Key Concepts in Judaism Mr. Salem AP World History LSW Social Studies Key Concepts in Judaism God In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And God said: “Let there be light…And God said: “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and let them have domination over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.” (Genesis 1.1-2.1) Thus says the Lord: “I am the first and I am the last. And beside Me there is no God.” (Isaiah 44.6) That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside Me; I am the Lord and there is none else. I form light and create darkness, I make peace and create evil, I the Lord do all these things. (Isaiah 45.6, 7) Covenant People For you are a holy people unto the Lord your God; and the Lord has chosen you to be a people for His own treasure out of all the peoples that are on the face of the earth. (Deuteronomy 14.2) Now therefore, if you will obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my own treasure among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine, and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. (Exodus 19.5, 6) Land And the Lord your God will bring you into the land which your fathers possessed, and you shall possess it. (Deuteronomy 30.5) So Joshua spoke to the leaders of the people. “Go through all the places where the people live,” he said. “Tell them to get food ready for a journey. In three days or less, you will cross the river Jordan to begin to take the land for yourselves. This is the land that the Lord, your God, is giving to you,” Joshua said. (Joshua 1.10, 11) Whoever lives in the land of Israel lives a sinless life…Whoever is buried in the land of Israel is considered as though he were buried beneath the altar…Whoever walks a distance of four cubits in the land of Israel is assured a place in the world to come…Living in the land of Israel equals in import the performance of all the commandments of the Torah. (Sifrei, R’eh Midrash on books of Numbers and Deuteronomy) Law You taught your people the Torah and commandments. You instructed them in its statuettes and its judgments. O our God, when we lie down as when we are awake, we shall always think and speak of Your ordinances, and rejoice in the Torah and its commandments. It is your Torah that sustains us throughout life; on its teachings will we meditate day and night. (Jewish Daily Prayer Book) Timeline c. 2000-2600 bce - The Patriarchal Period Abraham, his son Isaac and grandson Jacob are known as the Patriarchs. Their wives – Sarah, Rebecca, 70 ce - Destruction of the Second Temple by Leah, and Rachel – are the Matriarchs. This the Romans. With the destruction of the period ended when Jacob followed his son to Temple, the Biblically-ordained sacrificial cult Egypt during a time of famine. ended endangering the very survival of Judaism. Rabbinic Judaism begins to emerge as a new way to observe the law. Three c. 1260 bce - Moses, the Exodus, and Sinai During years later Jewish Zealots made their last their journey in the desert, the tribes were united stand at the mountain fortress of Masada. into the people of Israel at Mount Sinai, the c. 280 ce - Completion of the Mishnah traditional site of God’s revelation of the Torah. c. 500 ce - Completion of the Talmud c. 961-922 bce - First Temple was built by King Solomon (King David’s son) in Jerusalem unifying Israelite religious life. 1290 ce - Jews Expelled from England 722 bce - The northern kingdom was conquered by 1492 ce - Jews Expelled from Spain the Assyrians and its population deported. These are said to be the ten lost tribes of Jewish history. 1516 ce - Ghetto of Venice This became the prototype of a series of Jewish quarters 586 bce - The Babylonian Exile The Babylonians established throughout central Europe conquered the kingdom of Judah based in segregating Jews from the majority Jerusalem, destroyed its Temple, and exiled the population and culture. monarchic and priestly leadership for nearly 50 1700-1760 ce - The Baal Shem Tov and years. Hasidism Within the Kabbalistic movement 164 bce - The Maccabean Revolt A Jewish group Hasidism was founded by Israel ben Eliezer called the Maccabees rebelled against the Syrian known as the Baal Shem Tov. Hellenists and rededicated the Temple 1810 ce - First Reform Temple commemorated in the festival Hanukkah. Timeline 1879 ce - Term “Anti-Semitism” coined 1967 ce - Six-Day War Israel’s victory in June of 1967 led many American Jews back 1881 ce - Jewish Resettlement in Russia to an identification with Israel and Jewish survival. 1933-1945 ce - The Holocaust (Hebrew “Shoah”) One third of the world’s Jewish 1972 ce - First Women Rabbis Ordained population was systematically murdered. This catastrophe has come to be known as 1995 ce - Rabin Assassination the central event in modern Jewish consciousness. 1948 ce - Establishment of the modern State of Israel Branches Within Judaism Orthodox Orthodox Judaism is a term first used in 1795 in response to the emerging Reform movement. Concerned with what was believed to be the compromise of religious values, Orthodox rabbis warned Jews to anchor themselves to traditional interpretations, understandings, ways and values. The question was one of identity: would Jews lose their spiritual heritage by adapting to modernity? Orthodox judaism would answer “yes.” Thus at the heart of this movement is the tenet that the letter of the law in the Torah must remain unchanged. Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women rabbis. About 40% of the Jewish population is Orthodox. Reform Reform Judaism Early 1800 interpretation of Judaism through modern life. The question of identity has always been one of the great challenges facing the Jewish faith. By the 19th century some Jews were taking a closer look at the prospect of the coming Messiah and its relevance to a diverse and sometimes hostile world. Abraham Geiger, who founded Reform Judaism, felt that instead of being a personal Saviour, the Messiah would absorb all religions and peoples. Still it was the duty of the Jewish people to set the groundwork for the coming age. The Reform movement helped Jews ease into the mainstream of society by encouraging practitioners to be involved citizens while remaining religiously observant. A willingness to adapt Jewish law to fit the needs of historical change is at the heart of the Reform movement. Reform Judaism ordains women rabbis. About 30% of the Jewish population is Reform. Branches Within Judaism Conservative Resting between the extremes of Reform and Orthodox Judaism is the mid-19th century Conservative movement. While Conservative agree that Jewish law must adapt to contemporary life, they also feel that the Jewish traditions must not be compromised. Judaism must be restored as a living tradition. Conservative Judaism ordains women rabbis. About 30% of the Jewish population is Conservative. Reconstructionist A 1935 movement established by Mordecai Kaplan abandoning Jewish theism and supporting Judaism as evolving. The Reconstructionist Prayer Book avoids all notions of a personal messiah, the chosenness of the Jews or the specific revelation of god to Moses. Reconstructionist Judaism ordains women rabbis. A very small percentage of the Jewish population is Reconstructionist.
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