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					        Falkirk Council
        Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
        November 2006

CONTENTS                                                         Page
    Executive Summary                                               4
1.    Introduction                                                 6
2.    The Vision for Transport in Falkirk Council area             8
3.    Policy Background for LTS                                   14
4.    Transport Achievements to Date                              20
5.    Analysis of Transport Issues and Challenges                 22
6.    Transport Solutions                                         32


      Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
      6.1    Multi-User Routes – Walking, Cycling, Horseriding    33
      6.2    Travel Plans                                         42
      6.3    Public Transport                                     48
      6.4    Accessible Transport                                 55
      6.5    Motorcycling                                         58
      6.6    Travel Awareness                                     62
      Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
      6.7    Road Safety and Network Management                   65
      6.8    Road Network Review and Maintenance                  71
      6.9    Parking                                              77
      6.10 Town Centre Access                                     80
      6.11 Regional Transport                                     85
      6.12 Freight                                                91
      6.13 Air Quality and Noise                                  94
7.    Targets and Funding                                         98
8.    Monitoring and Review                                      102
9.    Road Traffic Reduction                                     106


Appendix 1 Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG)          112
Appendix 2 Report on Response from LTS Public Consultation       126
Appendix 3 LTS 2000-2004 Road Traffic Reduction Targets          142
Appendix 4 Traffic and Growth Data                               144




                                                                        2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This is Falkirk Council’s second Local Transport Strategy (LTS) and covers the period 2006-2009. It sets out
the Council’s overarching transport vision…
“to provide a transport network… which allows people a reasonable choice of travel options as part of a safe, reliable,
convenient, accessible and sustainable transport system”.
Three alternative approaches have been considered and evaluated to establish the optimum transport
strategy to achieve this vision. The assessment concluded that a strategy of promoting walking, cycling,
motorcycling and public transport with some car restraint would be most effective when evaluated against
the transport objectives underlying the overall vision.These are:
       To support the growth of the local economy in a sustainable way
       To contribute to community regeneration through promoting social inclusion
       To protect the environment by minimising the impact that transport can have on it and to improve health by
       promoting more active travel
       To improve safety for all those using the transport network
       To improve integration between different forms of transport
This strategy seeks to achieve a balance in transport provision, within the resources available. The Council
recognises that whilst the car fulfils an important function for a host of journey purposes, unrestrained growth
in car usage cannot be accommodated indefinitely. Engineering measures cannot be used successfully against
continually worsening congestion or alleviate some of the negative aspects increasing travel by car brings with
it. Growing traffic congestion will impact negatively on all road users, cause deterioration in environmental
quality and have serious consequences for the economic wellbeing of the area.
In view of this, supporting and promoting the more sustainable travel modes to encourage some modal
shift whilst actively improving the efficiency of the road network to gain maximum benefits for car journeys
with only limited restraint measures operating, is the policy approach being implemented through this LTS.
The evaluation carried out shows that this approach best meets our objectives for transport across the
Council area. It must also be acknowledged however, that whilst the initiatives to be implemented under
this transport strategy are designed to limit continued traffic growth, the strategy itself is unlikely to solve
the growing problem of traffic congestion. Instead it is probable that traffic congestion will continue to
increase across the Council area. Wide ranging changes, outwith the scope of this strategy, would need
to come into play to achieve high levels of accessibility and mobility without resulting in increasing
congestion and its negative consequences.
The LTS is set in the context of the Strategic Community Plan, Sustainable Falkirk and other partnership
working in My Future’s in Falkirk (MFIF), as well as the Council’s Structure Plan and Finalised Draft
Local Plan. All these strategies have involved the public in their preparation.
Extensive public consultation has been carried out at each stage of developing the LTS and has significantly
contributed to the overall policy direction being pursued.
Since the last LTS in 2000, there have been significant transport achievements in the Falkirk Council
area. Just over £25 million has been spent on transport capital projects during this period that has
enabled, among other things:
       The provision of a Park and Ride site at the Falkirk Wheel;
       Completion of the railway station access project giving full access to the southern platform at Falkirk High
       Station;
       Structural assessment of all the Authority’s bridges with over a 3m span;
       41km of road and 64km of footway resurfaced or surface dressed;
       Provision of additional car parking at Polmont and Falkirk High Stations;
       Public transport information provided at 50% of bus stops;
       Production of 6 Route Accident Reduction Plans;
       Completion of the Falkirk Orbital Road, and;
       Completion of 41 school Transport Assessments with 21 schools having cycle stands installed and 29 having
                                                                                                                          4
       20mph signing provided.
    Over the 3 year period of this LTS there is around £25 million available for spending on transport
    and flooding. This strategy sets out the work to be carried out and shows how this will directly
    contribute to each of the five transport objectives and therefore the overarching transport vision. The
    strategy also indicates what works would be undertaken if additional funding became available over the
    already committed transport expenditure. This would enable greater progress to be made towards the
    transport vision. Key areas of work to be implemented will be:
           Continuing development of the cycle network within and between settlements;
           Production and adoption of a Core Paths Plan;
           Ongoing work with local schools and employers to implement travel plan initiatives;
           Extension of Larbert Station car park and a potential extension at Falkirk High;
           Ongoing support of tendered bus services;
           Producing the detailed design of A801 Avon Gorge Improvement scheme;
           Ongoing maintenance of the Council’s road, footway, bridges and structures stock;
           Production of a Road Maintenance Plan;
           Ongoing detailed structural inspection of the street lighting stock;
           Completion of the A9 Icehouse Brae Junction Improvement, Laurieston;
           Construction of Phase 1 of the Denny Eastern Access Road, and;
           Progression of scheme to provide slip roads at M876 Glenbervie.

    The LTS contains an indicative capital budget for each year of the strategy and sets out a number of
    key targets against which we will measure the progress being made towards the transport objectives and
    vision. Progress will be reported against these targets along with details of the work that was carried
    out each year in an Annual Progress Report. This report will provide the major benefit of enabling
    Elected Members and the public to see what is being achieved during the lifetime of the LTS.

    We are currently entering an interesting time for transport.Transport delivery in Scotland is set to change
    with the establishment of a national transport agency, Transport Scotland, and Regional Transport
    Partnerships. The Council is gearing up to meet the challenges of working with, and as part of, these
    organisations to deliver a safe, reliable, convenient and accessible transport system to serve the travel
    needs of the people of Falkirk. This LTS provides the means of achieving this as it sets out an ambitious
    but realistic programme of works to be carried out over the three year period. This work will build on
    the transport achievements implemented in the Council area since the last LTS was published in 2000
    and will make significant steps towards achieving the Council’s vision for transport by making solid
    progress on our longer term transport aspirations.




5
      Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
1     INTRODUCTION

1.1   This Local Transport Strategy (LTS) sets out how the transport vision for the Falkirk Council area
      will be achieved and the work to be implemented over the next 3 years. This strategy is set in the
      context of the Government’s Transport White Paper, “Scotland’s Transport Future” published in June
      2004 and has been prepared in accordance with guidance issued by the Scottish Executive in March
      2005.

1.2   Whilst a considerable amount of roads and transport work has already been completed, the
      increasing demand for high quality travel options, and the need to meet this demand in a sustainable
      way, means further action is required to minimise some of the negative impacts that travel can
      generate.This document sets out this further action which is designed to combat the effects of rising
      traffic whilst recognising the work of the transport strategy on its own cannot fully address these
      impacts.The document is structured in the following way.

1.3   Chapter 2 details the vision and objectives of the LTS and explores the best method of achieving
      these. The vision and objectives have taken their basis from those set out in the Transport White
      Paper and have been confirmed through public consultation exercises. Three alternative strategies
      were evaluated against each of the objectives to establish the approach that would best take us
      towards our transport vision. The Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) process has been
      applied to each of the three options.These strategies are:
           Option 1 – cycling, motorcycling, walking and public transport priority with some car
                      restraint
           Option 2 – priority for car users with limited improvements for cycling, walking and public
                      transport
           Option 3 – cycling, motorcycling, walking and public transport with some car restraint and
                      increased funding.

1.4   The third option is fundamentally the same as option 1 although with more funding and therefore
      any benefits from option 3 would be as for option 1 but to a greater degree.This additional funding
      at the present time has not been secured but would be likely to come through the new Regional
      Transport Partnerships or new funding streams initiated by the Scottish Executive. The evaluation
      of the three options concluded that option 3 provided the greatest benefits but, since the additional
      funding for this has not been identified, option 1 will be pursued through this LTS. Each section
      within Chapter 6 details actions which will be implemented during the lifetime of the LTS under
      option 1 although potential works which could be implemented under option 3 in the event of
      additional funding becoming available are also identified.

1.5   Chapter 2 also details the progress made to date in applying Strategic Environmental Appraisal
      (SEA) to the LTS.

1.6   Chapter 3 sets the LTS in the context of national and regional policy and explains how the LTS
      contributes to the wider Council vision and objectives. Chapter 4 gives a comprehensive view of
      the transport achievements and projects completed since the production of the first LTS in 2000.
      The main challenges facing transport are examined in Chapter 5 along with issues the various stages
      of the public consultation on the LTS brought to light. This section sets out the analysis process
      which has been undertaken to derive the LTS objectives.

1.7   Chapter 6 forms the core of the LTS and sets out in detail the action to be taken for each transport
      area to address these issues. As already stated these actions are divided into works which will be
      implemented under current funding arrangements as well as a list of projects which would be
      implemented if additional funding is secured to boost progress towards targets. Funding details and
      the targets to be measured along with the current baseline data available is given in Chapter 7 with
      details on how this is to be monitored and reported on in future presented in Chapter 8. Chapter
      9 covers Road Traffic Reduction.


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    1.8   Consultation exercises have been carried out at each stage in the process of producing this LTS.
          These have shaped the final form of the Council’s transport strategy and included:
             Questionnaires to every household in the Council area;
             Questionnaires in local newspapers and Council website;
             Stakeholder Seminar;
             Eight public meetings around the Council area;
             Written consultation with stakeholders, and;
             Further public consultation through website and public libraries.

    1.9   This LTS has been sent to the Scottish Executive and will assist in bidding for funding for future
          transport projects. Annual Progress Reports will be produced to provide updates of progress on
          implementing the LTS, with a full review of the document and its achievements being carried
          out in 2009.




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        Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
2       T h e v i s i o n fo r t r a n s p o r t i n Fa l k i r k C o u n c i l a r e a

2.1     Transport is all about accessibility and mobility. Without these it is more difficult for people
        to access the jobs, health, shopping or leisure opportunities necessary for ensuring a high
        quality of life, particularly given the increasing centralisation of some of these activities and
        dispersal of others. Therefore, while transport in itself is not the key to ensuring health, wealth
        or happiness, it does play a vital part in enabling people to access the facilities they need to achieve
        this. This strategy sets out a vision which enables transport to contribute positively to achieving
        quality of life for people living in, working in and visiting Falkirk.
2.2     The Council’s vision for transport is:
              To provide a transport network both within the Council area and linking to
              surrounding areas, which allows people a reasonable choice of travel options as part
              of a safe, reliable, convenient, accessible and sustainable transport system. To enable
              people to travel when and where they wish, regardless of their level of income, physical
              ability or access to a car. To achieve a transport system that caters for the car, but is
              not dominated by it.


OBJECTIVES
2.3  Below this overarching vision for transport, a number of key objectives can be identified which
     will operate to focus and prioritise transport initiatives to be implemented in the short to
     medium term. These objectives are based on the five objectives set out in the Government’s
     transport white paper1 of economic growth, social inclusion, environment, safety and integration.
     They also closely reflect the main themes set out in the Council’s Strategic Community Plan 2005-
     2010. The objectives of this LTS are as follows:
        Objective 1:To support the growth of the local economy in a sustainable way
           By ensuring effective transport links to key areas of employment
           By ensuring new business and industry is located to maximise travel options
        Objective 2:To contribute to community regeneration through promoting social
        inclusion
           By promoting the provision of accessible transport options, particularly to disadvantaged, remote and
           socially deprived areas
           By maximising the opportunity to travel by alternative modes of transport to the car
        Objective 3:To protect the environment by minimising the impact that transport
        can have on it and to improve health by promoting more active travel
           By encouraging more travel by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, bus and rail
           By working with the health sector to encourage more walking and cycling
           By ensuring new transport infrastructure is delivered to support sustainable travel choices
        Objective 4:To improve safety for all those using the transport network
           By working to reduce accidents
           By improving safety for transport users, operators, pedestrians and cyclists
        Objective 5:To improve integration between different forms of transport
           By working with partners to improve through-ticketing
           By working with partners to improve connectivity between different transport services
           By ensuring easily accessible and up to date information is available to enable travel decisions based on a
           full knowledge of the travel options available



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2 T h e v i s i o n fo r t r a n s p o r t i n Fa l k i r k C o u n c i l a r e a

                      2.4       Whilst these objectives are presented as broad themes, SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable,
                                Relevant and Time-bound) performance indicators are set out under each objective in Chapter 7.
                                Progress against each will be reported on annually.
                      2.5       In order to achieve this vision and its underlying objectives, a number of different transport
                                strategies have been considered and evaluated to establish their effectiveness in terms of overall
                                contribution to the Falkirk Council transport vision. These different strategies, and the likely
                                outcomes for transport, are summarised below. The Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG)
                                process has been carried out on each (see Appendix 1).
                                      Transport Strategy Option 1: Base Scenario
                                      Cycling, Motorcycling,Walking and Public Transport Priority with Some Car Restraint

