Search the site csn csn csn xml_no_dtd June 2, 2011 A special issue of the CSN Newsletter - Focus on water safety In This Issue With the approach of summer, CSN has produced this special newsletter issue on water safety, which includes research articles, General drowning prevention fact sheets, policy statements, and reports on drowning and water safety prevention. Safety resources are provided for pools and spas, open bodies of water such as lakes and rivers, boats, and the Pools and spas home water hazards of bathtubs, bath seats, buckets, and decorative ponds or fountains. Open water Boats <<Back to the CSN Newsletters Home water safety General drowning prevention and water safety 1. Unintentional Drowning: A CDC Fact Sheet "In 2007, there were 3,443 fatal unintentional drownings in the United States, averaging ten deaths per day. An additional 496 people died, from drowning and other causes, in boating-related incidents. More than one in five fatal drowning victims are children aged 14 and younger. For every child who dies from drowning, another four received emergency department care for nonfatal submersion injuries." http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Water-Safety/waterinjuries-factsheet.html 2. Prevention of drowning: An AAP policy statement This policy statement includes 14 water safety tips that will educate parents. Recommended community interventions include: legislation to mandate 4-sided isolation pool fencing for all new and existing residential pools; efforts to ensure that community pools and other pools accessible to the public (such as pools at apartments, hotels, and motels) have certified lifeguards; state and local legislation and regulations to establish basic safety requirements for natural swimming areas (e.g., mandating the presence of certified lifeguards in designated swimming areas); and enforcing laws that prohibit alcohol and other drug consumption by boat occupants,not just operators. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/peds.2010-1264v1 3. Drowning prevention: A Safe Kids USA webpage "In the pool, at the beach or even in your bathroom, water can be dangerous to your kids if you don't take the right precautions. Drowning can happen any time of year, but parents need to be particularly vigilant during warmer months, when the number of drownings skyrockets." Resources featured on this Safe Kids webpage include fact sheets, research reports, safety tips, a video, and a list of other useful websites. http://www.safekids.org/safety-basics/safety-resources-by-risk-area/drowning/ 4. Prevention of drowning: Technical report - An AAP publication This report describes evidence-based child drowning prevention practices: adult supervision; pool fencing; pool covers; pool alarms; lifeguards; CPR training; swimming instruction and water-survival training; and personal floatation devices (PFDs). http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/peds.2010-1265v1 5. Clear Danger: A National Study of Childhood Drowning and Related Attitudes and Behaviors. - A Safe Kids report (2004) Safe Kids' objectives in conducting this study were to examine the circumstances of drowning in children ages 14 and under and to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of parents regarding water safety. As children approach adolescence, they are given more freedom and begin to take greater responsibility for their own safety. For this reason, Safe Kids also surveyed "tweens" (children ages 8 through 12) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The report highlights four important components of water safety: active supervision by a designated adult, safe water environments, proper gear, and education. http://www.safekids.org/assets/docs/ourwork/research/research-report-safe-kids-week-2004.pdf 6. The association between swimming lessons and drowning in childhood: a case-control study This study (Brenner RA, et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009 Mar;163 (3):203-10) finds that participation in formal swimming lessons was associated with an 88 percent reduction in the risk of drowning in 1- to 4-year-old children. CSN will provide copies of the article to state Maternal and Child Health and state public health staff on request: email@example.com 7. Urban minority youth swimming (in)ability in the United States and associated demographic characteristics: Toward a drowning prevention plan This study (Irwin CC, et al. Inj Prev. 2009 Aug; 15(4): 234-9) examines swimming ability among 1,680 inner-city, minority children in six U.S. cities: Chicago, IL; Houston, TX; Memphis, TN; Miami, FL; Oakland, CA; and Philadelphia, PA. Poor minority children, specifically African-American and Hispanic/Latino, were at a significant disadvantage concerning swimming ability. Female subjects were notably more "at risk" regarding their swimming ability than male subjects. Age, race, and socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with children who have low swimming ability. CSN will provide copies of the article to state Maternal and Child Health and state public health staff on request: firstname.lastname@example.org 8. Lifeguard Effectiveness: A report of the working group. - A CDC report This report, published by the CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (CDC) in 2001, assesses lifeguards as a strategy for preventing drowning and water-related injuries. The product of an expert meeting and a review of data from the United States Lifesaving Association (USLA) and other sources, the report helps communities, local government officials, and owners of private water recreational areas make informed decisions about whether to begin, retain, or discontinue lifeguarding services. http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/pubs/LifeguardReport-a.pdf 9. Keep Your Eyes on the Kids: Florida drowning prevention campaign Tragically, Florida is known as the drowning capital of the country for children under the age of four. Even with new laws in Florida that require fencing around the perimeter of residential pools built since 2000, the number of drownings continues to rise, along with the number of