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History of Mental Illness and Treatment by liaoqinmei

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									History of Mental Illness and
         Treatment
            Ancient Theories
• Widespread belief in supernatural and
  magical forces as cause of mental illness
  – Exorcism – removal of evil that resides in an
    individual, usually by counter-magic or prayer.
• Trephination
  – Cutting a hole in the skull
    to remove pressure
  – Evidence that people
    considered illness organic
                Ancient Greece
• Hippocrates
  – Looked to the brain as the explanation of our behavior
     • Egyptians had thought the heart was the core of mental life
  – Studied epilepsy, depression, psychosis, irrational
    fears, and hysteria.
  – Therapeutic techniques emphasized:
     • Rest, bathing, dieting
  – Hippocratic Oath – taken by doctors
    when they graduate from medical
    school
   Middle Ages  Renaissance
• During a time dominated by the Catholic Church,
  superstitious beliefs in devils and demons were
  very strong.
  – At the same time, Church charities often provided
    care for the mentally ill.


• Idiot – inborn illness
• Lunatic – mental disabilities
  not from birth
Enlightenment (Age of Reason)
• Reason and the scientific method finally
  replaced superstition as primary way of
  understanding the world.
  – Anton Mesmer
     • invention of hypnosis
           Late 1700s – 1800s
• While research and treatment continued, society
  placed an emphasis on removal of the mentally
  ill, which gave rise to insane asylums.

• Bedlam Hospital – after an investigation into the
  “madhouses of England,” Bedlam became the
  prototype of the injustices
  of mental hospitals.
               Restraints
• “Straight Jacket”
Restraints
        Emerging Treatments
• Rocking Chair Therapy
          Reform Movement
• Philippe Pinel – Moral Treatment
  – Kind treatment
  – -minimum or restraint

• Benjamin Rush
  – Signer of the Declaration of Independence
  – Father of American Psychiatry

• Dorothea Dix
  – Civil War nurse, campaigned
    against poor treatment of the
    mentally ill, especially restraints.

								
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