipment Complement:
          Refuse Collection 1 x driver (shared with Tsolo)
          4 x laborers
          1 x 10 cubic m Isuzu Compactor (shared with Tsolo)
          Street sweepers: 6
   All Services rendered are Municipal.
   No Public drop off centers, Garden refuse or General waste transfer stations
     are in operation.
   A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
     as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
     statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
     appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
     2004.
   After interviewing Staff directly involved with Waste, the following was
     reported:
          Domestic Refuse 4 cubic m compacted per week
          Business/Commercial 60 cubic m compacted per week
          Industrial Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.
          Hazardous Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.
          Medical Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.

        Reuse, Recycling and Recovery

Qumbu:

Recycling: No formal waste recycling is presently being done and very limited
informal recycling.

Waste separation facility & composting: Even though no waste separation and
composting are being done, a complete Recycling/Recovery Centre is found
adjacent
to the Disposal Site established by Ikamva Development Agency. The center has a
Cardboard and Plastic Baler and storage areas but unfortunately is non-operational




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     at the moment. The costly facilities on site are in danger of falling into disrepair.




     Figure 29: Abandoned recycling centre in Qumbu


     Tsolo:

     Recycling: No recycling is being done. The waste disposal site in Tsolo is not yet in
     use, thus all waste is taken to Qumbu.

     Waste separation facility & composting: No proper separation facility or bailing
     shed found on site.

                    Treatment and Disposal

     The following tables summarize the status quo in terms of waste disposal in Mhlontlo
     Local Municipality.

     Tsolo:

     Table 15: Waste disposal Status Quo at Tsolo Waste Site

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                      Status Quo
Location        N/A                                            The Tsolo waste disposal site is located at
                                                               31014‘46.65‘‘S and 28053‘8.78‖E
Waste           N/A                                            There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit          Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is brand new and permitted with
                states the following: The Permit Holder or permit number: 16/2/7/T301/DA/Z1
                Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                the site is correctly classified. Should the class of




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                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/         There is one site attendant on site but there is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit          no controlling mechanism. Thus, it is highly
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the   possible that hazardous waste could be found
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site    on site.
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is a site notice written in English and
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area, Xhosa on site. It is clearly written showing all
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.   the details.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of The site is not yet in use, but it is properly
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all fenced and
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized gated with a site office.
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective
                 access control
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and The site is not operational yet
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster
                 Manager
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the No evidence of monitoring network
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Not yet in place
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for Not yet functional
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic
                 leachate and does not require a leachate
                 management system.
Staffing         N/A                                                 Not yet in place
Air Space        N/A                                                 100.00%
General          N/A




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      Qumbu:

      Table 16: Waste disposal Status Quo at Qumbu Waste Site

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                          Status Quo
Location         N/A                                               The Qumbu waste disposal site is located at
                                                                   31004‘11.39‘‘S and 28053‘32.11‖E
Waste            N/A                                               There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is permitted, but permit was not
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or available on site.
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/ There is no one on site controlling what is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit coming in. Thus, it is highly possible that
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the hazardous waste could be found on site.
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at Here is a site notice written in English and
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area, Xhosa on site. However, it is hardly visible
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.   and needs to be replaced with a new and
                                                                    clear one as per the requirement.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of The gate is unmanned and thus not secured.
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all No scavengers were seen on site but the site
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized was burning during inspection.
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective
                 access control
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and     There is no equipment, weigh bridges,
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of   compactor machines or staff on site. No
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster        Waste Disposal documents are available for
                 Manager                                           scrutiny. Refuse is currently being burnt on
                                                                   site even though approximately 500 meters
                                                                   from site, cover material is being deposited by
                                                                   contractors working in the vicinity; this
                                                                   material is suitable for cover material.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the No evidence monitoring (water or gas)
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or




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                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Not evidence of Internal and external auditing.
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for       3 Leachate dams are found below the site,
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic    they are all found to be dry except for the final
                 leachate and does not require a leachate           evaporation Leachate/Storm water dam which
                 management system.                                 is found to be approximately 80% full of
                                                                    leachate and storm water.
Staffing         N/A                                                No municipal personnel work on site
Air Space        N/A                                                As an estimate, approximately 80% of
                                                                    airspace is still available for the disposal of
                                                                    waste.
General          N/A




      Figure 30: Poor management of Leachate at Qumbu waste disposal site

      5.4.7 EC152 – KSD Local Municipality

      Surveys were conducted in three towns in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local
      Municipality. The survey results for Mthatha, Mqanduli and Coffee Bay summarised
      below:

                         Waste Generators




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Mthatha:
    Domestic refuse is stored and collected in 85 liter black plastic bags, supplied
      by the Municipality.
    Business, Commercial and Industrial refuse in general is stored in 1.1 cubic
      m and 5 cubic m containers as well as in caged refuse storage areas.

Mqanduli:
   Domestic refuse is collected and stored in 85 liter black plastic bags supplied
     by the municipality.
   Business refuse is stored in any form of container from 85 liter plastic bags,
     supplied by the business owners, cardboard boxes, and bins or just placed
     out on the pavements for collection by the municipality.

Coffee Bay:
    All waste is mixed, placed in 85 liter plastic bags, which are provided by the
       generators of such waste, themselves.

               Collection and Transportation

Mthatha:
    Refuse is collected as follows:
          Domestic: 1 x weekly
          Domestic: 3 very poor areas 2 x weekly
          Business/Commercial/Industrial: Daily 7 x weekly
          Street sweeping: done daily, weekly or when and where necessary.
             A night shift street sweeping team cleans the CBD at night.
    All collections are curbside and street litter facilities by means of 210 liter
      drums are provided.
    Maps of the area could not be provided and the following figures were
      obtained from staff members who were interviewed:
    Serviced Erven:
          Domestic: These figures could not be provided.
          Business/Industrial: These figures could not be provided.
    Current containers out at businesses:
          1,1 cubic m 118
          5,5 cubic m 58
          Some of the containers found at Business Premises were found to be
             extremely damaged and dilapidated.
    Staff and Equipment Complement:
          Refuse collection: 7 drivers
          58 laborers
          1 manager
          4 supervisors
          Vehicle Fleet: 3 x 22 cubic m Compactors




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              5 x 19 cubic m Compactors
              4 x 10 cubic m Compactors
              1 x Side Loader - 8 ton
              1 x Side Loader - 4 ton
              2 x Lift-on/Load Luggers
              Street sweeping/Cleaners 162 staff
        All services rendered are Municipal but because of the non-availability of
         Municipal Vehicles due to breakdowns, private vehicles and drivers are hired
         on an 'as and when' basis, which is very costly to the Municipality.
        No Public drop off centers, Garden refuse of General Waste Transfer Stations
         are in operation.
        A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
         as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
         statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
         appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
         2004.
        After interviewing staff directly connected with waste, no information
         regarding volume or loads etc. could be provided as no records are kept.
        Industrial Waste is mixed with general waste.
        Hazardous Waste is mixed with general waste.
        Medical Waste is handled and disposed of by Private Contractors either at
         the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital or transported and disposed of by a
         private waste contractor in Durban.




Figure 31: Waste collection fleet in operation in Mthatha town


Mqanduli:
   Refuse is collected as follows:
           Domestic: 1 x weekly removal (Monday or Thursday)
           Business/Commercial: Daily collection (7 x per week)
           Street sweeping: Daily (7 x per week)
   All collections are curbside and street litter facilities provided (210 Liter bins)
     are used by pedestrians and businesses alike for the storage of refuse.




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        Maps of the area were produced and it appears that there are 233 erven
         (Domestic and Business) and 893 Low Cost Domestic Properties being
         serviced.
        Staff and Equipment Component:
              Refuse Collection: 1 x driver; 4 x loaders
              1 x 8 cubic meter high sided vehicle
              Flatbed 1996 Toyota (non tipper)
              Street Sweeping: 4 x sweepers
        All services rendered are Municipal.
        No Public Drop off centers for Garden refuse or General waste Transfer
         Stations are in operation.
        A comprehensive refuse analysis in terms of contents of refuse was not done
         as part this survey. An assessment of the refuse content was done and
         statistics on recyclables i.e. paper, glass, metal, plastic, putrescibles etc.
         appear to be the same as in the Waste Stream Survey and Analysis done in
         2004.
        After interviewing staff directly connected with Refuse Collection,
         Transportation and Disposal, the following was reported:
              Domestic Refuse: 8 cubic meters per week (non compacted)
                  Business Refuse: 104 cubic meters per week (non compacted)
              Industrial Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.
              Hazardous Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.
              Medical Waste is mixed with Commercial Waste.

Coffee Bay:
    Refuse Collection:
            This is done by Municipal Staff in Mqanduli, who also collect refuse
               from "Hole in the Wall" hotel and resort.
            The service is very irregular. According to Mqanduli Staff, 2 x weekly
               collections are due to commence during June 2009.
            The road between Mqanduli and Coffee Bay is tarred but in an
               extremely bad condition, whereas the road between Mqanduli and
               Hole in the Wall, although a gravel road, is in a much better condition.
            The distance for Refuse Collection at both Coastal Villages is
               approximately 65-68 km.
    Waste Composition according to the Manager, he assesses the composition
       of the waste as follows:
            Cardboard/Paper
            Plastic 40%
            Tins 5%
            Kitchen Waste 40%
            Glass 15%
    General:
            A Waste/Refuse Storage area or cage is positioned directly in front of
               the Hotel and should be re-located, out of the public eye.
            This area appears to be identified as a disposal site for the local
               community which Mqanduli Cleansing Staff occasionally remove.




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         Rural Areas:
              No Cleansing Services are rendered and individual Householders and
                 Businesses have to dispose of their own waste by burning or burying
                 such waste.




        Reuse, Recycling and Recovery


Mthatha:
    According to staff interviews, 3 private companies are involved with recycling.
    Recycled materials are either collected directly at source or bought from
      informal recyclers on site.
    Volumes of recycled waste are unknown.

Mqanduli:
Site Inspection in Mqanduli town and the landfill site revealed that at approximately
50% of all waste collected is being salvaged for recycling by self employed
individuals who sell materials to a recycling company in Mthatha town.

Table 17 summarizes the monthly recycling data gathered from Mqanduli town.

Table 17: Recyclable Materials Data in Mqanduli Town

               Recyclable Material                            Cubic Meters/month
Paper and Cardboard                                                     288
Plastic                                                                 96
Glass bottles                                                           12
Tins/cans                                                               32

Site Observations and Comments:

The following site observations and comments were made at Mqanduli:

         There is no proper infrastructure and facilities for recycling at Mqanduli Town
          and at the Landfill Site.
         There is no technology or equipment such as bailers or shredders being used
          for the collection and packaging of recyclable materials.
         Waste Separation and collection of recyclable materials currently takes place
          in the open on the landfill site and in the streets.
         Waste Separation and collection of recyclable materials is currently being
          undertaken by informal recyclers, who are not employed by the municipality,
          or part of any formal entity of structure such as cooperatives.




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Figure 32: Collection of Recyclable Materials at Mqanduli Waste Disposal Site




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                     Treatment and Disposal

      The following tables summarize the status quo in terms of waste disposal in King
      Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality

      Mthatha:

      Table 18: Waste disposal Status Quo at Mthatha Waste Site

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                          Status Quo
Location         N/A                                               The Mthatha waste disposal site is located at
                                                                   31037‗35.39‗‗S and 28047‗31.11.E
Waste            N/A                                               There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is not permitted
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/ There is no one on site controlling what is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit coming in. Thus, it is highly possible that
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the hazardous waste could be found on site.
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is no site notice at the site
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area,
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of       The gate is unmanned and fence is broken in
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all        many places. This site was found to be in total
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized     disarray, all sorts of scavengers, animals and
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective       humans were seen on site. Shacks are even
                 access control                                    erected inside the site. Shacks, animals,
                                                                   scavengers, and informal recyclers on site
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and     There is no equipment, weigh bridges or
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of   compactor machines on site. No Waste
                 soil or other material approved by Cluster        Disposal documents are available for scrutiny.
                 Manager                                           Refuse is dumped anywhere and three
                                                                   different places were burning during the
                                                                   inspection.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the There is no gas monitoring on site.
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration




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                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an done and as this is not a permitted site DWAF
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant and DEAT do not carry out any auditing.
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for There is no leachate control and leachate is
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic running out of the lowest point on site and into
                 leachate and does not require a leachate a water course.
                 management system.
Staffing         N/A                                                Four Municipal Employees were found on site
                                                                    though the official Job Descriptions for these
                                                                    Employees is unknown as no control
                                                                    mechanism is being enforced.
Air Space        N/A                                                The Site should be closed and rehabilitated
                                                                    and a new site should be identified and
                                                                    developed.
General          N/A




      Figure 33: People and animals scavengomg on Mthatha waste disposal site




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      Figure 34: Leachate running out of the disposal site into water course below the site


      Mqanduli:

      Table 19: Waste disposal Status Quo at Mqanduli Waste Site

Audit Criteria Minimum Requirement (DWAF)                         Status Quo
Location         N/A                                              The Mqanduli waste disposal site is located at
                                                                  31048‗49.22‗‗S and 28046‗16.86‖E
Waste            N/A                                              There is no waste treatment being carried out
Treatment
Permit           Section 3.5.3 on DWAF‗s Minimum requirements The site is not permitted
                 states the following: The Permit Holder or
                 Responsible Person must ensure at all times that
                 the site is correctly classified. Should the class of
                 the site change over time, the Department must
                 be notified and the appropriate Minimum
                 Requirement must be applied.
Permissible      General waste excluding hazardous, medical/ There is no one on site controlling what is
waste            pharmaceutical and toxic waste. The Permit coming in. Thus, it is highly possible
                 Holder shall take reasonable steps to prevent the that hazardous waste could be found on site.
                 disposal of waste on the site for which the Site
                 has not been approved
Site Notice      Weatherproof, durable & legible notices in at There is a site notice written in English and
                 least 3 official languages applicable to the area, Xhosa on site. However, it is hardly
                 shall be displayed at each entrance to the site.   visible and needs to be replaced with a new
                                                                    and clear one as per the requirement.
Access           Site shall be fenced to a minimum height of      There is no control of informal recyclers on
Control          1.8m, with gates of the same height at all       site. This is mainly attributed to easy
                 entrances, to reasonably prevent unauthorized    access to the disposal site due to broken
                 entry. Permit Holder shall ensure effective      fencing and open gate. The site does not
                 access control                                   have security to enforce access control.
Operation        Waste disposed on site shall be compacted and There are no compactor machines on site.
                 covered on a daily basis with a min of 150mm of When found necessary TLB is sent




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                 soil or other material approved by Cluster from Mthatha to work on site. Internal and
                 Manager                                    external auditing is not being done and as this
                                                            is not a permitted site
                                                            DWAF and DEAT do not carry out any
                                                            auditing.
Monitoring       Permit Holder shall implement measures to the There is no monitoring on site. No Water
                 satisfaction of the Cluster Manager, to ventilate Quality Monitoring or Gas Monitoring
                 or to prevent lateral migration of methane gas
                 generated in waste disposal area within the Site
                 so that the build-up of dangerous concentration
                 is prevented. Air quality shall be taken on a 3
                 monthly-basis from gas monitoring boreholes or
                 any other monitoring devices approved by the
                 Cluster Manager which shall be at least 1m
                 deeper than the deepest point of the waste body.
Auditing         Internal audits must be conducted quarterly by      Internal and external auditing is not being
                 the Permit Holder and on each audit occasion an     done and as this is not a permitted site
                 official report must be compiled by the relevant    DWAF and DEAT do not carry out any
                 auditor to report the findings. The Permit Holder   auditing.
                 must appoint an independent external auditor to
                 audit the Site annually and this auditor must
                 compile an audit report documenting the findings
                 of the audit. The Department reserves the right
                 to audit and/ or inspect the Site at any time and
                 at such frequency as the Cluster Manager may
                 decide, or to have the site audited or inspected.