                      2.6       This option is a continuation of the current transport policy being implemented in Falkirk Council
                                area with levels of funding similar to present levels. The main objective of this approach is to
                                promote and enhance facilities for cycling and walking and to make journeys by public transport a
                                realistic alternative to the car for a larger section of the population.
                      2.7       At the same time, measures are implemented to discourage unnecessary car use whilst still
                                acknowledging that the car will be the only realistic option for a certain element of the population
                                and for certain journeys. Technology is used to manage traffic thus seeking maximum efficiency
                                of the existing road network and providing greater public transport priority. This strategy
                                fundamentally acknowledges that the levels of rising congestion being experienced in Falkirk cannot
                                be sustained through engineering solutions but can only be addressed, at least in part, in the
                                longer term by encouraging a shift to other modes of transport to the car.
                      2.8       The potential impact of such a strategy is that improved facilities for cycling and walking, as
                                well as a higher awareness of these options, means that more people will opt to walk and
                                cycle for short local journeys. Given that 52% of journeys to work or education made within the
                                Falkirk Council area are less than 5 kilometres, thus particularly suitable for cycling, and 32% are
                                less than 2 kilometres2, many journeys currently being made by car could switch to these
                                modes. As cycling and walking levels start to increase, the critical mass phenomenon, whereby
                                more people cycling and walking encourage others to do likewise, could be achieved.
                      2.9       This strategy would also see improved public transport services primarily through increased
                                integration between services, through-ticketing, infrastructure improvements and provision of
                                bus priority measures. It would ensure that information on public transport services is available
                                in as many forms and as many mediums as possible thus minimising unnecessary car use due to lack
                                of knowledge of the alternatives.
                      2.10      The approach with this strategy is to make cycling, motorcycling, walking and public transport
                                more accessible through improved facilities and improved information. As more people use these
                                options, it should also operate to further encourage others to make the switch from car travel
                                where feasible.
                      2.11      Under this scenario, car restraint would come in the form of parking management. A
                                comprehensive review of parking policy would be carried out to ensure that the parking regime
                                does not encourage long stay commuter parking in Falkirk town centre. Car parking charges would
                                also be reviewed to ensure that this will be part of the individual’s decision making process
                                when considering whether to use the car or another form of transport for each particular journey.
                      2.12      The implications of implementing transport strategy option 1 of promoting cycling, motorcycling,
                                walking and public transport and reviewing car restraint measures, should positively contribute to
                                a number of the objectives set out above. Both the social inclusion and health agendas should benefit
                                thus contributing to community regeneration and the wellbeing of the population. Improving
                                the alternative travel modes to the car means that those without access to a car are less likely
                                to be excluded from being able to travel when they need to. The level of activity associated with
                                these alternatives means it is likely there will be health benefits for the population. Walking to
                                and from the bus stop or cycling 2 miles to work on a regular basis will make a major contribution
                                to the health and fitness of the local population.

       9
2.13   Encouraging use of alternative means of travel to the car and ensuring priority is given to
       these modes rather than the car, should ultimately reduce the rate of growth of congestion within
       the Council area. Congestion tends to be a peak hour problem but on certain main radial routes
       into Falkirk itself, congestion can occur at off-peak times or be of an extended duration. Reducing
       the number of cars on the road, particularly at peak times will have major environmental benefits.
       These benefits range from reduced levels of emissions from queuing vehicles, reduced traffic
       related noise which particularly affects residential communities on radial routes into Falkirk and
       less community severance. This is where high volumes of traffic through a shopping or residential
       area effectively means the road becomes a barrier to accessing properties or services on each
       side of that route. Examples of this in the Falkirk area would be the B902 Grahams Road and the
       A803 Camelon Main Street.
2.14   Reducing the rate of growth of congestion is also good for the local economy. It means that
       deliveries and employees can more reliably access business and jobs without unnecessary delay and
       that those without a car are less likely to be excluded from taking up employment at locations which
       were previously only accessible by car.This, in effect, means the potential labour market is enlarged
       for employers in the area. The ability to recruit and retain staff combined with reliable delivery
       times would operate to encourage new investment in the Council area. It also provides more
       employment opportunities for Falkirk Council residents thus making the area more attractive
       for people to locate here.
2.15   In terms of safety, however, it may be the case that in the short term there could be more accidents
       due to increased levels of walking and cycling. Nevertheless, it would be expected that the personal
       security side of walking and cycling would be improved through the natural phenomenon of self
       enforcement as more people use the pedestrian and cycle network. Increased driver awareness of
       cyclists and pedestrians and a reduction in the rate of traffic growth may mean overall accident
       numbers reduce.
2.16   For those using public transport, it is envisaged that this strategy will provide positive benefits
       through including initiatives to improve safety and security both on the transport mode itself
       and for the waiting environment.
2.17   Overall, transport strategy option 1 would provide the benefits of promoting social inclusion and
       community regeneration, improving health and fitness, reducing the environmental impact of
       transport on the community, aiding the local economy, and improving transport integration and
       safety. These benefits however may only become evident in the medium to longer term as present
       funding levels mean the speed at which change is effected would be relatively slow. It must also be
       acknowledged that the actions carried out under the LTS will only partially address our current
       traffic and transport problems. A wide array of other factors, such as changing public attitudes,
       would need to come into operation before longterm solution to our transport issues could be
       secured.There may also be some short term disbenefits in terms of accident levels.
              Transport Strategy Option 2:
              Priority for car users with limited improvements for Cycling,Walking and Public
              Transport

2.18   This strategy aims to assist car travel by working to achieve greater free flow for traffic. This
       would be achieved through the removal of the more severe traffic calming measures, re-opening
       of road closures and rat-runs, removing public transport and cycle priority measures, with no
       new facilities being implemented. This would release more capacity for cars and hence reduce
       congestion and therefore journey times. Technology would also be used to maximise this road
       capacity through traffic management.
2.19   Investment in public transport would be limited to integration, through-ticketing and safety and
       security improvements. Off road cycle facilities would be the predominant improvement for
       cyclists while significant investment in the pedestrian environment would still take place. Car
       parking would be provided wherever possible in the town and village centres with limited charging
       for parking and variable message signing provided to inform drivers which car parks had
       spaces available.

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2 T h e v i s i o n fo r t r a n s p o r t i n Fa l k i r k C o u n c i l a r e a

                      2.20      It is envisaged that the implications of implementing this strategy would be that, for car users,
                                journeys would become quicker and less “stressed” due to a reduction in the amount of time
                                spent queuing and in congestion. It is likely however, that these benefits would be short term only
                                as more people opt to drive as the alternative travel modes become less attractive.
                      2.21      Buses would be held up in normal traffic conditions due to the absence of any bus priority measures
                                and cycling would become less safe as where off-road facilities could not be provided, there would
                                be no alternative on-road facilities to improve safety for cyclists. Increasing numbers of cars on the
                                road would quickly absorb the extra capacity released by the removal of traffic calming and bus
                                priority measures, and congestion and journey times would again increase.
                      2.22      Business, in the short term, would benefit from less congestion but, in the medium to longer term,
                                the continuing build up of traffic and congestion would operate to reduce the attractiveness of the
                                Falkirk area for existing businesses and potential new businesses. In terms of social inclusion, this
                                strategy would not assist those who do not have access to a car as the alternative transport modes
                                becoming less efficient and attractive. Social exclusion would be exacerbated and those excluded
                                would experience a decreasing quality of life.
                      2.23      In terms of the environment, it is likely that this strategy option would provide significant
                                disbenefits. As more people choose to drive as a result of the improvements for car travel and
                                decreasing quality of service on the alternative travel modes, air pollution, noise and community
                                severance would become worse and would combine to produce a poorer quality environment.
                                At the same time, as people are discouraged from walking, cycling or using public transport, there
                                would be a detrimental effect on health as people increasingly opt to drive for more of their
                                journeys and hence become less active.
                      2.24      Integration between transport modes, whilst potentially more achievable in the short term, would
                                be more challenging in the medium to long term as bus journey times become less reliable with
                                increasing congestion. In terms of safety, it is likely that, for the vulnerable transport groups such
                                as cyclists and pedestrians, conditions would be worse and for motorists with an increased
                                likelihood of an accident as vehicle numbers rise and frustration increases with growing congestion,
                                the situation is also likely to deteriorate.
                      2.25      In the short term, with more free flowing traffic it is likely that accidents may be of greater severity
                                as traffic speeds increase. This effect would be reduced as traffic speeds again slowed down due
                                to increasing congestion. Overall, this policy would be in conflict with the Structure Plan and
                                finalised Local Plan for the Council area as well as national policy.
                                       Transport Strategy Option 3:
                                       Cycling, Motorcycling,Walking and Public Transport Priority with Some Car Restraint
                                       and increased Funding

                      2.26      The above two options are based on transport funding continuing at existing levels and coming
                                from existing sources. This option, however, is primarily the same as transport option 1 with the
                                exception that funding available for strategic transport projects is greatly increased.This additional
                                funding would come from sources such as through the Regional Transport Partnerships, Scottish
                                Executive bidding mechanisms, European funding and any other possible transport funding streams.
                                This additional funding would be used to carry out more and larger projects supporting the
                                development and use of sustainable transport modes as well as permitting widespread marketing
                                and travel awareness campaigns.
                      2.27      Under this transport strategy option, as well as the measures detailed for option 1, examples of the
                                type of project which would be possible to implement would be increased spending on cycle,
                                walking and public transport services connecting to the five railway stations in the Council area.
                                Improved travel information and through ticketing would also be priority areas for investment.
                                Variable message signing informing drivers of which car parks had spaces available, real time
                                information for travel by bus and individualised travel marketing could all be pursued as could
                                more extensive parking management.



     11
2.28    The benefits of this transport strategy option would primarily be the same as for option 1 but with
        increased benefits being accrued more quickly and to a greater degree. These would include
        enhanced social inclusion benefits through improvement to alternative travel modes to the car with
        further improvements to integration between travel modes and services and hence assisting
        with community regeneration. Again, the economic, environment, safety and health agendas
        would benefit through improved opportunity to travel without need of a car.
Conclusions
2.29 Table 1 below summarises the contribution each transport strategy option would make to the five
      LTS objectives. It is clear that strategy option 2 would produce a predominantly negative impact
      and thus would be unlikely to contribute to the Council’s overall vision for transport. Transport
      strategy option 1 shows a positive result, however, option 3 produces the most benefits by including
      enhanced benefits over those achieved in option 1.
2.31    This demonstrates that continued traffic growth, currently standing at 1% per year, cannot be
        tackled by engineering means alone, but will require at least smallscale shifts to more sustainable
        modes of travel to help towards achieving the objectives set out in this strategy. Even with the
        implementation of the actions proposed under this LTS however, it is likely traffic congestion will
        continue to rise across the Council area.

        TABLE 2.1 Transport Strategy Option Contribution to LTS Objectives
               Objective                        Strategy            Strategy          Strategy
                                                Option 1            Option 2          Option 3
         1.    Economy                              +                   -                ++
         2.    Community Regeneration/
               Social Inclusion                     +                  -                 ++
         3.    Environment                          +                  -                 ++
         4.    Safety                               +                  -                  +
         5.    Integration                          +                  -                 ++

        + likely positive contribution to objective
        - likely negative contribution to objective
        ++ enhanced positive contribution to objective


2.32    This position is confirmed by the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) assessment which
        has been carried out on each strategy option which found that option 2 would bring minor and
        moderate negative benefits, option 1 would bring minor and moderate benefits but option 3
        would be the preferred option as it would bring predominantly moderate and major benefits.This
        STAG appraisal is set out in the Appraisal Summary Tables (ASTs) contained in Appendix 1.
2.33    Whilst the STAG appraisal concluded option 3 offers the most benefits, at the present time, the
        additional funding over option 1 has not been secured. It is therefore proposed that option 1 is
        pursued in this LTS as the base scenario with option 3 being implemented when additional
        funding over the base case is identified.
2.34    This LTS therefore sets out how the transport vision for the Falkirk Council area will be delivered
        by implementing strategy option 1 of promoting cycling, motorcycling, walking and public
        transport whilst maximising efficient use of the road network and discouraging unnecessary use
        of the car. The LTS sets out the work that will be undertaken in the next 3 years as well as
        the medium to longer term aspirations for both strategy options 1 and 3. This information is
        detailed in Chapter 6 and includes Action Plans for each transport area. These Action Plans will
        be reviewed and updated on an annual basis and will present a picture of progress to date.




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2 T h e v i s i o n fo r t r a n s p o r t i n Fa l k i r k C o u n c i l a r e a

                      Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
                      2.34      Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the process that is used to assess the potential effects
                                that specific plans or programmes may have on the environment. The SEA process primarily
                                involves the publication of an Environmental Report, consultation on this with the results being
                                taken into account in decision-making. The SEA process is split into a number of stages, namely:
                                    Screening – whereby the need for carrying out a SEA is established;
                                    Scoping – identifies the scope and level of detail of information to be included in Environmental Report
                                    (ER) and the period for consultation on ER.There is also formal consultation with the Consultation
                                    Authorities (Scottish Ministers, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Environment Protection Agency);
                                    Reporting – Consultation Authorities review ER and strategy considering the ER, the adequacy of the
                                    SEA, the effectiveness of mitigation measures and monitoring measures proposed;
                                    Monitoring – the effects of implementing the plan / strategy must be monitored.

                      2.35      SEA Regulations came into force within Scotland in July 2004 with the publication of “Strategic
                                Environmental Assessment for Development Planning; the Environmental Assessment of Plans
                                and Programmes (Scotland) Regulations 2004” by the Scottish Executive.These regulations clearly
                                applied to the development planning process and as such the production of Falkirk Council’s
                                Finalised Local Plan included the completion of an SEA. The Regulations however, left an area of
                                doubt over the requirement for their application to strategies such as a LTS.
                      2.36      The passing of the Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005 clarifies that SEA does apply to
                                strategies such as an LTS with guidance on applying the SEA regulations to transport strategies to
                                be published Spring 2006.The new Act however, only applies to strategies which began preparation
                                on or after the date the Act came into force. Since the preparation of this LTS began late 2004,
                                it does not fall under the requirements of the Act. The 2004 Regulations therefore, are currently
                                the only ones which apply to this strategy.
                      2.37      Under these Regulations the plans and programmes subject to the Directive are those which are:
                                  subject to preparation and/or adoption by an authority at national, regional or local level or which are
                                  prepared by an authority for adoption, through a legislative procedure by Parliament or Government, and
                                  required by legislative, regulatory or administrative provisions.

