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					                       MODULE 4
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT.

      TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on
      the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through
      customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to
      society.

      It is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence.

       Total: Involving the entire organization

       Quality: Degree of excellence.

       Management :Act or act or manner of handling,controlling ,directing.

       TQM ensures

      Continual improvement.

      It starts with people and extends through product design,manufacturing,testing
       and sales.

      All resources are used optimally.

                           Core Concepts of TQM

      A commited management which ensureslong term organisational support

      Focus on customer

      Involvement and utilization of entire human resource

      Continual improvement of activities

      Treating suppliers as partners

      Establish performance measures for processes

       Quality has got different dimensions.A product can be excellent in some
       dimensions without giving importance to others.

      Performance:Main operating Characteristicslike acceleration,maximum
       speed,colour etc
      Feature:Secondary characteristic,such as remote control

      Reliability:consistency of performance over time

      Conformance:Meeting specifications or industry standard

      Durability:Useful life

      Service:Resolution of problems

      Response:Human to Human interface

      Aesthetics :Look,feel,sound,taste etc

      Reputation: Brand image ,goodwill of company Etc.

       Quality Systems

       A quality management system (QMS) is a set of policies and procedures required
       for planning and execution in the core business area of an organization. QMS
       integrates the various internal processes within the organization and intends to
       provide a process approach for project execution. QMS enables the organizations
       to identify, measure, control and improve the various core business processes that
       will ultimately lead to improved business performance

                         ISO 9000



ISO 9000 is a family of standards for QMS. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO, the
International organization for standardization and is administered by accreditation
and certification bodies. Some of the requirements in ISO 9001 (which is one of the
standards in the ISO 9000 family) include
     a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business;
     monitoring processes to ensure they are effective;
     keeping adequate records;
     checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action where
      necessary;
     regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for
      effectiveness; and
     facilitating continual improvement
ISO 9000 Series

ISO 9000 (Q90) is a guideline for selection and use of quality system standards.
It provides insight for various situations and conditions as well as definitions and
explanations.

ISO 9001 (Q91) defines minimum quality system requirements for
design/development, production, installation and servicing. It is the most
complete standard. It applies to manufacturing and service businesses engaged
in all these activities.

ISO 9002 (Q92) is essentially a subset of 9001. It applies only to production and
installation activities.

       ISO 9003 (Q93) applies to final inspection and test.ISO 9004 (Q94) is a
       guideline for quality system elements. It is like a textbook which describes,
       explains and recommends

       ISO 9004

       Useful for internal auditing purpose.

       ISO 9000 Requirements

      Managing responsibility

       The quality policy shall be defined, documented, understood, implemented
       and maintained.
       Responsibilities and authorities for all personnel specifying, achieving and
       monitoring quality shall be defined.
       In-house verification resources shall be defined, trained and funded.
       A designated management person sees that the Q91 program
       isimplemented and maintained.
      Quality system

      Procedures shall be prepared.
      Procedures shall be implemented
      Contract review

      Incoming contracts (and purchase orders) shall be reviewed to see
       whether the requirements are adequately defined, agree with the bid and
       can be supplied.
   Design control.

   The design project shall be planned.
   Design input parameters shall be defined.
   Design output, including crucial product characteristics shall be
    documented.
   Design output shall be verified to meet input requirements.
   Design changes shall be controlled
   Document and data control

   Generation of documents shall be controlled.
   Distribution of documents shall be controlled.
   Changes to documents shall be controlled.
   Purchasing

   Potential subcontractors and sub-suppliers shall be evaluated for their
    ability to provide stated requirements.
   Requirements shall be clearly defined in contracting data.
   Effectiveness of the subcontractor's quality assurance system shall be
    assessed.
   Product identification and traceability

    The products shall be identified and traceable by item, batch or lot during
    all stages of production, delivery and installation.
   Process control

   Production (and installation) processes shall be defined and planned.
   Production shall be carried out under controlled conditions: documented
    instructions, in-process controls, approval of processes and equipment,
    and criteria for workmanship.
   Special processes that cannot be verified after the fact shall be monitored
    and controlled throughout the processes.
   Inspection and testing

   Incoming materials shall be inspected or verified before use.
   In-process inspection and testing shall be performed.
   Final inspection and testing shall be performed prior to release of finished
     product.
   Control of inspection& test status

   Status of inspections and tests shall be maintained for items as they
    progress through various processing steps.
   Records shall show who released conforming products
   Control of non conforming products

   Nonconforming product shall be controlled to prevent inadvertent use or
    installation.
   Review and disposition of nonconforming product shall be formalized.

   Corrective and preventive action

   Problem causes shall be identified.
   Specific problems and their causes shall be corrected.
   Effectiveness of corrective actions shall be assessed.
   Handling, Storage, Packaging & Delivery
   Procedures for handling, storage, packaging and delivery shall be
    developed & maintained.
   Handling controls shall prevent damage and deterioration.
   Secure storage shall be provided. Product in stock shall be checked for
    deterioration.
   Packing, preservation and marking processes shall be controlled.
   Quality of the product after final inspection shall be maintained. This might
    include delivery controls.
   Internal audit

   Audits shall be planned and performed.
   Results of audits shall be communicated to management.
   Any deficiencies found shall be corrected.
   Training

   Training needs shall be identified.
   Training shall be provided.
   Some tasks may require qualified individuals.
   Records of training shall be maintained.
   Servicing

   Servicing activities shall be performed to written procedures.
   Servicing activities shall meet requirements.
   Statistical Techniques
   Statistical techniques shall be identified.
   Statistical techniques shall be used to verify acceptability of process
    capability and product characteristics.
              ISO Implementation

      Top management commitment

      Appointment of management representative

      Awareness program

      Appoint a task force

      Training

      Time schedule

      Selection of process owners

      Review of existing system

      Install new system.