Leachate         According to DWAF‗s minimum requirements for        Storm water Drainage Ponds and a Leachate
management       landfills, a B-landfill generates only sporadic     Pond have been provided on site, but these
                 leachate and does not require a leachate            ponds are filled with refuse, plants and litter.
                 management system.                                  Drainage pipes from one pond the others are
                                                                     not visible and no maintenance is being
                                                                     performed on the existing ponds.
Staffing         N/A                                                 No municipal personnel work on site
Air Space        N/A                                                 As an estimate, approximately 60% of
                                                                     airspace is still available for the disposal of
                                                                     waste.
General          N/A




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Figure 35: Poor Storm water Drainage and Leachate management at Mqanduli waste
disposal site


5.5 Summary of Field Data

a) Waste Volumes

The survey attempted to gather data on the volumes of waste, domestic and
commercial, being generated in O.R. Tambo District Municipality. This data is
summarised in Table 20 below. These data are not considered to be very accurate.
This is due to the following:

         Very few records of waste volume are available
         Most of the waste being delivered to the sites is not being accounted for.
         Therefore, the data is based on estimations by municipal staff involved with
          waste collection and disposal.
Table 20: Annual volumes (in tons) of waste generated as per the field survey

           Waste Disposed at Municipal sites as per Survey 2009 Converted to Annual Values


                          Annual Domestic      Annual Business
                                                                      Annual Total
           Town           waste generation     waste generation                               Details
                                                                         (tons)
                               (tons)               (tons)

                                                                                         Compacted and
   Mbizana (Mbizana)           1462.24              1226.16              2688.40
                                                                                         Non-compacted

         Ntabankulu
                               1907.36              2125.34              4032.70         Non-compacted
        (Ntabankulu)

   Flagstaff (Ingquza
                               238.42                953.68              1192.10         Non-compacted
          Hill)

   Lusikisiki (Ingquza
                               238.42                953.68              1192.10         Non-compacted
           Hill)




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  Port St. Johns (Port
                                279.29                1110.36              1389.65        Non-compacted
       St John‘s)

   Libode (Nyandeni)            34.06                 613.08                647.14        Non-compacted


     Tsolo (Mhlontlo)           61.57                 923.52                985.09          Compacted


   Qumbu (Mhlontlo)             61.57                 923.52                985.09          Compacted

    Mquanduli (KSD)             54.50                 708.45                762.94        Non-compacted

     Mthatha (KSD)                  0.00               0.00                  0.00         No information

   Coffee Bay (KSD)                 0.00               0.00                  0.00         No information



The volumes reported in the survey also differs considerably from the volumes of
waste generation estimated using socio-economic data. This is to be expected due to
the following:

        The survey only reports on data being collected by the municipality and
         delivered to municipal waste disposal sites. It does not take into account the
         total waste generation.
        The actual waste generation is significantly higher. According to Community
         Survey 2007, in most of the local municipalities, a very small percentage of
         the waste being generated is collected by the municipalities and disposed of
         in municipal waste disposal sites.
        The estimates based on socio-economic data do not take into account
         commercial or business waste.
        The survey results are not as accurate as if they were based on accurate
         record keeping practices at the waste disposal sites.

Table 21: Comparison between the volumes reported as a result of the field survey and
the volumes as estimates using socio-economic data.
                                                              Estimated
                                           Field Survey                    Estimated
                                                               Annual
                                              Annual                      Disposal at
                     Municipality                             Volumes
                                             Volumes                       Municipal
                                                              generated
                                              (tons)                      sites (tons)
                                                                (tons)
                EC151: Mbizana Local
                                             1462.2            30631.4       612.6
                    Municipality

               EC152: Ntabankulu Local
                                             1907.4            15478.7       185.7
                    Municipality




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               EC153: Ngquza Hill Local
                                             476.8              30637.6        1409.3
                    Municipality

                  EC154: Port St John‘s
                                             279.3              18076.7        379.6
                   Local Municipality

               EC155: Nyandeni Local
                                                34.1            34412.9        653.8
                   Municipality

                  EC156: Mhlontlo Local
                                             123.1              25966.6        1376.2
                      Municipality
                   EC157: King Sabata
                    Dalindyebo Local            54.5            48708.9       12566.9
                      Municipality

                          Total             4337.4              203912.8      17184.3



b) Summary of Domestic and Business Premises Serviced by the
Municipalities


Table 22: Number of domestic and business premises serviced in each local
municipality

                                      Domestic          New
      Town          Domestic Business   and             RDP        Total          Comments
                                      Business         houses

   Mquanduli           893                233                       893

                                                                               560 new houses
                                                                                expected to be
      Tsolo                               777                       777
                                                                              established soon at
                                                                                Tsolo Junction
                                                                               1024 RDP houses
     Qumbu                                732                       732          not yet being
                                                                                   serviced

    Mthatha                                                                      Not provided


     Libode           1277        28      1305                      1305


 Port St. Johns       1200        144     1344                      1344




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    Mbizana        292          188          480             480

                                                                        85-90 business
  Ntabankulu                             1120               1120
                                                                      premises estimated

    Flagstaff                                               1244


    Lusikisiki    1244          120                         1364




Figure 36: Pie chart representation of domestic and business premises serviced by the
local municipalities


c) Summary of Staff Involved with Waste Management Services

Table 23: Number of staff members involved in waste management per local
municipality

      Town       Driver   Loaders     Sweepers Supervisors Managers            Details

   Mquanduli       1        4            4
     Tsolo         1        4            4




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    Qumbu                1    4         6
    Mthatha              7   58        162           4            1
    Libode               1    4         5
                                                                               Loaders include
 Port St. Johns          2   32                      1
                                                                                   sweepers
    Mbizana              5   10         6            2                          RCR Labourers
                                                                             The department has
                                                                           only one staff besides
                                                                            the supervisor at this
                                                                            moment and is trying
  Ntabankulu                                         1                    to hire, 30 labourers of
                                                                                 a community
                                                                          cooperative are used at
                                                                           the moment to collect
                                                                                    garbage
    Flagstaff            1   6          10
    Lusikisiki           1   6                       1


d) Summary of Collection Frequency in the Towns Surveyed

Table 24: Collection frequency for local municipalities in O.R. Tambo district

                                                         Collection
                 Town                   Type             frequency                  Details
                                                         days/week

               Mquanduli              Domestic               1
                                      Business /
                                                             7
                                     Commercial
                                  Street Sweeping            7
                 Tsolo                Domestic               1
                                      Business /
                                                             6
                                     Commercial
                                  Street Sweeping            6
                Qumbu                 Domestic               1
                                      Business /
                                                             6
                                     Commercial
                                  Street Sweeping            6
               Mthatha                Domestic               1         3 very poor areas 2 times weekly
                                     Business /              7




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                                   Commercial

                                 Street Sweeping          7
                 Libode             Domestic              2
                                    Business /
                                                          5
                                   Commercial
                                 Street Sweeping          5
           Port St. Johns           Domestic              5
                                    Business /
                                                          7
                                   Commercial
                                                                     in two shifts - 07h00 - 15h00 and
                                 Street Sweeping          7
                                                                               11h00 - 19h00
                Mbizana             Domestic              1
                                    Business /
                                                          6
                                   Commercial
                                 Street Sweeping          6
               Ntabankulu           Domestic              2
                                    Business /
                                                          7                     twice daily
                                   Commercial
                                                                     in two shifts - 07h00 - 15h00 and
                                 Street Sweeping          6
                                                                               15h00 - 21h00
                Flagstaff           Domestic              5
                                    Business /
                                                          7
                                   Commercial
                                 Street Sweeping          6
                Lusikisiki          Domestic              5
                                    Business /
                                                          7
                                   Commercial
                                 Street Sweeping          7

e) Analysis of Waste Disposal Sites

Table 25: Summary analysis of status of waste disposal sites
                                            Available
                Name          Size (m2)                           Remark                   Town
                                             space
   Mqanduli Waste Disposal
                               25200             60%                                  Mquanduli
            Site




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   Tsolo Waste Disposal Site
                                  21600      100%        not yet in use             Tsolo
         (permitted)
 Qumbu Waste Disposal Site
                                  18900      80%                                Qumbu
 (for both Qumbu and Tsolo)
                                                      size unavailable and
   Mthatha Waste Disposal
                                             0%      should be closed and       Mthatha
            Site
                                                          rehabilitated
                                                      a new one 80-85%
                                 an open
  Libode Waste Disposal Site                        complete is next to this        Libode
                                   pit
                                                              pit
     Port St. Johns Waste                                                       Port St.
                                             35%       size unavailable
         Disposal Site                                                           Johns
   Mbizana Waste Disposal
                                 open area   0%        size unavailable         Mbizana
               Site
  Ntabankulu Waste Disposal
                                             50%       size unavailable        Ntabankulu
               Site
 Flagstaff Waste Disposal Site               50%       size unavailable         Flagstaff
   Lusikisiki Waste Disposal
                                                       size unavailable         Lusikisiki
               Site




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6 GAP ANALYSIS AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT
6.1 Synopsis of Gaps and Needs
All the seven local municipalities within the ORTDM are faced with similar challenges
in waste management and these are mainly symptomatic in nature. The IWMP must
now seek to address the key issues, which are at the root of these challenges and
pave a way towards addressing these issues and challenges for the future. Further to
this the IWMP must put forward the necessary interventions and mechanisms which
the OR Tambo District Municipality and the Local Municipalities must implement in
order to meet the current and future needs of waste management within their areas
of jurisdiction.
The gaps in the waste management systems within OR Tambo DM are as a result of
3 major root causes namely:
Waste Management has traditionally not been seen or perceived as a priority
concern and hence it has not enjoyed much support from the top structures of the
municipalities. This root cause has resulted into a number of ramifications which
manifest in a complete system failure or lack thereof.
Secondly, the current regulatory framework, financing mechanisms, planning tools,
and resources to support waste management has been very weak and this has led to
a stagnation of the system and collapse of any previous attempt to develop waste
management sector.
Thirdly, ‗silence‘ in the waste management sector within OR Tambo DM, due to very
limited or no involvement of the public, private, industry interest and Lobby groups in
this region.
The table below spells out the identified gaps and needs within the waste
management hierarchy in the OR Tambo District and the Local Municipalities.




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Table 26: Gap Analysis and Recommended Actions for the waste management system
    Waste Management                      Status Quo Gaps                                Desired State (by 2015)                  Recommended Actions / Programmes to
         system                                                                                                                                  Implement
                                    There is no waste minimization                 Waste        minimisation       strategy     Develop waste minimisation strategy to
                                     strategy in the ORTDM and all the               developed.                                     ensure waste reduction in waste in
                                     7 local municipalities.                        Improved awareness levels for the              generation areas.
                                    There is no long-term planned                   community and business on waste              Introduce education and awareness
                                     public education and awareness                  management.                                    programmes to residential and commercial
                                     programme on waste reduction                   Major waste generators identified              areas. Cleanup Campaigns must be liked
                                     within the District and the local               within the municipalities.                     to Waste Minimization Programmes that
                                     municipalities. Isolated initiatives           All development applications have              enhance avoidance & minimization.
                                     within     the       certain   local            waste minimization strategies.               Encourage        community     ‗avoidance‘
                                     municipalities only focus on                   Developing-term        strategy      and       programmes and activities e.g. school
       Avoidance and
                                     cleanup of illegally dumped waste.              programme Waste-Wise awareness,                competitions rewarding resource recovery
        minimization
                                    Current development applications                Anti-Dumping & cleanup campaigns               initiatives.
                                     are     screened        for   waste             reduced littering & illegal dumping of       The municipalities must establish a Waste
                                     minimisation strategy within their              waste.                                         Information System (WIS) with a database
                                     Environmental Management Plans                 Additional    refuse     equipment     is      of major waste generators and these
                                     (EMP, EIA reports).                             procured and provided to service               should be the focus of initial waste
                                    No      Database        for  Waste              areas.                                         avoidance initiatives.
                                     Generators within the District                 Waste Information System (WIS)               Introduce and where available, enhance
                                     Municipalities &local municipalities.           established                                    street cleanup campaigns in high-density
                                                                                                                                    townships as well

                                      Refuse collection is currently                                                             
                                       limited to urban centres and no
 Collection, Cleansing and             collections in the rural areas.
      Transportation                  Within the urban centres
                                       collection and cleansing is only
                                       limited to suburbs and a few


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    Waste Management               Status Quo Gaps                          Desired State (by 2015)              Recommended Actions / Programmes to
         system                                                                                                             Implement
                                cases parts of the townships.
                               Little to No collection in the
                                informal settlements.
                               Poor and inadequate equipment
                                and materials for refuse
                                collection. Most municipalities
                                use 210 litre bins and kerbside
                                drop off, black bags for domestic
                                collections, but there are still
                                many inadequacies in provision
                                of these materials.
                               Although all people must have
                                equitable access to services,
                                there are still huge imbalances in
                                access to waste management
                                services.
                               In most of the municipalities
                                public refuse drop facilities are
                                very limited or inadequate.
                               Transportation vehicles are in
                                some municipalities very old,
                                while others have new vehicles
                                but not enough cater for the area
                                of responsibility.
                               Very limited to reuse of the              Improved awareness and increased          Education and awareness campaigns
               Reuse            various waste streams despite              composting initiatives.                    must also include and encourage
                                potential for reuse based on the          Development of Waste Exchange              composting of other biodegradable



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    Waste Management               Status Quo Gaps                                 Desired State (by 2015)                  Recommended Actions / Programmes to
         system                                                                                                                             Implement
                                waste stream survey.                             platform for the DM.                           materials.
                                                                                Reuse of other elements of waste             The local municipalities must also
                                                                                 stream                                         encourage the community-related
                                                                                                                                initiatives making products out of
                                                                                                                                recycled materials.
                                                                                                                              Waste exchange platform developed
                                                                                                                                populated, workshopped and
                                                                                                                                implemented.
                               There are 3 recycling companies               Increased number of recycling                  Encourage the establishment of recycling
                                in the DM based in Mthatha in                  companies within the District                   companies and buy-back centres in the
                                KSD Municipality.                              municipality.                                   ORTDM and provide the necessary
                               There are no Buy Back Centres                 Enhanced provision of support to these          support to ensure sustainability of the
                                in the DM                                      companies and initiatives.                      programmes.
                               There is no Transfer Stations in              Transfer stations established in each          Reinitiate the process of establishing
                                the DM                                         Local Municipality.                             transfer stations in other municipalities and
                               There is no facility for waste                Waste separation facilities established.        identify staffing requirements.
                                separation within all landfill sites          PPPs established to support waste              Encourage separation of waste in
               Recycle          in ORTDM.                                      separation initiatives.                         industrial and residential areas. This could
                               There is no capacity within the               Waste recycling capacity within the             be a collaborative effort with an NGO or
                                municipalities to develop and                  Waste Management Directorate                    companies buying recycling materials in
                                drive waste minimisation and                   improved.                                       the Municipality (PPP).
                                recycling initiatives.                        Office Waste Recycling for the Local           Provide facilities and infrastructure to
                               Recycling of waste in District                 Municipalities &ORTDM – formalised.             assist industry, business, community as
                                Municipality offices is not                   Registration facility established in all        well as municipal offices to undertake
                                formalised.                                    landfill sites for monitoring of                resource recovery practices, e.g. kerbside
                               Scavengers are not registered                  scavengers.                                     recycling containers.
                                upon entering landfill sites and                                                              A registration facility for scavengers must



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    Waste Management                Status Quo Gaps                           Desired State (by 2015)                   Recommended Actions / Programmes to
         system                                                                                                                         Implement
                                are exposed to landfill hazards.                                                          be   established    to     ensure    proper
                                                                                                                          monitoring.
                                                                                                                        There must be an official dedicated to
                                                                                                                          waste recycling e.g. Specialist: Waste
                                                                                                                          Recycling which will include identifying,
                                                                                                                          monitoring and evaluation of recycling
                                                                                                                          opportunities    &   initiatives  in    the
                                                                                                                          Municipality.
                               There is no waste treatment              Necessary studies undertaken to                 The ORTDM should start investigating
                                facility in ORTDM                         investigate possibility of establishing          options of establishing a waste treatment
          Treatment                                                       treatment facility as per DWAF‘s                 facility, in order to provide such a service
                                                                          minimum regulatory requirements.                 and also to generate revenue.

                               Operation of landfill sites in the       All landfill sites audited and evaluated.       Appoint service provider to undertake
                                DM does not comply with DWAF              Recommendations from the audit                   external audits of all landfill sites against
                                Minimum Requirements for                  considered and implemented.                      DWAF Minimum Requirements.
                                Landfill sites                           Alternative permitted landfill site             Ensure that the quarterly internal auditing
                               The existing landfill sites in DM         established as per DWAF Minimum                  for all landfills is undertaken.
                                have got very limited airspace.           Requirements for landfill sites.                Ensure specialised landfills operation and
                               While some local municipalities          Undertake a hazardous waste stream               management Training for all Local
           Disposal             still have ample airspace                 survey, which will inform the need and           Municipality personnel operating the
                                especially those with new landfill        desirability of establishing medical and         landfills.
                                sites, some including KSD, which          hazardous waste disposal facility within        Ensure that all landfills are permitted.
                                is the largest contributor to waste       the region.                                     Ensure all landfills have operational plans
                                generation do not have any               Spotters provided an accredited                  and environmental monitoring plans.
                                airspace for disposal.                    training to assist in performing their          Ensure that all plans are implemented.
                               There is no knowledge of the              duties.                                         Initiate site selection and permitting
                                quantities of hazardous waste            Collection and disposal machinery


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    Waste Management                  Status Quo Gaps                         Desired State (by 2015)                    Recommended Actions / Programmes to
         system                                                                                                                          Implement
                                generated within the District             budgeted for and procured.                       process for an alternative landfill site
                                Municipality.                                                                            Undertake an Airspace Audit of all landfills
                               There is no medical or hazardous         Adequate and appropriate compaction              within the District Municipality and make
                                waste disposal facility in the            machines provided in landfill sites.             recommendations for future planning.
                                District Municipality.                   Penalty system for illegal dumping             Undertake a hazardous and medical waste
                               Spotters of hazardous or medical          introduced and enforced.                         stream surveys.
                                waste in the landfill sites are          Landfill rehabilitation is undertaken and      Training of spotters in landfill sites must be
                                incapacitated to perform their            site is closed.                                  undertaken.
                                duties.                                  Have a continuous training programme           Provide larger storage containers for
                               The majority of the disposal sites        for strategy or Landfill operations and          industrial areas for general non-hazardous,
                                in the DM are not licensed.               management.                                      waste stream.
                               There are no proper compaction                                                           Operating machinery must be procured
                                machines at landfill sites.                                                                and properly maintained and serviced.
                               There are no skilled or qualified                                                        Procurement of new equipment and
                                personnel for operation of landfill                                                        vehicles for refuse removal to service
                                sites at most of the local                                                                 additional areas, as well as for disposal.
                                municipalities.                                                                          ORTDM should investigate the possibility
                                                                                                                           of establishing a Regional Landfill Site to
                                                                                                                           service the ORTDM and its Local
                                                                                                                           Municipalities.
                                                                                                                         Develop and implement a strategy and
                                                                                                                           plan for training of landfill operators and
                                                                                                                           managers within the District and at each of
                                                                                                                           the local municipalities.




