theories guiding the principles of the origin of life by tee.babe7

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									             TAI SOLARIN UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

           P.M.B 2118, IJAGUN, IJEBU-ODE, OGUN STATE.




                           GROUP 2



     DEPARTMENT: PETROLEUM AND PETRO CHEMICAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE: COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (COSIT)

                        COURSE: ICH 121



                          LEVEL: 100L



     QUESTION: WHAT IS THE CONVERTABILITY OF NATURAL GAS.




               LECTURER IN CHARGE: MISS ADEYEMI
                               THEORIES GUIDING THE PRINCIPLES OF ORIGIN OF LIFE

                       Earth began more than 3 billion years ago, evolving from the most basic
of microbes into a dazzling array of complexity over time, but how did the first organisms on
the only known home to life in the universe develop from the primordial soup?. Here are
science’s theories on the origins of life on Earth:



1.DOGMATIC THEORY:

             Dogmatism is defined as "unfounded positiveness in matters of opinion," and the
"arrogant assertion of opinions as truths". A dogmatist is "a person who asserts his or her
opinions in an arrogant manner". When cornered with unavoidable facts it is likely that a
dogmatist would count on the philosophy of relativism to support his/her claims. Indeed, no
one believes that he/she is a dogmatist, and no one wants to be thought of as a dogmatist,
because the negative connotations are perceived to be quite significant. Dogmatists are
typically viewed as having unchangeable views; their minds are thought to be closed to
different ideas and information. Clearly, this description characterizes most of us when we are
confronted with information that is new to us.

           The natural human reaction is to resist new information, because it might require us
to alter the perceptions to which we are accustomed, and accept the fact that we may be
ignorant about issues we thought we understood. Based on this information it is reasonable to
conclude that dogmatism should be the norm, rather than the exception. With this in mind, it
should be obvious that we all need to routinely go through the pain associated with doubting
our cherished beliefs and dogmas; it is the only healthy way to learn and grow.

          It has been said, first, that “dogma” is one essential point of a scientific or philosophical
or religious doctrine, which is given as immutable truth or axiom. On the other hand,
dogmatism is understood as a “belief” on a set of propositions that are undeniable principles in
science. From a philosophical standpoint, it was said that it is a belief that the human intellect is
capable of achieving absolute certainty and knowledge of reality as it is. In this way we realize,
following this first notion, that dogmatism can manifest in different ways or in different fields,
such as in the theological, scientific, philosophical, etc. But it always refers to a common
denominator: the dogma doctrine understood as fixed, given.

2. SPONTANEOUS GENERATION THEORY:

               Spontaneous generation, also called Abiogenesis, is the belief that some living
things can arise suddenly, from inanimate matter, without the need for a living progenitor to
give them life. In the fourth century B.C., the Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle argued
that abiogenesis is one of four means of reproduction, the others being budding (asexual),
sexual reproduction without copulation, and sexual reproduction with copulation. Indeed, the
Greek goddess Gea was said to be able to create life from stones. Even Albertus Magnus (Albert
the Great), the great German naturalist of the thirteenth century Middle Ages, believed in
spontaneous generation, despite his extensive studies of the biology of plants and animals.

           Through the centuries, the notion of spontaneous generation gave rise to a wide
variety of exotic beliefs, such as that snakes could arise from horse hairs standing in stagnant
water, mice from decomposing fodder, maggots from dead meat, and even mice from cheese
and bread wrapped in rags and left in a corner. The appearance of maggots on decaying meat
was especially strong evidence, for many people, that spontaneous generation did occur.
Spontaneous generation found further support from the observations of the Dutch merchant
Anton van Leewenhoek, the inventor of the first, primitive microscopes. From 1674 to 1723
Leewenhoek corresponded to the Royal Society in London, describing the tiny, rapidly moving,
"animacules" he found in rain water, in liquid in which he had soaked peppercorn, and in the
scrapings from his teeth (which, to Leeuwenhoek's surprise, had no such animacules after he
had drunk hot coffee).In the seventeenth century, however, some scientists set out to
determine whether living organisms could indeed arise through spontaneous generation, or if
they arose only from other living organisms (biogenesis).

            In 1668, even before Anton van Leeuwenhoek began his study of microscopic
organisms with the microscope, the Italian physician Francisco Redi began a series of
experiments that showed that dead meat does not give rise spontaneously to maggots. Redi
filled six jars with decaying meat, leaving three open and sealing the other three. The unsealed
jars attracted flies, which laid their eggs on the decaying meat, while the meat in the sealed jars
was unavailable to flies. When maggots developed on the meat in the open jars, Redi believed
he had demonstrated that spontaneous generation did not occur. However, supporters of the
notion of spontaneous generation claimed that the lack of fresh air-not the absence of egg-
laying flies-had prevented maggots from appearing on the meat. Therefore, Redi undertook a
second experiment, in which he covered the tops of three of the jars with a fine net instead of
sealing them. Once again, maggots failed to appear on the meat in the covered jars, but did
appear on the meat in the open jars, where flies were able to lay their eggs. It was proposed by
Von Helmont (1577-1644) and states that life originated abiogenetically from non-living
materials by spontaneous generation. e.g. Anaximenes proposed the air as sole cause of life.
Aristotle proposed that worms, insects, fish, frogs and even mice develops from soil and fifth
tape worm from excreta of animals, crabs and salamanders from earth and slime. Hair of white
tail forms living horse-hair worm, Gordius, when dropped into water. The mud of Nile gave rise
to living organisms when warmed in sun.
3. MODERN THEORY:

Modern theory was proposed by Haeckel and evidenced by the brilliant works of Oparin (1928),
Haldane (1928) as well Miller and Urey (1953). The modern theories state that the life arose on
the early earth by a series of progressive biochemical reactions. The entire process presumably
involves the following sequence of events:

   1. Chemical Origin of Life: A.I. Oparin (1922), a Russian bio-chemist opined that complex
      organic compounds like carbohydrates, fatty acids, glycerol, amino acids and proteins
      resulted from the simple compounds under the influence of ultraviolet rays, ionizing
      radiations, electric charges and heat. This stage of the sea water has been termed by
      Haldane (1928) as the hot dilute soup. Coacervates are the large organic molecules
      which were synthesized abiotically on primitive earth. Due to intermolecular attraction
      they formed large colloidal aggregates. They were capable of growth and division.
      Sydney fox (1964) called them microsphere and Oparin named coacervates. There was
      then gradual origin of macromolecules (Polymers) including nucleic acid, followed by
      origin of Genetic Code and finally the giant molecules of nucleoproteins. These giant
      molecules could be compared to the present day viruses and were termed as Protovirus
      (The first living form). It states that primitive life originated in the water bodies on the
      primitive earth by chemical evolution through a series of chemical reactions about 4200
      million years ago. Oparin explained his theory in his book, “The Origin of Life” published
      in 1936 A.D.
   2. Miller and Urey: The theory of chemical evolution of life has been evidenced by the
      experiments of Miller and Urey (1953), who provide the formation of carbohydrates and
      amino acids from a mixture of CH4, NH3 and H2O (vapour) under the influence of
      electric discharges experiments for about one week. Electric sparks can generate amino
      acids and sugars from an atmosphere loaded with water, methane, ammonia and
      hydrogen, as was shown in the famous Miller-Urey experiment reported in 1953,
      suggesting that lightning might have helped create the key building blocks of life on
      Earth in its early days. Over millions of years, larger and more complex molecules could
      form. Although research since then has revealed the early atmosphere of Earth was
      actually hydrogen-poor, scientists have suggested that volcanic clouds in the early
      atmosphere might have held methane, ammonia and hydrogen and been filled with
      lightening as well.
4. COSMOZOIC THEORY:

Cosmozoic or interplanetory theory was proposed by Richter (1865 A.D.). It states life come on
earth from some other planet in the form of seed or spore called panspermia. But it could not
explain the mechanism by which panspermia survived adverse conditions of interplanetory
space during its migration. The Cosmozoic theory speculates that life arrived on Earth as
bacterial spores, perhaps enclosed in a comet. It is possible that such spores could survive a
journey through space, but this theory leaves us with no source for the spores and no
mechanism by which life formed in the other location. The chemical evidence that life was
present on Earth very soon after it cooled gives the Cosmozoic Theory some support. Life
originated from outer planets in the form of a resistant spore propelled by radiation pressure,
reached earth and started the first form of life.



5. CATASTROPHE THEORY:

Catastrophe theory was proposed by G. Cuvier and states that there have been several creations,
each preceded by a catastrophe due to some geological changes. Each catastrophe destroyed
previous life completely and followed by next more advanced creation. The term catastrophe
was introduced by René Thom in 1972 to describe such discontinuous changes in a system where
a parameter is changed smoothly. Catastrophe theory is primarily concerned directly with
singular behavior and as such deals with properties of discontinuities directly. Cuvier came to
believe that most if not all the animal fossils he examined were remains of species that were now
extinct. Near the end of his 1796 paper on living and fossil elephants he said:

       All of these facts, consistent among themselves, and not opposed by any report, seem to
       me to prove the existence of a world previous to ours, destroyed by some kind of
       catastrophe.

This led Cuvier to become an active proponent of the geological school of thought called
catastrophism that maintained that many of the geological features of the earth and the past
history of life could be explained by catastrophic events that had caused the extinction of many
species of animals. Over the course of his career Cuvier came to believe that there had not been a
single catastrophe but several, resulting in a succession of different faunas. He wrote about these
ideas many times, in particular he discussed them in great detail in the preliminary discourse
(introduction) to a collection of his papers, Recherches sur les ossements fossiles de
quadrupèdes, on quadruped fossils published in 1812. After Cuvier's death the catastrophic
school of geological thought lost ground to uniformitarianism, as championed by Charles Lyell
and others, which claimed that the geological features of the earth were best explained by
currently observable forces, such as erosion and volcanism, acting gradually over an extended
period of time. However, the increasing interest in the topic of mass extinction starting in the late
20th century has led to a resurgence of interest among historians of science and other scholars in
this aspect of Cuvier's work.
6. THEORY OF ETERNITY:

While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existence for a limitless amount of time.
Many have used it to refer to a timeless existence altogether outside time, by contrast, infinite
temporal existence is then called sempiternity. Something eternal exists outside time; by contrast,
something sempiternal exists throughout an infinite time. Sempiternity is also known as
everlastingness. There are a number of arguments for eternity, by which proponents of the
concept, principally Aristotle, purported to prove that matter, motion and time must have existed
eternally. The metaphysics of eternity might be summarized by the question: can anything be
said to exist “outside of” or independent of Time/Space, and if so how and why?. . For the
infinite definition, there are parallels that give some notion of an infinity of at least a potential
infinity, or a series that begins and has not ended. A series of moments that has begun and not
ended is, however, not potentially eternal by that definition. A series of moments that has begun
and not ended cannot be eternal, because even if it were to continue for the rest of (infinite) time,
there would still be time prior to the initial moment in the series. The series of moments could
not ever exist for all eternity because no matter what happened during the series of moments,
nothing would ever cause the series of moments to have existed since the beginning of "eternity",
and thus could never achieve the status of eternal or even potentially eternal. conventionally,
time is divided into three distinct regions; the "past", the "present", and the "future". Using that
representational model, the past is generally seen as being immutably fixed, and the future as
undefined and nebulous. As time passes, the moment that was once the present becomes part of
the past; and part of the future, in turn, becomes the new present. In this way time is said to pass,
with a distinct present moment "moving" forward into the future and leaving the past behind.
This view of time is given the name presentism by philosophers.

CONCLUSION:

 Modern or Physico-Chemical Theory is the most scientific and my most accepted theory. It has
been stated that life came about as a result of a chain of chemical reactions that gave rise to a
mass of living protoplasm, which then gradually modify, giving rise to the present forms of life.
This chemical evolution has never been duplicated. Modern theory deals with the study of how
biological life arises from inorganic matter through natural processes, and the method by which
life on Earth arose and it has been proven by giving two aspects of life which has to be
accounted for: replication and metabolism.

Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical
copy of that dynamical system. Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by cell
division. During cell division, DNA is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during
reproduction. Biological viruses can reproduce, but only by commandeering the reproductive
machinery of cells through a process of infection. Harmful prion proteins can replicate by
converting normal prions into rogue forms. Computer viruses reproduce using the hardware
and software already present on computers. Self-replication in robotics has been an area of
research and a subject of interest in science fiction. Any self-replicating mechanism which does
not make a perfect copy will result in the creation of different variants and thus be subject to
natural selection as the variants which are better at persisting in their environment will outlive
and outreproduce variants which are not so suited to their environment.

Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life.
These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and
respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories. Catabolism
breaks down organic matter, for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration. Anabolism
uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. The chemical
reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is
transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes.
Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions
that require energy and will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous
reactions that release energy. The metabolism of an organism determines which substances it
will find nutritious and which it will find poisonous. For example, some prokaryotes use
hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The speed of metabolism,
the metabolic rate, also influences how much food an organism will require. A striking feature
of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways and components between even
vastly different species. For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the
intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all organisms, being found in species as
diverse as the unicellular bacteria Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like
elephants. These striking similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their early
appearance in evolutionary history, and being retained because of their efficacy.

REFERENCE:

   1. SCIENCE.JRANK.ORG
   2. www.chiro.org i.e SCIENCE VERSUS DOGMATISM
   3. www.centrorisorse.org
             TAI SOLARIN UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

          P.M.B 2118, IJAGUN, IJEBU-ODE, OGUN STATE.
                TAI SOLARIN UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

             P.M.B 2118, IJAGUN, IJEBU-ODE, OGUN STATE.

                NAME: SALAKO HIKMOT ADEWUNMI

                  MATRIC NUMBER: 20100210048
                 NAME: SALAKO HIKMOT ADEWUNMI

                    MATRIC NUMBER: 20100210048
    DEPARTMENT: PETROLEUM AND PETRO CHEMICAL SCIENCE

COLLEGE: COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
                            (COSIT)
        DEPARTMENT: PETROLEUM AND PETRO CHEMICAL SCIENCE
           COURSE: PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (GNS 121)
  COLLEGE: COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (COSIT)

              COURSE: PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (GNS 121)
                            LEVEL: 100L

                            LEVEL: 100L
  QUESTION: THE ORIGIN OF LIFE IS PROMPT WITH PROBLEMS I.E
 THEORIES, IDEAS E.T.C. EXPLAIN ALL YOU KNOW BASED ON THE
 THEORIES OF LIFE OF LIFE IS FROTH WITH PROBLEMS I.E THEORIES, IDEAS
QUESTION: THE ORIGINAND TAKE YOUR POSITION WHICH IS GOING TO
  E.T.C. EXPLAIN ALL YOU KNOW BASED ON THE THEORIES OF LIFE AND TAKE
                          BE THE CONCLUSION.
           YOUR POSITION WHICH IS GOING TO BE THE CONCLUSION.


           LECTURER IN CHARGE: DR. DANIEL A. AWOFODU
            LECTURER IN CHARGE: DR. DANIEL A. AWOFODU

								
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