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 1                         Electronic suppl. material 1

 2


 3   Section 1: complete description

 4   Precise illustration of the auditory region is provided through the other electronic

 5   supplementary file: ESM2_auditory_region_Kuntinaru.tif


 6


 7   TEETH


 8   MNHN-SAL 1024 and MNHN-SAL 3 are incomplete rostrally.


 9   On MNHN-SAL 1024, only the most lateral part of the left side is preserved but the tooth row

10   is heavily damaged. 7 tooth sections are preserved. The most anterior one only preserves a

11   section close to the base of their crown. It only consists in a minute cylindrical section

12   situated very close to the skull roof. This most rostral preserved tooth is smaller than the

13   second one (despite the bias on the height of the sections).


14   The third and fourth most anterior teeth are sectioned closer to their original occlusal surface

15   (close to the palate level). The three posterior teeth are deeply abraded or exhibit several

16   artefactual breaks.


17   The central teeth in this raw is the largest ones, the three most posterior teeth showing

18   undoubtedly a posteriorly decreasing size gradient, with the last tooth being the only one to

19   present a circular rather than an ovale section.
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20   Only two teeth, in the middle of the tooth row on MNHN-SAL 3, exhibit an undamaged

21   occlusal surface, providing informations on the tooth wear: the dental surface is beveled

22   anteroposteriorly.


23


24   SKULL:


25   NASAL-FACIAL REGION

26   Most is lacking. The nasals are not preserved. The sutura maxillary-frontal is long and oblique

27   between the orbits and the nasals, being more similar to Euphractus than to Dasypus whose

28   sutura is curved. The posterior part of the nasals is narrow and not penetrated by a deep

29   median anterior projection of the frontals. At least, two additional openings transmitting

30   nutrient veins open in front of the infraorbital foramen (Wible and Gaudin, 2004).

31   The infra-orbital foramen is situated high above the level of the tooth row (or the palate). It is

32   located clearly higher relative to Dasypus or Euphractus. Tolypeutes exhibits a closer

33   condition.

34   The anterior root of the zygomatic arch seems to arise from the level of the 5th preserved tooth

35   (the 3rd most posterior).

36   The facial outline of the lacrimal is triangular. As usual in armadillos, the mx-fr suture meets

37   the lacrimal at the level of the anterior angle of the triangle defined by its dorsal exposure.

38   The frontal dorsal surface shows a pentagonal shape that is widest in the middle of its

39   anteroposterior extension. It is sloping anteriorly, with no relief but two lateral swellings

40   (bulges) in the middle of its anteroposterior extension at the level of the anterior root of the

41   zygomatic arch. These bulges are well domed. Most armadillos, with the noticeable exception

42   of Dasypus, often present this feature (it is remarkably developed as two huge transverse

43   crests in Chlamyphorus).
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44   Kuntinaru presents an important post-orbital constriction well extended anteroposteriorly.

45   There is no marked postorbital apophysis. The frontal-parietal suture is well posterior to the

46   postorbital constriction.

47

48   PALATE

49   Only the posterior part of the palate can be described, mostly from MNHN-SAL 3. The tooth

50   rows are strictly parallel and close to each other.

51   The suture of the palatine/maxillary extends anteriorly as far as the anterior part of the

52   antepenultimate tooth on MNHN-SAL 3. This suture course passes very close to the two last

53   teeth and almost contacts them lingually. Then, it runs slightly away from the 3rd most

54   posterior tooth and turn medially when at the level of the anterior part of this tooth. It is

55   undulating, like a M, when the observer looks the palate from a posterior perspective.

56   Backward to the most posterior tooth, the course of this suture is not clearly distinct on the 2

57   specimens.

58   The pterygoids are not preserved. The space between the last tooth and the choanae is small.

59   The posterior midline part of the palate bears a crest on the median palatine suture. A paired

60   small foramen is preserved just ahead of the mx-pal suture, and may be the major palatine

61   foramen. A tiny foramen is present, on both sides, medioposterior to the most posterior tooth,

62   only separated from it by the mx-pal suture. This foramen might correspond to the minor

63   palatine foramen. It may be a fickle feature as it is only present on the left side of MNHN-

64   SAL 3. The posterior margin of the palate forms a semi-ellipse in ventral view. Its most

65   anterior point reaches the level of the posterior part of the most posterior tooth

66

67

68
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69   ORBITOTEMPORAL REGION AND SKULL ROOF:

70   The maxillary foramen, i.e. the orbital opening of the infraorbital canal, opens in the orbital

71   cavity like in most armadillos. Conversely, in Cabassous and Priodontes, this foramen opens

72   outside the orbital cavity, clearly below the ventral edge of the anterior root of the zygomatic

73   arch.

74   The maxillary occupies most or all of the lower half of the orbital cavity whereas the frontal

75   does so for the upper part. The lacrimal orbital extent is not clear but is obviously reduced.

76   The lacrimal foramen may have lied just on the edge of the orbit, but this part is slightly

77   damaged.

78   The frontal-maxillary suture slopes posteriorly. The suture maxillary-palatine is not

79   discernible.

80   There is a small foramen posterior to the maxillary one, at the level of the most posterior point

81   of the anterior root of the zygomatic arch, probably an accessory foramen like those present in

82   Euphractus between the maxillary foramen and the caudal palatine foramen (Wible & Gaudin

83   2004, fig. 3B).

84   Like all xenarthrans, the specimen does not present a true maxillary floor in the orbit but only

85   a large vertical medial orbital wall.

86   The skull MNHN-SAL 1024 exhibits a large break at the level of the postorbital apophysis.

87   This precludes the observation of the ethmoid foramen and of the anterior suture of the

88   orbitosphenoid.

89   The anterior foramen of the orbitotemporal canal opens dorsal to the course of the frontal-

90   alisphenoid suture. It is not reduced and forward directed. The sphenorbital fissure opens at

91   the same level but much more ventrally. The suture orbitosphenoid-alisphenoid passes within

92   the sphenorbital fissure. Slightly more anterior within the orbitosphenoid bone opens the optic

93   foramen. Its opening is smaller than that of the sphenorbital fissure. It is tricky here to
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 94   delineate the presence of another foramen ventral to these, as described in Euphractus (rostral

 95   opening of the pterygoid canal; Wible & Gaudin, 2004), because this region suffered a

 96   significant flattening.

 97   The orbitosphenoid extent is higher than longer. The extent of the palatine bone in this region

 98   cannot be precised. The alisphenoid wing has a wide quadrangular extent. The dorsal course

 99   of its suture slopes slightly anteriorly, whereas the anterior and posterior courses are parallel

100   and grossly vertical. The ventral course is not distinct, but obviously runs anteroventral to the

101   sphenorbital fissure.

102   From a lateral perspective, the dorsal outline of the posterior root of the zygomatic arch is

103   roughly horizontal and sinuous, like Tolypeutes and Prozaedyus. In this respect, it strongly

104   differs from Dasypus, Cabassous, Priodontes, and Chlamyphorus whose corresponding

105   region presents a sharp break slope, as well as from Euphractus, Zaedyus, and

106   Chaetophractus which display a straight and oblique outline. A horizontal crest runs from the

107   medial edge of the posterior root of the zygomatic arch, called the orbital muscular crest by

108   Gaudin & Wible (2006). This crest crosses the squamosal-alisphenoid and the alisphenoid-

109   frontal sutures, and ends forwards to the posterior edge of the anterior opening of the

110   orbitotemporal canal.

111   From a lateral perspective, the squamosal displays a triangular outline, with an angle pointing

112   anteriorly. The most anterior point of this angle goes slightly forward the level of the frontal-

113   parietal suture. The squamosal contacts the frontal over this point and thus prevents an

114   alisphenoid-parietal contact. The parietals occupy a large surface on the skull roof. This

115   surface is domed.

116   The temporal lines do not meet in the midline. They are very slightly converging posteriorly

117   but still distant from the midline.
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118   The posterior part of the posterior root of the zygomatic arch exhibits a triangular depressed

119   area in which open two foramina. The larger one, the suprameatal foramen, opens

120   anteroventrally at the bottom of a trough directed towards the posteromedial direction. The

121   other foramen opens at the bottom of a small circular pit directed anteromedially or medially

122   (it varies on the two sides of a same skull). This is very different from Dasypus whose two

123   seemingly homologous foramina are much more distant from each other.

124   In its most ventral part, the parietal is crossed by multiple foramina that are minute in the

125   most anterior part of the bone, and then more deeply marked (with a gutter) posteriorly. The

126   nuchal crest and the dorsal edge of the posterior root of the zygomatic arch do not constitute a

127   continuous relief.

128   From a lateral perspective, the skull roof has a sinuous outline in its posterior half. It is domed

129   posterior to the postorbital constriction, and then depressed in the most posterior part.

130   Anterior to the postorbital constriction, the skull roof bears a pair of lateral bulges and slopes

131   forward.