        Organo grams           The      current    organizational       Properly structured organizational               An exercise of restructuring the Municipal


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    Waste Management               Status Quo Gaps                       Desired State (by 2015)                  Recommended Actions / Programmes to
         system                                                                                                                    Implement
                                structures within the Local          structures to ensure that waste                organizational structures must be
                                Municipalities do not support        management has a high enough                   engaged.
                                proper       functioning waste       profile.                                     The municipalities must advertise and fill
                                management operations.              Current vacant posts are filled.               all vacant posts.
                               There are no dedicated Waste        All relevant posts are budgeted for in       The municipalities must motivate for Waste
                                Management Officers in most          the IDP, advertised and filled.                Outreach sub-unit with an education and
                                Municipalities.                                                                     awareness mandate.
                                                                                                                  There must be an official dedicated to
                                                                                                                    waste recycling e.g. Specialist: Waste
                                                                                                                    Recycling which will include identification,
                                                                                                                    monitoring and evaluation of recycling
                                                                                                                    opportunities & initiatives in each
                                                                                                                    Municipality.
                                                                                                                  A Waste Research unit must also be
                                                                                                                    established. This unit will undertake the
                                                                                                                    necessary surveys and data collection to
                                                                                                                    update waste information & policies in
                                                                                                                    each Municipality and provide
                                                                                                                    recommendations.
                                                                                                                  A Compliance and Enforcement Unit
                                                                                                                    (Brown Scorpions!) must be established.
                                                                                                                    This will not only oversee public
                                                                                                                    compliance of municipal by-laws but also
                                                                                                                    municipal compliance with legislative
                                                                                                                    requirements (undertakes audits or
                                                                                                                    outsources reviews).
                                                                                                                  Additional general workers are required to
                                                                                                                    beef up the Operations Unit. This will also


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    Waste Management                  Status Quo Gaps                         Desired State (by 2015)              Recommended Actions / Programmes to
         system                                                                                                                    Implement
                                                                                                                     be important when expanding service
                                                                                                                     areas.
                                                                                                                   An Occupational Health & Safety
                                                                                                                     Committee for landfills must be established
                                                                                                                     in all municipalities to oversee the
                                                                                                                     reporting of accidents and incidents in
                                                                                                                     landfills.
                                 There are no By-Laws to regulate       District-wide By-laws developed and        Municipality to appoint service provider to
                                  waste management in the                 implemented.                                draft standardised District-wide waste by-
                                  ORTDM as well as each Local            Reports compiled on current state of        laws and provide staff training on
                                  Municipality                            equipment and updated on an ongoing         compliance and enforcement of waste by-
                                 No information on the current           basis.                                      laws
                                  status of the equipment used for       Waste Information System (WIS)             The Municipality should compile a report
                                  the service waste and collection.       established and training provided.          detailing the current status of equipment
                                 Municipal waste records should         Research and surveys undertaken to          used.
                                  be kept and maintained for              gather relevant decision-making            A Waste Research unit must also be
 Institutional Arrangements
                                  informed future decision-making         information.                                established. This unit will undertake the
                                  purposes and to comply with the                                                     necessary surveys and data collection to
                                  Government‘s Waste Information                                                      update waste information & policies in the
                                  System requirements.                                                                Municipality and provide
                                                                                                                      recommendations.
                                                                                                                     Establish waste information system (WIS)
                                                                                                                      in landfill sites (weighbridges were there
                                                                                                                      are not available) and provide the
                                                                                                                      necessary training to the operating staff




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                         7 GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
                         7.1 Introduction
                         This section of the ORTDM IWMP focuses on the objectives, targets and policies
                         which the District should agree to and strives to commit to, covering short-term (0-5
                         years) and medium-term plans (10-15 years). Please refer to the implementation plan
                         of the IWMP for specific projects to achieve the objectives outlined in this section, as
                         well as responsibilities for implementation. The report is informed by the document
                         on the Status Quo as well as Gap Analysis and Needs Assessment Report. The
                         review of this IWMP should be done against the agreed objectives and targets.

                         The overarching waste management objectives for the ORTDM should include the
                         following:
                               Develop waste management by-laws and standards to be effectively
                                 implemented and enforced by all local municipalities within the District. The
                                 District must provide regulatory oversight of the by-laws and standards;
                               Reduce the volume of waste stream through the development and
                                 implementation of waste recycling programmes;
                               Provide efficient and economical refuse collection, recycling and disposal
                                 services; and
                               Provide facilities for the efficient transportation of waste generated in the
                                 District.
                         Table 27: Objectives and Targets for Waste Management in the ORTDM


                                  STATUS QUO GAPS & NEEDS ANALYSIS                             ACTIONS TO ACCOMPLISH OBJECTIVES
                                                                    1. Waste Management Standards and By-laws
                               Objective & target: District Waste Management By-Laws and Standards to be developed by June 2011

                                  There are no By-Laws to regulate waste               Short-term
                                   management in the ORTDM as well as each local           Initiate a process to develop District Waste
                                   Municipality                                                Management Standards and By-Laws
INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY




                                                                                           By-laws to include such issues as illegal dumping of
                                                                                               waste, waste minimization, waste information systems,
                                                                                               etc
                                                                                           Identify key personnel to ensure enforcement of
                                                                                               standards and by-laws
                                                                                        Medium Term
                                                                                           Continuously update standards and by-laws
                                                                                           Local municipalities to develop own by-laws &
                                                                                               standards in line with District by-laws & standards by
                                                                                               June 2012.

                                                                         2. Waste Information System (WIS)
                               Objective & target: A WIS providing information on volumes and types of waste generated, collected and disposed
                                         within the District, as well as a list of private service providers, should be in place by end 2012
                               The ORTDM currently does not have a Waste                  Short-term
                                Information System (WIS) capturing data on waste            Centralise all existing waste related information (where
                                generated, collected or disposed of.                            possible) in electronic format (WIS must comply with the
                               No Database for Waste Generators within the Local               Government WIS Requirements);
                                Municipalities &ORTDM.                                      Local municipalities to continuously provide & update all
                                                                                                information associated with waste generation,

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                                                                                         prevention, minimization, recovery, recycling, treatment
                                                                                         and disposal;
                                                                                      Establish and implement an equitable standardized
                                                                                         waste collection and disposal system tariffs (gradually
                                                                                         phased-in over the 5year period); and
                                                                                      Establish detailed financial schedules and identify
                                                                                         sources of future development funding.
                                                                                     Medium-term
                                                                                      Local municipalities to develop and implement own WIS

                                                                     3. Integrated Waste Management Plans
                         Objective & target: Ensure that all local municipalities by end 2011 have developed or updated their IWMPs, in line with
                                                 the District IWMP and in accordance with the 2008 Waste Management Act.
                          The all municipalities within the ORTDM do not have      Short-term
                             up to date Integrated Waste Management Plans            Assist the local municipalities in initiating the process of
                             (IWMPs).                                                    developing their IWMPs
                          The documents which the municipalities are currently  Provide the necessary financial assistance and guidance
                             relying on are primer documents which were              Assist in the implementation, review and update of
                             developed as part of the development of the Old             IWMPs
                              IWMP for ORTDM (2004), and do not reflect the
                              current status of waste management within each of
                              the municipalities and do not conform to the
                              standards and requirements set out in NEMWA.

                                                                                  4. Human resources
                          Objective & target: Ensure that all local municipalities have the necessary capacity for effective waste management by
                                                                                     end 2011.
                            Spotters of hazardous or medical waste in the             Short-term (District Level)
                                landfill sites are incapacitated to perform their       Undertake a skills audit of existing waste management
                                duties.                                                    personnel
                            There is no capacity within the municipalities to          Develop a recruitment action plan
                                develop and drive waste minimisation and                Advertise and fill all vacant and new posts
                                recycling initiatives.                                  Identify training needs for management and operations
                             There is limited and inadequate staffing for waste           personnel and undertake in-house training
                                   management in the Local Municipalities.
                                                                                     Medium-term
                                                                                      Local municipalities to ensure that recruitment and
                                                                                         training of staff is undertaken by end 2012.

                                                                             5. Waste Minimisation
                          Objective & target: Ensure that by end 2010, a waste minimization programme is established and that waste generation
REUSE & RECYCLING
WASTE REDUCTION,




                                                             is minimised by 10% in the District Municipality by 2015
                            There is no waste minimization programme in the          Short-term
                                ORTDM and its Local Municipalities.                      Approach industry and community-based
                            Recycling by private initiatives and cooperatives               organisations (CBOs) within the District to establish
                            A Material Recycling Facility currently exists in               public-private partnerships for waste minimization &
                                Westonaria but it is not in operation.                       recycling initiatives increase efficiency &minimise
                            There is no transfer station in the ORTDM                       costs
                            There is no facility for waste separation within all        Encourage recycling through cooperatives and
                                landfill sites in ORTDM.                                     informal sector, private sector and large business
                               No Composting                                            Identify and implement waste recovery and recycling
                               No Re use or waste exchange                                  pilot projects that also result in job creation for local


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                                                                                        communities
                                                                                       Conduct research into possible uses for certain waste
                                                                                        streams
                                                                                     Formalise recycling initiatives at waste disposal
                                                                                        facilities by initiating a pilot programme on Material
                                                                                        Recycling Facility (MRF)
                                                                                     Establish garden waste, and organic waste collection
                                                                                        centres / transfer areas in the local municipalities
                                                                                     Develop and implement composting programme
                                                                                     Identify and highlight the potential job creation
                                                                                        opportunities associated with waste recovery and
                                                                                        recycling and provide opportunities to develop
                                                                                        contacts and networks to promote waste recycling
                                                                                        within the District
                                                         6. Waste Recycling Education & Awareness Programme
                                      Objective & target: Ensure that a waste education programme is in place by June 2013.
                           Few public education and awareness programmes Short-term
                            on waste reduction within the municipalities.            Identify key stakeholders to assist in the development
                            Current initiatives within the local municipalities         and execution of the programme.
                            only focus on clean-up of illegally dumped waste.        Increase public awareness to increase participation in
                                                                                        waste minimization, reduction and recycling initiatives
                                                                                     Undertake a public capacity building campaign
                                                                                        highlighting the benefits associated with waste
                                                                                        prevention, minimization, recovery and recycling
                                                                                     Hold a series of workshops to identify and discuss
                                                                                        opportunities associated with waste collection /
                                                                                        recovery and recycling
                                                                                     Extend public campaigns into informal and high
                                                                                        density settlement areas
                                                                                 Medium-term
                                                                                       Monitor and review impacts of waste minimization
                                                                                           campaigns and develop additional ones

                                                                  7. Waste Collection Infrastructure
                                      Objective: Ensure all residents, business and industry receive efficient waste collection services
                     The municipalities have a number of vehicles that       Short-term
                        are old and in poor working condition                     Partner with waste collection companies and other
                     There are no proper compaction machines at                     stakeholders to address service challenges identified
                        landfill sites.                                              in this IWMP
                                                                                  Provide larger storage containers for industrial areas
                                                                                     for general non-hazardous, waste stream.
COLLECTION




                                                                                  Operating machinery must be procured and properly
                                                                                     maintained and serviced.
                                                                                  Replacement of old vehicles / procurement of new
                                                                                     equipment and vehicles for refuse removal to service
                                                                                     additional areas, as well as for disposal.
                                                                                  Optimise collection routes and draw up route plans
                                                                    8. Expansion of serviced areas
                   Objective & target: Rural Areas, new developments and un-serviced areas incorporated into serviceable areas by end
                                                                              2014
                     The rural areas, some coastal resorts, informal         Short-term
                        settlements and township areas within the urban           Identify areas that require waste management services.


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                                areas currently do not have any waste                     Identify new development areas and incorporate them
                                management services. This in not compliant with            into serviceable areas
                                the NEMWA, Act 58 of 2008, which calls on              Extend waste collection, transportation and disposal
                                Municipalities to provide equitable waste                  services to dense settlements
                                management services throughout their areas of          Develop a strategy to incorporate these areas and ensure
                                influence.                                                 that they receive waste collection and disposal
                                                                                           services
                                                                                9. Waste Transfer
                             Objective & target: Establish at least 2 waste transfers within the District by June 2014 (applications to be done
                                                         simultaneously with the Regional landfill site application)
      TRANSFER




                               There are no waste transfers within the District   Short term
                                Municipality                                        Identify areas and sites for the location of transfer
                                                                                          stations
                                                                                    Undertake feasibility studies for the identified sites
                                                                                    Initiate and undertake the necessary studies and public
                                                                                          participation processes (EIA) and license applications
                                                                           10. Regional Landfill Site
                                               Objective & target: A Regional Landfill Site must be investigated by June 2014

                               The various disposal sites within the DM have        Short-term
                                reached their full capacity as well.                  Draw up site establishment contract documentation,
                               There is currently no landfill that is properly          invite to tender and award
                                                                                      Undertake activities associated with the investigation of
                                operated with the capacity to handles certain risk
                                                                                         the development of a Regional Landfill Site in
                                wastes which may warrant disposal within the             accordance with DWAF Minimum Requirements (1998)
                                region e.g. certain medical wastes if treated,           i.e. EIA for site selection, public consultation, permitting,
                                animal wastes, low grade hazardous waste if              etc.
                                delisted etc.

                                                                      11. Auditing of Landfill sites
                      Objective & target:ORTDM must ensure that all local municipalities Undertake an audit of all landfill sites by June 2011,
                                               against license conditions as well as DWAF Minimum Requirements
                        The operation of the all landfill sites within the Short-term
DISPOSAL




                            ORTDM currently do not comply to the license ORTDM to assist local municipalities to:
                            conditions and DWAF Minimum Requirements  Undertake an audit of all landfill and address the
                            (e.g. leachate management, monitoring, operation,       requirements of existing landfill facilities
                            airspace, etc)                                       Undertake all activities associated with the closure and
                                                                                    rehabilitation of existing landfill sites whose airspace
                                                                                    capacity has been reached, in accordance with DWAF
                                                                                    Minimum Requirements (1998)
                                                                                 Ensure that all the landfills within the DM are properly
                                                                                    licensed and the licenses are readily available at the sites
                                                                                    for easy auditing.

                                                                           12. Hazardous Waste
                        Objective & target: A detailed hazardous waste stream analysis must be undertaken by March 2017 to determine the
                                                       need and feasibility for a hazardous waste disposal site
                        There is no hazardous waste facility in the ORTDM. Medium-term
                        Currently the closest hazardous waste site is in Port        Commission a District hazardous waste survey
                        Elizabeth. This makes disposal of any hazardous Long-term
                        wastes a very expensive exercise. Medical or Health            The regional landfill envisaged in 10 above must be
                                                                                          investigated to see if should not have a least 1 cell
                        Care Waste is included in this category.
                                                                                          dedicated to the disposal of low grade Hazardous
                        Illegal dumping of hazardous waste particularly                   waste Such a cell must be operated by an

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        medical waste is rampant within the DM.             independent experienced contractor.
        There is no knowledge of the quantities of         Undertake activities associated with the
        hazardous waste generated within the District       development of a hazardous waste cell in
        Municipality.                                       accordance with DWAF Minimum Requirements
                                                            (1998)


7.2 Policy on Waste Management
OR Tambo District and all Local Municipalities within ORTDM must embrace the
roles, responsibilities and powers and functions for waste management given to them
terms of Schedule 5B of the Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996). This
competence that must be executed to protect human and environmental health in
terms of Section 24 of the national constitution. The statutory obligation of local
government in terms of waste management further enshrined in a number of laws
including the Municipal Systems Act (Act No. 32 of2000), and also the National
Environmental Management Waste Act, Act 58 of 2008 among others.

The OR Tambo District must therefore adopt a policy that ensures that these
mandatory roles, responsibilities, powers and functions and competencies are
executed without prejudice or neglect.

7.2.1 Scope of Policy on Waste Management
The policy will enable the ORTDM to ensure and regulate the provision of waste
management services, either through internal or departmental services. The policy
will cover and entail the following:
             The management and minimization of waste that will be collected,
               processed, treated, or recycled;
             The management of waste that will be disposed of at a licensed,
               regulated landfill site inside the boundaries of the District or any other
               waste management site under its control;
             All individuals visiting or residing in the District, and entities doing
               business or providing any form of private, public or community service
               requiring waste management services;
             All service providers operating in the waste management industry; and
             The regulation of waste in transit through the District to ensure proper
               management, recycling and control of all types of waste.

7.2.2 Purpose of Policy on Waste Management
The purpose of the District‘s integrated waste management policy will include but not
limited to the following:
         Standardization of the provision of waste management services
             throughout the District
         Alignment of the District‘s waste management services to the provisions
             as outlined in the National Environmental Management: Waste Act (Act
             No. 59 of 2008);
         Provide a basis for an integrated by-law that will be used to regulate
             waste generation and waste management services;
         Introduce, facilitate and encourage effective waste minimisation and
             waste management practices;

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              Ensure the effective and economical long term provision of waste
               management solutions for the District; and
              Enable the District to set direct or indirect tariffs and provide for incentives
               and disincentives as mechanism to encourage waste minimization and
               waste avoidance.