                      2.38      For the Regulations to apply, both sections of the above must be met. Since the production of
                                the LTS is not required by legislative, regulatory or administrative provisions, the second part of
                                the specification is not met. The Directive therefore does not apply to this LTS.
                      2.39      Whilst a SEA will not be carried out as part of the development process of the LTS, the transport
                                policy direction of this strategy is entirely in line with that set out in the Council’s finalised
                                Local Plan. This Local Plan has undergone the SEA process therefore the transport policies
                                contained within this LTS have largely been tested through the Local Plan SEA. Many of the
                                environmental impacts as a result of transport proposals have already been considered and
                                evaluated. This appraisal was carried out in June 2004 as part of the Local Plan process. The larger
                                transport projects such as the M876 Glenbervie Slips and A801 Avon Gorge Bridge have been
                                the subject of Environmental Assessments.
                      2.40      The Scottish Executive has also indicated that the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG)
                                will be updated to take account of SEA, although no firm timescale has been defined at present.




     13
        Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
3       POLICY BACKGROUND FOR LTS
        National and Regional Policy Considerations

National Planning Framework
3.1    The National Planning Framework3 (NPF) has the prime objective of guiding spatial development
       in Scotland to 2025. It sets out a vision for Scotland to build a competitive, fair and sustainable
       Scotland and acts as a material consideration in framing local planning policy. Included in the NPF
       is a broad outline of the Scottish Executive’s transport policy which is based on supporting
       the promotion of economic growth, promoting social inclusion and accessibility, ensuring that the
       development of transport is sustainable and minimising the environmental impact of travel.

Transport White Paper
3.2    As with the NPF, the Scottish Executive issue guidance on national transport policy. In June 2003
       the Executive issued its transport White Paper ‘Scotland’s Transport Future’ which sets out the
       direction of transport policy in Scotland over the coming years. In the White Paper the vision for
       Scotland’s transport future is defined as:
              “An accessible Scotland with safe, integrated and reliable transport that supports
              economic growth, provides opportunities for all and is easy to use…”


3.3     The objectives set out are to promote economic growth, promote social inclusion, protect
        our environment, improve safety and to improve integration. These national objectives are closely
        reflected in the five objectives contained in the LTS. By building them in at the local level
        it is anticipated a greater contribution can be made to achieving these national objectives.
        The White Paper goes on to define its main target as stabilising road traffic volumes at 2001 levels
        by 2021. In order to achieve this, each local authority must play its part through measures to be
        implemented and actions to be taken under the LTS process. This is reflected in the actions and
        targets set out later in this strategy.
3.4     The main changes proposed by the Transport White Paper were for the structuring of transport
        delivery mechanisms in Scotland. It proposed a National Transport Agency (NTA) responsible
        for strategic projects, trunk roads, the Scottish rail franchise and a number of other national issues
        such as concessionary travel. The NTA is now established and is responsible for producing and
        implementing a National Transport Strategy. This is expected during 2006.
3.5     Under the NTA sit Regional Transport Partnerships (RTPs) which will build on the current
        existing voluntary transport partnerships such as the South East Scotland Transport Partnership
        (SESTRAN). These RTPs would be made up of elected members from each authority with
        one third of membership being non-elected appointees from non-governmental groups such as
        business and the voluntary sector. There is a duty on the RTPs to produce a statutory Regional
        Transport Strategy (RTS). The RTPs will have their necessary powers put in place by legislation
        by April 2006 with RTSs to be produced by April 2007. The LTS will have a role in feeding into
        the national and regional transport strategy processes.
3.6     It is envisaged that under this structure, local government would still deliver the majority of
        transport initiatives, however the exact extent of the powers of the RTPs is subject to consultation
        and will evolve during the operation of the RTPs themselves.

SPP 17 and PAN 75
3.7     The Scottish Executive issued a Scottish Planning Policy Guideline 17 (SPP17) on Transport and
        Planning in August 2005. This was supported by Planning Advice Note 75.These documents set out
        the role that land use planning can play in the implementation of national transport policy and
        advise Authorities on the interpretation of transport policy. The main principles contained in the
        SPPG and PAN 75 are as follows.

        3- National Planning Framework for Scotland, Scottish Executive, 2004                                    14
3 POLICY BACKGROUND FOR LTS

           3.8     The guiding principle of SPP 17 is that development should be related to transport
                   opportunities. It advocates new developments being located so as to maximise sustainable transport
                   options while limiting car parking and so endeavouring to reduce the dependence on travel by car.
                   SPP 17 endorses the uptake of measures tailored to promoting sustainable modes. It provides a
                   general hierarchy to prioritise accessibility within an integrated transport system of walking,
                   cycling, public transport, and motorised modes. It also plans for people with limited mobility
                   and deals with the needs of freight.
           3.9     SPP 17 is accompanied by PAN 75 which provides good practice advice on measures planning
                   authorities may consider in fulfilling their integrated land use and transport planning
                   responsibilities in a sustainable manner.
           3.10    Falkirk Council is seeking to support the transport hierarchy set out in SPP 17 through the
                   implementation of scenario option 1, and where additional funding becomes available, through
                   option 3, where walking, cycling, motorcycling and public transport are substantially promoted
                   along with some car restraint measures.

           Regional Transport Strategy
           3.11 Until recently SESTRAN was a voluntary partnership of 10 local authorities and the Forth Estuary
                 Transport Authority (FETA) covering the south-east of Scotland. It was formed in the late 1990s
                 with the remit of defining the vision, aims and objectives for strategic transport in the region and
                 assisting in delivery of regional transport projects. This is set out in the Regional Transport
                 Strategy (RTS) produced in June 2003 which covers the 25 year period to 2028.
           3.12    The RTS recognises that the main challenges for the region lie in tackling congestion which has
                   impacts on the local and global environment, and poses a threat to the economic health of
                   the region. It is acknowledged that congestion is not only a roads based problem in
                   south-east Scotland. Congestion on the rail and bus network are also issues the RTS recognises
                   need to be addressed. These are reflected in both the RTS vision and the objectives it sets out
                   and in the simple aspirational target for transport in the region of:
                         By 2022, to reduce the percentage of people commuting to Edinburgh by single
                         occupant car from each local authority area in South East Scotland by 10% compared
                         to a 2001 base. For Edinburgh residents working outwith the City Council area, to
                         reduce their reliance on the single occupant car for commuting by 10% also over the
                         same period.


           3.13    For the Falkirk Council area the level of single occupancy car commuter trips to Edinburgh was
                   73% in 2001. This means the target set out in the RTS will seek to see this figure reduced to
                   66% by 2022.
           3.14    The RTS adopts a scenario based approach to achieving its vision and objectives. Scenario 1 is
                   that of moderate growth with capital spending significantly higher than the average of the past
                   five years and revenue at about the same level. The funding sources for this would be primarily from
                   Scottish Executive capital grants. Scenario 2 represents high growth with capital spending
                   on transport being substantially higher than for Scenario 1. The additional funding would come
                   from congestion charging revenues generated by the then proposed scheme for Edinburgh.
                   A public referendum held in Edinburgh in February 2005 provided insufficient support for
                   the congestion charging scheme to proceed, and as such, this scenario is no longer an option.
           3.15    A new Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) is currently being drafted. It is anticipated this will be
                   completed during 2007. The new RTS is a statutory document, to which Falkirk Council’s Local
                   Transport Strategy will contribute. It may set revised objectives and targets, which will in turn
                   impact on some of the objectives and targets in this LTS.




   15
Local Policy Considerations
Strategic Community Plan
3.16 The Strategic Community Plan provides the vision and strategic priorities for the future of all
        communities in the Falkirk Council area and has been developed in partnership with a number of
        key agencies and stakeholders. The current plan covers the year 2005 to 2010.3.9
3.17    The SCP sets out the main themes for the Council area. These are:
        A. Improving the Performance of the Local Economy and Tourism
        B. Enhancing Lifelong Learning and Opportunity
        C. Creating a Sustainable Local Environment and Improving Transport
        D. Regenerating Our Communities
        E. Enabling our Citizens to Live Safely
        F. Improving Health and Wellbeing
3.18    In terms of transport, the SCP sets the priority as promoting a safe and efficient multi-modal
        transport system, which minimises impact on the environment. Implementation of the LTS
        therefore is fundamental to meeting the vision of the SCP.

Development Plan
3.19 The development plan comprises the Structure Plan and Local Plans for the Council area. The
       Falkirk Council Structure Plan was approved in June 2002 and is the strategic land use plan
       providing the broad framework for the detailed planning policies contained in the Local Plan. It sets
       out 4 key themes of:
           Economic prosperity;
           Sustaining communities;
           Environmental Quality; and,
           Sustainable transport.
3.20 The Structure Plan sets out a strategy for growth for the Falkirk Council area based on promoting
       sustainable growth across our communities.This strategy recognises that the main trends predicted
       for the Council area are: a fall in the population unless significant levels of in-migration are achieved
       leading to a higher proportion of older people; smaller household sizes generating an increase in the
       number of houses needed; a decline in manufacturing jobs with an increase in service sector
       employment, and low levels of car ownership but with the potential for higher growth thus placing
       more pressure on the transport network.
3.21    The strategy of the Plan therefore seeks to achieve significant levels of growth within the Council
        area through the provision of major housing allocations and encouraging employment opportunities
        to ensure the economy of the area continues to grow. It must be recognised that additional housing
        encouraging in-migration and more employment opportunities will undoubtedly lead to an increase
        in car trips. The Structure Plan growth strategy will pose significant challenges in ensuring this
        increased demand for travel across the Council area is catered for as sustainably as possible.
3.22    This growth strategy has the following key features of:
           Concentrating new employment generating development on eight major strategic development sites;
           Providing sufficient new housing land to facilitate an increase in the population of the area
           Identifying and applying appropriate levels of protection to landscape, ecological and heritage assets, and,
           Seeking to locate new development in locations that minimise the number and length of car trips.




                                                                                                                          16
3 POLICY BACKGROUND FOR LTS

           3.23    The Structure Plan recognises that traffic growth presents a major threat to the environment and
                   quality of life both locally and globally. It goes on to state that whilst some key improvements to the
                   strategic road network are still required, the reduction of car trips is the priority. Delivery of the
                   Structure Plan sustainable transport agenda will be achieved through fully integrating land use and
                   transport planning to ensure new developments are located to minimise the number and length of
                   car trips and through implementation of the actions set out in the LTS. The LTS therefore must
                   reflect the aspirations of the approved Plan. The Structure Plan was approved June 2002 and an
                   alteration is currently being considered by the Scottish Ministers.
           3.24    The Local Plan is the mechanism by which the implementation of the strategic planning and land
                   use policies contained within the Structure Plan is achieved. The new Falkirk Council Local Plan
                   was issued as a consultative draft in November 2003 and a finalised version was approved by Falkirk
                   Council in March 2005. It now awaits the Ministers decisions on the Structure Plan before it can
                   be put “on deposit”.
           3.25    The transport themes of both the Strategic Community Plan and Structure Plan are carried through
                   into the Local Plan which groups transport policy and actions under ‘promoting sustainable
                   transport choices’ and ‘developing a safe and efficient transport network.’ In this context the role
                   of the Local Plan supports sustainable travel through locating development where the number and
                   length of car trips can be minimised and infrastructure is built into new development to make it
                   easier for people to use more sustainable modes of travel.The LTS develops in further detail these
                   Local Plan themes.
           3.26    It is also through the Local Plan and the planning development control process that developer
                   contributions are secured for the purposes of providing improved walking, cycling and public
                   transport infrastructure associated with new developments. The infrastructure provided through
                   this mechanism can be significant for large scale developments and therefore supplements the
                   Council’s transport capital programme.

           Local Strategies Contributing to LTS Objectives
           3.27 It is the duty of each local authority to develop its LTS in light of the guidance of the policy
                  framework currently in place covering planning and transport. All of the above strategies and plans
                  have consequently been taken into consideration in developing this LTS. In order to be truly
                  effective however, the LTS must also operate in partnership with a number of other local strategies
                  and policies if it is to optimise its contribution to the varied objectives it seeks to achieve. These
                  include supporting the economy in a sustainable manner, protecting the environment and
                  promoting social inclusion and community regeneration. In addition to the strategies mentioned
                  above, the following plans directly relate to the objectives set out in this LTS. These have been
                  grouped under each of the LTS objectives they will directly contribute to.

           OBJECTIVE 1:To support the growth of the local economy in a sustainable way
           3.28 The Council’s Economic Development Strategy,‘My Future’s in Falkirk’, seeks primarily to support
                and strengthen the vitality of the local economy. Many of the initiatives contained in this LTS are
                aimed at contributing to this agenda in a sustainable way that will ensure long term growth for the
                area.

           OBJECTIVE 2: To contribute to community regeneration through promoting social
           inclusion
           3.29 The Council has a number of strategies it is implementing to improve community regeneration and
                  social inclusion throughout the Council area. These include the Young People’s Strategy and the
                  Older Peoples’ Strategy and the work that is carried out under the Regeneration Outcome
                  Agreement (formerly the Social Inclusion Partnership). The LTS will play a significant role in
                  enhancing community regeneration and social inclusion through such initiatives as improving low
                  cost travel options, improving safety, increasing accessibility to employment areas, and the
                  concessionary travel schemes.


   17
OBJECTIVE 3:To protect the environment by minimising the impact that transport can
have on it and to improve health by promoting more active travel
3.30 Protecting our environment and improving the health of the local population are major cross-sector
       issues and many of the functions carried out by the Council can contribute to these agendas. It
       is the Local Government (Scotland) Act 2003 which gives councils the power to improve wellbeing.
       The Council strategies directly relevant to these objectives are Sustainable Falkirk, the Local
       Biodiversity Action Plan, the Air Quality Strategy, the Outdoor Access Strategy and the Health
       Improvement Plan that is produced jointly by NHS Forth Valley and Falkirk Council through
       the Health Theme Group. Under this Plan a Local Physical Action Plan is being produced and will
       be implemented from 2006.

