Key Concepts in Judaism by pengxiuhui

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									Key Concepts in
       Judaism
          Mr. Salem
     AP World History
   LSW Social Studies
                Key Concepts in Judaism
God
     In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the
      deep. And God said: “Let there be light…And God said: “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and let them have
      domination over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and every creeping thing
      that creeps upon the earth.” (Genesis 1.1-2.1)
     Thus says the Lord: “I am the first and I am the last. And beside Me there is no God.” (Isaiah 44.6)
     That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside Me; I am the Lord and there is none else. I
      form light and create darkness, I make peace and create evil, I the Lord do all these things. (Isaiah 45.6, 7)

Covenant People
     For you are a holy people unto the Lord your God; and the Lord has chosen you to be a people for His own treasure out of all the
      peoples that are on the face of the earth. (Deuteronomy 14.2)
     Now therefore, if you will obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my own treasure among all peoples; for all the earth is
      Mine, and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. (Exodus 19.5, 6)

Land
     And the Lord your God will bring you into the land which your fathers possessed, and you shall possess it. (Deuteronomy 30.5)
     So Joshua spoke to the leaders of the people. “Go through all the places where the people live,” he said. “Tell them to get food ready
      for a journey. In three days or less, you will cross the river Jordan to begin to take the land for yourselves. This is the land that the
      Lord, your God, is giving to you,” Joshua said. (Joshua 1.10, 11)
     Whoever lives in the land of Israel lives a sinless life…Whoever is buried in the land of Israel is considered as though he were buried
      beneath the altar…Whoever walks a distance of four cubits in the land of Israel is assured a place in the world to come…Living in the
      land of Israel equals in import the performance of all the commandments of the Torah. (Sifrei, R’eh Midrash on books of Numbers and
      Deuteronomy)

Law
     You taught your people the Torah and commandments. You instructed them in its statuettes and its judgments. O our God, when we
      lie down as when we are awake, we shall always think and speak of Your ordinances, and rejoice in the Torah and its commandments.
      It is your Torah that sustains us throughout life; on its teachings will we meditate day and night. (Jewish Daily Prayer Book)
      Timeline
c. 2000-2600 bce - The Patriarchal Period Abraham,
    his son Isaac and grandson Jacob are known as
    the Patriarchs. Their wives – Sarah, Rebecca,           70 ce - Destruction of the Second Temple by
    Leah, and Rachel – are the Matriarchs. This                 the Romans. With the destruction of the
    period ended when Jacob followed his son to                 Temple, the Biblically-ordained sacrificial cult
    Egypt during a time of famine.                              ended endangering the very survival of
                                                                Judaism. Rabbinic Judaism begins to emerge
                                                                as a new way to observe the law. Three
c. 1260 bce - Moses, the Exodus, and Sinai During               years later Jewish Zealots made their last
    their journey in the desert, the tribes were united         stand at the mountain fortress of Masada.
    into the people of Israel at Mount Sinai, the           c. 280 ce - Completion of the Mishnah
    traditional site of God’s revelation of the Torah.
                                                            c. 500 ce - Completion of the Talmud
c. 961-922 bce - First Temple was built by King
    Solomon (King David’s son) in Jerusalem unifying
    Israelite religious life.                               1290 ce - Jews Expelled from England

722 bce - The northern kingdom was conquered by             1492 ce - Jews Expelled from Spain
    the Assyrians and its population deported. These
    are said to be the ten lost tribes of Jewish history.   1516 ce - Ghetto of Venice This became the
                                                               prototype of a series of Jewish quarters
586 bce - The Babylonian Exile The Babylonians                 established throughout central Europe
    conquered the kingdom of Judah based in                    segregating Jews from the majority
    Jerusalem, destroyed its Temple, and exiled the            population and culture.
    monarchic and priestly leadership for nearly 50         1700-1760 ce - The Baal Shem Tov and
    years.                                                     Hasidism Within the Kabbalistic movement
164 bce - The Maccabean Revolt A Jewish group                  Hasidism was founded by Israel ben Eliezer
    called the Maccabees rebelled against the Syrian           known as the Baal Shem Tov.
    Hellenists and rededicated the Temple                   1810 ce - First Reform Temple
    commemorated in the festival Hanukkah.
Timeline
   1879 ce - Term “Anti-Semitism” coined         1967 ce - Six-Day War Israel’s victory in
                                                   June of 1967 led many American Jews back
   1881 ce - Jewish Resettlement in Russia        to an identification with Israel and Jewish
                                                   survival.

   1933-1945 ce - The Holocaust (Hebrew
    “Shoah”) One third of the world’s Jewish      1972 ce - First Women Rabbis Ordained
    population was systematically murdered.
    This catastrophe has come to be known as      1995 ce - Rabin Assassination
    the central event in modern Jewish
    consciousness.

   1948 ce - Establishment of the modern
    State of Israel
Branches Within Judaism
                                           Orthodox
   Orthodox Judaism is a term first used in 1795 in response to the emerging Reform movement.
    Concerned with what was believed to be the compromise of religious values, Orthodox rabbis
    warned Jews to anchor themselves to traditional interpretations, understandings, ways and
    values. The question was one of identity: would Jews lose their spiritual heritage by adapting to
    modernity? Orthodox judaism would answer “yes.” Thus at the heart of this movement is the tenet
    that the letter of the law in the Torah must remain unchanged. Orthodox Judaism does not ordain
    women rabbis. About 40% of the Jewish population is Orthodox.


                                             Reform
   Reform Judaism Early 1800 interpretation of Judaism through modern life. The question of identity
    has always been one of the great challenges facing the Jewish faith. By the 19th century some
    Jews were taking a closer look at the prospect of the coming Messiah and its relevance to a
    diverse and sometimes hostile world. Abraham Geiger, who founded Reform Judaism, felt that
    instead of being a personal Saviour, the Messiah would absorb all religions and peoples. Still it
    was the duty of the Jewish people to set the groundwork for the coming age. The Reform
    movement helped Jews ease into the mainstream of society by encouraging practitioners to be
    involved citizens while remaining religiously observant. A willingness to adapt Jewish law to fit the
    needs of historical change is at the heart of the Reform movement. Reform Judaism ordains
    women rabbis. About 30% of the Jewish population is Reform.
Branches Within Judaism
                                        Conservative

   Resting between the extremes of Reform and Orthodox Judaism is the mid-19th century
    Conservative movement. While Conservative agree that Jewish law must adapt to contemporary
    life, they also feel that the Jewish traditions must not be compromised. Judaism must be restored
    as a living tradition. Conservative Judaism ordains women rabbis. About 30% of the Jewish
    population is Conservative.


                                     Reconstructionist

   A 1935 movement established by Mordecai Kaplan abandoning Jewish theism and supporting
    Judaism as evolving. The Reconstructionist Prayer Book avoids all notions of a personal messiah,
    the chosenness of the Jews or the specific revelation of god to Moses. Reconstructionist Judaism
    ordains women rabbis. A very small percentage of the Jewish population is Reconstructionist.

								
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