7.2.3 Formalisation of the Policy
In an order to support the developed integrated waste management policy, the
ORTDM will in terms of Section 13(a) of the Municipal Systems Act, 2000 (Act No. 32
of 2000), publishes the Waste Management By-laws for the District. The suit of by-
laws will seek to address amongst others the following:
        Waste Management Information;
        Provision to access to the municipal services;
        Provision for commercial, business, industrial and recyclable waste;
        Provision for the regulation of the generation, storage, collection,
            transportation and disposal of waste; and
        Prohibition of waste dumping and or littering.




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8 ALTERNATIVES, OPTIONS AND SCENARIOS
8.1 Introduction
This sections aims to determine and assess the available alternatives scenarios and
options to Municipalities for achieving the goals and objectives set out in section 7.
The approach followed in this section is determine alternatives and options for
achieving goals and objectives within each component of the waste management
hierarchy and waste management system.

8.2 Proposed Waste Management System for OR Tambo DM
This IWMP proposes an integrated Waste Management Systems for the OR Tambo
DM which combines the 3 approaches:
   1) A life cycle assessment approach to waste management (cradle to grave);
   2) A generation approach to waste management considering all sources of
       waste generation (Domestic/Residential, Commercial/Industrial, and Services
       (HealthCare), and looks for opportunities to implement the 3R (Reduce,
       Reuse and Recycle) at the point of generation; and
   3) A Management based Approach to waste management which seeks to
       introduce Regulatory Frameworks, Policies, Laws, Financial Mechanisms,
       Technology and Infrastructure as well as Public Participation /Consultation to
       ensure an effective sustainable waste management system.

The figure below illustrates the desired waste management system for OR Tambo,
which incorporates all the 3 approaches to waste management above.




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               Figure 37 Waste Management System for OR Tambo DM




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8.3 Waste Minimisation and Avoidance
Waste minimization or avoidance and reduction must be seen as the highest priority
goal and objective within the waste management hierarchy of OR Tambo DM. There
are a number of internationally and nationally recognized alternatives and options for
waste minimization that can be employed at various levels in order to realize waste
reduction and avoidance. This section outlines the possible alternatives and makes
recommendations for specific alternatives and options to be considered in the case of
OR Tambo DM and the local municipalities. It is important to understand that a y
successful waste minimization option must involve interventions at the source of
waste generation i.e. households, businesses (commercial areas), institutions and
industry, and must involve paradigm shifts in mindsets, approach to business, and
cleaner production. In South Africa, the NWMS layout a framework for waste
minimization, which includes specific measures that must be implemented at various
levels and these include, but will not be limited to:

Alternatives and Options                    Applicability in Practice
Setting norms and standards for Waste          NEMWA makes provision for national norms
Minimization                                      and standards for waste minimization, but
                                                  these have not yet been established.
                                               Once these have been established, OR Tambo
                                                  DM must ensure that these norms and
                                                  standards are at the minimum complied with
                                                  within its area of influence.
                                               OR Tambo DM could set its own norms and
                                                  standards, which must not be less stringent
                                                  than the national or provincial norms and
                                                  standards.
Development and Implementation of Waste        Ensure that IWMPs are developed and
management plans                                  implemented.
                                               The District must implement its IWMP
                                               All Local Municipalities must develop up to
                                                  date IWMPs and implement them
                                               All industry sectors, which will be required to
                                                  develop IWMPs in terms of the NEMWA, must
                                                  develop and implement their IWMPs.
                                               OR Tambo DM must play an enforcement role
                                                  in ensuring that above institutions comply with
                                                  this requirement.
Engaging in proactive public awareness         OR Tambo DM and the local municipalities
campaigns,    training  about    waste            must develop and implement a proactive
minimization                                      strategy for awareness creation, education of
                                                  the public on the benefits and methods of
                                                  waste reduction.
Participation in governments Incentive         Government has initiated a number of
programmes for waste minimization                 incentives and programmes for waste
                                                  minimization for municipalities and industry,
                                                  which include cleanest town and municipality
                                                  competition, clean industry awards.
                                               OR Tambo DM must ensure that it participates
                                                  in such programmes and must encourage the
                                                  local municipalities to also participate.
                                               Incentives for waste reduction can be
                                                  investigated. These may include restructuring
                                                  municipal services tariff systems to encourage
                                                  waste reduction.



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In order to realize the goals and objectives of waste minimization within OR Tambo
DM, the District must develop a waste minimization action plan, which shall espouse
one or more of the above possible alternatives and options for waste minimization.

8.4 Waste Collection
The main aspects of collection services are:

        Waste receptacles
        Placement of receptacles
        Collection frequency
        Types of collection and transportation vehicles

8.4.1 Waste Receptacles
Waste Receptacles are the primary units for any waste collection system and these
can be used everywhere where waste is likely to be generated i.e. at source such as
schools, malls, offices, roadside or street side, public areas such as beaches, parks,
rest stops, hospitals, nursing homes — the list goes on and on. Waste receptacles
can be almost any size, shape or colour ranging from small plastic bags to much-
larger containers. The following photo plate shows the various waste receptacles
currently in use with OR Tambo DM.




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            The choice of receptacle is dependent on a number of factors including but not
            limited to the following:

                  Type of waste to be collected for example if the waste stream is compactable or
                   non-compactable Waste can influence the choice of receptacle.
                  Amount of waste to be collected (quantities).
                  Whether source separation system is employed or waste is intended for
                   separation and recycling.
                  Types of transportation vehicles and equipment available.
                  Available budget for receptacles. The various types of bins, skips and
                   containers differ in cost implication.

            The table below presents the various alternatives and options for waste receptacles.

            Table 28 Alternatives and Options for Waste receptacles
Types                          Variations                                          Suitability
Bags                               Single black bags                               Suitable for households
                                   2 bag system (2 colours for source separation   2 bag systems are used where
                                       purposes)                                   source segregation is employed
                                                                                   for purposes of recycling. Mainly
                                                                                   works in affluent areas.
Drum Bins                         240lt Otto Bin (Wheeled bin, with lid)           Households
                                  210lt Drums                                      Street
                                  85lt Bins                                        Shopping malls
                                                                                   Other public places
Static Compactors              6m³, 9m³, 11m³ and 15m³                              Compactable wastes
Bulk Containers (Skip bins)    6m3 Bin Dimensions (m) – 3.65(l) x      1.88(w) x   Heavy Waste e.g. Building
                               1.28(h)                                             rubble
                               9m3 Bin Dimensions (m) – 3.65(l) x      1.70(w) x   Lighter waste e.g. garden
                               1.62(h)                                             refuses, ash.
                               11m3 Bin (Dimensions (m) – 3.65(l) x    1.70(w) x   Sawdust/wood/light       industrial
                               1.82(h)                                             waste
                               15m3 Bin (Dimensions (m) – 4.77(l) x    1.66(w) x   Low density industrial waste
                               2.13(h)

                               18m3 Bin Dimensions (m) – 4.77(l) x 1.84(w) x       Low density        high    volume
                               2.33(h)                                             products

            In the urban areas which are densely populated various receptacles types and sizes
            may be employed, while rural areas could rely on black bags and a central drop off
            place where larger receptacles can be placed for easy access by the community.

            For commercial collection, i.e. restaurants, shops, etc., a vast number of receptacles
            is used. In most instances the type of receptacles are determined by the type and
            volume of waste disposed of as well as the type of service rendered. In smaller towns
            the Municipality usually renders the service and they provide the receptacles. In
            larger towns there are usually private contractors collecting waste from commercial
            collection points.

            Generators of industrial waste usually dispose of their waste themselves, or use a
            private contractor, and usually use larger receptacles such as skip containers.



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      8.4.2 Placement of Waste Receptacles
      In most instances domestic waste receptacles are placed on the pavement on the
      day of collection. This allows for easy access to the receptacle and saves on actual
      collection time. In some instances, collection of commercial receptacles is done from
      the actual premises.

      8.4.3 Frequency of refuse collection
      The collection frequency is again dependent on the volumes of waste generated, the
      availability of the equipment and the level of service. The norm is that domestic
      collection is done once a week in most areas. Commercial collection is dependent on
      the volumes generated and the types of waste. A restaurant, for instance, will have
      their waste removed up to four times a week should the volumes require it. This is
      due to the fact that most of their waste is food residue that can cause an odour and
      fly problem within a day or two.

      8.4.4 Types of refuse collection Vehicles
      The choice of type of collection and transportation vehicles and equipment will be
      determined by a number of factors including the available budget, cost of the service
      to the residents, the condition of the collection roads (surface, alignment, etc), the
      distance to the landfill and the number of collection points serviced per day, type and
      sizes of receptacles etc.
      Table 29 Alternatives and Options for Refuse Collection Vehicles
Types                               Description and Specifications
                                        Load 27 - 30m
                                                           3
Front End Loader Compactor
(FEL)                                   The service is based on a milk run concept to reduce the time and
                                           distance between pickups and hence reduce the cost of the service.
                                        Bins are hydraulically lifted from the front of the vehicle, over the cab of
                                           the vehicle and tipped via a hopper into the body of the vehicle for
                                           mechanical compaction.
                                        The FEL is designed to collect waste in 2m to 6m containers. These
                                                                                        3       3

                                           neat, box like containers are also available with lids.
                                        Suitable for compactable wastes.
                                        Suitable for routine collections for small quantities of waste.
Roll on Roll off (Ro-Ro)                Load 13 tons
                                        Ro-Ro units are suitable for collection of large containers ranging from
                                                3        3
                                           10m – 35m including static compactor containers.
                                        Suitable for the collection of low density, high volume waste products.
                                        Maximum compactable waste volume 19.5m
                                                                                          3
Rear End Loader            Mobile
Compactor (REL)                         REL units are suitable for the collection of bagged and domestic binned
                                           waste,
                                        REL are suitable for 240 liter bins to 6 m skips
                                                                                     3

                                        This collection method is suitable for the removal of low-density waste
                                           products. The mobile compaction system proves to be efficient and
                                           economic as the waste containers are emptied into the Rear-End
                                           Loader.
                                        Suitable for collection within CBDs
Skip Loader Vehicles                    Skip loaders are one of the most versatile waste collection systems.
                                        There are two basic configurations: 8 ton for light waste and 16 ton for
                                           heavier industrial waste.
                                        The lift-on unit can facilitate various sizes of containers ranging from
                                              3        3
                                           6m – 18m .
      See Annexure A for catalogue and cost of the various refuse collection tracks
      and skip containers.

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8.4.5 Other Factors Affecting waste collection and Transportation

8.4.5.1 Road Networks
The road condition that the collection vehicle has to drive plays a major factor when
deciding on a particular collection vehicle. If one has to compare a rural road full of
potholes to a road in a city suburb, a tractor and trailer would be more suitable in the
rural application as opposed to a state of the art 20 m³ REL, which is not built to drive
on poorly maintained roads. The maintenance cost would be above normal for an
REL to drive these roads on a daily basis due to wear and tear on components. A
tractor and trailer, which is a much more robust type of system, will be better suited
to such conditions. In an urban environment a tractor and trailer will be less suited as
the landfill is usually far from the collection areas and will take to long to drive to the
landfill and back.

8.4.5.2 Distance to Waste Transfer Station/MRFs/Landfill
As discussed above, distance to the waste transfer station, material recovery facility
or landfill plays an important role. For instance if the landfill is 20 km from the
collection area, a tractor and trailer will spend most of the time driving from the
collection area to the landfill and back. A general rule is that a tractor and trailer
combination should not drive further than 7 km from the collection area to the landfill.
For distances above 7 km, alternative types of vehicles should be considered. The
optimisation of collection routes and round balancing has been identified as a key
project in section 9.

8.4.5.3 Level of Service and Number of Collection Points
The number of collection points becomes critical in an urban area where a 20 m³
compactor collection truck collects up to 1 200 service points per day. A collection
vehicle‘s sole purpose should be to collect waste and not spend time driving from the
collection area to the landfill and back. Aspects such as compaction also play an
important role. A 20m³ compactor collection trucks can collect up to 60 m³ of waste at
a time because of a one to three (1:3) compaction ratio, while a tractor/trailer
combination can collect only 5 m³ to 10 m³ at a time before it has to offload. The
tractor/trailer therefore has to make a lot more trips to the landfill than a 20m³
compactor collection trucks. The compactor collection truck therefore has more time
for the collection and service of more points. It must also be noted that the ―runners‖,
collecting and loading the collection vehicle, are idling while the vehicle is on the road
to the dumpsite and back. The Current Situation where some of the Municipalities still
use trailer /Tractor units is therefore not an economically and environmentally
sustainable option. It is recommended that all municipalities should at the minimum
purchase compactor vehicles for collections and transportation of waste (table xxx
above provides the various alternatives of vehicles)




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        8.4.6 Waste collection and Transfer System and level of service
        Although it is the mandate of Local Municipalities to provide refuse collection services
        to all peoples within the municipality‘s boundaries, municipalities may explore the
        various alternatives and options of providing this basic service.
        Table 30 Alternatives for waste collection and transfer levels of service
Alternative mechanism                   Description
Municipal Cleansing and      Refuse     This is the conventional mechanism where the municipality deploys its
Collection Department                   own employees within the cleansing /refuse collection department to
                                        collect and transport refuse.
                                        Advantages
                                              The advantage of this system or mechanism is that it is easier
                                                 to manage, and there are little or no external contracts to
                                                 manage, but municipality relies on its own human resource
                                                 and employment systems to get staff for the job.
                                        Disadvantages
                                              It is difficult to set and implement performance based standard
                                                 and remuneration.
                                              Municipalities in most cases do not have enough staff and
                                                 resources to provide cleansing and waste collection services
                                                 for all the areas that servicing.
                                              Does not always allow for improvement of level of service and
                                                 standards, as it is often not easy to penalize poor performance
                                                 within the public sectors.
                                              It does not provide opportunities for job creation especially for
                                                 previously disadvantaged people.
                                        This is the conventional mechanism where the municipality deploys its
                                        own employees within the cleansing /refuse collection department to
                                        collect and transport refuse.
                                        Advantages
                                              The advantage of this system or mechanism is that it is easier
                                                 to manage, and there are little or no external contracts to
                                                 manage, but municipality relies on its own human resource
                                                 and employment systems to get staff for the job.
                                        Disadvantages
                                              It is difficult to set and implement performance based standard
                                                 and remuneration.
                                              Municipalities in most cases do not have enough staff and
                                                 resources to provide cleansing and waste collection services
                                                 for all the areas that servicing.
                                              Does not always allow for improvement of level of service and
                                                 standards, as it is often not easy to penalize poor performance
                                                 within the public sectors.
                                              It does not provide opportunities for job creation especially for
                                                 previously disadvantaged people.
                                1
Community based Cooperatives                  This mechanism basically involves using community-based
                                                 entities such as cooperatives for refuse collection and
                                                 transportation within specific areas. This is typically applicable
                                                 in townships and informal settlements and the advantage of
                                                 this system is that it creates employment for poor

        1
          Cooperatives here refer to small enterprises started by a number of individuals within
        community - who wants to start an enterprise where everyone benefits equally, and where
        profits are equitably shared with everyone involved. Cooperatives must still be operated and
        managed with the same discipline and systems that apply in any business, so that people
        work efficiently and income exceeds expenditure. But its principles are different, ensuring that
        the benefits of the enterprise are more widely spread.

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                                                  communities, but allows for communities to be part of service
                                                  delivery for their own areas.
                                                Certain municipalities in South Africa including the Nelson
                                                  Mandela Bay Metro Municipality in Port Elizabeth have
                                                  successfully employed this system and highly recommend it.
                                                This system also makes it easy for municipality to set and
                                                  monitor level of service and standards for cleansing and
                                                  refuse collection.
                                                It allows for a number of different people to get equal
                                                  opportunity at being chosen to be part of community
                                                  development.
                                          Disadvantages
                                                It involves more contract management
                                                It involves a lot of training and capacity building both in waste
                                                                                           2
                                                  management skills and business skills.
                                                It can be susceptible to corruption and community in fighting
                                                  for opportunities people wanting to cash in on the tenders for
                                                  community cleansing.
A combination      of   the   above   2   This simply means that the above 2 systems can be employed to
system                                    serve different areas within a specific municipality. The municipality
                                          may collect within the Townships, Suburbs and commercial areas,
                                          while the community-based cooperatives can be deployed in the
                                          informal settlements.
Private Contractors                       This alternative refers to municipalities procuring the services of
                                          private contractors e.g. existing professional waste management
                                          contractors to collect and transport refuse. The advantage of this
                                          system is that it usually provides better quality of services, but has
                                          many disadvantages such high operating costs, complex contract
                                          management etc.

         8.4.7 Waste Transfer Stations and Materials Recovery Facilities
         The approach to waste transfer is one that combines both waste transfer and
         material recovery thereby reducing waste to landfill, while increasing potential for
         recycling, job creation and economic empowerment.

