World War One 1914 -1920 by hedongchenchen


									           World War One
            1914 -1920

                THE BIG PICTURE:
The United States tried to stay neutral when war
swept Europe. After the United States joined the
Allies in 1917, however, the government quickly
  mobilized the economy and public support.
Map of Europe Quiz – Moved to next class
  THINGS (take 10 minutes):

• SEAS/Bodies of H2O: North Sea, Black Sea,
  Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea, Aegean Sea
• Countries/Capitals to remember:
  – Belgium-Brussels, Germany-Berlin, England (United
    Kingdom)- London, Ireland-Dublin, Spain-Madrid,
    Portugal-Lisbon, Italy-Rome, Austria-Vienna, Bosnia and
    Herzegovina-Sarajevo, Poland-Warsaw, Turkey-Ankara,
    Sweden-Stockholm, Russia-Moscow, Ukraine-Kiev,
    Hungary-Budapest, France-Paris
• Objective: Students will analyze the actions of
  the United States in the early years of World
  War One and the country’s entrance and
  participation in the war in order to evaluate
  the United State role in the conflict.

• Warm Up: What is isolationism? Analyze the
  following Cartoon and answer the following
1. Describe the picture. What is happening?
2. What does the fence represent?
3. Outside the fence the billboards read “To World
   business Highway” and “Europe.” This cartoon was
   drawn in 1916, what are the two people fenced in from?
 Agenda – What are we doing today?

• Warm Up: In your group:
  – Fill in map of Europe and
• WW1 Document Analysis Packet
                  Causes of the War

• M.A.I.N. Causes:
   – Military: build up of military by competing countries
      • As neighboring countries “beefed up” their military, other
        countries did the same
   – Alliances: Friendships and partnerships
      • Everyone picked sides/friends in Europe, so if there ever was an
        issue they’d have alliances/partners
   – Imperialism: The scramble for oversea territory
      • Large parts of Africa and Asia were controlled/annexed by
        European nations  fight for who had the most/best territory
   – Nationalism: Strong passion for country (willingness to
     fight for country)
      • Before = Lords, vassals, feudal system and EMPIRES
      • NOW = More equality in country, nations were forming instead of
        large Empires (more love for a nation than LARGE EMPIRE)
   Then…. An assassination causes war to
             ERUPT in Europe
• 19 yr old Garvilo Princip wanted to FREE his homeland of
  BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA from the Austrian Empire
• Part of the terrorist group – THE BLACK HAND
• The BLACK HAND came up with a terrorist plot to kill
  ARCH DUKE Franz Ferdinand when he was touring
  Sarajevo (parading in a open car)
• On the day of the attack Princip was hungry and went to
  buy and sandwich. When he came out of the sandwich
  shop there was the Arch Duke (off the parade course!)
   – He took the opportunity, DROPPED THE SANDWICH, and shot
     the archduke!
   Alliances push Europe to WAR

• 1. After the assassination, Austrian government
  found out the Serbian government had supported
  the terrorist group. FURIOUS, they declared war
  on Serbia.
• 2. Russia promised to defend small little Serbia.
• 3. Germany felt Russia’s mobilization to help
  Serbia was an act of aggression (not defense) so
  they vowed to aid their allies the Austrians.
• 4. The Germany declared war of France (because
  they were Russia’s ally).
German takeover of Belgium (to get to France)
• Schlieffen Plan: August 4th 1914 the Germans
  crossed into NEUTRAL Belgium (which
  dragged England into War)
• German attack on tiny Belgium was HARSH
  and brutal
  – Civilians caught in fight killed
  – French/Belgium soldiers were 50 years behind the
    time (bright red uniforms, marched in a row on
  – NOT prepared for German’s massive firepower
    (machine guns)
       War reaches a stalemate
• Battle of the Marne: Germany was 25 miles
  from Paris – French would NOT give up
  – Underprepared, outnumbered the French fought a
    pushed Germans back 40 miles (cost them
    250,000 lives in 5 days)
• Battle ended in a stalemate – Both sides dug
  trenches to protect position
  – Trenches were 400 miles across Western Europe
  – Trench warfare: relatively new, soldiers lived in the
    trenches, and fought
 Gas masks not
 only protected
  soldiers from
 being hit by the
enemies gas, but
 also protected
  them against
  their own gas
bombs that were
   misfired or
misdirected due
     to wind
      New Weapons used in WW1
•   Poisonous Gas – very risky and controversial
•   Armored Tank
•   Airplane
•   U Boat (submarine)

• Other (older) weapons used:
    – Machine Gun
    – Rifles
                   US and WW1
• President Wilson declare the US neutral shortly after
  war broke out in Europe (isolationism)
• US was not 100% neutral from 1914 – 1917
   – Historic ties to Great Britain and France
   – Financially – made a lot of money selling war products to
     England as well
   – Did not trade as much with Germany because of the British
     Blockade (of goods going to Germany)
• U Boats – Germany’s strike back on the British
   – A submarine (unterseeboot)
   – Unrestricted submarine warfare (attack all enemy ships
     around Great Britain
Sinking of Lusitania – end of neutrality
• President Wilson demanded an end to
  unrestricted submarine warfare (neutral
  citizens were getting killed)
• Germany half-heartedly aggreed to stop the
  action, but after killing 80 people on the
  French Sussex, they issued the Sussex pledge
  to keep the U.S. out of the War.
  – Promise not to sink merchant vessels without
      Mother and child,
      passengers of the
      Lusitania, sinking
     after the explosion.