132

133   BASICRANIUM AND AUDITORY REGION

134   Like in all armadillos, the occipital condyles are massive.

135   Contrary to Dasypus, the outline shape of the auditory region (from the level of the foramen

136   ovale anteriorly) is much wider than longer, but not to the extent observed in extant

137   euphractines.

138   The foramen ovale opens at the level of the anterior edge of the posterior root of the

139   zygomatic arch. In the same depression, a small bridge delimitates the transverse canal

140   foramen (see Wible & Gaudin, 2004) from the foramen ovale in MNHN-SAL 3. This bony

141   bridge is tiny and has not been preserved in MNHN-SAL 1024.
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142   The foramen ovale is bordered posteriorly by a thick crest running continuously and obliquely

143   from the entopterygoid crest to the dorsal edge of the auditory porus. This crest really defines

144   a strong separation of the petrosal from the anterolateral adjacent structures. This crest is less

145   developed in other armadillos and often shows a break slope at the level of the alisphenoid-

146   squamosal suture. This massive and continuous crest may be a character unique to Kuntinaru.

147   This crest shows an equivalent contribution of the alisphenoid anteromedially and of the

148   squamosal posterolaterally. The suture alisphenoid/squamosal crosses perpendicularly this

149   crest at its midpoint.

150   There is no true glenoid fossa, just a surface somewhat flattened and bordered medially by the

151   above-mentioned crest. It even slightly slopes laterally towards the dorsal direction.

152   Posterior to this surface, just dorsolateral to the dorsal edge of the auditory porus opens the

153   postglenoid foramen. It is laterally bordered by a crest. This crest runs from the posteroventral

154   extremity of the dorsal edge of the auditory porus and tapers off towards a more dorsal point

155   on the posterolateral edge of the posterior root of the zygomatic arch. Such a crest is absent in

156   Dasypus for which the location of this foramen is much anterior to the tympanic notch. It is

157   present in Tolypeutes, tiny in Cabassous, and absent in Priodontes; unfortunately, its presence

158   cannot be checked in the taxa with an ossified bulla, such as the extant euphractines.

159   The squamosal contributes to the entire dorsal edge of the auditory porus. As no tympanic

160   bone is preserved, there is no more information on the porus. Medial to this notch, the

161   squamosal also participates in the lateral half of a shallow depression (the petrosal defines the

162   medial half): this depression is the epitympanic recess. It is wider and much shallower in

163   Kuntinaru than in Dasypus, and more similar to Priodontes and Tolypeutes. An epitympanic

164   recess is lacking in Euphractus (Wible and Gaudin, 2004): the roof of the recess has been lost

165   and then provided space for an epitympanic sinus. Posterior to the epitympanic recess, the

166   squamosal is restricted to a thin and short lamina on the lateral edge of the skull. This part
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167   constitutes the post-tympanic process of the squamosal, which lies against the larger

168   paroccipital process of the petrosal (Wible, 2010; Wible & Gaudin, 2004).

169   The roof of the choanae is flat; no suture is discernible on it. The basisphenoid-basioccipital

170   suture is not really well-marked. In Kuntinaru, there is only some kind of transversal rugosity

171   that may be the mark of it. It is situated at the level of the anterior edge of the

172   petrosal/piriform fenestra.

173   Almost all along its midline, the basioccipital bears a well marked medial crest; its

174   development reduces posteriorly close to the foramen magnum.

175   Posterior to the longus colli tubercles, the medial floor of the skull enlarges. The large

176   hypoglossal foramina open just dorso-anterior to the occipital condyles. The dorsal edge of

177   the hypoglossal foramen is formed by a bony bridge (basioccipital) which shows a dorso-

178   ventral discontinuity with the main (basioccipital) basicranium medial floor. This bridge

179   contacts the medial edge of the petrosal at its posterior third and then projects somewhat

180   dorsally and parallels the petrosal medial edge on all its length.

181   The ventral edge of the foramen magnum displays a sharp V outline pointing forward (the

182   extremity of V corresponds to the odontoid notch). The exact outline of the occipital condyles

183   is difficult to sort out but their main axis is slightly oblique relative to the transverse direction.

184   The occipital condyles of Kuntinaru exhibit a deep notch on their medial edge, ventral to the

185   cranial aperture of the hypoglossal foramen. A fossa is also present on the medial edge of the

186   condyles in Euphractus, Chaetophractus, Zaedyus, Chlamyphorus, Priodontes, Cabassous,

187   and Tolypeutes. A prolongation of this fossa often defines a medial notch in the ventral

188   surface of the condyles. Such a notch and/or fossa is absent in Dasypus, Bradypus, and

189   Tamandua. In addition to the medial notch, Kuntinaru presents like most armadillos a notch

190   in the lateral edge of the occipital condyles.
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191   From the antero-medial corner of the large fossa housing the petrosal, a tiny groove runs

192   towards the medial edge of the entopterygoid crests. This should be the groove for the

193   auditory (Eustachian) tube.

194   The jugular foramen (posterior lacerate foramen) opens posteromedial to the sharp notch

195   exhibited by the petrosal at its posteromedial corner (see below).

196   Lateral to the occipital condyles is a broken process, whose dorsal basis shows an

197   anteroposterior orientation. This is the paroccipital process of the exoccipital of uncertain

198   development.

199   Kuntinaru does not preserve any part of the tympanic bones and as such might have presented

200   no well-ossified bulla and not well-fused ento- and ecto-tympanic. This would resemble to the

201   dasypodines and extant tolypeutines (and possibly also the glyptodontids) who present no

202   broad fusion of their ento- and ectotympanic.

203

204   PETROSAL

205   Only the tympanic face and the mastoid exposure of the petrosal are observable.

206   The tympanic face of the petrosal of Kuntinaru displays a large flattened surface extending

207   ahead of the inflated promontorium, the epitympanic wing. In Kuntinaru, Tolypeutes,

208   Cabassous, Proeutatus, and Propalaeohoplophorus, the promontory and epitympanic wing

209   are elongated in the anteromedial direction only, and go far anterior past the tegmen tympani.

210   In the extant euphractines and Priodontes, the promontory and epitympanic wing spread

211   anterolaterally as much as anteromedially and do not go anterior past the level of the tegmen

212   tympani. In Dasypus, the extent of the epitympanic wing is very weak (Wible, 2010: fig. 5).

213   Antero-medially, the petrosal contacts the alisphenoid and as a consequence there is no

214   piriform fenestra at this location. Such a fenestra may lay a little more posterolaterally but the

215   breakages and the dislocations in both MNHN-SAL 3 and 1024 preclude this assertion.
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216   The part housing the hiatus fallopii is missing but a large part of the roof between the

217   promontorium and the crista parotica is preserved. The secondary facial foramen opens just

218   slightly anteriorly (and lateral) to the fenestra vestibuli. The crista parotica is high, long and

219   oriented strictly anteroposteriorly. The crista parotica runs very close to the vestibular fenestra

220   of the promontorium (possibly typical of all xenarthrans).

221   The part lateral to the crista parotica defines, with the squamosal, the epitympanic recess just

222   described above. Posteromedial in this depression, a small pocket (i.e. the fossa incudis) can

223   be identified. It is situated slightly posterior to a transverse virtual line connecting the fenestra

224   vestibuli to the postglenoid foramen. Anterior to the epitympanic recess, a clublike ventral

225   process is in continuity with this latter, just lateral to the anterior part of the crista parotica. Its

226   ventral tip is slightly concave. This is the tegmen tympanii as defined in Wible (2010) for

227   Dasypus.

228   The fenestra vestibuli is weakly elongated anteroposteriorly. It faces laterally. The fenestra

229   cochleae is posteroventromedial to the preceding, like usual in eutherians, and clearly larger.

230   Its outline looks like a half ellipse with the linear basis being dorsal. It is bordered

231   ventromedially by a thick process that curves laterally just slightly posterior to it. This process

232   constitutes a postero(medial) outgrowth on the tympanic face of the petrosal, and defines a

233   sharp notch with the more medial part of the petrosal. This notch houses more dorsally the

234   cochlear canaliculus, like in Dasypus (Wible, 2010).

235   The posteromedial corner of the petrosal contacts the basioccipital (medial basicranial plate).

236   Posterior to the level of the epitympanic recess, the crista parotica is continuous

237   posteroventrolaterally with a thicker process. The dorsomedial tip of this process, likely the

238   tympanohyal, is lacking.

239   Medial to this is the stapedial fossa. This rounded fossa lies at the same height than the

240   fenestra vestibuli.
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241   The petrosal makes a large posterior wall posterior that delimitates the tympanic part of the

242   petrosal from its mastoid part. The apex of this wall represents the ventral apex of the mastoid

243   portion, it forms most of the posterior edge of the ventral face of the skull, lateral to the

244   condyles, like in all armadillos.