3.31    The Sustainable Falkirk Strategy has a wider remit than environmental and health aims as defined
        by its 12 objectives grouped under the three areas of: a healthy environment; a prosperous economy
        and an inclusive society. Sustainability should be at the heart of everything the Council does, and in
        this respect, the LTS will significantly contribute to the aims and objectives of the Sustainable
        Falkirk Strategy.
3.32    The strategies mentioned above contain many measures which affect local transport provision and
        complement the objectives of the LTS. A prime example of this is the work being carried out
        under the Outdoor Access Strategy. This will see substantial construction of cycling and walking
        facilities to encourage more of each of these as a mode of transport as well as improving access to
        the countryside thus both helping protect the environment and improving health. A Core Paths
        Network is being developed across the Council area which will ultimately see path provision around
        all settlements in the area. The implementation of the actions under this strategy will make a
        major contribution to promoting sustainable transport and hence to the overall vision of the LTS.
3.33    Partnership working across a number of strategies such as the Outdoor Access Strategy, the Local
        Physical Action Plan and the Sustainable Falkirk Strategy will mean achieving common goals quicker
        and more effectively.

OBJECTIVE 4:To improve safety for all those using the transport network
3.34 Falkirk Council, in conjunction with its Community Safety partners, is developing a new
     Community Safety Strategy to cover the period 2006-2010. This will cover a wide range of issues
     relating to general safety and security and will include consideration of transportation issues such
     as street lighting, road safety and travel to school. The Road Safety Review and Plan was produced
     by the Central Scotland Roads Accident Investigation Unit in consultation with organisations such
     as Central Scotland Police and Central Scotland Fire and Rescue Service. It considers road and
     transport safety in detail setting out past performance as well as future road safety targets for Falkirk
     Council.

OBJECTIVE 5:To improve integration between different forms of transport
3.35 The primary Council strategy that will improve transport integration will be the LTS itself as this
     area tends to fall solely under the transportation remit. It does however, require significant
     partnership working with other agencies in order to maximise integration. The main partners in
     this context are the bus and train operating companies, and other transport providers.




                                                                                                                 18
3 POLICY BACKGROUND FOR LTS


                Transport Initiative       Achievements Since 2000                        Contributes to
                                                                                          LTS Objective1
                Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network

                Road Safety and            A9 Torwood partially treated                   3, 4
                Network Management         A9, A904, A803, A905, B902 and B816 route
                                           accident reduction plans prepared
                                           Wet road sites mass action plan completed
                                           Updated Road Safety Review and
                                           Plan prepared
                                           New Stats 19 form introduced
                                           Review of speed camera site criteria enabled
                                           Installation of a number of pedestrian and
                                           PUFFIN crossings
                                           Implementation of a number of traffic
                                           management schemes

                Road Network Review        41km of road resurfaced / surface              4
                and Maintenance            dressed (6% network)
                                           64km of footway resurfaced/surface
                                           dressed (5% network)
                                           Structural assessment of all bridges
                                           with over 3m span
                                           1,700 Street Lighting columns replaced

                Parking                    Increased parking provided at Polmont          1, 5
                                           (102 spaces) and Falkirk High (55 spaces)
                                           stations
                                           Provision of permanent park and ride at
                                           Falkirk Wheel
                                           Provision of annual Christmas Park and
                                           Ride Service
                                           Significant increase in town centre parking
                                           with extension to Central Retail Park
                                           (1,831 spaces in total) and opening of
                                           Morrisons on edge of town centre

                Town Centre Access         Study of Town Centre traffic circulation
                                           2005/06

                Regional Transport         Lead Partner on Allandale Station              1, 3, 4, 5
                feasibility study
                                           Promotion of A801 Avon Gorge scheme
                                           (Preliminary design and planning consent
                                           obtained)
                                           Participated in “Round the Forth” cycling
                                           and walking initiative
                                           Participated in A80 Upgrade to M80 study
                                           Participated in new Kincardine Crossing
                                           proposals
                                           Working with Scottish Executive on proposals
                                           for slip roads at Glenbervie on M876 and
                                           improvements to Glensburgh slips on M9

                RTP and Partnership        Contributed to development of regional         1, 2, 3, 4, 5
                Working                    transport strategy
                                           Participated in SESTRAN, Central Scotland
                                           Road Accident Investigation Unit, SCOTS
                                           (Society of Chief Officers for Transport in
                                           Scotland), ATCO (Association of Transport
                                           Co-ordinators)

                Freight                    Provision of HGV only gate to facilitate       1, 4
                                           servicing to Morrison’s supermarket

                Air quality and Noise      Continued monitoring of air quality            3
                                           situation throughout council area
                                           In depth report on NO2 produced


   19
        Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
4.      TRANSPORT ACHIEVEMENTS TO DATE

4.1     This section looks at the transport initiatives which have been implemented since the last LTS was
        produced in 2000. These are set out in Table 4.1 and are arranged by travel mode or
        transportation initiative. The table also demonstrates to which LTS objective each particular
        scheme contributes.

 Table 4.1 – Summary of LTS Achievements
 Transport Initiative        Achievements Since 2000                              Contributes to
                                                                                  LTS Objective4
 Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
 Multi- User Routes –        Falkirk Green Travel Map showing sustainable         1, 2, 3, 4
 Walking, Cycling,           travel options for the area produced.
 Horseriding                 Local path networks developed around 16
                             settlements with links between settlements
                             Local path networks developed around 7
                             visitor attractions
                             Over 70km of recreational path network
                             regularly maintained
                             Completion of 17km of cycleway
                             25 km of towpath available for cycling
                             Established common objective with
                             partner agencies to provide Round the
                             Forth Cycle Route

 Employer Travel Plans       Working on travel plans for two Council sites        1, 2, 3
                             Working with NHS on Travel Plans for Falkirk
                             Royal Infirmary and new Forth Valley Acute
                             Hospital opening 2009

 School Travel Plans         41 Schools Travel Assessments complete               3, 4
                             Cycle stands installed at 21 schools
                             Walking awareness project at Bonnybridge
                             31 schools had 20mph signs installed

 Public Transport            Continued provision of non-commercial                1, 2, 3, 5
                             bus services (£1.5m pa)
                             Award of £420,000 under Government’s Bus
                             Route Development Grant programme for
                             improvements to existing bus services
                             Provision of timetable information at 50%
                             of bus stops
                             Provision of park and ride service from Falkirk
                             Wheel to town centre in 2003
                             A803 bus lanes in 2001

 Community and               Continued funding and support of                     2
 Accessible Transport        Dial-A-Journey and Shopmobility services
                             Continued provision of concessionary travel
                             scheme for 27,000 eligible Falkirk residents
                             Provision of taxicard scheme for 1,200
                             eligible Falkirk residents

 Motorcycling                Ongoing road maintenance                             1, 2, 3, 4




                                                                                                             20
4.TRANSPORT ACHIEVEMENTS TO DATE

           4.2   From the above, it can be seen that a considerable amount of work has been carried out during
                 the life of the previous LTS. All these projects contributed to one or more of the five objectives of
                 the current LTS and thus will provide a solid foundation for the work to be undertaken in the next
                 three years. This work will take us closer to achieving our overall transport vision of “a transport
                 network which allows people a reasonable choice of travel options as part of a safe, reliable, convenient and
                 accessible transport system”.
           4.3   Whilst sound progress has been made, there is still a considerable amount of work which could
                 be implemented to further improve the transport system for those travelling through, in and
                 around the Falkirk Council area. The issues challenging us in achieving the transport vision are
                 discussed in the next chapter. The potential solutions to tackling these issues, and the work which
                 will subsequently be implemented in line with our objectives, is then set out in Chapter 6.




   21
        Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
5.      ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES


5.1     Many of the transport challenges facing the Falkirk Council area are the same as for many other
        parts of the country. The main variances between different areas are the degree of the challenge and
        the exact mix of components comprising the transport challenge. Throughout the country the
        fundamental elements challenging mobility and accessibility are the same.
5.2     It is worth highlighting at this stage, that a main challenge facing the delivery of a high quality
        transport service meeting the needs of all sections of the community, is the increasingly varied
        requirements being placed on those charged with delivering transport.These new demands include
        increased levels of monitoring and consultation, as well as the marketing of schemes and initiatives
        which previously was not required. Whilst these matters are time-consuming, their objective is
        to improve the overall quality of service and therefore should make a valuable contribution to
        the transport agenda.
5.3     This section looks at the key issues which need to be addressed in order to implement this transport
        policy and make progress towards the overall transport vision.

Transport Issue 1 - Increasing Car Dependence
5.4    Over the last few decades, the desire, ability and need to travel both more frequently and further
       distances has vastly increased. At the same time personal income has increased leading to growing
       levels of car ownership and car usage. The amount people travel in Scotland per year has seen a
       43% increase between 1985-86 and 2002-035. The car is the most dominant mode and use of
       the car is steadily rising with road traffic growing by 19% over the last 10 years.The picture in the
       Falkirk Council area is no different from the national situation. This piece of the transport jigsaw
       can be considered to be the most challenging.
5.5     It is perhaps the car which can offer greater benefits over most other forms of transport in terms of
        convenience, ability to carry goods and people, to travel when and where you want regardless of
        the weather, and with least physical effort required. It is also the car, however, which causes the
        greatest problems. The numbers of cars using specific routes at specific times of day causes
        congestion, cars cause environmental damage through their emissions both locally and on a global
        scale, they causes noise and divide local communities where bisected by busy routes and can prove
        fatal if involved in an accident. Noise and air pollution generated by car traffic can also affect the
        health and wellbeing of the individual and the community. Congestion can also lead to a downturn
        in the local economy as businesses opt to locate in other, less congested areas.
5.6     Annual vehicle kilometres travelled on trunk roads, motorways and A class roads in the Falkirk
        Council area has continually increased over the last 25 years. Since 1980 there has been an increase
        of 134% to 2004. This is illustrated in Figure 5.1 below which shows that the biggest growth has
        been on the motorway network.




        5- Travel Statistics www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/08/25100154/01557                             22
5. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

           Figure 5.1
           Annual Average Vehicle Kilometres on Trunk Roads, Motorways and A Class Roads
           Note:Trunk Road category includes short sections of A80 and A876 only




           5.7   A quarter of all car trips nationally in 1999/2001 were less than two miles in length. Cars were
                 used for 18 per cent of trips under one mile and for 61 per cent of trips of between one and two
                 miles. At the same time 60 per cent of cars on the road in Britain in 1999/2001 had only one
                 occupant. For commuting and business use the rate was 84 per cent6. These statistics clearly
                 demonstrate the national transport trends of more trips being made by car, these trips being of
                 increasingly short distance and car occupancy being low. All these facts combine to mean more
                 congestion on a road network that has finite space.These trends are also common to travel patterns
                 in the Falkirk Council area.
           5.8   Census data for 2001 indicates that 64% of Scottish commuters travel to work by car or van. For
                 Falkirk residents this figure is 74%. This shows the dominance of the car for everyday commuting
                 journeys. Nationally` traffic growth is projected to increase by 27% over 20 years if no action
                 is taken.7 Traffic growth in Falkirk has grown by 4% over a 4 year period and congestion
                 has become a daily occurrence on such routes as the B902 Grahams Road and A803 Camelon Main
                 Street as well as in Falkirk town centre itself. Congestion is not only a local road problem. The
                 slip roads from M9 at Glensburgh experience significant queuing at specific times of the day and
                 access into Grangemouth has needed capacity improvements in recent years to cope with demand.
           5.9   The percentage of trips to work by Falkirk Council residents by transport mode for 2001 is given
                 in the table below. Again this clearly demonstrates the dominance of the car over other travel
                 options.
                   Table 5.1 – Travel to Work by Falkirk Resident by Mode, 2001

                   Cycle        Walk              Bus             Train         Car           M/Cycle     Other*
                   1.5%         8.6%              7.0%            3.9%          74.0%         0.6%        4.4%
                   Source: Census 2001                            *Includes those working at or from home




                 6- National Travel Survey
   23            7- Scotland’s Transport Future, Scottish Executive, June 2004, paragraph 1.15
5.10    It is not only the number of trips being made, but also the distance of those trips which has been
        changing over recent years. Many people choose to drive for even the shortest trips. The fact that
        32% of people who commute less than 1 km to work do so by car or van, clearly demonstrates
        this.8
5.11    This pattern of the dominance of the car for journeys is not always true for specific types of journey.
        For example, for pupils in full-time education the usual method of travel for the journey to
        school in Falkirk Council area as derived from the Census results for 2001 is given in Table 5.2.
        This also shows the equivalent figures for Scotland as a whole. These figures can be compared
        to a survey carried out in 2005 at all Falkirk Council primary schools as part of the Council’s
        School Travel Plan initiative. 41 out of 48 primary schools responded and the results are given in
        the final row of Table 5.2.
 Table 5.2 Usual Method of travel to school for Pupils in Full-time Education, 2001
               Cycle         Walk           Bus            Train         Car               M/Cycle        Other*
 Falkirk                                                                                                  Council
                                                                                                          Area*
 0.6%         51.1%         24.2%                        21.8%                       2.3%
 Scotland*    0.6%          50.7%          26.3%                       20.7%                       1.7%
 Falkirk
 Council
 Primary
 Schools      1.4%          52.1%          7.6%          37.2%         1.7%
 *Source: 2001 Census, table CS219, including children aged 5-17, excluding those studying at home

5.12    These trends in traffic growth and the challenges they present in providing an accessible, high
        quality integrated transport system are further heightened by the Council’s Structure Plan strategy
        of promoting sustainable growth in all our communities. The allocation of major housing sites
        leading to growth in both housing and population, along with the promotion of a series of strategic
        development opportunities, will operate to present this LTS with an even greater challenge in
        attempting to contain the growth in traffic and provide the community with high quality alternatives
        to the car.
5.13    As car usage and congestion grows, this has an adverse impact on other modes. It becomes
        increasingly difficult for the bus to remain competitive if passenger numbers are falling and
        reliability of journey time reduces unless the bus can avoid traffic congestion on the road network.
        Fewer passengers often means less frequent services or the withdrawal of a service completely and
        hence begins the negative spiral of social exclusion for those without access to a car
5.14    Again, information from the Scottish Household Survey 2001/02 indicates that despite the
        dominance of the car, a high proportion of the population consider travel by bus to be convenient.
        For the Falkirk Council area 82% stated they thought public transport was very or fairly convenient
        with only 12% stating they thought it was fairly or very inconvenient. The respective figures for
        Scotland as a whole are 76% and 24% showing that for the Falkirk Council area the view of public
        transport convenience is high. This information would appear to indicate that, whilst the majority
        of the Falkirk Council population feel travel by public transport in their area is convenient, it does
        not lead to high levels of public transport use, with instead, the car being the preferred choice for
        travel.
5.15    Cycling and walking are also adversely affected by increasing congestion. Unless segregated
        facilities are provided for cyclists, many people will be discouraged from cycling by the sheer
        volume of traffic on the roads. Similarly, more facilities are required to ensure pedestrian safety,
        such as pelican crossings, as roads become busier and crossing becomes more difficult.
5.16    Train travel is less affected by increasing congestion.The relatively higher cost of travel by train than
        by bus or car, and the limited number of the places it serves, means that it does not present a total
        solution for those without access to a car and therefore has only limited assistance with community
        regeneration and social inclusion.