         The following options for waste transfer and materials recovery may be explored:
                 Transfer Station can be defined as a facility at which solid waste is
                  transferred from one solid waste vehicle to another solid waste vehicle for
                  transportation to another waste handling facility either a recycling centre,
                  waste treatment facility or a waste deposal site (landfill site). This definition
                  does not allow for any recovery of materials from the incoming waste stream,
                  therefore a transfer station may not perform any material recovery operations.
                 Material Recovery Facility (MRF) is defined as a solid waste facility, such as
                  a transfer station, which is designed and operated to process non-hazardous
                  general waste by utilizing manual and/or mechanical methods to separate
                  useful materials from the incoming waste stream for recycling i.e. return to the
                  economic mainstream for use as raw materials or products. This facility
                  allows for the non-recyclable materials to be transferred from this facility to
                  other facilities either for recycling, treatment, or disposal.

         The need and choice of waste transfer station or material recovery facility must be
         should be justified, for example by demonstrating that it will:
         2
           As any business Cooperatives can either succeed or fail, but municipalities can play a huge
         role in facilitating the success of these entities especially in the first years.

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        Reduce costs for transportation of waste
        Increase resource recovery
        Reduce the amount of waste disposed to landfill
        Improve transport efficiencies of refuse and recovered resources
        Restrict access to operating landfill sites
        Reduce the number of landfills operating in the region
        Provide a safe environment that is supervised or controlled by suitably trained
         staff.
        Increased Service Delivery
        Job Creation and economic empowerment

Based on the Status Quo Analysis, and Goals and Objectives for waste management
within OR Tambo DM, this IWMP proposes that Material Recovery Facilities (MRF),
be established and developed to form an integral part of the Waste Management
System within the District. Although this IWMP stops short of a detailed feasibility
assessment that should be undertaken by a professional waste management expert
in consultation with the relevant Local Municipalities‘ and other stakeholders in Waste
Management, this IWMP has undertaken a preliminary identification of potential
suitable areas for Material Recovery Facilities. This preliminary identification has
considered existing and planned waste management facilities, the level of service
expected by the local community, potential resource recovery increases, State and
regional waste management programs and targets, and broad economic impacts.

The proposed alternatives are as follows:

8.4.7.1 Rural Areas and Coastal Resorts
Coastal Areas and Resorts like Coffee Bay, the logic behind this is to limit waste
disposal by landfill within the sensitive coastal belt of the Wild Coast. Waste from
these areas can be collected, compacted at the Waste Transfer Stations, and
transported using larger compactor vehicles.

8.4.7.2 Small Towns
Waste from smaller towns and rural areas such as Libode, Qumbu, Lusikisiki,
Ntabankulu, could be handled by Small to Medium sized Material Recovery Facilities
(MRF) depending on the size of waste stream and Waste from these areas can be
collected, compacted and transported using larger compactor vehicles to a Large
regional Transfer Station to be located in a more central location. The Local facilities
can be run as manual stations with limited automation or mechanization in order to
create employment and can also be run by local municipalities.

8.4.7.3 Large Urban Centre (Mthatha)
A Large Regional Materials Recovery Facilities (MRF) is proposed for Mthatha, which
is the largest and most urban centre within the District and region. This facility can be
fed by receive waste from the Local MRFs, and recyclable materials from this facility
can easily be sent off to ready markets in the cities such as East London, Durban
and Port Elizabeth. Mthatha is suitable for this primarily because of its central
location, level of urbanization, readily available power supply, water supply and road
access especially since it is located along the proposed N2 Toll Road. The Regional
MRF should ideally be operated by a specialized waste recycling entity such as
Buyisa-e-bag or waste contractor in order for the system to be run efficiently and
profitably. The Regional MRF should be fairly mechanized and automated in order for
it to handle large volumes of waste efficiently.

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        Table 14 and Figure 15 provide a preliminary GIS based analysis showing potential
        location of MRFs and Waste Transfer Stations within OR Tambo DM.
        Table 31: Alternatives for Location of MRFs and Waste Transfer Stations in OR Tambo
        DM
Route Name                       Distance Proposed Scenario
Coffee Bay to Mqanduli           60.8 km  Mini Materials Recycling Centre in Coffee Bay, that bulks
                                          and sends waste to a larger MRF Mqnaduli.
Mbizana to Flagstaff             40.3 km  Mini Materials Recycling Centre in Bizana, that bulks and
                                          sends waste to a larger MRF Flagstaff.
Ntabankulu to Flagstaff          46.0 Km Mini Materials Recycling Centre in Ntabankulu, that bulks
                                          and sends waste to a larger MRF Flagstaff.
Flagstaff to Lusikisiki          42.3 km  Bulking Waste Transfer Station in Lusikisiki
Lusikisiki to Port Saint Johns   59.2 km  Large Bulking Waste Transfer Station in PSJ
Port Saint Johns to Libode       63.7 km  Large Bulking Waste Transfer Station in PSJ
Mqanduli to Mthatha              34.6 km  Medium Size Waste Transfer Station in Mqanduli feeding
                                          the regional Maxi Regional MRF in Mthatha.
Libode to Mthatha                27.9 km  Medium Size Waste Transfer Station in Libode feeding the
                                          regional Maxi Regional MRF in Mthatha.
Qumbu to Tsolo                   27.4 km  Small MRF in Qumbu to Waste Transfer Station In Tsolo
Tsolo to Mthatha                 42.4 km  Medium Size Waste Transfer Station in Mqanduli feeding
                                          the regional Maxi Regional MRF in Mthatha.




        Figure 38: Map showing major routes connecting feeder Towns in OR Tambo District




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8.4.7.4 Mechanical Equipment for Waste Transfer Stations/MRFs
There are various types of mechanical equipment on the market for waste transfer
stations and MRFs and the choice is mainly influenced by the following factors:
     Volume of Waste anticipated to be handled by the facility
     Type of waste anticipated to be handled by the facility
     Available budget for purchasing equipment
     Availability of Power and Voltage of power Supply
     Skills Availability

The following options for mechanical equipment can be explored for the various
proposed facilities:
Table 32 Options for Mechanical Equipment for Transfer Stations and MRFs
Facility Type             Equipment                          Comments
Small MRFs                Compacter      with   a    multi   These can be suitable for transfer
                          purpose baler for all bailable     stations in the serve Bizana, Tabankulu,
                          recyclables – paper, cardboard,    Flagstaff, Qumbu, Coffee Bay, and
                          PET, plastic and bev cans.         Tsolo Towns even other small centres
                          Examples of such equipment is      within the District as may be determined
                          Akupak C9 Compactor and a          in future.
                          Akupak     H15     baler   (See    The Akupak C9 and the Akupak H15
                          appendix XX for specifications)    baler require 3-phase 380volt power on
                                                             site. The site must have a level
                                                             concrete slab 150mm thick and the
                                                             compacter must be mounted preferably
                                                             on the slab but with a ramp to allow the
                                                             collection vehicles to discharge from
                                                             above into the receiving hopper.
                                                             The sorting waist high conveyor shown
                                                             in the sketch can be adapted to suit the
                                                             site (length can be lessened) the
                                                             recyclables are sorted at waist height
                                                             into bulk bags and the rubbish comes
                                                             off the end of the conveyor into a bag or
                                                             a wheelie bin to be sent to the
                                                             compacter. This is called positive
                                                             sorting.
Medium MRFs
Large MRFs

8.5 Recycling, Reuse and Composting
It follows from the status quo analysis, the objectives and goals as well as the
alternatives and options suggested in section 8.3 above, that resource recovery
through recycling, reuse and composting form should form an integral part of the
Waste Management System within OR Tambo District. It has been said that well over
75% of the waste generated in within OR Tambo is recyclable and compostable
material. This IWMP recognizes that „waste is a resource‟ and should be recovered
instead of being dumped and disposed of at landfill sites. Developing and
Implementing a comprehensive recycling system for OR Tambo DM will result into a
number of benefits including reduction of waste going to landfill sites, thus saving
landfill airspace, creation of jobs, reduction of pollution and conserve natural
resources, conservation of energy and cost recovery and cost reduction, cleaner
towns and communities as it will reduce litter, and create sustainable livelihoods.



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The following alternatives are proposed for recycling:

8.5.1 Buy Back Centres
Recycling buy-back centres are facilities where people can bring and sell pre-sorted
or separated waste streams (such as glass, paper/cardboard, cans, scrap metal -
ferrous and non-ferrous - plastics, garden waste and oil). Buy-Back Centres have a
number of direct and indirect benefits including:
     Creation of informal and formal jobs opportunities (a single Buy Back Centre
       could employ 15 people and directly benefit over 50 informal recyclers.
     Promotion of collection and recovery of recyclable materials
     Reduction of litter and promote clean cities and towns
     Reduction of waste to landfill
     Economic empowerment

Buy-Back Centres should be developed in all the Towns within OR Tambo District at
different locations including:
      Taxi Ranks
      Townships
      Recreational Facilities/sports grounds
      Shopping Malls & centres
      Landfill sites
      Waste Transfer Stations and Material Recovery Facilities

Buy-Back Centres can range from simple shelters to more suitable well designed
structures. See the specifications and figures below show for an example of buy back
centre design.

8.5.1.1 Design specifications

Building dimensions

        L       =      20 metre (outer)
        W       =      9 metre (outer)
        H       =      3,5 m side wall height
        Office plan dimensions:-      Approx. 3 m x 3 m
        Store plan dimensions:-       Approx. 3 m x 3 m
        Ablutions (male & female):- Approx. 1,5 m x 3 m (each)

Steel Structure
    Steel structure to be designed in accordance with SABS 062.
    Engineer‘s design certificate for all engineering aspects structure must be
       signed by professional engineer registered with the Engineering Council of
       South African and the design drawings and layout plans must be approved by
       the local municipality.

Walls
    Office, store, ablutions             :-    Semi-face brick walls
    Main operational area of shed        :-    0, 5 mm IBR Chromadek
      sheeting as wall cladding. (Traffic green on the outside and grey on the
      inside)

Doors

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        Double sliding door (1 off)            :-      W: 3 m        H: 3,5 m
        Double sliding door (1 off)            :-      W: 4 m H: 3,5 m
        Office, store, ablution doors (4 off) :-       Standard steel doors.
        Single Personnel Door (1 off) :-       Standard steel door.
        Steel security gate to be provided in front of single personnel door.

Windows
    Number and size of windows to be in accordance with National Building
      Regulations.
    Steel window frames to be cottage type.
    All opening windows to be equipped with burglar bars spaced narrower than
      cottage window frames.

Roof
        30o pitch roof.
        0, 5 mm traffic green IBR Chromadek sheeting on roof.
        Skylights to provide additional lighting in main operational area.
        Barge flashing on building ends.
        Roof insulation.
        Bull nosing on roof sides.

Store
    Heavy-duty steel shelves (500 mm wide) spaced at 400 mm intervals.
    1 200 mm steel kitchen unit with single basin and warm / cold water mixer
      tap.




Figure 39 Layout Plan of a Typical Buy Back Centre

8.5.1.2 Equipment

The equipment for the Buy-Back Centre will depend on a number of factors, but
generally includes Trolleys, Containers, Bins Skips, Balers and Compactors.




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8.5.2 Drop off Centres
A drop-off centre is a facility where the public can easily and freely drops of specific
types of recyclable materials or specific types of waste streams. Drop-off centres are
ideally located where it is convenient for higher income communities to drop off
recyclable materials without being paid for the materials. These facilities will have
various colour coded or labelled containers where the public can drop off recyclables.
Sites have to be secure, safe and conveniently situated for the public who use the
facility. Suitable locations for Drop-off Centres typically include Shopping Centres,
Gymnasium and Sport Centres; however before siting a drop-off facility, the local
community around the proposed site should be involved in commenting on and
advising the process.

8.5.3 Garden Refuse Transfer stations
A Garden Refuse transfer station is a facility where the public can drop off garden
refuse/yard waste/ Green Waste. These facilities can be simple secured and
controlled areas with containers such as skips where the public can drop of garden
waste only. Garden Refuse drop-off centres are ideally located in middle and high
Income areas.

The garden refuse transfer stations should be fitted with shredders and chippers for
reduction of the volume of the garden waste to enable it to be transported easily.
Green Waste from these facilities can be channelled to other facilities especially
composting facilities where this green waste can be used to produce quality compost,
which can be sold as a value add or given to communities to encourage them to grow
vegetable gardens for subsistence and commercial purposes.




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Figure 40 Example of A simple Garden Refuse Transfer Station

8.5.4 Materials Recovery Facilities
Material Recovery Facilities have been discussed under section 8.3, as forming part
of the waste transfer system. However it must be understood that these facilities
perform a multi-functional role and double up to facilitate recycling. The primary
function of these facilities is to ensure that recyclable materials are recovered form
the waste stream and channelled for recycling. The proposed locations and
equipment for the MRFs has been discussed in Section 8.3.

8.5.5 Waste Exchange Platforms
By waste exchange is meant a system that facilitates the exchange of waste streams
by different parties, who may need waste from one system as raw material or energy
source for another process, thereby saving costs, reducing waste, and benefiting the
environment. The system, which operates on the principle that ‗one person‘s garbage
is another person‘s gold‘ This is a futuristic mechanism that works in internet based
economies and may not be practical in the case of OR Tambo District, but the
concepts can be encouraged through information sharing at environmental forums,
such as the OR Tambo Environmental Management Forum, Institute of waste
Management of Southern Africa.

8.6 Waste Treatment
The Treatment of Waste is typically an option that applies to hazardous waste or
waste streams with the potential to cause one or more of these effects and
properties:
    Explosion or fire
    Infections, pathogens, parasites or their vectors,
    Chemical instability, reactions or corrosion,
    Acute or chronic toxicity,
    Cancer, mutations or birth defects,
    Toxicity or damage to ecosystems or natural resources,
    Accumulation in biological food chains,
    Persistence in the environment or
    Multiple affects to the extent that it requires special attention and cannot be
       released to the environment.




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The handling, transportation, treatment and disposal of such types of waste stream
require specialized knowledge and expertise, and for purposes of this IWMP and the
status quo of resources and expertise within OR Tambo District Municipality, the
recommended option is that Municipality should not handle these waste stream at all,
but rather ensure they are handled only by specialized contractor with the experience
and track record of handling such waste.

8.6.1 Waste Incineration
Notwithstanding the above, the handling and disposal of Medical Waste (HealthCare
Risk Waste) which also falls under the above category has been determined to be a
major problem within the District. A number of clinics and hospital which generate
medical waste still operate small incinerators as a means of Treating medical waste.

Incinerators of this nature are not recommended as an option due to the fact that
they have a number of other adverse or negative impacts on the environment.
Incineration may only be considered as an alternative in the event that an investor
proposes to develop a high tech incinerator within OR Tambo DM, and this will be
subject to authorization by the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs
following a comprehensive environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

8.6.2 Hydroclave and Autoclave Technologies
The lack of facilities for proper treatment and final disposal of medical waste in the
district has been already highlighted. The alternative for this issue is to motivate for
an investor to develop a Hydroclave medical waste treatment plant. Hydroclave
Technology has been found to be very effective, producing sterilization and
inactivation of microbial load of greater than 106 i.e. meaning that the waste is
99.99% sterilized and is no longer infectious or hazardous before its disposal to a
landfill site.
A Hydroclave is a cylindrical vessel with a double wall that is able to withstand high
temperature and pressure. The waste is sterilized by steam, indirectly heated with
simultaneous shredding and dehydration. The sterilized and shredded waste can be
disposed of at a controlled general landfill site. This is seen as amiable option and
has already been implemented elsewhere in the Eastern Cape e.g. the Treated
medical waste from the Compass Waste Services Hydroclave in Berlin near East
London gets disposed of at the East London Regional Waste Disposal Site, a
municipal site.

8.7 Waste Disposal
Although the NWMS and waste management hierarchy adopted in this IWMP
recognizes waste disposal as the last resort, we need to accept the fact that landfills
will for a long-time still play a critical part and role in the entire waste management
system in South Africa. This section helps to shape the various development
alternatives and options for waste disposal within OR Tambo.

The options discussed here are basically informed the Status Quo Analysis, and the
Goals, Objectives and Policies discussed in the previous chapters, the financial
implications of various options, but also to ensure compliance with national and
provincial Environmental and Waste Management legal framework.

8.7.1 Waste Disposal Infrastructure
The status quo analysis revealed the following main issues surrounding waste
disposal in OR Tambo District.

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                   All Municipalities generally rely on waste disposal by landfill as the final grave
                    of waste the bulk of waste generated within the municipalities.
                   While some municipalities have new landfill sites which have been
                    engineered (sanitary landfill sites), the majority of the municipalities currently
                    utilize un controlled and non sanitary (non engineered) dumpsites and in
                    cases where these have previously be engineered and licensed, they are
                    currently not being operated according to specifications and hence become
                    non sanitary.
                   Landfill sites and waste disposal currently has huge negative impacts on the
                    biophysical environment and social environment within OR Tambo DM.
                   The majority of the sites within the District are operated illegally and do not
                    meet current acceptable requirements (the so called Minimum Requirements
                    for disposal by Landfill, DWAF 1998).
                   There is no landfill site in the region that is capable of disposal of hazardous
                    waste or even infectious waste and this results in illegal dumping of such
                    wastes as the cost of transporting this type of waste to legal sites outside of
                    the region is simply too high and unaffordable.