245

246   OCCIPUT

247   The mastoid portion of the petrosal encloses a vertical tubular “hole” opened ventrally, and

248   which likely lead to the posterior opening of the posttemporal canal, as is the case in

249   Euphractus (Wible & Gaudin, 2004).

250   The mastoid exposure is badly preserved and cannot be detailed precisely here. However, the

251   lateral suture with the squamosal is visible and runs on the most ventral part of the lateral

252   edge of the occiput. On the occiput, the suture with the occipital bone runs very close to the

253   dorsal basis of the paroccipital process ventrally, and more dorsally has a convex outline

254   towards the medial line.

255   The most ventrolateral part of the mastoid portion of the petrosal is broken on MNHN-SAL

256   1024 but the basis of a putative ventral process is preserved. This is the paroccipital process of

257   the petrosal described by Wible and Gaudin (2004) in Euphractus and Wible (2010) in

258   Dasypus.

259   Like in all armadillos, the dorsal edge of the occipital face (lambdoid crest) has a sinuous

260   outline, concave medially towards the posterior direction. From a lateral perspective, the

261   ventral part of the occiput exhibits a vertical orientation medially. The more dorsal part rather

262   slopes posteriorly.

263

264
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265   Section 2: Specimens (and references) considered in the present

266   study

267   Abbreviations: AMNH, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; FMNH,

268   Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA; ZFMK, Museum A. Koenig, Bonn,

269   Germany; MNHN, extant mammals collection, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris,

270   France ; STIPB, Steinmann Institut, Paläontologie, Bonn Universität, Germany; YPM-PU,

271   Princeton Collection of the Peabody Museum, Yale, USA; UMZC, University Museum of

272   Zoology, Cambridge, UK.


273   Classification follows McKenna & Bell (1997).


274


275   XENARTHRA Cope, 1889

276         PILOSA Flower, 1883

277                PHYLLOPHAGA Owen, 1842

278   Bradypus variegatus ZFMK 60157, UMZC E23 (844B)

279   Bradypus tridactylus ZFMK 83104

280

281                VERMILINGUA Illiger 1811

282   Tamandua tetradactyla ZFMK 87728, UMZC E593 and E592

283

284         CINGULATA Illiger, 1811

285                DASYPODOIDEA Gray, 1821

286                       PELTEPHILIDAE Ameghino, 1894
                                                13



287   Peltephilus pumilis† YPM-PU 15391 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006, and from Scott, 1903-

288   1904)

289

290                           DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821

291                                DASYPODINAE Gray, 1821

292   Dasypus novemcinctus STIPB M2523, ZFMK 75115, MNHN 393-371-30-48, LH private

293   collection

294   Dasypus hybridus ZFMK 80327

295   Stegotherium tesselatum† YPM-PU 15565, 15566 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006, and from

296   Scott, 1903-1904)

297

298                                TOLYPEUTINAE Gray, 1865

299   Cabassous chacoensis ZFMK 60317

300   Cabassous unicinctus MNHN 1999-1044, MNHN 2007-374

301   Priodontes maximus ZFMK 76383, MNHN 1981-682, UMZC E1141.

302   Tolypeutes matacus MNHN 1917-177, MNHN A2322 , LH private collection

303   Kuntinaru boliviensis MNHN-SAL 3, MNHN-SAL 1024

304

305                                EUPHRACTINAE Winge, 1923

306                                     Euphractini Winge, 1923

307   Chaetophractus villosus ZFMK 37300, MNHN 2007-373, MNHN 1917-152, UMZC E1062,

308   LH private collection

309   Chaetophractus vellerosus ZFMK 59455

310   Euphractus sexcinctus ZFMK 79577, LH private collection, and also from Wible & Gaudin

311   (2004)
                                                 14



312   Zaedyus ciliatus MNHN 2007-369, MNHN 2007-375

313   Macroeuphractus retusus† FMNH P14493 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006, and from Vizcaíno

314   & De Iuliis, 2003)

315   Paleuphractus argentinus† FMNH P14412, P14442 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006)

316   Proeuphractus scalabrinii† FMNH P14360, P14784, P15435 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006)

317   Prozaedyus exilis† YPM-PU 15567, 15579 (from photos of the specimens made and

318   provided to us by YPM-PU staff, but also from Gaudin & Wible, 2006, and from Scott, 1903-

319   1904)

320

321                                     Chlamyphorini Pocock, 1924

322   Chlamyphorus truncatus UMZC 1201

323

324                                     Eutatini Bordas, 1933

325   Doellotatus prominens† FMNH P14351, P14358, P14526 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006)

326   Eutatus seguini† AMNH 11231 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006, and from Vizcaíno & Bargo,

327   1998)

328   Proeutatus oenophorus† FMNH P13197, P13199, P13203 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006,

329   and from Scott, 1903-1904)

330

331                 GLYPTODONTOIDEA Gray, 1869

332                        PAMPATHERIIDAE Paula Couto, 1954

333   Propalaeohoplophorus australis †YPM-PU 15007, 15291 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006, and

334   from Scott, 1903-1904)

335
                                                      15



336                          GLYPTODONTIDAE Gray, 1869

337   Vassallia maxima† FMNH P14424 (from Gaudin & Wible, 2006, and from Vizcaíno et al.,

338   1998)

339

340

341   Section 3: Character list

342                                     Characters 8oct.nex
343
344
345   Some characters from the Gaudin & Wible (2006) analysis have been removed from the
346   present analysis because we have considered them either redundant with other characters, or
347   representing trivial variations, or not informative in the present context.
348
349
350
351   1. ** GW1 (= character n°1 in the analysis of Gaudin and Wible, 2006):
352         Number of upper teeth: 5 (0), 6 (1), 7 (2), 8 (3), 9 (4), or more than 9 (5).
353
354   2. ** GW2:
355         Number of lower teeth: 4 (0), 7 (1), 8 (2), 9 (3), 10 (4), or more than 10 (5).
356
357   3.      GW3:
358           Premaxillary teeth: present (0), or absent (1).
359
360   4.      GW5:
361           Histology of central region of tooth: tooth center composed of modified orthodentine
362           (0), or tooth center composed of an elevated core of osteodentine (1) (Ferigolo, 1985).
363
364   5. ** GW6:
365         Modified orthodentine core of teeth: avascular (0), poorly vascularized (1), well-
366         vascularized (2), or highly vascularized, almost resembling a vasodentine (3)
367         (Ferigolo, 1985).
368
369   6.      GW8:
370           Orientation of long axis of teeth relative to long axis of toothrow: all teeth oriented
371           parallel to the long axis of the toothrow (0), posterior teeth oriented obliquely to the
372           long axis of the toothrow (1), anterior teeth oriented obliquely to the long axis of the
373           toothrow (2), or all teeth oriented obliquely to the long axis of the toothrow (3).
374
375   7. ** GW11:
376         Length of mandibular spout: elongated, greater than or equal to the length of the
377         mandibular symphysis (0); reduced, half the length of the symphysis or less (1); or
378         spout absent (2).
                                                    16



379
380   8.     GW12:
381          Mandibular symphysis delineated from mandibular horizontal ramus by distinct angle
382          in lateral view: clear angle present (0); or clear angle absent, ventral edge of the
383          symphysis grades imperceptibly into the ventral edge of the ramus (1).
384          Stegotherium, Vassalia, Prozaedyus, Tamandua are here scored “1”, and Peltephilus
385          is scored “0”.
386
387   9.     GW13:
388          Position of posterior end of mandibular symphysis relative to anteriormost mental
389          foramen: posterior to (0), or anterior to (1).
390
391   10.    GW14:
392          Anterior termination of lower toothrow: posterior to the mandibular symphysis (0), or
393          at least two lower teeth dorsal to the mandibular symphysis (1).
394          Peltephilus is here scored “1”.
395
396   11. ** GW16:
397          Depth of mandible: shallow, maximum depth of the horizontal ramus < ten percent of
398          the maximum mandibular length (0); of moderate depth, maximum depth of the
399          horizontal ramus ≥ ten percent, < twenty percent of the maximum mandibular length
400          (1); or deep, maximum depth of the horizontal ramus ≥ twenty percent of the
401          maximum mandibular length (2).
402
403   12. ** GW17:
404          Position of last lower tooth relative to ascending ramus of mandible: fully hidden in
405          lateral view (0), partially hidden in lateral view (1), or located well anterior to (2).
406
407   13. ** GW18:
408          Angle between toothrow and anterior edge of ascending ramus of mandible: <40° (0),
409          40°–49° (1), 50°–59° (2), 60°–69° (3), 70°–79° (4), 80°–89° (5), or ≥90° (6).
410
411   14.    Modified from GW19:
412          Coronoid process shape: elongated (0); small (1).
413          The original GW states 0-1-2 are here clustered in state 0, as the GW 0&2 states were
414          not informative and can be clustered together with state 1, as simply “elongated”.
415
416   15.    Modified from GW20:
417          Distal extent of coronoid process relative to condylar process: dorsal to (0), or ventral
418          to (1).
419          Priodontes is here scored “1”.
420
421   16. ** Modified from GW22:
422          Relative distance between coronoid, condylar, and angular processes of mandible:
423          condyle closer to the coronoid than to the angle (0), three processes essentially
424          equidistant (1), or condyle closer to the angle than to the coronoid (2).
425          Priodontes and Tolypeutes are here scored “1”.
426
427   17. ** GW24:
428          Shape of mandibular condyle in dorsal view: narrow, greatest anteroposterior length
                                                    17