        8- Scottish Household Survey 2002:,Table 15 of Household Transport in 2002                                  24
5. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

           5.17    Congestion is not the only negative consequence of increasing car dependence. Health can be
                   negatively affected through people becoming less physically active. By opting to take the car which
                   generally does not involve much physical activity, the benefits of activity associated with cycling or
                   walking, even to a bus stop or railway station, are lost.
           5.18    Regular physical activity of at least moderate intensity provides general health benefits across a
                   range of diseases and across all ages. Some of the health benefits of physical activity are a reduced
                   risk of coronary heart disease and stroke and a reduction in the overall risk of cancer. Active people
                   have up to a 50% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to inactive people.
           5.19    Physical activity also promotes strength, co-ordination and balance which is particularly important
                   for older people through reducing their risk of falls and helping them to maintain their capacity to
                   carry out common activities of daily living. This, therefore, helps older people sustain an
                   independent lifestyle for longer. It can also help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression
                   and studies have shown that physically active employees have fewer days sick leave, lower staff
                   turnover and fewer industrial injuries.
           5.20     It is clear therefore, that regular physical activity has many benefits for health. Unfortunately, the
                   trend of increasing car dependence means these benefits are being lost by a sizeable element of the
                   population as walking or cycling becomes a smaller part of their daily transport.
           5.21     There is clear evidence in the Falkirk Council area that our everyday dependence on the car is
                   continuing to grow and is causing problems such as increasing congestion, environmental
                   disbenefits and social exclusion. However, there is also evidence that car dependence can be a
                   cultural phenomenon in that it is something we aspire to as young adults but, prior to that, namely
                   for the journey to school, the car has a more minor role. Attitudinal surveys also show that car
                   dependence is not solely due to the view that the alternative modes are entirely inconvenient.
           Challenging Car Dependence
           5.22 From the above, the main challenge for this LTS will be to reduce the growth in dependence on the
                  car and ultimately reverse this trend. This has to be achieved whilst also maintaining and improving
                  accessibility and supporting the local economy. The following transport issues covered in this
                  chapter all principally arise as a consequence of car travel. The matter of achieving a balance
                  between this and other means of transport therefore, is fundamental to the success of the LTS and
                  ultimately to quality of life for Falkirk Council residents.The policies and proposals in the LTS are
                  compatible with the Strategic Community Plan, Sustainable Falkirk and the Structure and Local
                  Plans. The measures and initiatives to be implemented to achieve this are set out in Section 6.
           Transport Issue 2 - Environmental Quality
           5.23 With the exception of walking and cycling, every form of transport has implications for the
                 environment. Perhaps the most significant environmental impact of travel and transport in our
                 urban areas is the consequences for air quality. Transport is the biggest single source of most urban
                 air pollution.
           5.24    Pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulates, and sulphur oxides are all
                   emitted from transport. They not only have negative impacts on the climate, they can also be
                   detrimental to health. Nitrogen dioxide for example, is known to impair respiratory cell function,
                   damage blood capillaries and the immune system. It is estimated that there are 24,000 premature
                   deaths a year in the UK as a result of air pollution.
           5.25    The Government introduced a National Air Quality Strategy in 1997 and a statutory process of local
                   air quality management under the Environment Act 1995. This process was implemented following
                   the recommendations of the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) which proposed new
                   national air quality standards and objectives for eight major pollutants. Under this legislation local
                   authorities are required to work towards achieving the objectives set out in the Air Quality
                   (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2002. Each authority is required to monitor specific pollutants
                   and, in the event of evidence to show that specific air quality objectives will not be met by the
                   required timescale, the authority is required to designate an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA)
                   for the specific pollutant. Each AQMA is required to have an action plan setting out the measures
                   to be implemented to improve the air quality in that area

   25
5.26    Falkirk Council has an extensive network of air quality monitoring throughout the Council area.
        The latest monitoring work carried out concluded that it is considered unlikely that the National
        Air Quality Strategy objectives will be exceeded. It should be noted that whilst air quality in the
        Falkirk Council area meets the health based statutory objectives, ideally it should be improved.
5.27    Air pollution is not the only impact of transport in terms of reducing environmental quality. Traffic
        generates noise, be that from the constant background noise from the various motorways within the
        Council area, or from traffic on a busy urban route travelling through a residential community.
        Many households within the Council area suffer from constant traffic noise and vibration as traffic
        uses their street as a through route. In some circumstances this can lead to stress for residents and
        hence a reduced quality of life and in more severe cases, emissions and noise from traffic can affect
        the health and wellbeing of residents. The Scottish Executive will be producing noise maps in due
        course.
5.28    When traffic levels grow to such an extent through a local community that it begins to become
        difficult to cross the road to access properties and services, an element of severance is introduced.
        This again impacts on environmental quality as local people experience the dissection of their
        community and, in some cases, a reduction on safety.
Challenges for Environmental Quality
5.29   There is a strong link between air quality and traffic levels. As traffic increases in our urban areas,
       air pollution also increases. With this increasing traffic also comes noise pollution and severance for
       a number of communities within our area. In order to address this and improve environmental
       quality we need to again tackle car dependence by improving the alternative options for travel and
       ensuring land use planning is fully integrated with transport planning so that new developments
       generate as little new car travel as possible.
Transport Issue 3 - Community Regeneration and Social Inclusion
5.30 Access to employment, key services and leisure opportunities are fundamental to quality of life. If
      this cannot be achieved, for whatever reason, be it lack of transport, lack of income or lack of
      physical ability, people experience social exclusion. Transport can be a main reason for people in
      certain sectors of the community being socially excluded. Social exclusion predominantly tends to
      affect those on low incomes, those in areas which are remote or poorly served by public transport,
      older people and disabled people.
5.31    Unemployment for the Falkirk Council area at November 2004 stood at 2.9%, marginally higher
        than the national rate of 2.7%. The Falkirk Council area also has 14 datazones in the top 15% of
        the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation for 2004. In effect, this means 14 areas in the Council
        area are classified as being in the 15% most deprived areas in the country. This index is based on
        31 indicators across six categories of: current income; employment; housing; health; education,
        skills and training; and geographic access to services and telecommunications.




                                                                                                                 26
5. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

           5.32    Falkirk Council has carried out its own analysis to identify Priority Areas for regeneration. This
                   identified 11 Priority Areas for Community Regeneration activity over the next five years. The
                   Priority Areas, with a population of 22,850, cover 15.7% of the population of the Council area and
                   represents a much higher proportion than were living in the previous SIP area. The most significant
                   aspects of deprivation contributing to the classification of a Priority Area are: unemployment; low
                   economic activity; limiting long term illness; poor health; single parents; no qualifications; and,
                   overcrowding. A number of these characteristics are shown for each of the 11 Priority Areas in
                   Table 5.3 below.
            Table 5.3 Selected Characteristics of Priority Areas
            Priority Area        Population No Access            Economically      No                Lone Parent
                                               to Car            Inactive          Qualifications    with children
                                                                                                     under 16
            Falkirk Council                     30.8%             34.1%              34.3%             5.9%

            Grangemouth           3,876         51.5%             40.0%              41.8%             11.7%
            Dawson                3,503         54.9%             43.1%              47.6%              8.8%
            Camelon               4,376         49.4%             43.7%              45.5%              9.0%
            Denny                 1,563         56.7%             45.4%              48.3%             11.2%
            Stenhousemuir         1,000         41.7%             37.8%              40.8%             14.4%
            Maddiston             1,359         40.8%             39.5%              43.8%             12.2%
            Hallglen              1,668         35.7%             32.8%              35.8%             14.3%
            Bo’ness               1,389         46.8%             44.7%              56.6%              8.8%
            Westquarter             949         49.9%             47.5%              57.1%             13.3%
            Thornhill Rd          1,754         48.0%             34.0%              36.5%              5.7%
            High Flats            1,416         68.5%             78.9%              64.8%              1.7%

           5.33    From the above it is evident that all 11 Priority Areas have higher percentages without access to a
                   car and without any educational qualifications than the average for the Council area. With the
                   exception of two areas, all have higher rates of economic inactivity and lone parents with children
                   under the age of 16. These factors, combined with a number of others, will operate to mean fewer
                   opportunities to gain employment, therefore less income, and fewer options for travel. This in
                   effect creates a vicious cycle for people in these Priority Areas.
           Challenges for Community Regeneration and Social Inclusion
           5.34 Those from households with access to a car travel more often, further and for longer durations,
                  increasing the destinations to which they have access. Ratings of convenience of access to local
                  life-support services such as money, food and health are higher for those with a car, especially for
                  access to the local hospital outpatients’ department.Whilst we cannot conclude a causal relationship
                  between car access and well-being, the key policy implication for both local and national
                  government is the need to consider how improvements to the alternatives to car use can substitute
                  for the destination accessibility, speed, autonomy, comfort and convenience that the car appears
                  to offer.
           5.35    To improve community regeneration and social inclusion throughout the community therefore
                   means breaking down the barriers to accessing transport for those most vulnerable to social
                   exclusion, namely those on low incomes and without access to a car. Maintaining the relatively high
                   frequency of bus services, particularly in the identified Priority Areas, and land use and transport
                   planning decisions which ensure these areas have direct and convenient transport connections to
                   new employment areas will both improve social inclusion and at the same time help regenerate that
                   particular community.
           5.36 To improve community regeneration and social inclusion throughout the community therefore means
                    breaking down the barriers to accessing transport for those most vulnerable to social exclusion,
                    namely those on low incomes and without access to a car. Maintaining the relatively high frequency
                    of bus services, particularly in the identified Priority Areas, and land use and transport planning
                    decisions which ensure these areas have direct and convenient transport connections to new
                    employment areas will both improve social inclusion and at the same time help regenerate that
   27               particular community.
5.37    Accessible public transport services are vital for those people who, due to disability, cannot use
        conventional public transport. This means ensuring a wide range of services are available through
        such initiatives as Dial-A-Journey to cater for the varying needs of the community.
Transport Issue 4 - Safety
5.38 Safety is a key element to any transport system. This means safety for all, regardless of mode of
      travel. On the road network, much work has been done by Central Scotland Police, the Scottish
      Executive and the Council over a number of years to improve safety and reduce accidents. The long
      term trend for accident numbers is downwards.
5.39    Analysis carried out by the Council’s accident unit has established that accident rates for the Falkirk
        Council area have fallen for fatalities from 8.4 per year over the period 1994-1998 to 7 per year for
        the period 1999-2003. This represents a reduction of 16.7%. For serious injuries the
        corresponding figures are 96.6 per year over the period 1994-1998 and 79.2 per year for 1999-
        2003 representing an 18% reduction. Slight injuries have also seen a reduction with an 8.9% drop
        over the same periods. Overall there has been an 11% reduction for all severity of accidents over
        these time periods.
5.40    Whilst progress is obviously being made, the Council will continue to work to reduce accidents to
        even lower rates and assist in making travel as safe as possible by prioritising and introducing
        measures to remove hazards on the road network and working with other agencies to improve
        driver education.
5.41    Public transport has a very good safety record in Scotland although safety and security for those
        travelling on and working on public transport can be improved. Improving safety and the perception
        of safety will help encourage more use of public transport.The Scottish Household Survey 2001/02
        found that for the Falkirk Council area, 18% said they did not feel particularly safe or at all safe
        when travelling by bus in the evening. The corresponding figure for travel by train is 15%
Challenges for Safety
5.42 There are two main challenges for improving safety when travelling in Falkirk Council area. First,
       working to implement measures to improve the safety of the road network (for all types of road
       user) through reducing speed where appropriate, reducing hazards and continuing driver education
       programmes will be paramount. Second, working to implement measures to improve safety and the
       perception of safety when using and working on public transport through initiatives such as
       improved lighting and visibility, CCTV and improved information.
Transport Issue 5- Transport Infrastructure
5.43   Maintaining a high quality road network can be extremely challenging given ever increasing levels
      of road usage combined with heavier vehicles. Both these factors take their toll on the quality of
      the road infrastructure.
5.44    The Scottish Executive, after consultation with SCOTS (Society of Chief Officers of Transportation
        in Scotland), agreed to commission a machine based survey system known as TRACS (traffic and
        conditions survey) to assess the road conditions throughout Scotland.
5.45    Using this, Audit Scotland produced a report “Maintaining Scotland’s Roads” which concluded that
        local authority spending across the country on road maintenance has fallen since the mid 1990s and
        estimated that the cost of bringing the road network up to standard would be £1.7 billion. In the
        majority of Councils between 10% and 20% of roads were found to require immediate attention.
        This figure for the Falkirk Council road network is 11.5% with a further 33% of roads requiring
        further investigation. This does not include footway maintenance for which it is estimated that 50%
        within the Council area are of a poor standard. It is estimated that the programme of improvement
        works required for the road and footway network over the next 10 years will cost approximately
        £25 million.
5.46    Bridge structures, retaining walls and street lighting are also included within the transport
        infrastructure. The Council is responsible for the inspection and maintenance of 500 structures, of
        which 360 are bridges, to ensure they are safe and fit for purpose. At present 3% are incapable of
        taking a 40 tonne load carrying capacity. In these instances weight restrictions have been
        introduced. Street lighting plays a key role in ensuring safety when travelling. Within Falkirk
        Council area there are 22,000 lighting columns that the Council maintains.                                28
5. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