          Given the above, the following alternatives are recommended for investigation and
          development of waste disposal infrastructure.
          Table 33 Alternatives and Options for waste disposal
Status Quo                  Goal                                 Alternatives
Illegal Dumpsites                 Close all illegal dumpsites       Migrate from uncontrolled dumpsites to
                                   within OR Tambo DM                 controlled sanitary landfill sites.
                                  Develop New Landfill Sites        Ensure the Department of Water and
                                                                      Environmental Affairs license all non-licensed
                                                                      disposal sites.
                                                                     Construct new landfills for those municipalities
                                                                      within no engineered landfills i.e. those with
                                                                      no airspace left.
                                                                     The size and type of landfills will be
                                                                      determined by the specific investigations
                                                                      required for new sites. However based on the
                                                                      waste stream surveys conducted during the
                                                                      status quo analysis, all the small towns in OR
                                                                      Tambo can be sufficiently serviced by a the
                                                                      following classes of landfills:
                                                                     Rural Areas and small coastal resorts can be
                                                                      services by General Communal (GC) sites,
                                                                      Towns such as Bizana, Flagstaff, Lusikisiki,
                                                                      Qumbu, Libode, can be served by General
                                                                      Small (GS), Mqanduli, and Port St John‘s by
                                                                      General Medium (GM) sites, while the larger
                                                                      towns particularly Mthatha should be serviced
                                                                      by a Large (L).
                                                                     Regional Landfill Site: The Option of a Large
                                                                      Regional Landfill Site has been discussed and
                                                                      proposed in previous studies conducted
                                                                      particularly in the IWMP, 2004. Based on the
                                                                      studies conducted in this IWMP, this options
                                                                      sound like a feasible option, which must be
                                                                      properly investigated.
                                                                     Hazardous Waste Cell at the Large Regional
                                                                      Site. This option refers to development of a
                                                                      hazardous waste cell capable of accepting

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                                                                       low grade hazardous waste, and treated
                                                                       medical waste. This options should be
                                                                       investigated together the regional landfill
                                                                       option. This option will provide a solution to
                                                                       illegal dumping         of   hazardous     waste
                                                                       particularly low-grade waste and medical
                                                                       waste from small industries, workshops and
                                                                       clinics respectively.
                                                                      Rehabilitate all illegal dumpsites and old
                                                                       dumpsites. Specifically some of the sites
                                                                       especially the Mthatha landfill site pose
                                                                       serious ecological risks must be properly
                                                                       closed with mitigations measures to stop
                                                                       ecological risks posed by the site in place.
Poorly operated disposal     Ensure that all disposal sites are       Provide specific training for all municipalities
                                                                                              3
sites                        operated properly and efficiently.        on landfill operations .
                                                                      Employment of suitably qualified personnel for
                                                                       operation of the landfills.
                                                                      Outsource the operation of waste disposal
                                                                       facilities in municipalities where there is no
                                                                       internal capacity and expertise to properly
                                                                       operate these facilities. This option has a
                                                                       number of advantages and disadvantages.
                                                                       But the main advantage is that it is likely to
                                                                       result in immediate proper and effective
                                                                       operation of the sites if the right contractor
                                                                       appointed, and the main disadvantage is that
                                                                       in most cases this option is costly to the
                                                                       municipality. However there is number of
                                                                       large companies with the expertise and
                                                                       models to partner with municipalities in
                                                                       operating landfills in a cost effective manner.
Wrong Methods being               Ensure that disposal sites         There are two basic types of method of land
used for operation of              are operated using the              filling operations that are typically employed.
disposal sites                     appropriate methods.                The two alternative methods are
                                                                                           4
                                                                        1) Area Method
                                                                                             5
                                                                        2) Trench Method
                                                                        3) Other approaches are only modifications
                                                                              or a combination of these two types.
                                                                      The best methods for operation of the various
                                                                       sites must be determined by a qualified landfill
                                                                       engineer and this must be implemented
                                                                       throughout the sites lifespan in order to
                                                                       maximize the sites airspace and minimize

           3
             Specific Landfill Operations Training is now readily available through a number of Institutions
           including the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa.
           4
              Area method is suitable for medium to large sites, including those with shallow groundwater
           conditions making it unsuitable for the excavation of cells in which to place the waste, and
           where the volume of solid waste to be disposed of is very large. In this method, the waste is
           spread over the working face and compacted by a landfill compactor or bulldozer. After each
           day, a soil cover is applied and compacted
           5
              The trench method is best suited for areas where the groundwater is sufficiently deep to
           allow for the excavation of trenches. After spreading and compaction of the waste, the soil
           excavated from the site is used as the daily cover material. A second trench parallel to the
           first one is then excavated and the excavated soil is used as daily cover for the second
           trench, as well as additional cover for the first trench. A space of at least 0.60m is provided to
           separate the trenches.

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                                                        operating costs.
                                                       It is arguable that the best site for operation of
                                                        communal sites and small sites in the rural
                                                        areas, coastal resorts and small towns could
                                                        be the trench method depending on the
                                                        specific site conditions, while for medium and
                                                        large sites in the main urban centers such as
                                                        Mthatha, Mqanduli and Port St John could be
                                                        operated using area method.


8.7.2 Landfill Operations Equipment
The status quo study also revealed that the majority if not all the municipalities do not
have dedicated specialized and sufficient equipment for effective, efficient and proper
operation of landfill sites. The following options are recommended as minimum
standards:

Sites Classes         Applicability                            Equipment Required
Communal Sites        Rural Areas/ Coastal Resort              Tractor Loader Backhoe
                           Coffee Bay                         Water Tanker
                           Other coastal resorts              Small Compactor
                           Rural communities
Small Sites           Small Towns/Secondary Node               Tractor Loader Backhoe
                           Bizana                             Water Tanker
                           Libode                             Small Landfill Compactor
                           Ntabankulu                         Multi purpose truck
                           Flagstaff
                           Lusikisiki
                           Qumbu
                           Tsolo
Medium Sites          Larger Centre/Primary Nodes              Tractor Loader Backhoe
                           Port St Johns                      Water Tanker
                           Mqanduli                           Grader
                                                               Landfill Compactor
                                                               Multi purpose truck
Medium Sites          Larger Centre/Primary Nodes              Tractor Loader Backhoe
                           Port St Johns                      Water Tanker
                           Mqanduli                           Honey Sucker
                                                               Grader
                                                               Large Landfill Compactor
                                                               Multi purpose truck
                                                               Tipper Truck

Key Notes
    On Medium and Large Landfill Sites the equipment must be permanently on
      site i.e. has to be purchased and dedicated for the sole purpose of operating
      these sites.
    For communal and small landfills certain machinery and equipment may be
      shared with other municipal departments e.g. engineering and technical
      services if it only required part time.
    The type of equipment will depend on the type of operation (trench, cell, etc.)
      and the volume of the waste generated.
    Compaction is usually an important factor since this allows for more waste to
      be disposed of at a landfill thereby prolonging the life of the landfill.
      Economics however play an important role, since the volume of waste has to


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         justify the type of equipment. It is of no use using a 30-ton landfill compactor,
         capable of handling over 500 tons of waste per day, on a landfill only
         receiving 10 tons per day.

From the above it is evident that the choice of equipment is very important to ensure
the correct equipment is used for the correct application.

8.8 Institutional Arrangements and Capacity
Although provision of waste management is primarily the role and responsibility of
local government, there are a number of other institutions and organizations that play
various roles with the waste management sector. Such institutions include but not
limited to the following:
      Local Government (all 7 local municipalities).
      OR Tambo District Municipality.
      The Provincial Department of Environmental Affairs (DEDEA).
      The Provincial Department of Water.
      The National Department of Water and Environmental Affairs (DWEA).
      Other Government Departments (Provincial and National) which are
        responsible for specific waste streams e.g. Department of Health responsible
        for HealthCare Waste.
      The Private Sector (Waste Management Services)
      Non Governmental Organizations and Sector Institutions e.g. the Institute of
        Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA)
      Section 21 Companies with funding and mandate from government to
        implement and support waste management service (e.g. Buyisa-e-Bag).
      The Industry Sector
      The General Public (beneficiaries and clients of Waste Management
        Services).

If the goals and objectives of the IWMP are to be achieved and in order to
successfully implement a sustainable waste management system within OR Tambo
District Municipality, all these institutions must pull together as in the spirit of
cooperative governance within the government departments, but also the private
sector, industry, NGOs and the Public must be engaged to ensure that the interests
of the various sectors are addressed and capacity and resources are shared.

Further to the above the National Waste Management Strategy and the New Waste
Management Act, provide for a number of institutional tools and instruments that
municipality must and/or may engage and implement in order to enhance their waste
management systems.

8.8.1 By-Laws for Waste Management
In terms of Section 9(5) (a) of the NEMWA a Municipality may pass a by-law so as to
give effect to subsection (1) (i.e. delivering a complete waste management service),
in such an event, the municipality must follow a consultative process provided for in
Chapter 4 of the Municipal Systems Act. (An Example of Municipal By-Law for Waste
Management has been attached as Appendix xx). All the seven local municipalities
and the OR Tambo District Municipality are encouraged to develop and pass By-laws
for waste management in order to enhance waste management services within their
areas of jurisdiction.




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         8.8.2 Norms and Standards for Waste Management
         In terms of Section 9(3) of the National Environmental Management Waste Act, (Act
         58 of 2008), all local municipalities may set local standards for control of litter,
         separation, compacting, storage and disposal of waste; including requirements in
         respect of the avoidance and minimization of the generation of waste and the re-use,
         recycling and recovery of solid waste. Norms and Standards should be developed by
         all the local municipalities and the district and can be used as a monitoring and
         compliance tool to measure the performance of the various municipalities as well as
         waste contractors within the district. The table below provides a framework for norms
         for waste management level of service by local municipalities.
         Table 34 Options for Level of Service for Waste Management in OR Tambo DM
Level of Service         Service Option            Description
Basic Level of Service   Refuse    Collection by   Cooperatives (community members) collect the waste
                         Cooperatives to Central   door to door at least once per week (or more frequently
                         Transfer Station          if required). They transport it to central collection points
                              (Informal           located within acceptable walking distance of the
                                 settlements       households serviced. The municipality, or appointed
                              Rural Areas)        contractor, then transports the waste from these
                                                   secondary collection points to MRF or landfill site as
                                                   the case may be.
Intermediate level of    Contractor or Municipal   Local contractors are appointed to collect the waste
Service                  Vehicles   to  Transfer   door to door at least once per week (or more frequently
                         Station                   if required). They transport it to central collection
                              Townships           points, perhaps using hand or bicycle-carts. The
                              Resort Towns        municipality, or appointed contractor, then transports
                                                   the waste from these secondary collection points to the
                                                   MRF or landfill, on the same day as the primary
                                                   collection.
Full Level of Service    Kerbside Collection       Households put their separated waste out for collection
                             Main urban areas     once a week (or more frequently if required). The
                                                   municipality or appointed contractors collect the
                                                   recyclable and residual waste from each household in
                                                   trucks, or with tractors and trailers, etc. and transport it
                                                   to the landfill and or recycling handling facility.
Commercial /Business     Kerbside Collection       Minimum level of service for routine collected waste
                             Main urban areas     would be at least once per week, or more frequently in
                                                   the case of highly putrescible wastes. Exceptions can
                                                   be made in cases where the frequency can be
                                                   determined by type and quantity, where a generator of
                                                   small quantities of inert dry waste which does not pose
                                                   a health, safety and environmental threat can safely be
                                                   provided with a service not less than every two weeks.
                                                   Bulk waste collection services can be provided to the
                                                   business/commercial sector, in which case the bulk
                                                   containers would be collected on call when full.

         8.8.3 Registration of Waste Transporters
         In order to regulate and ensure that waste management services within the District
         meet the necessary requirements and comply with all applicable legislation and
         standards, municipalities may in terms of Section 25(1) of the National Environmental
         Management Waste Act, (Act 58 of 2008), by notice in the Gazette, require any
         persons who transports waste for gain (i.e. waste contractors/ waste collection
         companies) to register with the Municipality‘s waste management Officer.



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The District and the local Municipalities may opt to develop a criteria and
requirements that all waste contractor and collectors operating within their region
must comply with in order to register and maintain registration.

This option should be considered as compliance and monitoring tool to root out non
compliant waste collectors who have in many instances been found to be
perpetrators of illegal dumping and bad waste management practices.

8.8.4 Designation of Waste Management Officers
As a mandatory requirement in terms of Section 10(3) of the NEMWA, Act 58, of
2008, all municipalities must designate Waste Management Officers (WMOs)

The Waste Management Officers must be given a clear mandate and job description
and it should be their role to ensure the implementation of the IWMPs and ensure
compliance within the Municipalities.

The WMOs within OR Tambo DM may form a waste management officer‘s forum for
to ensure continuous improvement of integrated waste management planning within
OR Tambo District. Other key stakeholders e.g. DEDEA, IWMSA etc. may be invited
to participate on this forum.




                                          WMO OR
                                          Tambo DM

                      WMO KSD                               WMO
                      Municipality                         Mbizana
                                                          Municipality



                                                                       Other
         WMO                                                        stakeholder
        Nyandeni                                                    e.g. DEDEA
       Municipality                        Waste                      IWMSA
                                         Managemen
                                          t Forum



               WMO Port                                             WMO
                St John                                          Ingquza Hill
               Municipality                                      Municipality


                                 WMO               WMO
                               Ntabankulu         Mhlontlo
                               Municipality      Municipality




Figure 41 Waste Management Officers Forum for OR Tambo District



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       8.8.5 Organisational Structures
       In addition to the designation of Waste Management Officers (WMOs) the following
       issues must the establishment of Municipal Organizational Structures that support
       waste management. During the status quo analysis it was determined that in most of
       the municipalities there is no dedicated department for waste management, but
       rather waste management is lamped together with other sectors. Secondly it as also
       determined that there was no uniformity or logical reason in some instances why
       waste management would be located under certain directorates. Although this IWMP
       does not advocate for a specific structure as each municipality may face different
       constraints, it is recommended that during the revision of the Individual municipalities
       IWMPs, that a critical analysis of the organizational structures is undertaken to
       determine the most suitable structure for each municipality. This task may also be
       performed by the WMOs and recommended to the Municipal council for adoption.

       8.9 Awareness, Capacity Building and Training
       8.9.1 Formal Training and Continuous Professional Development
       Municipalities must ensure that Waste Management Officers and other personnel
       dealing with waste management from Portfolio Councillors, Directors, Landfill Site
       Operators, Waste Handlers, Street Sweepers and causal labourers all go through
       appropriate training and skills development. There are a number of accredited and
       non accredited training courses for various levels on the market, and it recommended
       that each municipality develops a trainings needs assessment for waste
       management and must ensure that all the employees dealing with waste
       management go through this training. Available Training course in the Eastern Cape
       includes:

Training Courses                         Entry Level        Institution Offering
Waste Management for Local Authorities   Matric             Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa
Introduction to Waste Management         Basic Literacy     DNF Waste & Environmental
Waste Technology course                  Matric             USK Consulting
Landfill Operator Course                 B.Tech             USK Consulting


       The OR Tambo DM and the Local Municipalities must annually conduct a Training
       Needs Assessment in order to identify who needs training, resources required and
       what type of training is suitable and available. The figure below shows a simple flow
       chart for conducting a Training Needs Assessment.

                            Survey of Target Members e.g.
                            Waste Management Department
                                                                                Annual Review and
                                                                                    Planning
         Review Existing Training Courses              Educational Background


             Training Needs Appraisal              Internal Procurement Process
                                                      Appoint Service Provider
                 Terms of References


                                  Implementation of Training
                                       Record Keeping
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8.9.2 Study Tours
Municipal Officials may be taken for a study tour to facilities of other municipalities
where best practice or good examples of waste management is being implemented.
This can be used to spark interest and enthusiasm to take back lessons learnt and
implements them in the individual municipalities e.g. an excursion may be arranged
to visit a Municipality like the Nelson Mandela Bay Metro where some ground
breaking initiatives such as use of cooperatives for waste collection, waste exchange,
2 bag system, recycling programme etc. have been implemented by municipality.

8.9.3 Conferences and Workshops
Municipal Officials should be encouraged to participate in the various waste
management conferences and workshops arranged around the province and in the
country. Most notable of these are the 2 major conferences on waste management
organized by the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (WIMSA), the
Biannual National WasteCon and the Eastern Cape Mini WasteCon.

8.10 Waste Management Planning
As a mandatory requirement in terms of Section 11(4) of the NEMWA, Act 58, of
2008, all municipalities must develop integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs),
and these IWMPs must be included into the Integrated Development Plans (IDP).

Although all 7 seven local municipalities within OR Tambo DM have IWMPs which
were prepared in 2004. These IWMPs are not up to date and do not meet the current
requirements and must be revised. This document is only meant to serve as a district
IWMP and although it contains information on all the 7 municipalities, it must not be
conceived to be an IWMP for all local municipalities.

8.11 Financial Mechanisms
There are a number of alternatives and options for financing waste management
services that the Municipalities may explore. In terms of Section 9(2) (d) of the
NEMWA Act 58 0f 2008, municipality must provide waste management services at
an affordable price in line with its tariff policy referred to in Chapter 8 of the Municipal
Systems Act. In line with this, all local Municipalities within OR Tambo must ensure
that they have got realistic tariffs for waste management services. Other mechanisms
and alternatives for financing of waste management services are dealt within in more
detail in section 9 of this report.