429          more than one and a half times greater than the greatest width (0); greatest width and
430          the anteroposterior length roughly equivalent (1); or wide, greatest width more than
431          one and a half times the greatest anteroposterior length (2).
432
433   18.    GW27:
434          Dorsal surface of mandibular condyle in posterior view: concave transversely (0), flat
435          (1), convex transversely (2), or concavo-convex (3).
436
437   19. ** GW28:
438          Orientation of mandibular condyle in lateral view: faces posterodorsally (0), dorsally
439          (1), or anterodorsally (2).
440
441   20.    GW29:
442          Fossa on anterodorsal surface of condylar process of mandible, immediately anterior
443          to articular condyle: absent (0), or present (1).
444
445   21.    GW30:
446          Ventral edge of angular process: ventral to the lower edge of the horizontal ramus (0),
447          or dorsal to the lower edge of the horizontal ramus (1).
448
449   22.    GW32:
450          Strong mylohyoid groove on anterior medial surface of mandibular horizontal ramus:
451          absent (0), or present (1).
452
453   23.    GW35:
454          Shape of processus ascendens and processus intrafenestralis of septomaxilla: processes
455          slender, circumference fairly uniform throughout (0); processus intrafenestralis flared
456          distally (1); or both processes elaborate, the processus ascendens bearing a posterior
457          prong and the processus intrafenestralis a broad lateral flange (2).
458
459   24. ** GW36:
460          Length of rostrum to anterior orbital rim: short, <forty percent of the GSL (0); ≥forty
461          percent, <fifty percent of the GSL (1); ≥fifty percent, <sixty percent of the GSL (2); or
462          elongated, ≥sixty percent of the GSL (3).
463
464   25. ** GW37:
465          Length of nasal bone: short, <twenty-five percent of the GSL (0); ≥twentyfive percent,
466          <thirty percent of the GSL (1), ≥thirty percent, <thirtyfive percent of the GSL (2); or
467          elongated, ≥thirty-five percent of the GSL (3).
468
469   26.    GW38:
470          Length of premaxillary/nasal suture: elongated, >twelve percent of the condylobasal
471          skull length (0); or short, <ten percent of the condylobasal skull length (1).
472
473   27.    Modified from GW39:
474          Notch on anteroventral edge of premaxilla: absent (0), or present (1).
475          We focus here on the presence of the notch, and not on its development contrarily to
476          GW39. Tiny notches can be detected in Euphractus, Zaedyus and Chaetophractus.
477
478   28. ** GW40:
                                                     18



479          External naris shape: height > width (0), width = height (1), or width >height (2).
480
481   29.    GW41:
482          Inclination of external narial aperture in lateral view: directed anteriorly or
483          anterodorsally (0), or anteroventrally (1).
484
485   30.    GW42:
486          Vomer overlaps premaxilla dorsally within external narial aperture: absent (0), or
487          present (1).
488
489   31.    GW43:
490          Anterior edge of nasal in dorsal view: with distinct medial and lateral processes
491          separated by an indentation or notch (0); or without distinct processes, typically
492          forming an evenly convex curve (1).
493
494   32.    GW44:
495          Anterior extent of nasal bone relative to nasoturbinal: posterior to (0), or anterior to
496          anterior tip of Nasoturbinal (1).
497
498   33.    New character inspired from GW46:
499          Position of infraorbital foramen on rostrum: (0), close to the maxillary root of
500          zygomatic arch and at the same height; (1), far anterior from maxillary root of
501          zygomatic arch and lower; (2) far anterior from maxillary root of zygomatic arch and
502          at the same height.
503
504   34.    New character:
505          Distinct elongated, and more or less rough and concave surface for the nasolabialis
506          muscle origin in front of the anterior edge of the orbit: (0), oriented ventrally, on the
507          maxillary root of the zygomatic arch; (1), oriented laterally, extended forward on the
508          rostrum.
509
510   35.    New character inspired from GW47:
511          Antorbital depression at the nasolabialis muscle insertion: (0), distinct antorbital
512          depression and crest for nasolabialis muscle insertion; (1), antorbital depression and
513          crest weak or absent.
514          The taxa that do not present a distinct elongated, rough and concave surface for the
515          nasolabialis muscle origin (ch 35 state 0) are coded as non applicable.
516
517   36.    GW50:
518          Lacrimal fenestra at the juncture of the lacrimal, maxilla, and frontal bones: present
519          (0), or absent (1).
520
521   37. ** Modified from GW51:
522          Length of upper toothrow: short, <thirty percent of the GSL (0); ≥thirty percent,
523          <thirty-five percent of the GSL (1); ≥thirty-five percent, <forty percent of the GSL
524          (2); or elongated, ≥forty percent of the GSL (3).
525          Priodontes is here coded „1+2+3‟, Tolypeutes „2+3‟, Cabassous „2‟,
526          Propaleohoplophorus „3‟ and Peltephilus „1+2‟.
527
528   38.    GW52:
                                                      19



529          Incisive foramen size: large, maximum diameter equal to or greater than half the
530          anteroposterior length of the premaxilla measured at the midline (0); or small,
531          maximum diameter less than half the anteroposterior length of the premaxilla (1).
532
533   39.    GW53:
534          Maxilla participation in posterolateral margin of incisive foramina: present (0); or
535          absent, incisive foramen completely or almost completely encircled by the premaxilla
536          (1).
537
538   40.    GW54:
539          Shape of maxilla/premaxilla palatal suture in ventral view: U- or V-shaped, midpoint
540          directed posteriorly (0); approximately flat (1); V-shaped, midpoint directed anteriorly
541          (2); orW-shaped, midline apex directed anteriorly (3).
542
543   41.    GW55:
544          Maxillary/palatine suture shape: rectangular, with angular anterolateral corners (0); U-
545          shaped with rounded anterolateral corners (1); or M-shaped, with the midline apex
546          directed posteriorly and the anterolateral corners rounded (2).
547
548   42. ** GW56:
549          Anterior extent of horizontal process of palatine relative to anterior root of zygoma:
550          posterior to or even with the posterior edge of zygomatic root (0), anterior to the
551          posterior edge of the zygomatic root (1), or anterior to the anterior edge of the
552          zygomatic root (2).
553
554   43.    Modified from GW57:
555          Posterior extent of palate relative to tooth row: even with the last tooth or not
556          extending posteriorly beyond the toothrow by more than one anteroposterior diameter
557          of the longest tooth (0), or extended posteriorly beyond the toothrow by more than one
558          anteroposterior diameter of the longest tooth (1) (from Wetzel, 1985).
559          Tamandua has been coded as not applicable as this taxon has no tooth.
560
561   44. ** GW58:
562          Median palatine suture: flat (0), raised to form a midline crest along the posterior half
563          of the suture (1), or raised to form a midline crest along the entire length (2).
564
565   45.    New character inspired from GW59:
566          Entopterygoid crests: (0) grossly in line with the tooth rows; (1) clearly medial to the
567          tooth roows (postero-lateral edge of palate converge posterior to the tooth rows).
568
569   46.    New character:
570          Posterior part of palate profile from a posterior perspective: (0), flat; (1), concav.
571
572   47.    GW60:
573          Pterygoid exposure on posterior edge of hard palate: absent (0), or present (1).
574
575   48.    New character:
576          Orientation of anterior orbital rim from an anterior perspective (view): (0) oblique; (1)
577          close to vertical.
578
                                                   20



