The Human Skull
All you need to know about the
human skull bones
Diagram of the Skull
Bones of the skull
There is a large opening, called the
foramen magnum, located in the
back of the occipital bone. This is
where the medulla ends and
projects out of the skull. Smaller
holes in the skull, called foramina,
allow nerves and blood vessels to
enter and leave the cranium. The
picture on the right shows the base
of the skull.
The places in the skull where the
bones come together are called
sutures. These sutures are flexible
in young children, but become fixed
as you age. Link to webpage.
Human skull facts
Your 3 pound (1.4 kg) brain needs a home...your skull!
The hole at the base of a skull through which the spinal cord passes.
Literally, foramen magnum means a "large hole or opening" in Latin.
The position of the foramen magnum is a strong indicator of the angle
of the spinal column to the head and subsequently whether the body is
habitually horizontal (e.g., as in the case of a horse) or vertical (e.g. as
in the case of an ape or human). Link to website
Your brain is protected by several bones. There are eight bones that
surround your brain: one frontal bone; two parietal bones, two temporal
bones, one occipital bone, one sphenoid bone and one ethmoid bone.
These eight bones make up the cranium.
Another 14 bones in the face make up the entire skull. There are also 3
small bones in each ear. Also protecting your brain are three layers of tissue
called the meninges. A few of the bones have been colored in the diagram
Human ear bones
The incus, malleus, and stapes are the bones of the
middle ear. They are the smallest bones in the human
body. The three bones are connect by hinges and are
levers that carry the vibrations collected from the
eardrum to the inner ear. The mechanical advantage
gained in this system increases the volume of the
sound 5 decibels, or about 7 times.
The ear, specifically the middle ear, consists of 3 bones
known as ossicles. Since the human body has 2 ears,
there are a total of 6 middle ear bones. The middle ear is
located behind the ear drum and in front of the cochlea
and oval window. These bones function in transmitting
sound waves to the inner ear. The ossicles convert
compression sound waves into fluid membrane waves.
Interestingly, ossicles are the three smallest bones in the
The incus or anvil is the anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in
the middle ear. It connects the malleus to the stapes. It was first
described by Alessandro Achillini of Bologna.
The incus transmits sound vibrations from the malleus to the
stapes. The incus only exists in mammals, and is derived from a
reptilian upper jaw bone, the quadrate bone. Embryologically it is
derived from the first pharyngeal arch along with the rest of the
bones of mastication, such as the maxilla and mandible.Link
What is the stapes bone? The stapes bone is a stirrup
shaped auditory ossicle that transmits sound waves from the
incus to the cochlea of the inner ear. Link
• There are 21 bones in the face they are as follows…
• Frontal bone
• Nasal bone
• Pariental bone
• Supraorbital process
• Supaorbital foramen
• Temporal bone
• Spheboid bone
• Ethmoid bone
• Lacrimal bone
• Zygomatic bone
• Nasal spine
• Mental protruberance
• Nasal concha
• Aveolar process
• Coronal suture
• Mental tuberosity
• Forhead boss
Activities to learn about the skull