Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities by hcj

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									Wearable Computers for
Persons with Disabilities
              Maribeth Gandy
   Interactive Media Technology Center
               Georgia Tech
        maribeth@imtc.gatech.edu
             Table of Contents
•   Accessiblity
•   Universal Design
•   Wireless RERC
•   Previous/Current research
•   Case Study
•   Discussion and Questions



ISWC 2002      Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                      Introduction
• Research Scientist with Interactive Media
  Technology Center, Georgia Tech
• Wearables, Augmented Reality, HCI, Computer
  Audio
• Wireless Rehabilitation Engineering Research
  Center
      – Research in wireless and mobile devices for people
        with disabilities

ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                              Goals
• How can wearable computers be made usable by
  people of all abilities?
• How can wearable technologies be used to help
  those with disabilities?
• Which of these applications would be useful to
  everyone?
• Why should we care about disabled users?


ISWC 2002    Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                       Accessibility
• Removing barriers that
  prevent people with
  disabilities from
  participating in
  substantial life activities,
  including the use of
  services, products, and
  information
      – Direct Access
      – “Add-on” Access

ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Assistive Technology
• Devices or other
  solutions that assist
  people with deficits
  in physical, mental
  or emotional
  function




ISWC 2002        Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Universal Design
• An approach to the design of all products and
  environments to be as usable as possible by as
  many people as possible regardless of age, ability
  or situation.




ISWC 2002     Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                    Universal Design
• Becoming much more relevant
• According to Census 54 million people with
  disabilities in the United States
      – Aging population
            • 70 percent of all Americans will experience some kind
              of disability before they reach age 75
            • Average lifespan 76
      – Temporary “disability”


ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  Universal Design
• Myth of the “Average
  User”
      – Products designed for the
        apex of the bellcurve
      – Analyze your particular
        system, how it will be
        used, where it will be
        used, and by whom




ISWC 2002           Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Universal Design Examples
• Curb Cuts




ISWC 2002        Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Universal Design Examples
• Closed Captioning




ISWC 2002        Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Universal Design Examples
• Books on Tape

• Telephone

• Predictive
  Dictionaries




ISWC 2002        Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Case Study: Pacific Bell
• Financial Incentive
• Volume Control Feature
• Cost effective to design
  access in the beginning
• Quality of access is
  better when incorporated
  from the beginning




ISWC 2002       Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Universal Design Pitfalls
• Hard to create system that is perfect for
  everyone
• Hypothetical ATM machine that is usable by
  100% of population
      – Cacophony of sounds
      – Flashing screens
      – Closed captioning
• Privacy and Security

ISWC 2002        Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
Seven Principles of Universal Design
• Developed by a team of experts
• Set of principles to keep in mind when designing
  any type of system
• Principles and images from the Center for
  Universal Design, North Carolina State
  University



ISWC 2002     Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                   Equitable Use
      – The design is useful and marketable to people
        with diverse abilities




ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  Flexibility in Use
      – The design accommodates a wide range of individual
        preferences and abilities.




ISWC 2002           Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
               Simple and Intuitive
      – Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the
        user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current
        concentration level.




ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Perceptible Information
      – The design communicates necessary information
        effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions
        or the user's sensory abilities.




ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                Tolerance for Error
      – The design minimizes hazards and the adverse
        consequences of accidental or unintended actions.




ISWC 2002           Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                Low Physical Effort
      – The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and
        with a minimum of fatigue.




ISWC 2002           Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
Size and Space for Approach and Use
• Appropriate size and space is provided for approach,
  reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body
  size, posture, or mobility.




ISWC 2002       Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Accessibility is also the Law
• Section 508
      – Requires that Federal agencies electronic and
        information technology is accessible to people with
        disabilities.




ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Accessibility is also the Law
• American’s with Disabilities Act of 1990
   – Prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for
     persons with disabilities in employment, state and local
     government services, public accommodations, commercial
     facilities, and transportation.
• Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
   – requires manufacturers of telecommunications equipment
     and providers of telecommunications services to ensure that
     such equipment and services are accessible to persons with
     disabilities


ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Accessibility is also the Law
• 2001 Special Educational Needs and Disability
  Act
• ADA and Automatic Teller Machines
• ADA and MARTA




ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  Types of Disabilities
• Hearing Loss
      – Conductive
      – Sensorineural
      – Central Auditory
        Processing Disorders
      – Degree of loss
            • Minimal to profound




ISWC 2002               Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                   Types of Disabilities
• 1 in 3 will have by age 65
• Vision Loss
      –     Central Vision
      –     Side Vision
      –     Blurred Vision
      –     Generalized Haze
      –     Extreme Light Sensitivity
      –     Night Blindness
• Color Blindness

ISWC 2002               Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  Types of Disabilities
• Movement / Dexterity
      –     Cerebral Palsy
      –     Spinal Cord
      –     Missing Limbs
      –     Arthritis
      –     Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI)




ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                 Types of Disabilities
• Cognitive Impairments
      –     Traumatic Brain Injury
      –     Alzheimer’s Disease
      –     Senility
      –     Mental Retardation




ISWC 2002             Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                 Types of Disabilities
• Aging into disability
      –     Baby Boomers
      –     People gradually become “disabled” as they age
      –     Do not like to think of themselves as disabled
      –     Large potential market




ISWC 2002             Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
             Current Accessibility Aids
• Hearing Impaired
      –     TDD
      –     Closed Captioning
      –     ShowSounds
      –     Cell phone text messaging
      –     Rear Window Captioning




ISWC 2002               Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
             Current Accessibility Aids
• Vision Impaired
      –     Screen Readers
      –     Screen Magnification
      –     Braille Display
      –     Text to Speech




ISWC 2002             Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Current Accessibility Aids
• Dexterity Impairment
      – Alternative pointing
        devices
            •   Head pointers
            •   Eye trackers
            •   Sip n Puff
            •   Tongue Interface
            •   Speech Recognition
            •   Neural Signals




ISWC 2002                 Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Current Accessibility Aids
• Dexterity Impairment
      – Screen
        Keyboard/Keyboard
        Extensions
      – Predictive
        Dictionaries
      – Augmentative
        Communication
        Devices

ISWC 2002        Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                   The Wireless RERC
• National Institute for Disability and Rehabilitation
  Research (NIDDR), Rehabilitation Engineering
  Research Center (RERC)
• $5mil dollars, 5 years, wireless/mobile devices
      –     Research devices and user needs
      –     Develop new devices
      –     Collaborate with Industry
      –     Community outreach
      –     Policy
      –     Educate tomorrows developers and researchers


ISWC 2002               Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  The Wireless RERC
• Research
      –     What obstacles are there to independence?
      –     What are the problems with current mobile devices?
      –     Survey sent to 2,000 subjects, available on web
      –     Focus groups
      –     “Wizard of Oz” user studies




ISWC 2002             Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  The Wireless RERC
• Development
      –     Universal Control
      –     Wearable Captioning
      –     Augmented Communications
      –     Telehealth, Telerehabilitation
      –     Cognitive Prosthetics




ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Universal Control
• Develop and test a universal control device
  using a gesturing interface and an auditory
  interface
• Multi-modal interface to a wireless PDA
• V2’s Alternative Interface Access Protocol
• Allows for independent user control devices to
  control devices in the environment


ISWC 2002     Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Wearable Captioning
• To create a universal
  wireless, wearable
  personal captioning
  device to assist hearing-
  impaired individuals in
  interacting in a speech-
  centric setting




ISWC 2002        Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
       Augmented Communications
• Combine wireless with augmentative
  communication




ISWC 2002    Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                     Telehealth
• Develop and
  evaluate new
  wireless
  applications for
  mobile health
  monitoring




ISWC 2002     Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Cognitive Prosthetics
• Develop an assessment protocol for prescribing
  cognitive prostheses
• Develop cognitive prosthetic applications for
  mobile wireless platforms:
  • Personal organization system
  • Wayfinding system
  • Prompting and cueing system



ISWC 2002      Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Wearables and the Disabled



• Why are wearables appropriate?




ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Wearables and the Disabled



• How can wearables improve quality of life?




ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  Previous Research
• A Brief History of Wearable
  Computing
      – Bradley Rhodes
• 1268 first recorded mention
  of eyeglasses
• 1665 call for augmented
  senses, Robert Hooke
• 1945 augmented memory
  proposed, “memex”,
  Vannevar Bush
• 1967 augmented vision, Bell
  Helicopter

ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Previous Research
• 1967 wearable for lip
  reading, Hubert
  Upton
• 1977 tactile vest for
  the blind, C.C. Collins
• 1993 KARMA, Steve
  Feiner


ISWC 2002     Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
    Previous and Current Research
•   Remote Interfaces
•   Sonification for low vision
•   Wayfinding
•   Vision Enhancement
•   Audio-Only
•   Telemedicine
•   Communication
•   Movement Analysis
•   Cognitive Aids

ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                Remote Interfaces
• Systems that allow the user to control their
  environment
• Wearable can serve as single usable interface for
  many types of products and devices
• Personal Freedom, Ross[96]
      – Universal interface that mediates interaction.
      – Started with voice


ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                 Remote Interfaces
• Gesture Pendant, Starner[2000]
      – Universal Control via gestures




ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                        Sonification
• Translating visual information into sound
• Large body of work
• Artificial Synesthesia, Foner[97]
      – Augmentation of normal vision via spectrometer
• Sonic Torch 1960, SonicVision, Leslie Kay
      – Ultrasound used to create sonic picture of
        surroundings
• Sonic Path Finder, Tony Heyes
      – Ultrasonic information on “important” objects
ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                          KASPA




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                          KASPA




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                          KASPA




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                          Sonification
• The Guide Cane
      – Robotic cane
• The Laser Cane
      – Tones and vibration for obstacles
• The Videotact
      – Video images translated to tactile feedback
• The People Sensor, Ram[98]
      – Helps avoid cane contact and talking to someone that is
        not there


ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                       Sonification
• The VOICE, Peter Meijer
      – Video images translated to music




ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                         Wayfinding
• Using a wearable device to help people navigate
  in their environment
• IR beacons for street crossing, Ross[99]
      – Audio and tactile cues
• Augmented Reality for Navigation, Piekarski[99]
      – Visual cues from GPS and compass overlaid on
        world



ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                    Wayfinding
• Spatial Language as Navigation Aid,
  Loomis[2002]




ISWC 2002     Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                     Wayfinding
• Non-speech based navigation aid, Bruce Walker




ISWC 2002      Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Audio-Only Wearables
• Nomadic Radio, Sawhney[99]
      – Audio based wearable that provides email, news,
        voice mail etc.
      – Contextually aware
      – Differing levels of notification
      – Learning from prior interactions
      – Can be used when focus is elsewhere



ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
             Audio-Only Wearables
• Guided by Voices,
  Lyons[2000]
      – Lightweight audio-only
        augmented reality
      – RF transmitters used for
        position
      – Internal state machine for
        playback




ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
             Telemedicine/Telehealth
• Many non-mobile
  solutions for the home
      –     Teleconferencing
      –     Measurements
      –     Information resources
      –     Mobile systems appearing
             • Doctor and patient




ISWC 2002                Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Telemedicine/Telehealth
• Lots of past work
  in putting sensors
  on the body for
  data acquisition
      – More data, during
        regular activities
• FitSense
      – Networked devices
        monitor workouts




ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
             Telemedicine/Telehealth
• Wearables allow processing and feedback of data
• Medical Monitoring (ECG), Martin[2000]
      –     Requires small size, little input, signal processing
      –     Privacy more important
      –     Sensors are an obstacle
      –     Responsibility
      –     Many possible uses



ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Telemedicine/Telehealth
• Possible solution to some
  obstacles, smart clothing
• Smart Shirt, Jayaraman
      – Vital signs and bullet wounds
• Smart Arctic Clothing,
  Rantanen[2000]
      – For activities in harsh winter
        weather



ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Telemedicine/Telehealth
• Gesture Pendant
      – Also could be used for medical monitoring




ISWC 2002           Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
 Gesture Pendant and Smart Shirt




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                  Communication
• Allowing people with disabilities to
  communicate independently
• Many augmentative communication devices
• Linking “augcomm” devices to wireless
  devices
      – Makes cell phone type activities available to those
        who cannot speak



ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Communication




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
            Communication




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
              Communication
• ASL recognition, Thad Starner




ISWC 2002      Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                Movement Analysis
• Measuring how people are moving to look for changes
  and detect emergencies
• Gait detection and analysis
• Activity Monitoring for Dementia, David Ross
      – Monitoring exercise regimens
      – Locating patient
• Digital Angel
• High level activity monitoring
      – Cooking, medicating, rehabilitation

ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                     Cognitive Aids
• Systems that can augment a user’s cognition
      – Help with performance of everyday activities
• Remembrance Agent, Rhodes & Starner




ISWC 2002            Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                    Cognitive Aids
• Rehabilitation
  professionals often use
  off the shelf devices
      – One-of-a-kind solutions
        often required
      – Extensive setup by
        caregiver




ISWC 2002           Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                              Case Study
• Cognitive Prosthetic for Car Location
      –     Jenna Bilotta, graphic designer
      –     Tim Nichols, psychologist
      –     Aideen Stronge, psychologist
      –     Yifan Shi, computer scientist




ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                              Case Study
• Idea stage
      –     Generic wayfinding project
      –     Focused on traumatic brain injury patients (TBI)
      –     Interviewed clinician about problems of daily living
      –     Two subjects with different abilities, similar working
            memory problems




ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                                Case Study
• Effects of TBI
      –     Brain location dependent
      –     Loss of working memory
      –     Left frontal lobe, visual to vocal problems
      –     Right frontal lobe, spatialization problems
• Alzheimer’s, stroke etc. result in dispersed problems
• TBI, specific lack of abilities
      – “How can we use unaffected abilities to compensate for
        affected?”


ISWC 2002                Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                              Case Study
• TBI statistics
      –     80% men
      –     Early 20’s to late 30’s
      –     Blue collar or teens
      –     Sports, car accidents, guns, on the job injuries




ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                              Case Study
• Locating subjects
      – Jenna knew practitioners at the Shepherd Center
      – Contact groups in your state
            • National Brain Injury Association
      – Peer groups
      – Volunteering




ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                         Case Study
• Needs Assessment
      – Current GPS device in use, 57 steps
      – Evaluated this device
      – Similar functionality needed with drastically different
        interface




ISWC 2002          Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                      Case Study
 Press WHITE WHITE
 WHITE (the page button)
 three times to get to the
 “Menu” screen.
 Press DOWN DOWN
 DOWN (the down button)
 three time to highlight
 “tracks.”
 Press BLUE (the Enter
 button) to choose tracks.

ISWC 2002      Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                             Case Study
• Needs Assessment
      –     Ignored hardware limitations
      –     Detailed task analysis
      –     Focused on reducing steps
      –     Designed process not device
      –     Unusual barriers due to condition
      –     Current solution was to make horn honk
      –     Users are not stupid

ISWC 2002             Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                              Case Study
• Design Process
      – Step one, modified PDA
            • “Why not make it do lots of things!”
            • “Might as well remind them to take medication.”
      – Step two, users need individual devices that are very
        simple
      – Worked with researchers, caregivers, then patients
      – Seven levels of functioning


ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                               Case Study
• Design Process
      – Form factors?
             • Wristwatch, keychain, belt buckle, beeper
      –     On person at all times
      –     “They never forget to lock their car”
      –     1 or two buttons
      –     Physical interface mirroring function
      –     But not childish


ISWC 2002               Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                   Case Study




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                                 Case Study
• User Evaluation
      –     Clinicians, Caregivers, cognitive walkthrough
      –     Users, cooperative evaluation
      –     Not implemented enough for field test
      –     Problems
             •   Turning it on
             •   Audio Recording
             •   Picture
             •   Lack of linear path to car
             •   Technology

ISWC 2002                 Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                             Case Study
• Focus on Universal Design?
      –     Worked with two subjects with impairments
      –     Aimed for use by low level of functioning
      –     Would work for everyone
      –     “Where can I get this!”




ISWC 2002             Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                              Case Study
• Security and Privacy
      – Privacy very important
      – Security huge problem
            • “Not only do I have your keys, but they lead me to your
              car!” says thief
            • PIN won’t work
            • Biometrics possible but increase size and technology
              issues
            • Must not make situation worse


ISWC 2002              Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                         Case Study
• Challenges of working with TBI users
      – “I had lots of good comments but I forgot them all”
      – Users had rigid schedules, difficult to work in
        evaluations
      – Did not want users to feel exploited
• Evaluation with non-TBI users
      – Useful
      – Some comments negated findings from TBI users

ISWC 2002         Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy
                    Discussion




ISWC 2002   Wearable Computers for Persons with Disabilities   Maribeth Gandy

								
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