      Internal audit.

      Management review

      Pre assessment

      Registration

                      BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS( BIS)

The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the national standards organisation of Indiaunder
the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs,Food & Public Distribution,Govt of India. It
was founded on 1 April 1987, replacing the Indian Standards Institute.

ISI mark on the product indicates confirmity to corresponding standards.

        Standards promotion

      Educational utilization of standards

To promote the message of standardisation and to create awareness about the latest
Indian standards in various fields.

      Industry awareness programs
To propagate the concept among small scale industries

      State level committees

To ensure the effective implementation of standards and to propagate the message of
standardisation

      Rajiv Gandhi National quality award

To give special recognition to best industries.

                   BENCHMARKING

Benchmarking is a total quality management tool.It is a standard or reference in which
something can be measured or judged.It is a tool for improving the performance by
taking the ideas of an organisation which is performing best in the same time.

Concept of benchmarking




Benchmarking process.

      Decide What to benchmark.

      Understanding current performance

      Planning

      Observe others
   Learning from data

   Using the findings

    QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT(QFD)

    QFD is a planning tool to fulfill customer expectations.

    Quality function deployment (QFD) is a “method to transform user demands into
    design quality, to deploy the functions forming quality, and to deploy methods for
    achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately
    to specific elements of the manufacturing process.

    QFD helps transform customer needs(voice of customer) into engineering
    characteristics for a product or service, prioritizing each product or service
    characteristic while simultaneously setting development targets for product or
    service.

                         House of Quality
    House of Quality is a graphic tool for defining the relationship between customer
    desires and the firm/product capabilities. It is a part of the QFD and it utilizes a
    planning matrix to relate what the customer wants to how a firm (that produce the
    products) is going to meet those wants. It looks like a House with correlation
    matrix as its roof, customer wants versus product features as the main part,
    competitor evaluation as the porch etc. It also is reported to increase cross
    functional integration within organizations using it, especially between marketing,
    engineering and manufacturing.

    The basic structure is a table with "Whats" as the labels on the left and "Hows"
    across the top. The roof is a diagonal matrix of "Hows vs. Hows" and the body of
    the house is a matrix of "Whats vs. Hows". Both of these matrices are filled with
    indicators of whether the interaction of the specific item is a strong positive, a
    strong negative, or somewhere in between. Additional annexes on the right side
    and bottom hold the "Whys" (market research, etc.) and the "How Muches".
    Rankings based on the Whys and the correlations can be used to calculate
    priorities for the Hows.
House of Quality




                                      4




                                               2


                        1                      3   5




                                               6




1-----------Customer requirements(Whats)

2-----------Technical Characteristics(Hows)

3-----------Relationship between 1 & 2

4-----------Interrelationship between 2's

5-----------Prioritized customer requirement
6----------Prioritized technical characteristics.

       Benefits

      QFD surpasses or meets customer requirements

      Helps management to plan its resources to improve the quality of product

      Early identification of bottlenecks in technology.

      Identification of conflicting design requirements

      Proper documentation

      Promotes team workmanship reduces implementation time.

       Total productive Maintenance(TPM)

       TPM integrates the maintenance activity in the manufacturing process.TPM
       targets to keep the equipments in the highest productive level through the
       cooperation of all.

      Total:All encompassing by maintenance and production individuals together

      Productive:Production of goods and services that meet customer's expectations

      Maintenance : Keeping equipment and plant in good condition.

       Objectives

      Achieve zero defects ,breakdown and zero accidents in all functional areas of
       organisation

      Encourages self maintenance

      Meeting deadlines ,earning goodwill of the customer

      Increase productivity and overall plant efficiency

      Encourages input from all employees.
      Types of maintenance


1. Breakdown maintenance :
      It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could
      be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or
      production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.


2. Preventive maintenance
It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening ), design to
retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of
deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure
deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance.
Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can
be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.

     2a. Periodic maintenance

     Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and
     cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process
     problems.

     2b. Predictive maintenance :

     This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based
     on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service
     life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition
     based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data
     about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor
     conditions through an on-line system.


3. Corrective maintenance
It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried
out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability
or improving maintainability


4. Maintenance prevention
It indicates the design of a new equipment. Weakness of current machines are
sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention, easier
maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are
incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.




      Steps to implement TPM

     Management understanding the new concept

     Management introducing the new concept

     Training the employees

     Improvement needed areas

     Formulation of performance goals

     Developing plans

     Autonomous work groups



      Environmental management system

     To increase environmental awareness

     To develop set of standards for environmental management

  ISO 14000 series of standards

  ISO 14000 document is named as EMS-General guidelines ,on principles,systems
  and supporting techniques.It gives the general outlines on how to
  initiate,implement,improve and sustain the system.
      Concept
                                Environmental policy


                                          planning


                                                            Implementation&
       Management review                                       Operation

                               Continuous improvement


                               Checking & Corrective
                                      action



Benefits

     Improving environmental performance of organisation

     Maintaning a good reputation in public.

     Reducing consumption of water,fuel etc

     Reducing an elementary waste

     Facilitate trade & remove barrier

				
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