        Picture used to
      encourage soldiers
     to enlist in the Army
      in US and England.
                Zimmermann Note
• Telegram sent to a German official in Mexico,
  proposing an alliance between Germany and
  – Germans hoped an American war with Mexico would
    keep us out of Europe
• It was intercepted by England – who immediately
  gave it to the US
• American Newspapers ran the Note in the Papers
  and more Americans began calling for war
  1. Why would England give the U.S. the note that was intercepted from
                 Germany/Mexico? (What was their motive)?
 2. The note was given to U.S. government officials (not the newspapers).
     Therefore the government had to give the newspapers this Note to be
                       printed. What was their motive?
              US and World War One
• Objective: Students will analyze the United State’s role in World
  War One to determine it’s importance in the outcome of the war.
  Students will evaluate primary sources from the home front to
  determine how WW1 effected citizens.
• Agenda:
   – Warm Up: Questions #1-3 on Primary Source Analysis
   – Go over Harlem Renaissance Project/Course agenda
   – Propaganda/ Advertisement Activity (50 minutes)
   – HW: Ch 18.3 worksheet and FIX/FINISH Class work from
     Last class
     US Finally enters the War in 1917
• Germany sank many U.S. boats (Lusitania, Sussex,
• Zimmerman Note
• Chaos in Russia – Czar (King) is overthrown in a
  Revolution based on Bolshevism (Communism) –
  Russia abandons the War to deal with internal chaos
• April 2nd, 1917 – Wilson and cabinet members
  agreed to go to war so that the world could
            “be made safe for democracy.”
   War is fought in Europe and on the ‘home
front’ – How did America mobilize for War at home?
• Raise money – Liberty bonds
   – Citizens gave govt. $$ and were guaranteed more in return at a
     later date
• Regulation of Industry – make sure the necessary supplies
  were being made (guns, uniforms)
   – Factories SWITCHED to war products – A shoe factory that made
     High heels  waterproof boots
• Regulation of food and consumer items to Americans –
      RATIONS  Food, metals, fuel
• Mobilizing a workforce  LOCKED people into jobs, no
           Scramble for mobilization
• US was not ready to send troops when we entered
  the war (did not have trained soldiers/units ready)
  • American men first fought in English/French units because we
    weren’t mobilized/ready to fight when we entered the war 

• Started a draft (Selective Service Act) but trainees
  went to camp and found little supplies to train with
  (no guns, weapons to train with)
           Segregation in the Army
• African Americans fought in in Segregated Units
   – White Southerners objected to the training of African
     Americans to use weapons and fight (scared)
   – Might pose a threat after the war
• Many African American soldiers in War, but few trained
  for combat (cooks, cleaners, etc)
• Gave many a new feeling of power in a
  segregated/racist country                   Hellfighters –
                                               Served 191 days
                                                in the trenches
                                               straight. Awarded
                                                  a prestigious
                                                    medal for
    Committee on Public Information
• Nationwide campaign of PROPAGANDA
  – Posters, newspaper stories, speeches and materials
    designed to influence people’s opinion
  – The campaign was meant to encourage Americans to
    support the war
• Patriotic pamphlets and posters
• Anti-German feelings  had to promote anti-
  German feelings because there was a large German
  immigrant population/like for Germany so many
  Americans were weary of fighting the Germans at first
   Is this

  What is the
 (main point)
of this poster?
• This picture picks
  on the idea of
• It puts the idea in
  their mind that
  EVERY person
  matters in the
  war effort
• Notice the YOU
  is bolded, and
  he’s pointing
  right at YOU. To
  provoke men to
  think about their
  importance to
  the war
• Are you man enough?