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9 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
9.1 Introduction
The primary purpose of the OR Tambo DM developing Integrated Waste
Management Plan is to give effect to the goals and objectives of the National
Environmental Management Waste Act (Act No. 59 of 2008)[NEMWA]. Apart from
merely attempting to achieve legal compliance with the aforementioned Act, this
IWMP is also aimed at elevating the level and standard of waste management
practices within the OR Tambo DM, beyond a ‗compliance achievement‘ based
approach, towards an environmental, economic and social best practice approach to
managing waste within the OR Tambo DM over the next 5 year planning horizon.
The implementation plan puts forwards a series of so-called key projects required for
implementation by the OR Tambo DM and the Local Municipalities in order to
achieve the goals and objectives laid out in this IWMP. This section must be read in
conjunction with Section 8 (Alternatives and Options and Section 9 (Financial Plan).

9.2 Priority Projects for the IWMP
The following tables present an overview of the priority projects that have been
identified for implementation by the OR Tambo DM and its constituent Local
Authorities. This section is only intended to provide an overview of the key projects
that must be implemented over a 5 year planning horizon and beyond, but does not
provide detailed terms of reference for each project. The section also highlights key
role players, specific objectives, Key performance areas and estimated budget for
each project. The OR Tambo DM and the individual Municipalities should use this
section as a guidance document to prioritize waste projects and costing for each
project prior to inclusion into their IDPs. Detailed terms of Reference must be
prepared prior to tender processes for implementation of each project.

9.2.1 Administrative and Institutional Capacity Projects
Project No. 1                Organizational Structure Review
                             The District Municipality, as well as each constituent Local
                             Municipality, will need to develop and refine their
                             organisational designs (in terms of waste management
                             roles and responsibilities, leading to the implementation of
                             the IWMP and increased efficiency of existing operations).
                             Each Municipality will need to take responsibility for
Project Description          reviewing their own existing structures, while effective
                             communication and co-operation between District and
                             Local Municipalities will be essential in ensuring improved
                             efficiency of the said structures. At present, no structures
                             exist for ―waste management‖ within the District and will
                             need to be developed as a matter of urgency and based
                             on recommendations made in the IWMP.
                                   To optimise efficiency within existing municipal
                                     structures (waste management).
Project Objective
                                   To ensure sufficient institutional capacity to allow
                                     the appropriate implementation of the IWMP.
Project Duration             6 Months
                             R50,000 per Municipality (study)
Budget
                             Additional Funds will be required for the restructuring.
Responsibility               DM and All local Municipalities

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Project No. 2               Appointment of Waste Management Officers
                            The District and all Local Authorities appoint and
Project Description         designate WMOs as a mandatory requirement in terms of
                            the NEMWA Act 58 of 2008.
                            To ensure compliance with NEMWA
                            WMOs will be responsible for ensure the implementation
Project Objective
                            of IWMPs and Waste Management Projects within the DM
                            and Local Municipalities.
Project Duration            6 Months
                            WMOs must full time employees paid at market related
Budget
                            salaries (150,000 – 200,000 p.a.)
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities
Project No. 3               Training of Waste Management Officers
                            All appointed WMOs must undergo through training and
Project Description         skills development to ensure that they have the necessary
                            skills and equipping for the task
                            To ensure that WMOs are equipped and trained for the
Project Objective
                            Job and the implementation of the IWMPs.
Project Duration            6 Months
Budget                      R100,000 per year
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities

Project No. 4               Develop Waste Management By-Law
                            The District should develop a ‗generic‘ set of by-laws
                            tailored at addressing their constituent LA‘s waste
                            management needs and issues. The by-laws should thus
                            be developed in consultation with the Local authorities.
                            The said by-laws should be geared towards the following
                            key deliverables:
                                  Tackling illegal dumping;
                                  Determination / setting of penalties for offenders;
                                  Specifying residents‘ rights and responsibilities, in
Project Description                 terms of waste collection and end disposal; and
                                  Specifying businesses rights and responsibilities,
                                    not only in terms of waste collection and end
                                    disposal, but also in terms of target setting for
                                    recycling by businesses within the ORTDM.
                            Following the development of the by-laws for the District,
                            the constituent Local Authorities will have a specific
                            window in which they need to adapt (if at all necessary)
                            the by-laws and implement / enforce them within their own
                            respective jurisdictions.
                            To create a standard set of local by-laws against which
                            local residents‘ waste management responsibilities within
Project Objective           all constituent Local Authorities of the ORTDM should be
                            managed, and that sets out clear and standardised
                            penalties for offending parties.
Project Duration            6 Months
Budget                      R150,000 per Municipality
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities
Project No. 5               Waste By-law Enforcement Unit

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                            The District and all Local Authorities establish forum or
Project Description         designate and train personnel for enforcement of waste
                            by-laws.
Project Objective           To ensure compliance and enforcement of By-laws
Project Duration            6 Months
Budget                       R50,000 per municipality
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities

Project No. 6               Review and Develop Waste Management Tariffs
                            Review and evaluation of current Local Municipality (LM)
                            tariff structures in order to ensure that the costs borne by
                            the Local Municipalities for waste collection, transportation
                            an end disposal are appropriately covered by the tariffs
                            charged to the residents of each constituent LM. The tariff
Project Description         structure should also aim to reduce any cost recovery
                            inefficiencies in the current systems of operation and
                            should allow a cost recovery from residents that is
                            proportional to the amount of waste that the LM disposes
                            of on their behalf – effect to be given to the ‗Polluter Pays‘
                            principle at a Local Government level.
                            To ensure that that the escalating costs of waste
                            management are fully and efficiently recovered by the LM
                            and that the charges associated therewith to local
                            residents are proportional to the volume of waste
                            produced by the ‗polluters‘. This is seen to be the most
                            important of the identified priority projects within the
Project Objective
                            ORTDM, as if financing matters and cost recovery for
                            services rendered are not appropriately addressed at the
                            start of the IMWP role out, funding for future waste
                            management initiatives may need to be diverted for cost
                            recovery on routine daily cleansing and disposal
                            operations within each LM.
Project Duration            6 Months
Budget                      150,000 – 200,000 per municipality
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities
Project No. 7               Develop Waste Information System
                            The development of a Waste Information system (WIS) is
                            key to long term planning objectives and the successful
                            implementation of the IMWP. The ORTDM should develop
                            and manage a WIS at a District level. Cognisance needs
                            to be taken of the Department of Environmental Affair‘s
Project Description         guidelines for such purposes. The ORTDM WIS should
                            include a scheme whereby Local Authorities are required
                            to report their monthly generation of different waste types,
                            transport methodology, degree of recycling / reuse thereof
                            achieved, as well as final disposal volumes of waste at
                            landfill.
                            To create a platform / Information System (IS) from which
                            informed planning must emanate. The WIS should provide
                            reliable information on amounts, types, generators and
Project Objective
                            transporters of waste within each respective Local
                            Authority and the District at Large. The WIS will also be a
                            tool used to assess whether, or not, recycling targets are

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                            being met by the respective Local Authorities.
Project Duration            6 Months
Budget                      R200,000
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities

Project No. 8               Awareness, Training and Capacity Building
                            The OR Tambo District Municipality should develop a
                            Public Awareness / Education Strategy aimed at
                            promoting awareness over waste management related
                            issues within the District. The strategy should, in
                            particular, focus on bringing the attention of residents
                            residing in the District to their applicable Local Authority‘s
                            waste management by-laws.

                            The strategy should be focused on identifying priority
                            focus groups within the District to target during active
                            awareness campaigns. Homeowners and lawful occupiers
                            of homes within the District should be the primary focal
                            point of the campaign. Informal Settlements and
                            Businesses within the ORTDM should be the secondary
                            focus of the campaigns.
Project Description
                            Different communication mediums (T.V., radio, posters,
                            billboards, flyers) should be identified and evaluated, in
                            terms of their anticipated effectiveness, in the
                            development of the strategy.

                            The required strategy should make allowance for a
                            focused six (6) month campaign role out at District level
                            initially and then a subsequent role out of awareness
                            campaigns at Local Authority level (also over a six month
                            period) to cement the achievements made by the District
                            level campaign. Thereafter, it is recommended that bi-
                            annual campaigns be undertaken by each respective
                            Local Authority to ensure that there is a constant
                            awareness amongst residents of the greater ORTDM over
                            waste management issues and achievements by the
                            District and Local Authorities.
                            To improve compliance by District residents to their locally
                            applicable by-laws. In particular, the potential penalties
                            relating to illegal dumping should be clearly
                            communicated. The project will ultimately be aimed at
Project Objective
                            reducing the level of illegal dumping and littering within the
                            District, encouraging separation at source, as well as
                            shifting the mindsets of residents in relation to issues of
                            waste management.
Project Duration            12 Months
                            R100, 000.00 for strategy development; and
Budget                      R200, 000.00 / active awareness campaign (incl. 10%
                            escalation year on year)
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities




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9.2.2 Waste Reduction, Recycling and Composting Projects
Project No. 9               Establish Buy-Back Centres
                            The District and all Local Authorities to establish at least 1
Project Description
                            pilot buy back centre in each local municipality.
                            To initiate and encourage recycling within the local
Project Objective
                            municipalities and for job creation.
Project Duration            12 Months
Budget                      R500,000 per Municipality
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities
Project No. 10              Empowerment of informal recycling groups
                            The District and all Local Authorities to ensure that
                            informal recyclers are organized into coordinated
Project Description
                            programme. Provide training and capacity building for
                            informal recyclers.
                            Encourage recycling within the communities,
Project Objective           Empower Informal recyclers
                            Establish Informal recyclers forums
Project Duration            On going
Budget                      150,000 – 200,000 p.a
Responsibility              DM and All local Municipalities

Project No. 11              Establish A Regional Material Recovery Facility
                            The District should, through negotiation with the Local
                            Municipalities, explore the option of developing a Private
                            Public Partnership (PPP) for the development and operation of
                            a MRF preferably in Mthatha. The strategy and PPP should
                            make provision for inclusion of existing informal recyclers. This
Project Description
                            option could consider PPP with the likes of Buyisa-e-Bag a
                            section 21 Company with national credentials establishing
                            recycling projects in partnership with Municipalities. This
                            project as a Pilot Project (PP) for the possible establishment
                            similar such facilities and partnerships in the other towns.
                                 To use this project as a pilot project to streamline and
                                    ―fine tune‖ the potential establishment of similar such
                                    projects (MRF‘s), at Local Authority level.
Project Objective                The project should present no financial burden to either
                                    the District or the Local Municipality and should
                                    represent a sustainable model for implementation
                                    wherever possible throughout the District.
                                 18 months for development and implementation of Pilot
                                    Programme by the District.
                                 18 months subsequent to the above for Local
Project Duration                    Authorities to plan, establish and implement their own
                                    MRFs in their Towns Cognisance is taken of the fact
                                    that the ‗model‘ may need adapting to various site
                                    specific criteria.
Budget                      R2,000,000
Responsibility              DM in association with Local Municipalities
Project No. 12              Roll Out Local Material Recovery Facilities (MFRs)
                            Following the Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation of
Project Description         the Model of the Pilot Regional MRF. Each Local Municipality
                            should develop at least 1 MRF.


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                            Increase level of recycling within each Municipality
                            The Local MRFs will also double up as Buy-Back Centres and
Project Objective           Waste Transfer Station where waste will be bulked and sent to
                            the Regional Material Recovery Facility and Transfer Station in
                            Mthatha for dispatch to markets elsewhere.
Project Duration            24 Months
Budget                      R1,5000,000 per Local Municipality
Responsibility              All local Municipalities

Project No. 13              Establish A Pilot Compositing Facility
                            The District should plan and develop a pilot composting
                            facility within the District. This priority project would require
                            the undertaking of all steps instrumental to the planning
                            process for the composting operation and would include
                            inter alia the following key components:

                                  Development of financially sound business model;
                                  Site selection process for the composting
                                   operation;
                                 Attaining     any licensing       or   environmental
                                   authorizations required to ultimately establish the
                                   composting site;
Project Description
                                 Exploring mechanisms to source, transport and
                                   handle optimal amounts of compostable materials;
                                 Examining infrastructure requirements to address
                                   logistical    needs      (incl.  consideration    of
                                   requirements for drop of centres for garden waste);
                                 Exploring different composting methods to
                                   determine the most suitable method to local
                                   conditions;
                                 Determination of operational requirements; and
                                 Establishing the end user market needs and
                                   potential buyers.
                                 To encourage composting within the DM
Project Objective                To encourage sustainable livelihood through
                                   communities establishing vegetable gardens etc.
Project Duration            6 months
Budget                      R300,000
Responsibility              DM in association with Local Municipalities
Project No. 14              Roll Out Local Material Recovery Facilities (MFRs)
                            Following the Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation
Project Description         of the Model of the Pilot Regional MRF. Each Local
                            Municipality should develop at least 1 MRF.
                            Increase level of recycling within each Municipality
                            The Local MRFs will also double up as Buy-Back Centres
                            and Waste Transfer Station where waste will be bulked
Project Objective
                            and sent to the Regional Material Recovery Facility and
                            Transfer Station in Mthatha for dispatch to markets
                            elsewhere.


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Project Duration            24 Months
Budget                      R1,5000,000 per Local Municipality
Responsibility              All local Municipalities

9.2.3 Waste Collection and Transfer Projects
Project No. 15              Expansion of Waste Collection to un-serviced Areas
                            The expansion of services to un-serviced areas should be
                            viewed as an ongoing concern for the Local Authorities
                            within the District that should be addressed in depth in the
                            development their own Integrated Waste Management
                            Plans. These areas mainly include informal settlements,
                            townships, rural areas, and coastal towns.

                            The needs to develop an environmentally, economically
                            and socially sustainable service expansion strategy, for
                            expansion of waste management services to these areas,
                            that addresses inter alia the following core elements:

                                   Provision of waste receptacles (e.g. skips, bins);
Project Description
                                   Tariff structure for services rendered;
                                   Development of efficient collection routes;
                                   Requirements for collection vehicles and
                                    procurement thereof;
                                 Requirements for additional staff;
                                 Enforcement of by-laws; and
                                 End point of disposal for waste collected.
                            The DM and local Municipality should engage a
                            comprehensive consultative process with the residents of
                            these un-serviced areas to see how best to increase level
                            of services.
                                 To increase level of service to un-serviced areas in
                                    a sustainable manner.
Project Objective                Ensure all Municipalities have got an efficient and
                                    correct fleet of waste collection vehicles and
                                    equipment.
Project Duration            Ongoing (5 year Planning period)
Budget                      Un determined
Responsibility              Local Municipalities
Project No. 16              Establishment of Waste Transfer Stations
                            The DM and the Local Municipalities should engage a
                            programme for the establishment of a network of Waste
Project Description         Transfer stations for efficient transfer of waste. These
                            WTS may be the same facilities as the MRFs in project 8
                            and 9.
                            Establishment of an Efficient and Cost effective waste
                            transfer system within each the Local Municipality. See
Project Objective
                            Alternatives and options for establishment of such a
                            network.
Project Duration            6 Months
                            R200, 000 for the feasibility study for waste transfer.
Budget
                            The feasibility study will determine the specific cost for

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                            each Waste Transfer Station.
Responsibility              All local Municipalities
Project No. 17              Development of Efficient Waste Collection and
                            Transportation Route Plan
                            The Local Municipalities must engage a study to
                            determine the most effective of route plans for collection
                            and transportation of general waste. This study must be a
Project Description         done using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to
                            optimise the efficiency of route plans. This will involve
                            round balancing and determining of cost effective route for
                            expansion of services to un serviced areas.
                            To optimise the travel time / distances of collection
                            vehicles within each Local Municipality, to ensure that the
Project Objective
                            determined collection routes are the most financially
                            viable / sustainable.
Project Duration            6 Months
Budget                      R150, 000 for the feasibility study for municipality
Responsibility              All local Municipalities

9.2.4 Waste Disposal Projects
Project No. 18              Landfill Airspace Audit
                            Each constituent LM within the ORTDM is required to appoint
Project Description         an appropriately qualified consulting engineer to conduct a
                            landfill airspace audit for their respective landfill site / s.
                            To allow for informed future landfill planning in relation to the
Project Objective           amount of remaining available airspace within each
                            constituent LM of the ORTDM.
Project Duration            6 months
Budget                      80,000 per landfill site
Responsibility              Local Municipalities
Project No. 19              Compliance Audit of all Landfill Sites
                            Every constituent Local Authority is required to appoint an
                            appropriately qualified specialist / auditor to assess the
                            compliance of current landfills with the conditions of their
                            permitting and with the principles and guidelines prescribed
                            in DWAF‘s minimum requirements for waste disposal by
                            landfill. Whilst the Status Quo Report highlights deficiencies
                            in current management practices and allows for current
Project Description         remedial action within each Local Authority, the required
                            audit should also put forward a proposed plan of mitigation
                            for each non-compliance encountered on the landfills at the
                            time of the audit. The said Landfill Audit Reports must be
                            submitted to the relevant National and Provincial Authorities
                            responsible for regulating and monitoring landfills, within two
                            (2) months of the Report having been finalised by the
                            independent auditor.
                            To highlight landfill management non-compliances, with a
Project Objective           view to addressing the current challenges and achieving
                            compliance to the conditions of landfill permitting.
Project Duration            3 Months
Budget                      R100, 000 per municipality
Responsibility              All local Municipalities