579   49.   GW61:
580         Maximum width of skull at zygomatic arches: wide, >fifty percent of the GSL (0); or
581         narrow, <forty-five percent of the GSL (1).
582
583   50.   Modified from GW63:
584         Maxillary foramen: not visible in ventral view (0), or visible in ventral view (1).
585         Bradypus is here coded „0‟.
586
587   51.   New character:
588         Maxillary foramen: (0) distinct from caudal palatine foramen; (1) linked in a groove
589         with caudal palatine foramen.
590
591   52.   Modified from GW65:
592         Shape of palatine orbital exposure: tall and narrow, maximum height greater than the
593         anteroposterior length (0); or long and low, maximum anteroposterior length much
594         greater than the height (1).
595         Tolypeutes is here coded „1‟.
596
597   53.   Modified from GW67:
598         Palatine/frontal contact: absent (0), present (1).
599         Dasypus is here scored as not applicable, due to the huge extent of the ethmoid
600         preventing such a contact.
601
602   54.   GW68:
603         Position of orbital wing of palatine’s dorsal edge relative to sphenorbital fissure and/or
604         foramen rotundum: ventral to (0), or at the level of or extending dorsal to (1).
605
606   55.   GW69:
607         Posterior process of palatine orbital exposure extending between alisphenoid and
608         pterygoid: absent (0), or present (1).
609
610   56.   GW70:
611         Position of orbital exposure of pterygoid’s dorsal edge relative to foramen ovale:
612         ventral to (0), or at the level of or extending dorsal to (1).
613
614   57.   GW72:
615         Sphenopalatine foramen position versus sphenorbital fissure/foramen rotundum:
616         separate (0), or in common fossa (1).
617
618   58.   Modified from GW73:
619         Groove connecting sphenorbital fissure/foramen rotundum to sphenopalatine foramen
620         (crest bordering antero-laterally the sphenorbital fissure up to the sphenopalatine
621         foramen): absent (0), or present (1).
622         The definition has been slightly modified to consider also the presence of the crest
623         associated to the groove; Cabassous is here scored „1‟.
624
625   59.   GW74:
626         Orbitosphenoid participation in sphenopalatine/caudal palatine foramen: present (0),
627         or absent (1).
628
                                                   21



629   60.   GW77:
630         Ethmoid orbital exposure: rudimentary or absent (0), or large (1).
631
632   61.   GW78:
633         (Anterior opening of posttemporal canal) cranioorbital foramen: absent (0), or present
634         (1).
635
636   62.   GW80:
637         Position of optic foramen within orbitosphenoid: dorsocentral (0), central (1), or
638         posteroventral (2).
639
640   63. ** Modified from GW83:
641          Orbital muscular crest: (0) absent; (1) weak; (2) strong.
642          The original GW state „3‟ has been clustered with state „2‟, the character made
643          additive and the definition simplified.
644
645   64.   GW84:
646         Zygomatic process of maxilla: weak or absent (0); present, excluded from the anterior
647         margin of the infratemporal fossa by the jugal/lacrimal contact (1); or present, forms
648         the anterior margin of the infratemporal fossa (2).
649
650   65.   GW85:
651         Depth of jugal (posterior to descending process): uniform depth throughout its length
652         (0), maximum depth in the anterior half, narrower posteriorly (1), or maximum depth
653         in posterior half, narrower anteriorly (2).
654
655   66.   GW86:
656         Ventral process on zygomatic arch: absent (0), present as ventral boss on the
657         zygomatic arch at the maxillary/jugal suture (1); present as elongated,
658         anteroposteriorly compressed process on the anterior half of the jugal (2); or present as
659         elongated, mediolaterally compressed process on the posterior half of the jugal (3).
660
661   67.   Modified from GW89:
662         Shape of jugal/squamosal suture: (0), suture oriented obliquely relative to the long axis
663         of the skull; (1), or suture horizontal relative to the long axis of the skull.
664         The taxa that have an incomplete zygoma are here coded as not applicable.
665
666   68.   GW90:
667         Orientation of posterior root of zygoma: directed anteriorly to anterolaterally (0), or
668         laterally (1).
669
670   69.   New character:
671         Zygomatic arch profile from a lateral perspective: (0), with a sharp break slope near
672         jugal-squamosal suture; (1), sinuous; (2), straight and oblique; (3) straight and
673         horizontal.
674
675   70.   Modified from GW91:
676         Shape of braincase: elevated, parietal with extensive lateral exposure (braincase
677         typically cylindrical with domed parietals) (0); or dorsoventrally compressed, parietals
678         appear relatively flat (1).
                                                     22



679          Proeutatus is here scored „0‟.
680
681   71. ** GW92:
682          Position of temporal lines: lines meet in the dorsal midline to form a sagittal crest (0),
683          lines approximate midline but do not meet to form a sagittal crest (1), or lines are
684          laterally situated, do not approximate midline (2).
685
686   72.    GW94:
687          Multiple foramina on dorsal surface of frontal, around midline: absent (0), or present
688          (1).
689
690   73. ** GW96:
691          Position of frontal/parietal suture at its lateral-most point relative to anterior edge of
692          glenoid fossa: well anterior to (0), at the level of (1), or posterior to (2).
693
694   74.    GW97:
695          Number of foramina for rami temporales in temporal fossa of parietal (near
696          parietal/squamosal suture): 5 or less (0), or more than 5 (1).
697
698   75.    GW98:
699          Alisphenoid/parietal contact: present (0), or absent, excluded by frontal/squamosal
700          contact (1).
701
702   76.    GW99:
703          Supraoccipital exposure on skull roof: present (0), or absent (1).
704
705   77.    GW100:
706          Shape of nuchal crest in dorsal view: lacking distinct posterior extensions lateral to the
707          midline, roughly C-shaped (0); or W-shaped, with distinct posterior extensions
708          situated lateral to the midline (1).
709
710   78.    New character:
711          Relative height of palate and auditory region: (0), grossly the same; (1), auditory
712          region much more dorsal than palate (strong breakslope in pterygoid region).
713
714   79.    GW103:
715          Endocranial surface of presphenoid forms raised median crest anterior to optic
716          foramina: absent (0), or present (1).
717
718   80.    GW104:
719          Entopterygoid processes: gracile (0), or rugose (1).
720
721   81. ** GW106:
722          Vidian nerve (nerve of pterygoid canal) pathway: internal, contained in a canal within
723          the pterygoid or between the pterygoid and sphenoid (0); partially exposed along a
724          groove at the base of the medial surface of the pterygoid, partially enclosed by a canal
725          within the pterygoid (1); or fully exposed along a groove at the base of the medial
726          surface of the pterygoid (2).
727
728   82.    GW108:
                                                    23



729          Distinct groove for eustachian (auditory) tube on basisphenoid: absent (0), or present
730          (1).
731
732   83.    Modified from GW111:
733          Large vascular foramen (transverse canal foramen of Wible and Gaudin [2004])
734          located immediately anterior or ventral to foramen ovale: absent (0), or present (1).
735          Tolypeutes and Cabassous are here scored „1‟.
736
737   84.    GW113:
738          Alisphenoid contribution to margin of Glaserian fissure: absent, fissure lateral to the
739          alisphenoid, between the ectotympanic and squamosal (0); or present (1).
740
741   85.    GW114:
742          Squamosal/pterygoid contact: absent (0), or present (1).
743
744   86.    GW115:
745          Entoglenoid process: absent (0), present as a distinct ridge near the
746          squamosal/alisphenoid suture (typically contacting the ectotympanic) (1), or present as
747          in state (1) but distinctly inflated (2).
748
749   87.    New character:
750          Surface anterior to foramen post-glenoid: (0) delimited posteriorly by a line
751          continuous with the lateral edge of the zygomatic arch, surface not elongated antero-
752          posteriorly; (1) not delimited posteriorly by a line continuous with the lateral edge of
753          the zygomatic arch, surface elongated antero-posteriorly.
754
755   88. ** GW117:
756          Maximum width of glenoid fossa relative to anteroposterior length: glenoid long and
757          narrow, ratio of width to length < 1.0 (0); width of glenoid roughly equivalent to
758          length, ratio ≥ 1.0, <1.5 (1); or glenoid wide and short, ratio of width to length ≥ 1.5
759          (2).
760
761   89.    GW118:
762          Position of glenoid fossa relative to optic foramen: at the level of or ventral to (0), or
763          dorsal to (1).
764
765   90.    Modified from GW121:
766          Petrosal contact with basicranial axis: petrosal unattached (0), or sutured medially to
767          basicranial axis (1).
768          Only Dasypus, Stegotherium, Propaleohoplophorus and Vassalia are here scored „0‟.
769
770   91.    New character inspired from GW123:
771          Promontory shape: (0) globose; (1) extended antero-medially (epitympanic wing).
772
773   92.    New character:
774          Extent of epitympanic wing: (0), spread anterolaterally as much as anteromedially; (1)
775          elongated antero-medially, far anterior from the tegmen tympani.
776
777   93.    GW124:
778          Shape of processus crista facialis (=?tegmen tympani): flat, rather small, rectangular
                                                    24