           Challenges for Transport Infrastructure
           5.47 The biggest challenge for the Council is to adequately maintain and improve the area’s transport
                  infrastructure. The level of use of the current network means existing budgets are consistently
                  stretched to provide adequate maintenance with the real difficulty presenting itself when structural
                  improvements are required beyond this routine maintenance.
           LTS Consultation Process
           5.48 Whilst developing this LTS, extensive consultation was carried out with the public and key
                 stakeholders. The first part of this exercise comprised a questionnaire contained within a transport
                 supplement to the Council’s newspaper “Falkirk Council News”. This newspaper goes to all 65,000
                 households in the Council area. In addition, the questionnaire appeared in the Falkirk Herald,
                 the Falkirk and Grangemouth Advertisers, the Linlithgow and Bo’ness Gazette as well as on
                 the Council’s website. 27 questions were asked on a wide range of transport matters and a £250
                 prize draw was offered to encourage participation in the survey. Around 1,300 questionnaires
                 were returned
           5.49    The second part of the LTS consultation took the form of a half-day consultation seminar. Key
                   stakeholders, community councils, local councillors, public agencies, businesses and transport
                   providers were invited to participate. The seminar was hosted by the media personality Kaye
                   Adams. The prime objective of this seminar was to establish the main transport issues for travel
                   within the Council area and to surrounding areas. It was also intended to stimulate thought
                   and discussion on how transport delivery in Falkirk Council area could be improved, and to
                   encourage innovative transport solutions to be considered by key community members.
           5.50    The final element of this round of the LTS consultation process was a series of eight public meetings
                   held around the Council area to gain an insight into the main transport issues, potential solutions,
                   and improvements as considered by Falkirk Council residents. These meetings saw attendances
                   ranging from 0 to 19 and raised a variety of issues. The format for each included a half hour “drop-
                   in” session prior to the start of the meeting to allow those who could not attend for the full meeting
                   to express any transport concerns or views. The meeting itself was divided into focus groups which
                   were asked to identify on maps, in their view, the main transport problems and issues at both the
                   local and Falkirk Council level. Each group was also asked to prioritise spend on transport. A
                   report summarising the response from these public meetings is provided in Appendix 2.
           5.51    Following on from this, an Issues and Options report was drawn up using the information gathered
                   during the consultation process. This report was circulated to interest groups and those who had
                   attended the public meetings for further comment during the summer of 2005.
           5.52    In November 2005 a draft LTS was produced which was put out to public consultation. Letters
                   were written to around 80 key stakeholders, the document was placed on the Council’s web
                   site and in public buildings, and the process was advertised in the local press. Details of the
                   comments received along with the actions taken as a result, are contained in Appendix 2.
           5.53    The main transport issues raised during the consultation process fell into the following broad
                   categories:
                        Road traffic growth
                         Road network condition
                         Social exclusion
                         Noise, vibration and air pollution
                         Road safety
                         Mobility and access
                         Health
                         Economy and freight




  29
5.54   From the consultation exercise the key points were as follows. It was generally accepted that
       congestion should be reduced and public transport needed to see improvements with more
       accessible, frequent and reliable services, and better integration particularly between bus and train.
       The views that more car parking was needed, especially in central Falkirk and at railway stations,
       that maintenance of the road network needed to be improved as did signing, and the poor quality
       of the road network, were all identified as issues.
5.55   Car parking around schools was highlighted as a particular issue with a strong desire to see
       parking restrictions and the use of 20mph zones at schools. Strong support was evident for the
       pursuit of road safety initiatives including the use of traffic calming where necessary with vehicle
       speeds thought to be inappropriate in many areas. Particular concern was expressed over the use
       of Falkirk town centre as a race track in the evening.
5.56   The questionnaire survey highlighted that a majority are in favour of the use of cycle lanes, bus
       lanes, new bus and train facilities and car sharing with the public meetings eliciting a view that the
       lack of direct cycle and walking routes between towns and villages as well as the lack of physical
       segregation between cyclists and general traffic may deter travel by bicycle.
5.57   The main findings and comments made through the various stages of the consultation exercise
       were taken into consideration in forming the transport proposals to be consulted on during the next
       stage of consultation. This LTS and many of the policies and actions within it are a direct result
       of many of the points and comments raised during consultation.




                                                                                                                30
        Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
6.      TRANSPORT SOLUTIONS

6.1    The prime objective of this section is to clarify how the transport issues identified in Chapter 5 will
        be addressed. The actions to be implemented will be set out under the themes of promoting
        sustainable transport choices and developing a safe and efficient transport network and policies for
        each transport mode and area will be set out.
6.2    These action plans at the end of each section detail the works to be carried out under the Option 1
       strategy of promoting cycling, walking and public transport and implementing some car restraint,
       as well as the Option 3 strategy of following the same principles as Option 1 but implementing
       more projects as a result of increased funding.
6.3     Every action identified under each transport mode is cross-referenced to the LTS objective it
        contributes to and the LTS policy it derives from. Details of each of the five LTS objectives can be
        found in section 2.3. This will ensure the transport schemes and initiatives proposed for
        implementation are fully contributing to the overall transport vision for the Falkirk Council area.
        Cross reference is also made to the Strategic Community Plan 2005-2010 themes. These themes
        are set out in paragraph 3.17.
Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
6.4 The first part of this chapter deals with what has been put in place and what will be put in place in
      order to further develop sustainable transport options in the Council area. This information
      therefore, represents the bulk of the work which is being implemented by the Council and its
      partners to contribute to the main LTS objective of reducing the number of trips by car whilst
      supporting the economy, promoting community regeneration and social inclusion, safety and
      integration, and protecting the environment.
Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
6.5    The second half the chapter recognises the fact that the transport network and its associated
      infrastructure is one of the main assets the Council has. It therefore details how this asset is being
      maintained and the work being carried out to improve its safety and efficiency for all network users.




                                                                                                                 32
     Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
     6.1 MULTI-USER ROUTES – WALKING, CYCLING, HORSERIDING

     Introduction
     6.1.1 Walking and cycling, and to a lesser extent, horseriding, can play an important part in achieving a
            sustainable transport system. Many routes can cater for a combination of, or all three, modes. These
            routes are known as multi-user routes.
     6.1.2   Part 1 of the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 came into force on 9th February 2005. This
             legislation gives people a right of responsible access to most land and inland water in Scotland.
             While the lead on matters relating to Part 1 of the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 will be
             pursued through the Falkirk Council Outdoor Access Strategy, there are significant overlaps with
             and implications for the Local Transport Strategy, in particular with the provision of access facilities
             for a range of users.
     6.1.3   Walking is an integral part of the transport system and for some, the only way of getting about.
             It has a major role to play in transport, leisure, health, community regeneration, social inclusion,
             the environment and the local economy. In 2001 8.6% of adults walked to work and 52% of pupils
             walked to school in the Falkirk Council area. Whilst walking is a transport mode in itself, it is also
             an integrated part of other modes, for example car drivers and passengers, and public transport
             users are all likely to have a walking element to their journey.
     6.1.3   Walking as a mode of transport has declined over the years with reductions in both the number and
             length of trips made on foot. This may be partly because people have increasingly been able to
             choose car journeys even for short trips which they perceive as quicker and more comfortable, and
             partly because walking is less attractive in traffic-dominated streets.
     6.1.4   Scottish Planning Policy Guidelines SPP17 puts walking at the top of the transport hierarchy and
             this LTS seeks to support that by prioritising walking, cycling and public transport projects.
     6.1.5   Cycling also potentially has a significant role to play in widening choice for short local journeys.
             Provided a bicycle is available, cycling is cheap, reliable, healthy, non polluting and convenient over
             distances of up to 5 miles.
     6.1.6   Once a bicycle has been purchased it is available for use at no cost at any other time. With
             the exception of routine servicing, there is often little other cost or maintenance required and no
             other specialist equipment beyond helmet, lights and suitable outdoor clothing. Cycling offers a
             pollution free form of transport and offers the cyclists valuable health benefits if undertaken
             regularly. It does not require timetables and can be carried out when and where the cyclist chooses.
             Cycling can often represent a more convenient form of transport than the car or bus over short
             distances in congested urban areas. Given these combined benefits, why then, do only 1.2%
             of Falkirk residents choose to cycle to work or study?
     6.1.7   The Government’s Physical Activity Strategy10 sets out new targets for levels of physical activity
             to be achieved by 2022. The main target is to have 50% of all adults over 16 and 80% of all
             children under 16 meeting the minimum recommended levels of physical activity by 2022. This
             strategy recognises the contribution transport can make in increasing physical activity by producing
             such services as pathways and cycleways and safer routes to school The strategy acknowledges
             that walking and cycling will make a major contribution to meeting its objectives.
     6.1.8   Horseriding is traditionally a leisure pursuit, but many of the facilities horseriders require can be
             provided through the implementation of multi-user routes.
     The Challenge
     6.1.9 Walking is often perceived as being one of the less safe modes of transport and, by its very nature,
           is limited by distance.The closure of local shops and services throughout the Falkirk Council area,
           and the centralisation of these services, has in many cases effectively removed access by foot alone
           from the range of transport options.


33           10- Lets Make Scotland More Active - A Strategy for physical Activity, Physical Task Force, February 2005
6.1.10 Walking should be as pleasant, safe and convenient as possible. Improving conditions for walking can
       bring a range of benefits to everyday lives in terms of health, safety, access to services and sense of
       community. The challenge therefore is to create a walking environment where, for short journeys
       or for parts of a journey, walking is a realistic and attractive option.
6.1.11 To reverse the trend of a decline in walking, we need to foster a climate where a greater number of
       people choose, more often than they do at present:
             to walk for some short journeys even though they have a car available.
             to use public transport in preference to a car for some journeys, with a walk at either end.
             to build walking into a longer journey where a car may be necessary by using park and ride schemes or
             by parking or dropping off a short distance from the destination and walking the rest of the way.
             to walk to and at work, school or college.
             to walk for pleasure or exercise.
6.1.12 In terms of cycling, for certain sectors of the population, it is simply not an option. For many older
       people, those with physical disabilities or those requiring to transport other people or bulky goods,
       cycling will not represent a feasible option. For others, perceptions about safety on the road
       network will operate as a sufficient deterrent to prevent cycling and for others still, perceptions
       about weather and topography will operate to discourage use of this option.
6.1.13 Perhaps the most important barrier to break down, however, is the lack of understanding that
       cycling represents a mode of transport rather than solely a weekend leisure pursuit. Many people
       will contemplate cycling for pleasure in their leisure time, but would not consider cycling a short
       distance to complete a specific journey for a specific non-leisure purpose. In many of our
       neighbouring countries such as the Netherlands and Denmark, there is a strong culture of cycling
       to work, to the shops, to visit friends and for a host of other reasons. In Britain, such a culture does
       not currently exist. The major challenge therefore, will be to change attitudes to cycling from
       predominantly a leisure activity to that of a realistic option for everyday short trips.
6.1.14 The challenge for horseriding is to provide facilities which will allow access to the countryside and
       riding routes and to enable shared use of paths in a safe way for this relatively small user group.
6.1.15 One common theme across multi-user routes is that of maintenance. Whilst it can be relatively
       straightforward to secure capital funding to provide footpaths and cycleways, it is far more
       challenging to obtain the additional revenue funding required to carry out ongoing maintenance of
       these facilities. Without maintenance work, facilities fall into disrepair or suffer from litter and
       vandalism, all of which will operate to discourage use of the walking or cycling route.
Where We Are Now
       Walking
6.1.16 There has been significant work carried out in recent years to promote walking and improve the
       pedestrian environment through a wide variety of initiatives that are being implemented by the
       Council. These include the following.
6.1.17 The School Travel Plan initiative includes a number of projects to promote walking. There are two
       Walk to School Weeks each school year which have seen Walking Buses trialled at six schools. These
       have been extremely successful and complement The Big Fit Walk, a health derived initiative being
       promoted across schools in the Council area. This encourages pupils to walk a mile for their health
       and reinforces the education message that walking is both a form of transport and is good for you.
6.1.18 Walking to and from some schools is undesirable due to their location and the difficulty in providing
       safe walking routes, for example for some rural schools. In these schools, walking games are
       promoted by the School Travel Plan Officer and can include the provision of pedometers to the
       children. The main objective of these games is to provide education about the benefits of walking.
6.1.19 Traffic management and 20mph zones operate to improve the pedestrian environment. Slowing
       traffic makes walking safer and will go some way to reducing the perception that it is unpleasant to
       walk due to traffic noise and speed.