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Project No. 19           Installation of Weighbridges at all Landfill
                         Each constituent LM within the ORTDM should ensure that a
Project Description      weigh bridge is installed at all their landfill sites. This will also
                         involve the training of personnel to use these weighbridges.
                         To allow for collection of accurate measured data on the actual
Project Objective        volumes or tonnages of waste being disposed of within each
                         municipality.
Project Duration         3 months
                               190,000 per landfill site for a complete weighbridge
                                  including software and calibration.
Budget
                               Smaller Portable Scales may be available for small
                                  sites with not power supply. Estimated cost R80,000
Responsibility           Local Municipalities
Project No. 20           Feasibility study for a Regional Landfill Sites
                               Regional Landfill Site Selection process that is
                                  compliant with the provisions of                  minimum
                                  requirements for waste disposal by landfill (including
                                  public consultation) – this process should also be
                                  inclusive of the need for transfer stations;
                               Compilation of preliminary landfill engineering designs;
                               Submission of landfill licensing application to Provincial
                                  Department       of     Economic     Development        and
                                  Environmental Affairs (DEDEA);
Project Description
                               Scoping and Environmental Impact Assessment
                                  process that is compliant with the provisions of the
                                  National Environmental Management Act (Act 107 of
                                  1998)[NEMA], as well as the National Environmental
                                  Management: Waste Act (Act 59 of 2008)[NEMWA];
                               Final Landfill Design; and
                               Water Use License Application (WULA) process, in
                                  terms of the provisions of the National Water Act (Act
                                  36 of 1998) [NWA].
                         To expedite the planning and legislative requirements for the
                         proposed regional landfill site. To ensure that the site selected
                         for the regional landfill site, design thereof , operating plan and
Project Objective
                         closure objectives of the site are environmentally, socially and
                         economically sustainable, as well as acceptable to I&APs and
                         all relevant spheres of Government.
Project Duration         12 Months for feasibility studies and Authorizations
Budget                   R3,000, 000 (feasibility studies and Authorizations
Responsibility           DM in association with All local Municipalities
    Note: The Landfill site currently being developed by Ikamva
        Development Agency may as well serve this purpose.
    Construction of this facility is likely to take about 18 months
    Construction Budget is estimate at about R20,000,000




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9.2.5 Integrated Waste Management Planning Projects
Project No. 21              Develop Local Integrated Waste Management Plans
                            Compilation and Implementation of Local Authority Integrated
                            Waste Management Plans that align with the goals, policies
                            and objectives of the ORTDM IWMP. Cognisance is taken of
                            the fact that certain Local Authorities within the District have
                            already undertaken to appoint private consultants to develop
Project Description
                            their IWMPs. The Local Authority IWMPs should be compiled
                            in a manner that is compliant with the requirements of
                            Section 12, and gives effect to the objectives of Section 2 (a),
                            of the National Environmental Management: Waste Act (Act
                            No. 59 of 2008)[NEMWA].
                            The establishment of Local Authority IWMPs is intended not
                            only to create uniformity and co-operative governance in
                            relation to waste management structures and standards
Project Objective
                            throughout the District, but also to ensure legislative
                            compliance amongst all Local Authorities within the District to
                            appropriate legislation.
Project Duration            6 months
Budget                      350,000 per local municipality
Responsibility              Local Municipalities
Project No. 22              Review of IWMPs
                            The District and Local Authorities are required to have their
                            IWMPs reviewed on an annual basis. The purpose of these
                            reviews is to monitor the achievements of the Municipalities
                            and to address the failures, in terms of non-implementation
                            (or failed implementation) of the project implementation plan.

                            The monitoring / audit report should provide sufficient
                            information for assessing the achievements of the IWMP
                            goals and strategic objectives. This process of review will
Project Description
                            ensure the re-evaluation of the IWMP and assessment of the
                            appropriateness of policies, goals and strategic objectives.
                            The audit will also direct the way forward in terms of required
                            amendments or adjustments to the aforementioned goals,
                            policies and strategic objectives.

                            The Status Quo, in terms of waste management practices
                            with the ORTDM, should also be re-assessed and
                            appropriately updated annually.
                            Compilation of an annual IWMP Audit Report for submission
Project Objective
                            to DEDEA for consideration.
Project Duration            3 Months
Budget                      R100, 000 per municipality
Responsibility              All local Municipalities

9.3 Implementation Programme
An implementation programme (timeline for the above key projects is laid out in the
table below.




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10 FINANCIAL PLAN
10.1 Introduction
This section of the ORTDM Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP) Framework
deals with the financial planning requirements for implementation of the Plan. This is
not a detailed quantitative analysis, but rather a basis for the development of
individual financial plans for implementation of the various Local Municipality IWM
Plans, once more definitive information is available on the specifics of the plan
elements to be implemented. The objective of financial management within the
District and Local Municipalities is to ensure that the accounting and budgeting
systems are practical and transparent and are used for their intended purpose in
waste management. This Appendix focuses on the development of the elements of a
financial plan for the District.

10.2 Objectives of the Financial Plan
The objective of the Financial Plan is to present guidance for key elements, which
need to be considered for implementation of the plan. It is not the intention to
develop detailed financial analysis for the plan, as such analyses would require far
more detailed and comprehensive cost estimating information, and would be
impractical at this stage due to the large number of variables in terms of
implementation as well as the variable factors (subsidization, contractual
agreements, etc.) which may exist in the ORTDM and Local Municipalities. The
information given below provides a basis for the ORTDM and the Local Municipalities
to draw up detailed financial plans and identify sources of funding. Financing is a
critical aspect that needs considerable attention when developing the various
projects associated with the implementation of the IWM Plan. A number of
mechanisms for funding projects have been listed in Section 76 of the Municipal
Systems Act, which could also aid the ORTDM in their financial planning of projects.
A table explaining various types of costs related to waste management, including
examples where these costs are used is included.

10.3 Development of a Financial Plan
Until it has been determined who will be responsible for implementing all components
of the plan, it is premature to accurately estimate costs, budgets, etc. Certain
components of the plan may be implemented by the ORTDM, others by the Local
Municipalities, or by the private sector through Municipal Service Partnerships
(MSP). However, irrespective of who is responsible for implementing projects, the
ORTDM and the Local Municipalities, this IWMP provides a general guidance on the
key financial requirements and potential funding mechanism, which will be needed
for the successful implementation of the IWMP and Priority Projects. The financial
needs for a complete waste management system include the following:

        Human resources – salaries, pensions, medical aid contributions;
        Development of Primary and secondary infrastructure for waste management
         including:
             - Development of a waste information system;
             - Waste collection services to all un-serviced areas;
             - Recycling facilities;
             - Composting facilities;
             - Transfer facilities and Material Recovery Facilities
             - Landfill development (new regional landfill site, and closure of landfills
                 which have reached their capacities.

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        Equipment for operations of waste management services;
        Additional Surveys or studies (e.g. feasibility studies, Environmental Impact
         Assessments for specific infrastructure for waste management;
        Awareness, Capacity Building, Training and Skills Development; and
        Plans, Projects, Programmes i.e. Implementation of the IWMP; etc.

For purposes of this Plan estimated fees and cost for the priority projects have been
included in a detailed Implementation Plan (see attached sheet, Appendix B)

10.4 Sources of Funding for Waste Projects
Financing sources for projects arising from the IWMP are discussed in the following
paragraphs. This discussion is presented in two categories: domestic and
international. The focus is on financing sources, which could potentially be accessed
by the private sector. Financing sources for the ORTDM could come from a number
of areas such as provincial and national government, as well as international donors.
It must however be noted that the South African government is familiar with financing
opportunities for government-sponsored projects.

The sources listed below are not exhaustive. Further, it must be recognized that
some sources could provide financing for project planning, while others may be
suited to project implementation (particularly construction).

10.4.1          Local Funding Sources
        The Municipal Infrastructure Investment Unit (MIIU), a source for support for
         municipalities which are committed to investigating Municipal Service
         Partnerships;
        The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA), willing to finance a portion
         of solid waste facilities;
        Municipal Infrastructure Grant (MIG) funding. This funding will be geared
         towards landfill construction;
        The Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) publicly committed to funding
         infrastructure projects;
        Capital Expenditure Programme (CAPEX), which finances capital projects
         such as the development of buy-back centres;
        The South Africa Infrastructure Fund, which is composed of numerous
         insurance and pension fund members, with an interest in funding
         infrastructure projects in South Africa.
        Black Empowerment Groups (investment groups);
        Companies with international affiliations, which may have access to greater
         and/or lower cost capital through their international partners;
        Department of Trade and Industry / Department of Transport, through the
         Spatial Development Initiative, may provide support to initiatives which can
         encourage direct foreign investment;
        Department of Environmental Affairs through its social responsibility funding
         programme; and
        Buyisa-e-Bag funding. Though this funding is focused on collection and
         recycling of plastic bags, it could be accessed in the development of buy-back
         centres and material recycling facilities.




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10.4.2          Government Funding Sources

10.4.2.1        National Treasury Funding
Since 2005, there has been a substantial increase in local government share mainly
targeted towards the provision of free basic services and the extension of services to
areas not presently serviced.

National transfers to local government are divided into three major categories:

        The Equitable Share Grant
        Infrastructure conditional grants (mainly the Municipal Infrastructure Grant)
        Capacity Building and Restructuring conditional grants

10.4.2.1.1      Equitable Share Grant
The Equitable Share Grant from national government is provided in support of the
accelerated implementation of free basic services to poor households. All
municipalities are therefore being pressurised by National Government to prioritise
the provision of free basic services to poor households, including better targeting and
performance reporting.

The Division of Revenue Bill has developed a new local government equitable share
formula (explained in Annexure E to the Bill), that takes account of the particular
Municipality‘s revenue raising capacity, as well as a two tier subsidy for serviced and
un-serviced households. Of particular interest to waste management service
provision are the new recommended service subsidies for serviced and un-serviced
households.

Type of Households                            Subsidy
Serviced households                           R30 per household per month
Un-serviced households                        R10 per household per month

If the Municipalities access the Equitable Share Grant based on the above subsidies,
there should be no reason why they cannot provide basic waste collection (door-to-
door) and disposal services to all residents, through private sector (SMME)
contractors. Even in the case of the un-serviced subsidy of R10, a communal skip
system can be implemented for this amount.

The Equitable Share formula makes allowance for variations in functions performed
between the District Municipalities (category C) and Local Municipalities (category B),
with allocations directed to the Municipality that carries out that function.

10.4.2.1.2      Municipal Infrastructure Grant
According to National Treasury, the MIG complements the equitable share
allocations to give effect to national objectives to:

Expand the delivery of basic services to all households, including the delivery of free
basic services to poor households and other poverty alleviating objectives; and
Stimulate local economic development and job creation over the medium term.

Municipalities are also required to use their capital budgets to promote labour-based
infrastructure methods (Expanded Public Works Programme) for projects where this
is appropriate. In direct contrast with the former CMIP funding, the MIG does not fund

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specific projects, but is designed to complement the capital budget of a Municipality.
Reporting on MIG therefore focuses on the entire capital budget of a Municipality.

The District Municipality has a responsibility to ensure that low capacity local
municipalities are supported in their applications for MIG funds, and that they will
comply with the requirements of the MFMA and the 2005 Division of Revenue Bill in
terms of budgeting. Section 37(2) enables municipalities to receive MIG funding
provided that they prepare sector plans showing how backlogs are being addressed
relating to the key sectors such as electricity, water, sanitation, waste removal, roads
and transport.

10.4.2.1.3     Capacity Building and Restructuring Grant
The capacity building grants were set up to assist municipalities in improving
management, planning, technical and financial management skills and capacity for
effective service delivery, with the major portions of grants flowing directly to
municipalities. The following programmes are being supported from this grant:

        Financial Management Grant;
        Municipal Systems Improvement Programmes; and
        Restructuring Grant.

10.4.3         International Funding Sources
In addition to locally available finding mechanisms within South Africa mentioned
above, there are a number of international finance houses and donor agencies who
are playing key roles in the waste management and environmental sector in South
Africa and these include:
     International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group,
        a private sector division which finances private sector projects in developing
        countries and helps companies to access financing in international markets.
        It promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries as a
        way to reduce poverty and improve people‘s lives;
     The Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund (SAEDF), which is a U.S.
        Government-funded, privately managed venture capital fund, which takes an
        equity position of up to 25% in its investments;
     New African Advisors, a U.S. based private venture capital fund with
        guarantees provided by the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC);
     The OPIC Global Environment Fund (GEF), a U.S. based investment fund
        which sponsors and manages investment entities with equity involvement in
        infrastructure projects; and
     Various U.S. based private investment funds, which have expressed interest
        in South African infrastructure projects.

The following agencies can assist in obtaining, structuring, and/or insuring
investments:

        Various merchant banks in South Africa which have declared an interest in
         structuring financing for Municipal Service Partnerships;
        The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), which helps to
         finance sales of U.S.A goods and services outside the U.S.A;
        The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), a member of the
         World Bank Group, which provides insurance to private investors against



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         risks such as currency transfer, expropriation and civil disturbance, as well as
         technical assistance; and
        The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), a U.S. government
         agency that provides both financing and insurance to U.S. companies
         involved in international investments.

10.5 Risks Associated with Funding
A number of potential risks to investors for projects include such risks as construction
risk, operational risk, regulatory risk, market risk, and political risk. A detailed risk
analysis should however be part of a financial analysis of the various projects and
elements of the project. The following discussion gives a brief description of the
different risk groups listed above together with comments on mitigating the risks from
the perspective of investors in private sector projects and/or Private Public
Partnerships.

Construction risk is the risk that the project elements will not be constructed (or
completed) on time, within budget, or to the parameters originally specified. This risk
can be mitigated by various measures, including the use of qualified construction
companies, the use of insurance, and the provision of bonus and penalty clauses in
construction contracts.

Operational risk is the risk that the project elements will be faulty and not operate
efficiently or within the parameters specified by the owner and/or by the regulatory
agencies. A certain amount of operational risk is unavoidable, therefore lenders must
protect their position through for example minimum debt service coverage ratio,
limitations on capital expenditures, limitations on long-term debt, and limitations on
guarantees.

Regulatory risk refers to the potential for the regulatory controls on the project
elements to change during the life of the project, thereby influencing the
requirements for project performance. Should the performance requirements change,
the costs of investments for upgrading, and the increased operational costs, must be
addressed. Strategies used to manage regulatory risk include the appropriate
identification of responsibilities for upgrading in contracts.

Market Risk fluctuates depending upon the implementation model within which the
project elements operate. For example, in an unregulated competitive market, such
as the recycling market, the project faces risks related to the market size, the price,
and the payments. However, if the market is regulated, the market size is controlled,
and price and payments can be controlled through a regulatory agency. Several
strategies are used by lenders to reduce market risks, including guarantees by
government agencies, letters of credit, limitations on debt exposure, and independent
appraisals.

Political Risk signifies a variety of potential events which can be triggered through
local political actions, and which cannot reliably be predicted, such as: expropriation,
confiscation and nationalization of assets; forced abandonment; currency
inconvertibility; funds transfer risk; violence such as strikes, riots, civil commotion, or
malicious damage. Certain political risks can be mitigated through insurance.




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11 APPROVAL, MONITORING AND REVIEW
11.1 Approval of the IWMP
The primary purpose of the OR Tambo DM developing Integrated Waste
Management Plan is to give effect to the goals and objectives of the National
Environmental Management Waste Act (Act No. 59 of 2008)[NEMWA]. Apart from
This IWMP must now be seen as a Municipal Sector Plan and it must be subjected to
the same approval processes for all other sector plans e.g. Housing, Water etc.).

The following process must be followed to ensure that the IWMP is approved and
adopted by the OR Tambo DM as it official sector plan for waste management.




Figure 42 IWMP Approval Process

11.2 Monitoring and Evaluation of the IWMP
Monitoring of the IWMP is an ongoing activity that will constitute an essential and
integral part of the Integrated Waste Management planning process. A monitoring
regime and criteria against which the plan will be monitored is largely dependant on
the Implementation Plan and the monitoring and evaluation of the key projects
detailed within this IWMP and subsequent revisions.

The primary criteria against which the implementation of this IWMP should be
monitored are as follows:

        Compliance with time-frames prescribed for project implementation within the
         Implementation Plan of the IWMP.
        Achievement of objectives of proposed priority projects.
        Appropriate consultation with Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs), where
         appropriate and required, as part of project implementation prescribed by this
         IWMP Report and associated Implementation Plan.

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        Project implementation within the prescribed (conservative) project budgets
         outlined within this IWMP Report.
        Initiative and ingenuity shown by District and Local Municipalities to source
         the funding required supplementing budgets required to implement the
         Implementation Strategy.

The Annual Performance Report prepared by the OR Tambo DM, in terms of section
46 of the Municipal Systems Act 2000 (Act 32 of 2000), must also contain information
on the implementation of the Municipal IWMP. The OR Tambo DM should, therefore,
compile an IWMP Monitoring/ Audit Report on the implementation of its IWMP on an
annual basis and submit it for consideration by inter alia the Eastern Cape
Department of Economic Development and Environmental Affairs (DEDEA).




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12 CONCLUSION
The primary purpose of the OR Tambo DM developing Integrated Waste
Management Plan is to give effect to the goals and objectives of the National
Environmental Management Waste Act (Act No. 59 of 2008)[NEMWA]. Apart from
This IWMP must now be seen as a Municipal Sector Plan and it must be subjected to
the same approval processes for all other sector plans e.g. Housing, Water etc.).




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                            OR Tambo District IWMP (2009)


References




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