779          (0); concave, rather small, ovate (1); large, concave, quadrangular (2); convex lump,
780          small, ovate (3); concave, greatly enlarged, tripartite (4); or small, concave, elongated
781          anteromedially (5).
782
783   94.    GW125:
784          Fossa incudis: formed entirely by the petrosal (0), or formed between the squamosal
785          and petrosal (1).
786
787   95.    GW126:
788          Epitympanic sinus: absent (0), or present (1).
789
790   96. ** GW127:
791          Position of stylomastoid foramen: directly anterior to the paroccipital process (0),
792          anteromedial or medial to the paroccipital process (1), or posteromedial to the
793          paroccipital process (2).
794
795   97.    GW128:
796          Medial extension and distal expansion of tympanohyal: absent (0); medial extension
797          present, but unexpanded distally (1); or medial extension present, flares distally (2).
798
799   98.    GW129:
800          Vagina processus hyoidei: absent (0), or present (1).
801
802   99.    GW130:
803          Position of vagina processus hyoidei: visible in posterior view (0), or displaced
804          anteriorly, not visible in posterior view (1).
805
806   100.   GW131:
807          Distinct stapedius fossa below elongated ridge originating on promontorium between
808          fenestra vestibuli and fenestra cochleae: fossa and ridge absent (0), fossa and ridge
809          present (1), or fossa well-defined but ridge absent (2).
810
811   101.   GW133:
812          Digastric fossa: absent or only weakly indicated (0), or well-developed depression
813          present (1).
814
815   102.   GW134:
816          Paroccipital process (see Wible and Gaudin [2004]; equals “mastoid process”of
817          Patterson et al. [1989]. Gaudin [1995]) shape and position: greatest width in the
818          anteroposterior plane, freestanding (0); or greatest width in the mediolateral plane,
819          appressed to the posterior surface of the ectotympanic/external auditory meatus (1).
820
821   103.   GW135:
822          Distance from distal tip of paroccipital process to distal extremity of paracondylar
823          process (or exoccipital crest, if latter is poorly developed): paroccipital and
824          paracondylar processes well-separated, distance between them five percent of the
825          GSL (0); or processes closely approximated, distance between them ≥ five percent of
826          the GSL (1).
827
828   104.   Modified from GW136:
                                                    25



829          Auditory bulla: with substantial membranous or cartilaginous contribution, with
830          horseshoe-shaped ectotympanic that may exhibit either a small anteroventral contact
831          with a single entotympanic or both an antero- and posteroventral contact with rostral
832          and caudal entotympanics (0); or bony, formed by broad fusion of the entotympanic
833          and ectotympanic (1).
834          Tolypeutes and Cabassous are here scored „0‟, and Eutatus is scored „?‟ as the
835          authors were not able to observe these features precisely.
836
837   105.   GW137:
838          Entotympanic participation in tympanic cavity floor: small or nonexistent (0), or
839          forming 1/3 or more (1).
840
841   106.   GW140:
842          Position of ectotympanic and fissura Glaseri: ectotympanic posterior to the glenoid
843          fossa, Glaserian fissure well posterior of the foramen ovale (0); ectotympanic medial
844          to the glenoid, Glaserian fissure immediately posterior to the foramen ovale (1); or
845          ectotympanic medial to glenoid fossa, Glaserian fissure lateral to foramen ovale (2).
846
847   107. ** GW141:
848          Lateral surface of ectotympanic: no ossified external auditory meatus present (0),
849          forms incomplete external auditory meatus (1), forms complete but short external
850          auditory meatus (2), or forms complete, tubular, elongated external auditory meatus
851          (3).
852
853   108. **GW142:
854          Shape of porus acousticus and form of ectotympanic: porus ovate, ectotympanic
855          lacking a vertical muscular crest externally (0); porus ovate, ectotympanic with a short
856          vertical muscular crest anterior to the porus, crest not extending ventrally onto the
857          external surface of the bulla (1); or porus drawn into a narrow V ventrally, sharp
858          muscular crest present on the outer surface of the ectotympanic extending ventrally
859          across the external surface of the bulla (2).
860
861   109.   GW143:
862          Relationship of porus acousticus to glenoid fossa: porus situated close to the glenoid,
863          postglenoid fossa absent or if present, either situated medial to the glenoid or posterior
864          to the glenoid but overlapped ventrally by the ectotympanic (0); or porus far posterior
865          to the glenoid, separated by horizontal postglenoid fossa in which the postglenoid
866          foramen is centrally located (1).
867
868   110. **GW144:
869          Shape of mallear head: elongated anteroposteriorly (0), bulbous, almost spherical (1),
870          or anteroposteriorly compressed (2).
871
872   111.   GW145:
873          Angle between incudal facets on mallear head: >90° (0), or <90° (1).
874
875   112.   GW146:
876          Distinct swelling at junction of mallear neck and manubrium: absent (0), or present
877          (1).
878
                                                     26



879   113.   GW147:
880          Size of lamina and lateral process of manubrium of malleus: both small (0), lamina
881          small but the lateral process enlarged (1), or lamina large but the lateral process small
882          (2).
883
884   114.   GW148:
885          Position of cochlear cavaliculus (aqueduct): opens within the jugular foramen (0), or
886          opens within the cranial cavity, dorsal to the jugular foramen (1).
887
888   115.   GW151:
889          Articular facet on odontoid notch of basioccipital: absent (0), or present (1).
890
891   116.   GW152:
892          Hypoglossal foramen position: at the level of or dorsal to the jugular foramen (0), or
893          ventral to the jugular foramen (1).
894
895   117. ** GW154:
896          Paracondylar process of exoccipital: absent (0), weakly indicated (1), or present (2).
897
898   118.   GW155:
899          Occipital condyle shape in ventral view: roughly triangular, narrowing laterally (0), or
900          roughly rectangular (1).
901
902   119.   GW156:
903          Lateral indentation in occipital condyle: absent (0), or present (1).
904
905   120.   New character:
906          Notch/depression in the medial internal wall of the occipital condyles: (0), absent; (1),
907          present.
908
909   121. **Modified from GW157:
910          Shape of occiput: low and wide, maximum width is ≥1.5 times the maximum height,
911          (0); moderately wide, maximum width ≥ 1.25, <1.5 times the maximum height (1); or
912          maximum height is roughly equivalent to (<1.25) or greater than the maximum width
913          (2).
914          Euphractus is here scored „0+1‟.
915
916   122.   GW159:
917          Width of foramen magnum: narrow, maximum width less than or equal to one half the
918          maximum width of the occiput (0); or wide, maximum width greater than one half the
919          maximum width of the occiput (1).
920
921   123.   GW160:
922          Occipital exposure of squamosal: absent (0), or present (1).
923
924   124.   GW161:
925          Squamosal participation in lateral wall of posttemporal foramen: present (0), or absent
926          (1).
927
928   125.   GW162:
                                                   27



929          Groove for occipital artery continues dorsal to posttemporal foramen: absent (0), or
930          present (1).
931
932

933   Additional references:

934   Ferigolo, J. 1985 Evolutionary trends of the histological pattern in the teeth of Edentata

935   (Xenarthra). Archives of Oral Biology 30, 71-82.

936   Gaudin, T.J. 1995 The ear region of edentates and the phylogeny of the Tardigrada

937   (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15, 672-705.

938   Vizcaíno, S.F. & Bargo, M.S. 1998. The masticatory apparatus of the armadillo Eutatus

939   (Mammalia, Cingulata) and some allied genera: paleobiology and evolution. Paleobiology 24,

940   371-383.

941   Vizcaíno, S.F. & De Iuliis, G. 2003 Evidence for advanced carnivory in fossil armadillos

942   (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae). Paleobiology 29, 123-138.

943   Vizcaíno, S.F., De Iuliis, G. & Bargo, M.S. 1998 Skull shape, masticatory apparatus and diet

944   of Vassalia and Holmesina (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae): when anatomy

945   constrains destiny. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 5, 291-322.

946   Wetzel, R. 1985 Taxonomy and distribution of armadillos, Dasypodidae. In The evolution and

947   ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas (ed. G.G. Montgomery), pp 23-46,

948   Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, USA.

949   Wible, J. 2010 Petrosal anatomy of the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus

950   Linneaus, 1758 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae). Anals of Carnegie Museum 79, 1-28.

951   Wible, J.R. & Gaudin, T.J. 2004 On the cranial osteology of the yellow armadillo Euphractus

952   sexcinctus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra, Placentalia). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 73, 117-

953   196.