                                                                                                                     34
6.1 MULTI-USER ROUTES – WALKING, CYCLING, HORSERIDING

            6.1.20 Ongoing maintenance of footways and street lighting is of fundamental importance to the quality
                   and safety of the walking environment. This work is scheduled in annual work programmes.
            6.1.21 The Council has produced an Outdoor Access Strategy 2005-2010 which is concerned with
                   providing for walking cycling, horseriding, access for all and access to open water. This sets out the
                   Council’s vision of how non-motorised access to the outdoors will be facilitated and aims to address
                   the needs and aspirations of people of all ages and abilities while satisfying the requirements of the
                   Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003. This will primarily be achieved by providing a functional and
                   recreational path network around and between settlements, with links to local facilities and key
                   visitor attractions.
            6.1.22 This network will form the Core Paths Network and through this well planned and managed access,
                   significant contributions will be made to community regeneration, social inclusion, health,
                   supporting sustainable transport networks and improving overall quality of life. This work will
                   significantly contribute to the LTS objectives of promoting sustainable travel options and improving
                   health.
            6.1.23 New developments play an important role in providing new, high quality facilities. The planning
                   process requires new developments to be linked into existing footpath networks and also provide
                   the opportunity to create more strategic networks across the Council area. Similarly, Employer
                   Travel Plans require major employment sites to provide high quality, direct and convenient
                   pedestrian networks with connections to existing networks.
            6.1.24 The current planning presumption against out of town retail, means walking is a possible means to
                   access shopping and other facilities which are centrally located. This represents a significant benefit
                   for walking as out of town retail tends to rely heavily on the car for people to access it. Town and
                   neighbourhood centre regeneration schemes offer benefits for pedestrians. This can be in the form
                   of an improved pedestrian environment or complete pedestrianisation of a street or number of
                   streets. Several town centre regeneration schemes are currently being planned including
                   Stenhousemuir, Denny, Grangemouth and Bo’ness.
                   Cycling
            6.1.25 Over the last four years significant sections of new cycleway have been provided. For urban areas
                   this involves hard surfacing and street lighting. There is currently 17km of cycleway in the Council
                   area with a further 25km of off road cycle route available for use along the canal towpath network.
                   Examples of the Council’s work include a cycleway/route on Inchyra Road, Grangemouth and a
                   new link to the Falkirk Stadium.
            6.1.26 Falkirk Council is leading some development work for the Round the Forth access initiative which
                   will provide a long distance multi-user route around the Forth Estuary. This partnership involves 7
                   local authorities and the Forth Estuary Forum and Sustrans. The route will provide approximately
                   90 miles of paths available for leisure and commuting purposes. Funding for a part time officer to
                   take forward this initiative has been secured with this person coming into post early 2006. In
                   addition to this, funding bids are being made to other funding bodies to obtain the necessary finance
                   to construct the route.
            6.1.27 New developments are also an important means of extending the cycle network. Any major new
                   development is required, through the planning process, to provide cycle route connections to
                   existing networks to ensure those people living or working within the new development will have
                   the option cycling to and from it. One example of this is the Mungal Farm housing development
                   off Ronades Road.
            6.1.28 A Green Travel Map for the Falkirk Council area was produced in early 2005. This map included
                   the first cycle route network map for the area as well as information on walking and public
                   transport use. Such a map should be a major encouragement to those contemplating cycling but
                   unsure of their most direct route or traffic-free route.
            6.1.29 Cycle training is being offered at primary schools for classes 6 and 7 as part of the Active School
                   Officers programme. For High School pupils it is intended to develop the skills they have learnt at
                   primary school and offer advanced road cycle training and mountain bike training.

   35
       Horseriding
6.1.30 Horse ownership in the district is on the increase, and with it the demand for routes of a suitable
       standard for riding. There have been significant developments in the provision of off road routes
       suitable for horseriders over recent years, and this work will continue through the implementation
       of the Falkirk Council Outdoor Access Strategy.
6.1.31 Many riders also utilise the rural roads network, and measures to improve road safety for riders
       and other road users fall within the remit of the Local Transport Strategy. Falkirk Council recognises
       that it would be desirable for better provision for safe, on and off road, local horse riding
       opportunities.


What We’re Going to Do
       Walking
6.1.32 During the next few years a number of initiatives will be implemented or continued to support and
       promote greater levels of walking across the Falkirk Council area.
6.1.33 Work through the School Travel Plan initiative (see section 6.2) will continue to promote walking
       as it is mainly through continual education that the message of the benefits of walking become
       established and through this, travel behaviour may change. Traffic management and the
       implementation of 20mph zones will also continue, as will ongoing footway and street lighting
       maintenance which all operate to make the pedestrian environment safer and more attractive.
6.1.34 The work carried out under the Outdoor Access Strategy has seen two major consultations being
       held in the Braes and Bo’ness / Blackness area with implementation of the networks in these areas
       being completed by 2007. The Council will also continue to support, service and promote the
       Falkirk Local Access Forum. Part of the Outdoor Access Strategy will see a Core Paths Plan being
       adopted by 2009.
6.1.35 The Council will continue to work with our partners to progress the Round the Forth access
       initiative. Work will begin with employing a part time officer to develop this work and oversee the
       design feasibility to be carried out for the route.
6.1.36 High quality pedestrian signage will be introduced to reinforce the route between Falkirk town
       centre and Central Retail Park. This work will also review and improve signing throughout the
       town centre.
6.1.37 Town centre environmental improvements will be implemented in Bo’ness where Heritage Lottery
       funding has been secured to enhance the central area of Bo’ness. This work should be completed
       by March 2006 and will include improved surfacing, benches and period street lighting.
       Cycling
6.1.38 There is still much which can be done to facilitate more cycling and improve safety for cyclists.
       A number of main links between settlements in the Council area have been prioritised
       for implementation and additional links will continue to be provided to the cycle network
       through planning requirements on new developments. When new traffic management and road
       maintenance schemes are being designed, consideration will be given to providing cycle facilities
       where feasible.
6.1.39 Consideration will be given to developing a sustainable travel town project in Grangemouth. This
       work will build on the significant school travel, cycling and walking investment which has been
       focused on the town and will seek to develop a model for sustainable travel within the Council area.
6.1.40 Again, the work being carried out under the Outdoor Access Strategy will increase cycle facilities
       across the Council area and provide a greater choice of safe cycle route options for those choosing
       to cycle.




                                                                                                                36
6.1 MULTI-USER ROUTES – WALKING, CYCLING, HORSERIDING

            6.1.41 Road maintenance is important in contributing to the safety and comfort of cyclists. As such
                   the ongoing maintenance of the network will support and assist cyclists. The Council will also
                   continue with publicity and marketing work to raise awareness of the benefits of cycling by
                   participating in events such as Bike Week. The main priorities are reflected in the policies set
                   out below.
                   Horseriding
            6.1.42 There is much that can be done to improve safety for horse riders. The Council will work closely
                   with the Falkirk Area Riders Access Group and the British Horse Society to identify routes of
                   importance to horse riders. Priority will be given to developing existing tracks and quiet rural
                   roads. A pilot ‘rider friendly’ scheme will be developed, with warning signage on quiet rural roads.
            6.1.43 New paths and cycleways will be shared use whenever possible within financial and physical
                   restrictions.When new traffic management and road maintenance schemes are being designed, and
                   there is the potential for improvements for horse riders, consideration will be given to providing
                   horse facilities where feasible. The main priorities are reflected in the policies set out below.
                   Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
            6.1.44 By supporting and promoting walking the social inclusion agenda is enhanced. Those without
                   access to a car or on low incomes can walk to access the services and facilities they require. The
                   only proviso with this is that walking, as a sole mode of transport, predominantly caters for
                   relatively short trips. Whilst direct, safe and attractive footpath networks make the local area more
                   accessible, for people with limited mobility, or parents with pushchairs, the main advantage comes
                   with high quality maintenance and integral features such as dropped crossings making access by
                   wheelchair, electric scooter or for pushchairs easier and more comfortable.
            6.1.45 Cycling makes an important contribution to community regeneration and social inclusion despite
                   having minimal impact on accessibility for people with mobility difficulties. By providing well
                   connected, convenient and safe cycle facilities, those on lower incomes have a feasible travel option
                   for short local trips, be those to employment areas, local services or healthcare facilities. All these
                   features for both walking and cycling will assist with community regeneration.
            6.1.46 Accessibility is improved through providing links that at times can be more direct than the road
                   route, from housing areas to local services and employment. The practice of requiring cycle
                   connections to all new major developments, including employment areas, increases travel options
                   to local job opportunities for those on lower incomes.
                   Gender and Race Audit
            6.1.47 Improving walking facilities will substantially promote equality for women as it is most often
                   women who do not have access to a car, therefore the benefits of an improved pedestrian
                   environment is more likely to be enjoyed by them for short trips. Women are more likely to travel
                   as car passengers or on foot than men11. Similarly, it primarily tends to be women who escort
                   children to school, healthcare or shopping and therefore an enhanced walking environment allows
                   safe and convenient access for women to these facilities.
            6.1.48 High quality pedestrian facilities should also ensure race equality as facilities can be easily used by
                   all provided that information on any longer distance routes or maps can be provided in community
                   languages or alternative formats such as Braille, large print or audiotape if requested.
            6.1.49 Increased cycle provision will positively contribute to equality for women in terms of transport
                   stemming from the fact that women are less likely to have access to a car and hence for short trips,
                   cycling can be an alternative. For those escorting children to school, healthcare or leisure purposes,
                   whilst cycling itself is unlikely to be an option, shared use cycle and walking paths which are lit and
                   provide direct links away from traffic, will make a positive contribution.
                   Sustainability Audit
            6.1.50 Promoting and facilitating more walking, cycling and horseriding should mean more travel by
                   sustainable modes and therefore will play an important part in assisting with achieving the Council’s
                   sustainability objectives.

   37               11- Kerry Hamilton, Linda Jenkins, Frances Hodgson, Jeff Turner, “Promoting Gender Equality in
                    Transport”, Equal Oportunities Commission, 2005
MULTI USER POLICIES
POLICY MU1
      The Council will continue to maintain, and work to enhance where possible, the existing path
      network and work towards developing multi-use paths as a major contribution to the network.
POLICY MU2
      The Council will work to implement the Outdoor Access Strategy, and within this, the Core Paths
      Network to provide functional and recreational access routes around and between settlements
      in the Falkirk Council area.
POLICY MU3
      The Council will continue to work with schools and other partner bodies to educate children
      about the benefits of walking and cycling and encourage them to walk and cycle to and from school
      where possible.
POLICY MU4
      The Council will work to improve pedestrian and cycle signage throughout the area giving
      particular priority to links between transport nodes and large trip attractors such as town
      centres, major employment sites and hospitals.
POLICY MU5
      The Council will work to improve the pedestrian environment in heavily used areas, such as town
      centres.
POLICY MU6
      The Council will ensure that new developments encourage and enable easy access by foot through
      the Planning and Travel Plan processes.
POLICY MU7
      The Council will seek to maximise the cycle network provision by ensuring that all new
      developments are required to provide cycle facilities and connections to the nearest cycle route,
      where appropriate.Where there are developments which employ staff, developers will be asked to
      provide facilities for staff such as showers and changing facilities.
POLICY MU8
      The Council will seek to link most of the main communities within the Falkirk Council area by cycle
      route:
           Falkirk to Grangemouth
           Grangemouth to Bo’ness
           Bo’ness to Blackness
           Falkirk to Stenhousemuir and Larbert
           Grangemouth to Airth
POLICY MU9
      The Council will seek to include cycle facilities in all new traffic management and maintenance
      schemes to improve cycle provision and safety for cyclists.
POLICY MU10
      The Council will work with partner agencies to promote and implement the Round the Forth cycle
      and walking route and other major cycle facilities such as the new Kincardine Crossing facilities.
POLICY MU11
      The Council will work to ensure all main shopping centres, schools, public health and leisure
      facilities have cycle parking provision.
POLICY MU12
      The Council will monitor cycle use at specific locations to assess take-up.

                                                                                                            38
6.1 MULTI-USER ROUTES – WALKING, CYCLING, HORSERIDING

            POLICY MU13
                  The Council will work with the Falkirk Area Riders Access Group and the British Horse Society
                  to develop new routes and to ensure that routes designated for horseriders have appropriate
                  facilities and will consider providing crossing facilities where the route crosses a busy road.
            POLICY MU14
                  In the event of public roads being stopped up Falkirk Council will normally ensure access is
                  continued for walkers, cyclists and horse riders.
                    The Council will continue to work with schools and other partner bodies to educate children
                    about the benefits of walking and cycling and encourage them to walk and cycle to and from school
                    where possible.
            POLICY MU4
                  The Council will work to improve pedestrian and cycle signage throughout the area giving
                  particular priority to links between transport nodes and large trip attractors such as town centres,
                  major employment sites and hospitals.
            POLICY MU5
                  The Council will work to improve the pedestrian environment in heavily used areas, such as
                  town centres.
            POLICY MU6
                  The Council will ensure that new developments encourage and enable easy access by foot through
                  the Planning and Travel Plan processes.
            POLICY MU7
                  The Council will seek to maximise the cycle network provision by ensuring that all new
                  developments are required to provide cycle facilities and connections to the nearest cycle route,
                  where appropriate. Where there are developments which employ staff, developers will be asked
                  to provide facilities for staff such as showers and changing facilities.
            POLICY MU8
                  The Council will seek to link most of the main communities within the Falkirk Council area by
                  cycle route:
                        Falkirk to Grangemouth
                        Grangemouth to Bo’ness
                        Bo’ness to Blackness
                        Falkirk to Stenhousemuir and Larbert
                        Grangemouth to Airth
            POLICY MU9
                  The Council will seek to include cycle facilities in all new traffic management and maintenance
                  schemes to improve cycle provision and safety for cyclists.
            POLICY MU10
                  The Council will work with partner agencies to promote and implement the Round the Forth cycle
                  and walking route and other major cycle facilities such as the new Kincardine Crossing facilities.
            POLICY MU11
                  The Council will work to ensure all main shopping centres, schools, public health and leisure
                  facilities have cycle parking provision.
            POLICY MU12
                  The Council will monitor cycle use at specific locations to assess take-up.
            POLICY MU13
                  The Council will work with the Falkirk Area Riders Access Group and the British Horse Society to
                  develop new routes and to ensure that routes designated for horseriders have appropriate facilities
                  and will consider providing crossing facilities where the route crosses a busy road.
            POLICY MU14
   39             In the event of public roads being stopped up Falkirk Council will normally ensure access is
                  continued for walkers, cyclists and horse riders.
MULTI-USER ROUTE ACTIONS
Policy  Description                                   Current Status   Time-scale    LTS / SCP
                                                      Objective#
Option 1 Actions*

MU1       Construct Stenhouse Rd
          Footway Widening                            Ongoing          2006          2, 3, 4 / C, E, F

MU1       Implement A904 Grangemouth Rd               Feasibility to   2008          2, 3, 4 / C, E, F
          bus/ cycle lanes and crossing facilities    be undertaken

MU5       Implement upgrading of Bo’ness Town         Started Nov 05   March 2006 2, 3, 4, 5 / A
          Centre to benefit pedestrian areas

MU1,      Implement Braes paths improvements as       Consultation     By end 2006 2, 3 / C, F
MU2,      result of community consultation            completed

MU1,      Implement Bo’ness / Blackness paths         Consultation     By end 2007 2, 3 / C, F
MU2       improvements from community consultation    completed
          (excluding Blackness-Bo’ness shore route)

MU2       Adopt Core Paths Plan                       Ongoing          By 2009       2, 3 / C, F

MU1,      Develop local networks suitable for         Ongoing          By end 2007 2, 3 / C, F
MU2       walking around every settlement in the
          Falkirk Council area

MU4       Implement pedestrian signage within         Work out         By end 2006 1, 2, 3/A, C, F
          and between Falkirk town centre and         to tender
          Central Retail Park

MU1       Airth to Bowtrees Cycle / Footpath          Designed,        2010          2, 3, 4/C, E, F
                                                      negotiating
                                                      with
                                                      landowners.

