Neurological Disease for AHS I Meningitis Infection or inflammation of the meninges Caused by both bacteria and viral infections Symptoms – severe headache and stiff neck with pain Need to seek immediate medical attention Meningitis Inflammation of cranial meninges spreads to spinal meninges, which leads to excess production of CSF, causing HA, reduced pulse, slow breathing, and partial or total unconsciousness Lumbar Puncture AKA Spinal Tap is a diagnostic test for examination of CSF Removal of 5 to 20 ml of CSF from spinal canal Needle puncture is between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae CSF is examined for color, blood cells, bacteria, malignant cells, and glucose Epilepsy Seizure disorder of the brain, characterized by recurring and excessive discharge from neurons Seizures believed to be a result of spontaneous uncontrolled electrical activity of neurons Cause – Uncertain Diagnosed with EEG (electroencephalogram) Epilepsy Victims may have hallucinations and seizures Two types of seizures 1. Grand Mal – severe, convulsive seizure. 2. Petit Mal – milder (sometimes like someone is just staring) Treatment is anticonvulsant medications Alzheimer’s Disease Progressive disease that begins with problems remembering Nerve endings in cortex of brain degenerate and block signals that pass between nerve cells Abnormal fibers build up creating tangles Cause is unknown Alzheimer’s Disease First Stage (2-4 years) Confusion Short Term Memory Loss Anxiety Poor Judgement Alzheimer’s Disease 2nd Stage (2-10 years) 3rd Stage (1-3 years) Increase in memory Inability to recognize loss oneself Difficulty recognizing Weight loss people Seizures Motor problems Mood swings Logic problems Aphasia Loss of social skills Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) Stroke or CVA Interruption of blood and oxygen to the brain Tissue death occurs Third leading cause of death in the USA Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) Risk Factors: Smoking Hypertension Heart Disease Family History Causes of CVA’s 90% caused by blood clots in the brain or the carotid arteries Clots lodge in carotid arteries, blocking the flow of blood to the brain 10% caused by ruptured blood vessels in the brain Symptoms of CVA Hemiplegia on opposite side of the body Sudden severe headache Dizziness Sudden loss of vision in one eye Aphasia Dysphasia Coma Possible Death Treatment of CVA 1. Get to the hospital immediately! 2. CAT scan done to determine etilology 3. If a clot, treatment aimed at dissolving the clot – usually use TPA. Prevention of CVAs If TIAs – one asprin a day Stop smoking Exercise and lose weight Control hypertension Types of Paralysis Paralysis – Loss of power of motion or sensation Hemiplegia – paralysis on one side of body – usually seen with strokes Quadriplegia – paralysis of all four extremtities Paraplegia – paralysis of lower extremities only.
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