954
                                                                                  28




955   Section 4: Data matrix

956


                  Taxa        1     2     3    4   5    6    7    8     9    10   11    12     13    14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21    22   23   24
      Bradypus                0     0     1    0   3    3    1    0     0    1    2    1+2    2+3     0   0    0     1    2   0     0    0    0     ?    0
      Tamandua                ?     ?     ?    ?   ?    ?    2    1     1     ?   0      ?      ?     ?    ?    ?    0    2   2     0    0    0     ?    1
      Chaetophractus          4     4     0    0   0   0+2   1    1     0    1    1    0+1    5+6     0   0    0     2    0   2     0    1   0+1   0     2
      Zaedyus                3+4    3    0+1   0   0    0    1    1    0+1   1    1      2      4     0   0    0     2    0   2     0    1    0    0     2
      Euphractus              4     4     0    0   0    0    1    1    0+1   1    1    0+1    4+5     0   0    0     2    0   2     0    1    0    0     2
      Priodontes              5     5     1    0   1    0    0    1     0    0    1      2    0+1     1   1    1     0    1   1     0    1    0    1     2
      Cabassous               4     2     1    0   0    0    0    1    0+1   0    1    1+2      4     1   1    1     1    1   1     0    1    0    2     2
      Dasypus                2+3    2     1    0   2    0    0    1    0+1   0    0      2      0     0   0    2     1    1   1     0    1    0    1     3
      Tolypeutes              4     3     1    0   0    0    0    1    0+1   0    1      0   3+4+5    0   0    1     1    0   1     0    1    0    0     2
      Chlamyphorus            3     2     1    0   ?    1    0    0     0    0    1      0      6     1   1    0     2    0   2     0    1    0    0     2
      Eutatus                 3     3     1    1   ?    0    0   0+1    ?    0    1      0      3     0   0    0     2    0   2     ?    1     ?    ?    3
      Proeutatus              4     4     0    1   ?    1    0    1     0    1    1      2      6     0   0    0     2    0   2     0    1    1     ?    2
      Paleuphractus           4     4     0    0   ?    0    1    1     0    1    1      1      4     ?   0     ?    ?    ?   2     ?    1     ?    ?    1
      Macroeuphractus         3     4     ?    0   ?    2    1    1     1    1    1      0      2     0   0    0     2    0   2     0    1    1     ?    1
      Doellotatus            4+5    4     0    0   ?    0    0    ?     0    0    1      1      4     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    1    1     ?    ?
      Proeuphractus           4     ?     0    0   ?    2    ?    ?     ?     ?    ?     0      ?     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    1     ?    1
      Vassallia               4     3     ?    1   ?    2    1    1     0    1    2      0      4     0   0    1     2    0   2     1    1    1     ?    1
      Propalaeohoplophorus    3     2     1    1   ?    2    1    1     0    1    2      0      6     ?   1    0     2    3   2     1    1     ?    ?    0
      Stegotherium           0+1   1+2    1    0   ?    0    0    1     0     ?   0      2    0+1     1   1    2     0    2   1     0    1    0     ?    3
      Prozaedyus             2+3    4     1    0   ?    0    1    1     1     ?   0      2      4     0   0    0     2    0   1     0    1    0     ?    2
      Peltephilus             2     1     0    0   ?    2    2    0     0    1    2      2      1     1   0    2     2    ?   0     ?    0     ?    ?    1
      Kuntinaru               ?     ?     ?    ?   ?    0    ?    ?     ?     ?    ?     ?      ?     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?     ?    ?    ?


957

958

959
                                                                                29



960

      Taxa                    25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34    35    36     37    38   39   40    41   42   43     44    45   46   47   48
      Bradypus                0     ?    0    0    0    0   0     1    -    0     -     1     1      0    0    0    0    0     0   0+1+2    0    0    0    1
      Tamandua                2     1    0    1    0    0   0     0    0    0     -     0      -     0    0    0    0    2     -    0+1     -    0    1    1
      Chaetophractus         2+3    0    1    2    1    1   1     1    0    1     0     0     3      1    1    2   0+1   0     0      2     1    1    0    0
      Zaedyus                1+2    0    1    2    1    1   1     1    0    1     0     1     2      1    1    2    1    1     0      2     1    1    0    0
      Euphractus             2+3    0    1    2    1    1   1     1    0    1     0     0     3      1    1    2    1    1     0      2     1    1    0    0
      Priodontes             2+3    1    1    2    1    1   1     1    2    1     1     0   1+2+3    1    1    2    0    1     1    0+1     0    0    0    1
      Cabassous               2     1    0    2    1    1   1     1    2    1     1     0     2      1    1    1    0    1     1   0+1+2    0    0    0    1
      Dasypus                2+3    1    1    2    1    1   1     1    1    1     0     1     0      1    1    2   0+1   1     1    0+1     0    0    1    0
      Tolypeutes              0     1    1    2    1    1   1     1    2    1     0   0+1    2+3     1    1    1    0    0     0    0+1     0    0    0    1
      Chlamyphorus            2     0    0    2    1    1   1     1    0    1     0     1     2      1    1    2     ?    ?    0      ?     1    1    0    0
      Eutatus                 0     0    0    2    1    ?   1     ?    0    1     0     ?     1      ?    ?    2    0    0     0      2     0    ?    0    ?
      Proeutatus              3     0    ?    2    1    1   1     ?    0    1     0     ?     2      1    1    2    1    1     0      2     1    1    0    0
      Paleuphractus            ?    1    ?    2    1    ?   1     ?    ?    ?     ?     0     3      ?    ?    ?     ?    ?    ?      ?     ?    ?    0    ?
      Macroeuphractus          ?    ?    0    2    1    ?   1     ?    0    1     0     ?     3      ?    ?    ?     ?    ?    0      2     1    0    ?    0
      Doellotatus              ?    ?    ?    2    1    ?   1     1    ?    ?     ?     ?      ?     1    1    2     ?    ?    0      2     ?    ?    0    ?
      Proeuphractus           2     0    0    2    1    ?    ?    ?    ?    1     ?     0     3      1    1    2    0    1     0      2     ?    ?    0    ?
      Vassallia               3     ?    0    2    1    1   1     1    0    1     0     0     2      1    ?    ?    2    0     0      2     0    1    0    ?
      Propalaeohoplophorus     ?    1    0    2    0    1   1     0    0    1     0     1     3      1    1    3     ?   0     0      2     1    1    ?    0
      Stegotherium            3     1    1    2    1    ?   1     ?    1    1     0     1     0      1    1    2    1    1     0      2     0    0    1    0
      Prozaedyus              2     0    ?    2    1    ?   1     ?    0    1     0     0     1      1    ?    2    0    1     0      2     1    1    ?    0
      Peltephilus             2     0    1    2    1    ?   1     1    0    0     -     0    1+2     ?    ?    ?    0    0     1      0     -    ?    ?    0
      Kuntinaru                ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    0    1     0     ?      ?     ?    ?    ?   0+1   1     0      1     0    0    0    1


961

962

963

964

965
                                                                                    30



966

      Taxa                   49    50   51   52    53    54    55   56   57    58    59   60   61    62   63   64   65   66   67   68   69   70    71   72
      Bradypus               0      0    -    0     1     0   0+1    0    0     0     1    0    0     2   2     0    2   3     -    0    -    0     2    0
      Tamandua               1      1    0    1     1     0    0     1    0     0     1    0    0     1   1     0    0   0     -    0    -    0     2    0
      Chaetophractus         0      0    0    0   0+1     1   0+1    1    0     0   0+1    0    1     0   2     2    2   1     1    0   2     1     1    1
      Zaedyus                0      0    0    0   0+1   0+1    1     1    0     0   0+1    0    1     0   1     2    0   1     1    0   2     1   1+2    1
      Euphractus             0      0    0    0   0+1     1    1     1    0     0     1    0    1     0   2     2    1   1     1    0   2     1     1    1
      Priodontes             1      1    1    1     1     0    0     1    0     1     1    0    0     1   1     1    2   0     1    0   0     0     2    1
      Cabassous              0      1    1    1     1     0    1     1    0     1   0+1    0    1     0   0     2    2   1     1    0   0     0     2    1
      Dasypus                1      1    0    1     -     1    1     1    0   0+1     1    1    1   0+1   2     2    0   0     0    0   0     0   0+1    0
      Tolypeutes             1    0+1    0    1     0     1    1     1    0     1   0+1    0    1     1   1     2    0   0     1    0   1     0     0    0
      Chlamyphorus           0      0    0    0     0     0     ?    0    0     0     1    0    0     0   2     2    1   1     1    1   0     1     0    1
      Eutatus                0      1    ?    1     0     0    1     0    0     1     1    0    ?     ?   2     2    1   1     1    0   0     1     1    ?
      Proeutatus             0      0    ?    0     0     1     ?    1    0     0     1    0    ?     0   2     2    1   1     1    0   2     0     1    1
      Paleuphractus          0      0    ?    ?     ?     ?     ?    1    ?     ?     ?    ?    1     ?   0     2    0   1     1    0    ?    1     2    ?
      Macroeuphractus        0      0    0    ?     ?     ?     ?    1    ?     ?     ?    ?    1     ?   2     ?    0   1     1    0   2     0     0    ?
      Doellotatus             ?     0    ?    ?     ?     ?     ?    1    ?     0     ?    ?    1     ?   2     2    ?    ?    1    0    ?    ?     0    ?
      Proeuphractus           ?     0    ?    ?     ?     ?     ?    1    ?     ?     ?    ?    ?     ?   2     2    ?    ?    1    ?    ?    1     0    ?
      Vassallia              0      0    ?    0     0     1    0     0    1     1     1    0    0     0   1     2    2   1     0    1   2     0     0    1
      Propalaeohoplophorus   0      0    ?    ?     0     ?     ?    1    1     0     ?    ?    ?     ?   1     2    1   2     1    1   2     ?     0    ?
      Stegotherium           1      1    1    1     0     ?    1     1    0     1     0    1    1     ?   0     1    2   3     1    0   3     0     1    0
      Prozaedyus             0      0    0    1     ?     0    1     1    0     0     0    ?    1     ?   1     2    1   1     1    0   1     1     1    0
      Peltephilus             ?     0    ?    1     1     0     ?    1    ?     ?     ?    ?    ?     ?   0     2    ?    ?    ?    ?   3     0     0    1
      Kuntinaru               ?     0    0    ?     ?     ?     ?    ?    0     1     ?    0    1     1   2     ?    ?    ?    ?    0   1     0     1    1