residential pools. Since 2006, the Florida Department of Health (DOH) has annually identified the counties with the highest number of drowning deaths in the 1-4 age group. The DOH provides funds and materials for these counties to participate in "Keep Your Eyes on the Kids", a drowning prevention campaign that focuses on young children. In 2009, the top counties were: Brevard, Broward, Dade, Escambia, Hillsborough, Lee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, and Pinellas. These counties' health departments work with local partners, including Children's Medical Services (CMS) offices and Safe Kids chapters, to carry out drowning prevention activities. These activities include distributing educational materials and resources, such as Water Watcher Tags, in their communities. Through the campaign, some county health departments have formed public/private partnerships and have secured additional funding for early childhood drowning prevention programs. http://www.doh.state.fl.us/DEMO/InjuryPrevention/DrownPrevent.html 10. Washington State drowning prevention efforts Washington State Drowning Prevention Network In Washington state, an average of 25 children and teens drown every year. Over 70 percent of these drownings occur in open water. Males in the 15-24 year age group are at the highest risk of drowning. The Washington State Drowning Prevention Network, developed in 1994, seeks to prevent drowning among children and teens on open water bodies, such as the ocean, lakes, or rivers. A community guide can be used to establish a statewide regional or local drowning prevention project. Additional resources include: a middle school program guide, life vest plan program guide, educational materials and activities, and a Spanish-English fotonovela designed for families. http://www.seattlechildrens.org/dp/ The Washington State Child and Youth Open Water Drowning Prevention Task Force created a five- year plan to implement policy changes that will prevent open water drowning among children and teens. http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/spotlight/show.asp?spotID=29 Wear it Washington campaign: Summer 2011 During the State Parks Boating Program's "Wear It Washington!" campaign this summer, special teams of volunteers, U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary, marine law enforcement officers, local marina personnel and other organizations will be at "Wear It Washington!" events demonstrating the latest designs in life jackets and asking boaters to take the "Wear It!" pledge. "Wear It Washington!" events will be held at various locations across Washington throughout the summer. http://www.wearitwashington.com/ Pools and spas 11. CPSC annual reports on children's submersion and entrapment incidents In 2005-2007, there was an annual average of 385 pool and spa-related drownings of children younger than 15; about 78 percent of these children were younger than five. In 2007-2009, there was an estimated average of 4,200 pool or spa emergency department-treated submersions for children younger than 15; children between the ages of 12 to 35 months represented 47 percent of estimated injuries for these years. About 54 percent of the estimated injuries for 2007-2009, and 74 percent of the fatalities for 2005- 2007 occurred at a residence and involved children younger than age 15. Pool and Spa Submersions 2010: http://www.cpsc.gov/library/foia/foia10/os/poolsub2010.pdf Circulation/Suction Entrapments 2010: http://www.cpsc.gov/library/foia/foia10/os/entrap10.pdf 12. Pool Safely: A CPSC campaign This campaign, launched by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in 2010, is a first- of-its-kind national public education effort to reduce child drowning, non-fatal submersions, and entrapments in swimming pools and spas. The campaign is a key part of the CPSC's efforts to carry out the requirements of the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act (P&SS Act), federal legislation signed into law in 2007 mandating new requirements for pool and spa safety. The major Pool Safely messages are: just adding an extra safety step in and around the water can make all the difference, and the greatest water safety assurance comes from practicing as many water safety measures as possible: barriers that completely surround the pool with self-closing, self-latching gates; staying close, being alert, and watching children at the pool; learning and practicing water safety skills (knowing how to swim and perform CPR); and having the appropriate equipment (compliant drain covers, alarms, barriers, and sensors). http://www.poolsafely.gov/ Simple Steps Save Lives: 2011 Pool Safely PSAs These television and radio public service announcements (PSAs) urge parents to watch children at all times around pools and spas this summer. http://www.youtube.com/poolsafely 13. Safety Barrier Guidelines for Home Pools This manual helps families to build the barriers intended to prevent drownings and near-drownings of children in home pools, spas and hot tubs. Guidelines cover fences, gates, audible alarms for doors with access to pools, and power safety covers. http://www.poolsafely.gov/wp-content/uploads/362.pdf 14. Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act This bill was passed by the Senate on December 13 and signed into law on December 19, 2008. The law is named for the granddaughter of former Secretary of State James A. Baker, III, who in 2002 at the age of 7, died in a spa after the powerful suction of a drain entrapped her under water. The law includes: prohibition of the manufacture, sale, or distribution of drain covers that do not meet anti-entrapment safety standards established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC); a requirement that the CPSC establish a safety standard for anti-entrapment drain covers; creation of an incentive grant program for states to adopt comprehensive pool and spa safety laws; establishment of a national drowning prevention education program within the CPSC; and a requirement that public pools incorporate anti-entrapment drain covers and other layers of protection. http://www.poolsafely.gov/state-local-officials/pool-spa-safety-act-requirements/ 15. Pool fencing for preventing drowning in children The objective of this review (Thompson DC, Rivara FP. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000; (2): CD001047) was to determine if pool fencing prevents drowning in young children. Case control studies which evaluate pool fencing interventions indicate that pool fencing significantly reduces the risk of drowning. Isolation fencing (enclosing pool only) is superior to perimeter fencing (enclosing property and pool) because perimeter fencing allows access to the pool area through the house. The reviewer concludes that legislation should require isolation fencing with secure, self-latching gates for all pools - public, semi-public, and private. CSN will provide copies of the article to state Maternal and Child Health and state public health staff on request: email@example.com Open water: lakes, rivers, and the ocean 16. International open water drowning prevention guidelines: A Seattle Children's Hospital publication (2010) An international task force on open water drowning prevention - 18 experts from 12 countries - established these brief guidelines for families and individuals recreating at any open water site. The guidelines emphasize swimming and water safety survival skills for everyone and provide strategies for those who are responsible for children while recreating in open water. http://www.seattlechildrens.org/classes-community/community-programs/drowning- prevention/open-water-guidelines/ Boats 17. Kids Don't Float Program Kids Don't Float (KDF) is an injury prevention program that was first developed in Alaska in 1996 to address that state's high child and youth drowning rate. KDF combines personal floatation device (PFD) loaner stations at boat ramps and harbor entries with water safety education. The KDF manual and school curriculum materials are being used to replicate the program in communities across the country. There are currently more than 500 KDF programs in the United States. For the "Loaner board guide" revised in 2010, visit http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/ipems/injury_prevention/documents/KDF_loanermanual.pdf For the "KDF peer education program" curriculum, visithttp://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/ipems/injury_prevention/documents/KDF_PeerEd.pdf For more information, visit http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dph/chronic/injury_prevention/kids_dont_float.htm 18. Personal Watercraft Use by Children and Adolescents: An AAP policy statement; published in 2000, reaffirmed in 2010) "No one younger than 16 years should operate a personal watercraft. The operator and all passengers must wear US Coast Guard-approved personal flotation devices. Other safety recommendations are suggested for parents and pediatricians." http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/pediatrics;105/2/452.pdf 19. Boating Education Laws Each state has unique boating education requirements, and boating rules, laws, and regulations vary from state to state for obtaining a boat license or safety certification. http://www.americasboatingcourse.com/abc_website/state_boating_law.htm 20. Drowning among personal watercraft passengers: the ability of personal flotation devices to preserve life on Arkansas waterways, 1994-1997 The purpose of this study (Jones CS. J Ark Med Soc. 1999 Aug; 96(3): 97-8) was to determine the effectiveness of personal flotation devices (PFDs) to prevent drowning and near-drowning of individuals involved in personal watercraft (PWC) crashes. The researchers examined the 48-month collection of PWC crash data from the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission for 1994-1997. They considered: PFD use: swimming experience; whether passengers were ejected from the watercraft; and crash cause. Results show that 38 percent of the PWC crash victims were not swimmers, 98 percent wore a PFD, and 54 percent were ejected from the PWC. Alcohol was a causal factor in six crashes and one death. It is estimated that PFDs saved 38 Arkansans who could have drowned. CSN will provide copies of the article to state Maternal and Child Health and state public health staff onrequest: firstname.lastname@example.org Home water safety 21. Submersions related to non-pool and non-spa products: A CPSC report The end of outdoor swimming and pool season doesn't mean the end of drowning dangers for young children. After pools, more children drown in bathtubs than in any other product in and around the home. This report, published by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), warns of in-home drowning dangers with bathtubs, bath seats, and buckets. For 2003-2005, an annual average of 90 children younger than five years of age drowned in bathtubs (62 percent), baby seats or bathinettes (15 percent), buckets and pails (11 percent), landscaping or yard products (6 percent), and other products (4 percent). For 2005-2007, an annual average of 39 non-fatal submersion incidents was reported for the same products. The majority of drownings and non-fatal submersion incidents involved children younger than two years old. Many of the reported incidents involved a lapse in supervision, such as leaving the bathroom momentarily while the child was in the bathtub or leaving an older sibling to watch a younger sibling. CPSC offers safety tips for parents and caregivers to follow when children are around bathtubs, bath seats, buckets, spas, or decorative ponds or fountains: never leave young children alone, even for a moment, near any water; don't leave a baby or toddler in a bathtub under the care of another young child; and never leave a bucket containing even a small amount of liquid unattended. http://www.cpsc.gov/LIBRARY/FOIA/FOIA09/os/nonpoolsub2008.pdf 22. Home water hazards for young children: AAP guidelines "Children must be watched by an adult at all times when in or near water. Children may drown in an inch or 2 of water." http://www.aap.org/family/homewatr.htm The findings and conclusions in these newsletter materials are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the position of the Children's Safety Network.