• This image is using the
  idea of MANHOOD to
  push people into
  joining the Navy
• This poster also
  uses the idea of
  every person is
  important for the
• Immigrants can do
  their part by
  conserving food
• How do we know
  its for
    How did the US pay for War?
• War Revenue Act of 1917 – high taxes and
  taxed the wealthiest Americans the most (up
  to 77% of income) (100,000$ = 23,000 left!!)
• Borrowed money – National debt grew from
  $1.2 billion to$25.5 billion)
  – Liberty Bonds (Loans from Americans): People
    gave the government money in return for a
    certificate (called a bond) guaranteeing them
    more money at a later date)
• Espionage Act
  and Sedition Act:
  Made it illegal to
  say or do
  anything against
  the American
• Threat to war
• Keep country
       Schneck v. United States
• Supreme Court case where Charles Schneck
  protested his arrest under the Espionage Act
  – He pushed men to OPPOSE the draft into the
  – Ruled aganst Schneck UNANIMOUSLY (doesn’t
    happen often)
     • Said that it was a matter of NATIONAL SECURITY
     • Similar to Patriot Act of September 2003
        – What was/is the Patriot Act?
             End of World War One
• Objective: Students will analyze the end of World War One
  to evaluate the War’s impact on the social, economic and
  political history of America in the 1920s
• Warm Up: Create a PROPAGANDA campaign poster about
  one of the following War topics:
   – Enlistment and Recruitment into the Armed Forces
   – Food/Fuel Administration (Conservation of supplies)
   – Committee on Public Information (identifying the
     enemy and supporting the allies (Brittish/French))
   – Role of Women (helping in factories, doing their part on
     the homefront)
   *At your table everyone should have a different topic!!!
  The Armistice = Peace w/out Victory
• America was the MUCH NEEDED RELEIF for the
  British/French side
• By late 1918 the war was crippling the German
  economy (people were starving, food riots, strikes)
• Revolution across Austria Hungry
   – They didn’t want to fight anymore!!
• Central Powers began to surrender
• November 11th, 1918 – Armistice went into effect
   – 8.5 million people dead
   – “Peace without Victory” because no real ‘winner’ 
     everyone lost so much land/money/men 
    14 Points – Woodrow Wilson
• America acted as the father/leader in the
  peace proceedings  They felt that they “won
  the war” for everyone else
• “14 Points” – Wilson’s outline for a world
  peace made in a speech at end of War
  – Open diplomacy, freedom of the seas
  – Self-determination (right of people to decide
    what is best for their country)
  – 14th Point: League of Nations
        Paris Peace Conference
• Leaders met to negotiate after the War
• Treaty of Versailles
  – Reparations (payments made for damages) by the
    Germans and Austrians to Allies
  – U.S. gave up a lot of ideals (from 14 Points) for the
    14th Point (League of Nations)
     • BUT Wilson could not convince his own country about
       the League (people didn’t want to be ruled by Europe
     • Wilson died trying to campaign to pass the League
              Impact of War
• Political Impact – Many new nations made
  out of the big empires
  – Look at maps on page 610
  – Where are the differences on the map?
• Economic impact – countries devastated
  – Germany had to pay back money they didn’t have
    – which threw their country into a WORSENED
• League of Nations – Existed for many years w/
  many countries a part  Except for United
  States (so it wasn’t that affective)
• What were two ways the government raised
  money to pay for the war?
• How did the Eighteenth Amendment help the
  war effort?
• Why did many workers join labor unions
  during the war?
• Why did Wilson form the Committee on Public
• What was the result of Schenck v. United
  States Supreme Court Case?
• What were two ways the government raised
  money to pay for the war?
  – Taxes
  – Liberty Bonds
• How did the Eighteenth Amendment help the
  war effort?
  – It made making,selling, or drinking alchohol illegal,
    so grain could be given to the Soldiers
• Why did many workers join labor unions
  during the war?
  – Workers were in high demand, Profits and Prices
    were going up, but NOT wages
• Why did Wilson form the Committee on Public
  – To change the minds of those Americans who had
    been against the war
  – Keep the country unified in the war effort
• What was the result of Schenck v. United
  States Supreme Court Case?
  – S.C. ruled that freedom of speech could be limited
    if it caused danger for the country
            Monday, January 10th
• Objective: Students will analyze the United State’s
  effort in World War Two by analyzing primary source
  documents to understand how propaganda
  influenced citizen’s action
• Agenda: Warm Up: Write a paragraph explaining how
  American citizens were effected by World War I on
  the home front using the following terms. Make sure
  ALL terms are EXPLAINED thoroughly!
   –   Sussex Pledge
   –   Zimmerman Note
   –   Liberty Bonds
   –   Committee of Public Information
   –   Propaganda
   –   Shneck v. United States
               Friday, January 14th
• Objective: Students will explore the different perspectives
  and points of view during World War One in order to see
  how different countries and people were affected by the
• Warm Up: Write a “I AM” poem about YOU IN THIS CLASS
  called “I AM A STUDENT”
   – I AM…a student
   – I WONDER….what the homework is
   – I HEAR…lots of students talking
• Class work: Discuss “I AM” poems as a class. Ms. Power will
  give you a topic for WW1 and then you will write an “I AM”
  poem from that perspective
   – WHEN DONE….. MAKE UP WORK!!!! (last day to submit is TODAY)
         “I AM” Poem – WW1
• Ms. Power will give you a topic/object/person
• Fill in the lines of the “I AM” poem based on
  that person/

To top