967

968

969

970

971
                                                                                        31



972

      Taxa                    73    74    75   76    77   78   79    80     81     82     83    84   85   86   87   88   89   90   91   92   93   94   95   96
      Bradypus                0      0     0    0   0+1    0   0      0     2       0      0    0     1    1    -    0   0    1     0    -   0     1    1   1
      Tamandua                0      0     0    0     0    0   0      0     0       0      0    0     1    0    -    0   0    1     0    -   0     1    1   1
      Chaetophractus          1      1     1    1     1    0   1      0    1+2      0      1   0+1    0    1    0    1   1    1     1   0    2     0    1   0
      Zaedyus                 2      1     1    1     1    0   1      0    1+2      0      1   0+1    0    1    0    1   1    1     1    ?   2     0    1   0
      Euphractus              2      1     1    1     1    0   0      0    1+2      0      1   0+1    0    1    0    1   1    1     1   0    2     0    1   0
      Priodontes              2      1     1    1     1    0   1      0    0+1      0      1    0     0    2    1    0   1    1     1   0    4     1    0   2
      Cabassous              0+1     1     1    1     1    0   1      0     0       0      1    0     0    1    1    0   1    1     1   1    3     1    0   2
      Dasypus                 2      0     1    1     1    0   0    0+1   0+1+2   0+1      1    0     0    1    0    0   0    0     0    -   1     1    0   1
      Tolypeutes              0    0+1   0+1    1     0    0   1      0     0       0      1    0     0    1    1    0   1    1     1   1    0     1    0   1
      Chlamyphorus             ?     0     ?    1     1    1   1      0     0       0      0    1     0    1    0    1   1    1     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?   0
      Eutatus                 2      1   0+1    1     1    1    ?     0     0       1      1    1     0    1    ?    ?   1     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?   0
      Proeutatus              1      1     1    1     1    1    ?     ?     2       1    0+1     ?    0    2    ?    1   1    1     1   1     ?    0    0   1
      Paleuphractus           2      1     1    1     1    ?    ?     ?      ?      0      ?    0     0    1    ?    0   1    1     1    ?    ?    0    0   0
      Macroeuphractus          ?     1     ?    ?     1    0    ?     ?      ?      1      1     ?    ?    1    0    2   1     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?   0
      Doellotatus             0      1     1    1     1    ?   1      ?     2       1      1    1     0    1    ?    0   1    1     1    ?    ?    ?    ?   0
      Proeuphractus           0      1     ?    1     1    ?    ?     ?      ?      1      1    1     0    1    ?    ?   1    1     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?
      Vassallia               1      1     1    1     1    1   1      1     2       1      1    0     0    1    0    2   1    0     1    ?   5     1    0   1
      Propalaeohoplophorus    1      1     1    1     1    1    ?     1     0       1      1     ?    0    1    0    2   1    0     1   1    0     1    0   1
      Stegotherium            2      0     1    1     1    0   0      0      ?      0      0    0     0    2    0    0   1    0     0    -    ?    1    0   1
      Prozaedyus              1    0+1     1    1     1    0    ?     0      ?      0      1    0     0    1    0    0   1    1     1    ?    ?    ?    ?   0
      Peltephilus             0      0     ?    ?     1    0    ?     0      ?      1      ?    0     0    1    ?    2   0     ?    ?    ?    ?    ?    ?   1
      Kuntinaru               0    0+1     1    1     1    0    ?     0      ?      0      1     ?    0    1    1    0   1    1     1   1     ?    1    0   1


973

974

975

976

977
                                                                                        32



978

      Taxa                   97    98    99   100   101   102   103   104   105   106   107   108   109   110   111   112   113   114   115   116   117   118   119   120
      Bradypus               0      1     0    1     1     0     0     1     1     0     2     0     0     0     0     0     1     0     0     0     2     0     0     0
      Tamandua               0      0     ?    1     0     0     0     1     0     0     2     0     0     0     1     0     0     0     0     0     1     0     0     0
      Chaetophractus         0      1     0    0     0     1     0     1     1     1     3     1     0     1     0     0     1     1    0+1    1     0     1     1     1
      Zaedyus                 ?     1     0    0     0     1     0     1     1     1     3     0     0     1     0     0     ?     1    0+1    1     0     1    0+1    ?
      Euphractus             0      1     0    0     0     1     0     1     1     1     3     1     0     1     0     0     1     1    0+1    1     0     1    0+1    1
      Priodontes             2    0+1     1    1     1     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     2     1     1     ?     0     1     1     2     1     1     1
      Cabassous              2      1   0+1    1    0+1    0     0     0    0+1    1     0     0     0     2     1     1     2     0    0+1    1    1+2    1     1     1
      Dasypus                1      0     ?    1     0     0     1     0     ?     1     0     0     0     2     1     0     2     0     0     1     0     1     1     0
      Tolypeutes             1      0     ?    1     0     0     0     0    0+1    1     0     0     0     2     1     1     2     0     0     1     0     1    0+1    1
      Chlamyphorus            ?     1     0    ?     0     1     0     1     1     2     3     0     0     1     0     0     1     1     1     1     0     1     0     1
      Eutatus                 ?     1     0    ?     0     1     1     ?     1     1     1     2     0     1     0     0     ?     ?     0     1     0     1     1     ?
      Proeutatus             0      0     ?    0     0     0     1     0     ?     1     0     0     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     0     0     1     0     1     1     ?
      Paleuphractus           ?     ?     ?    0     0     1     0     1     1     1     1     2     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     ?     0     1     0     1     ?     ?
      Macroeuphractus         ?     ?     ?    ?     0     1     0     1     1     0     1     2     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     ?     1     1     1     1     1     ?
      Doellotatus             ?     1     1    ?     0     1     ?     1     0     1     1     2     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     1     0     1     1     1     1     ?
      Proeuphractus           ?     1     1    ?     0     1     0     1     1     1     1     2     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     ?     0     1     0     1     1     ?
      Vassallia               ?     ?     ?    2     0     0     1     ?     ?     0     ?     ?     1     ?     ?     ?     ?     1     0     1     2     1     0     ?
      Propalaeohoplophorus   2      0     ?    ?     0     0     1     ?     ?     0     ?     ?     1     ?     ?     ?     ?     ?     1     1     2     1     1     ?
      Stegotherium           0      0     ?    ?     0     0     0     0     ?     0     0     0     0     2     1     ?     ?     0     1     1     1     1     1     ?
      Prozaedyus              ?     ?     ?    ?     0     1     0     0     1     1     1     0     0     ?     ?     ?     2     ?     1     1     0     1     1     1
      Peltephilus             ?     ?     ?    ?     0     1     0     1     1     0     3     1     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     0     0     1     0     1     0     ?
      Kuntinaru               ?     ?     ?    1     ?     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     ?     ?     0     ?     ?     ?     ?     0     0     1     ?     1     1     1


979

980

981

982

983
                                                           33



984

      Taxa                   121   122   123   124   125
      Bradypus                0     0     0     1     0
      Tamandua                1     0     0     0     0
      Chaetophractus          0     0     1     0     1
      Zaedyus                 1     0    0+1    1     0
      Euphractus             0+1    0     1     0     1
      Priodontes              1     0     1    0+1    1
      Cabassous               2     0     1     1     1
      Dasypus                 2     1     1     1     1
      Tolypeutes              2     1     0     0     1
      Chlamyphorus            0     0     1     1     0
      Eutatus                 0     0     0     0     1
      Proeutatus              1     0     1     0     1
      Paleuphractus           0     0     1     0     1
      Macroeuphractus         1     0     ?     ?     1
      Doellotatus             ?     0     1     0     1
      Proeuphractus           0     0     ?     ?     ?
      Vassallia               1     0     1     1     0
      Propalaeohoplophorus    1     0     1     1     1
      Stegotherium            2     0     1     ?     1
      Prozaedyus              2     0     0     ?     ?
      Peltephilus             2     0     ?     0     1
      Kuntinaru               1     0     0     ?     ?


985

986

987

988

989
                                                                                  34




990   Section 5: character distribution on the strict consensus cladogram: unambiguous synapomorphies

991   Framed numbers correspond to Bremer support values at nodes; white circles correspond to homoplastic synapomorphies, black to non-homoplastic.




992

993

994

				
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