MU11      Provide Cycle Parking facilities at                          2007          2, 3 / C, E, F
          shopping centre, health and leisure
          centres

MU4       Sign all urban multi-user routes            To start         2007          2, 3, 4 / C, F

MU1,      Improve multi user route access to          To start         2008          2, 3,4, 5/
MU4       railway stations                            To start                       C, E, F

MU1       Primrose Avenue, Grangemouth to             Ongoing land     2009          2, 3, 4 / C, E, F
          Icehouse Brae                               negotiation

MU8       Falkirk to Grangemouth Cycleway –           Negotiation to   2008          2, 3, 4 / C, E, F
          Graeme High School                          be completed
                                                      with Network
                                                      Rail 2006

M10,      Implement Round the Forth                   Successful       2013          1, 2, 3, 4 /
          access initiative                           bid to SE for                  A, C, E, F
             Grangemouth – Airth                      p/t officer
             Bo’ness – Blackness Phase 2              to start
             Grangemouth – Bo’ness                    mid 2006
                                                          2007
                                                          2009
                                                          2010




                                                                                                         40
6.1 MULTI-USER ROUTES – WALKING, CYCLING, HORSERIDING


             MULTI-USER ROUTE ACTIONS
             Policy  Description                                           Current Status    Time-scale        LTS / SCP
                                                                                                               Objective#

             MU7        Mungal Farm – Cycle / footway and bridge           Feasibility study 2006              2, 3, 4 /
                                                                           completed                           C, E, F

             MU1        West Mains Cycleway                                To start          2008              1, 2, 3, 4 / C, E,
                                                                                                               F

             MU1        Stirling Road to Larbert                           To start          2009              2, 3, 4 / C, E, F

             MU13       Develop one pilot “rider friendly”                 To start          March 2008 4 / C, E, F
                        scheme with warning signage on
                        quiet rural roads


             Option 3 Actions*
             MU10      Round the Forth access initiative –                 Initial work      Completion        1, 2, 3, 4 /
                       construct cycling and walking route                 starting          dependent         A, C, E, F
                                                                                             on level of
                                                                                             extra
                                                                                             funding
                                                                                             secured.

             MU1        Develop Grangemouth as a                           Initial                             1, 2, 3, 5 /
                        sustainable travel town project                    feasibility to                      C, E, F
                                                                           start

             MU1        Accelerate completion of:                                                              2, 3, 4 /
                        A904 Grangemouth Rd cycle lanes                                                        C, E, F
                        Primrose Ave/ Icehouse Br
                        Grangemouth to Bo’ness Phase 2
                        West Mains Cycleway
                        Stirling Road to Larbert

             MU1        Construct multi-use path between                                                       2, 3, 4 /
                        Falkirk and Denny/ Bonnybridge                                                         C, E, F

             MU1        Construct link over River Carron to                                                    1, 2, 3, 4 /
                        link Falkirk to Grangemouth/ Skinflats                                                 C, E, F
                        (Abbots Road, Langlees)

             MU2        Accelerate implementation of Outdoor               Work ongoing                        2, 3 / C, E, F
                        Access Strategy
             MU5        Carry out street audits to improve street                                              2, 3, 4 / C, E, F
                        environment for pedestrian especially
                        away from town centres

            # LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
            * Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
            * Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




   41
Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
6.2   TRAVEL PLANS

Introduction
6.2.1 The perception that the car is the quickest and most convenient mode of transport means it is
       important that we create a culture that promotes the benefits of walking and cycling, which can
       provide many wide ranging benefits such as improved health.
6.2.2   In the Falkirk Council area work has been ongoing to promote travel plans for businesses, residential
        areas and schools. Travel Plans can be defined as:
              A package of measures which aim to reduce the impact of travel on the environment.
              This is done by reducing the number of single occupancy car trips being made and
              increasing the use of public transport, walking and cycling.
6.2.3   A Travel Plan can contain any number of measures which aim to encourage walking, cycling,
        motorcycling, public transport and car-sharing. Measures which will reduce the need for travel in
        the first place can also be included. For a Travel Plan to be most effective a mixture of ‘carrot and
        stick’ measures should be used. Examples of such measures include providing cycle parking, pool
        bikes, priority parking for car-sharers, parking charges, public transport information, homeworking
        and teleconferencing.
School Travel Plans
6.2.4 A considerable amount of work has been carried over the past few years on the development of
       School Travel Plans in the Falkirk Council area. The main objective of School Travel Plans is to
       promote more sustainable transport choices to the school community. The School Travel Planning
       process identifies problems, such as the increase in car use and also identifies opportunities that
       encourage more sustainable modes of transport, such as walking and cycling. Through an increase
       in walking and cycling, it is hoped that congestion reduces along school routes, car emissions
       decrease and pupil health and fitness is improved.
6.2.5   The School Travel Plan process also looks at the physical measures that make the school routes safer
        and more appealing to the user. Measures such as traffic calming, 20mph zones, improved pathways
        and better lighting along key routes contribute to making walking and cycling a viable option for
        the school community.
6.2.6   School Travel Plans have a significant role to play in widening the travel choices for the school
        community. They provide schools with the opportunity to encourage healthier, safer and more
        environmentally responsible travel patterns. In doing so, they contribute to reducing emissions,
        reducing congestion on school routes, encouraging healthier lifestyles and improving safety. School
        Travel Plans also provide the opportunity to instil good travel practices at a young age, which pupils
        can carry on into adulthood and will make significant contributions to the Lifelong Learning and
        Opportunity theme of the Strategic Community Plan.
The Challenge
6.2.7 A number of factors can operate to discourage the use of sustainable transport to school. For many
      parents there is a perceived safety risk attached to their children cycling and walking. Issues such
      as too many cars, speed, bullying and stranger danger act as barriers to encouraging children to walk
      or cycle to school. For certain schools cycling and walking is not an option due to the nature of the
      roads and distance from school. For these schools it is important to provide measures such as in
      class work focusing on awareness or providing a life skill such as cycle proficiency training. 40% of
      pedal cycle rider casualties are aged 15 years or less. Initiatives such as offering cycle proficiency
      training (paragraph 6.1.27) should play a part in addressing this.
6.2.8   The perception that the car is the quickest and most convenient mode of transport means it is
        important that we create a culture that promotes the benefits of walking and cycling, which can
        provide many wide ranging benefits such as improved health.



                                                                                                                 42
6.2 TRAVEL PLANS

            Where We Are Now
            6.2.9 Since 2000 41 School Travel Assessments have been completed.The Council has also installed cycle
                  stands at 21 schools and provided cycle markings in 24 playgrounds. 20mph signs have been placed
                  outside 29 schools in financial year 2005/06. The majority of the School Travel Planning work is
                  carried out by the Council’s dedicated School Travel Plan Officer.
            6.2.10 The Active Schools Programme has been a valuable component in the School Travel Planning
                   process. Eight Active Schools Co-ordinators are currently working in the Council area and have
                   provided 45 schools with cycle proficiency training since June 2004. This complements the cycle
                   stand and playground marking installations. It is hoped this training will lead to more children
                   taking up cycling as a mode of transport now and carry this on into the future.
            6.2.11 The Eco School Programme is aimed at encouraging more environmental practices in schools. The
                   aims and objectives of School Travel Plans has been aligned to the Eco Schools Programme. Greener
                   Transport and Travel is one of the key topics within the programme. This section has been re
                   written to incorporate the production of a School Travel Plan. 24 schools are currently taking part
                   in initiatives that contribute to School Travel Plans through Eco Schools including walking buses,
                   cycle training and awareness campaigns.
            6.2.12 Health Promoting Schools is a Scottish Executive initiative which aims to link health and educational
                   achievement. Health is defined as “physical, social, spiritual, mental and emotional well-being in
                   relation to oneself, society and the environment” (Being Well, Doing Well, Scottish Executive
                   2004). All schools are to be health promoting by 2007. This initiative helps to support School
                   Travel Plans, as walking and cycling to school can help pupils’ health, fitness and well being.
            6.2.13 Work is ongoing with 6 schools to develop and implement their own school travel plans. A key aim
                   of this process is getting schools to incorporate objectives and targets to encourage more sustainable
                   travel for the school community. This includes encouraging schools to program events into their
                   academic diaries such as Walk to School and Bike weeks.
            6.2.14 Work is also being carried out in partnership with the Council’s Education Services in offering
                   teacher training days. These training days are aimed at providing teacher with the tools and
                   resources for incorporating School Travel Plans into the curriculum.
            6.2.15 The school travel planning assistance offered by the Council also involves a wide range of resources
                   including ‘Greener Transport and Travel’ guide which forms part of the Eco Schools Programme.
                   Assistance is also given in providing Walk to School Week promotional material to all schools, safety
                   equipment and dedicated School Travel Plan Officer offering teacher support in delivering lessons
                   on travel issues.
            What We’re Going to Do
            6.2.16 Work will continue with the schools within the Council area to encourage the production and
                   adoption of school travel plans. By Spring 2006 all 56 schools in the Falkirk Council area will have
                   had a School Travel Assessment.
            6.2.17 The Eco Schools Programme will continue to support the School Travel Plan process. This will be
                   encouraged by offering training opportunities and resources to schools staff to facilitate the
                   production of School Travel Plans.
            6.2.18 The Active Schools Programme is funded until March 2008 and partnership working will continue
                   with the Active School Team to encourage the uptake of cycling and walking activities. Seven more
                   schools will have cycle stands and line painting provided to support this initiative.
            6.2.19 During financial year 2006/07 20mph signs will have been installed at all schools.
            6.2.20 To maximise the support and sustainability of school travel the Council’s School Travel Plan Officer
                   will seek to encourage schools to make Travel Plans an action point in School Development Plans.
            6.2.21 Travel awareness campaigns such as Walk to School and Bike weeks will continue to encourage the
                   school community to adopt greener transport and travel options.


   43
Business and Residential Travel Plans
6.2.22 In return for the investment in a Travel Plan there are a number of benefits to employers,
       employees, the local community and to the wider environment. These benefits are summarised
       below:
6.2.23 Employers and local businesses can benefit from increased productivity generated by a
       healthier and more motivated workforce, potential cost savings in expenses, reduced levels of
       congestion, reduced demand for car parking and improved access by employees, visitors and
       deliveries. A Travel Plan can also assist a company in gaining environmental accreditation.
6.2.24 Employees can benefit from improved health, greater choice of mode of travel, personal cost and
       time savings, reduced stress and a general improvement in their quality of life.
6.2.25 The local community can enjoy reduced levels of congestion, reduced journey times, improved
       public transport services and facilities (contributing to efforts to tackle social exclusion), reduced
       overspill parking in residential areas and reduced levels of noise and air pollution.
6.2.26 The wider environment can benefit from reduced levels of airborne pollutants such as sulphur
       and nitrogen oxides and reduced levels of carbon dioxide emissions.
The Challenge
6.2.27 Travel plans can be applied to the majority of workplaces however it is not to say that they will be
       able to cater for everyone. For many people alternative modes of transport are simply not a viable
       option, perhaps due to physical disabilities or the need to transport goods. However, the remainder
       of the population can be targeted and progress can be made.
6.2.28 Perhaps one of the most important barriers to the use of sustainable transport is a lack of
       awareness and information of other modes amongst the population. This is therefore a major issue
       that needs to be addressed in order to make the population more aware of the options in their area
       and to re-educate people to consider non-car modes of transport first and to not always presume
       that the car is the only option for a particular journey. An example of how this is being targeted
       so far is through the production of the Falkirk Green Travel Map which highlights sustainable
       transport options in the majority of the Council area.
Where We Are Now
6.2.29 A considerable amount of work has been carried out over the past few years on the development of
       Travel Plans in the Falkirk Council area. Travel Plans are currently being developed for several
       major employers including the Council, the NHS and the Falkirk Stadium.
6.2.30 The Council’s own Travel Plan is progressing steadily. So far the Council’s Travel Plan has focussed
       on Development Services which is being used as a pilot site for a number of sustainable travel
       initiatives. Examples of these include pool bicycle and pool car schemes which allow staff to
       commute sustainably and still conduct work out of the office if necessary.
6.2.31 Travel Plans have now become an important part of the planning process. In order to increase the
       use of sustainable transport and to minimise the impact of new developments, Travel Plans have
       been required either as planning conditions or as part of Section 75 agreements for a growing
       number of developments.
6.2.32 An example of such, is the work currently ongoing with the NHS Forth Valley to develop a travel
       plan for its new hospital site at Larbert which will serve the wider Forth Valley area and is due to
       be operational in 2009. There are significant travel issues related to this site and the objective of the
       travel plan is to ensure travel to and from this new health care facility will be as easy and convenient
       as possible by all modes of transport and from across all areas of the hospital’s catchment.
6.2.33 Targeting new developments however, only goes part way to solving the problem of the
       dominance of the car. The Council is also working in partnership with several local businesses to
       develop Travel Plans for existing companies. Although these businesses have no legal obligation to
       develop a Travel Plan, the uptake has been good so far and work to encourage other businesses to
       follow suit is being undertaken.

                                                                                                                   44
6.2 TRAVEL PLANS

            6.2.34 The Council is working in partnership with several external organisations, such as the Scottish
                   Executive and Falkirk Environment Trust, to promote the use of Travel Plans and the wider use
                   of sustainable transport. Through partnerships such as these it is hoped that it will become easier
                   for the population to consider walking, cycling and public transport use as realistic alternatives
                   to the car.
            6.2.35 The Council currently participates in campaigns such as Bike2Work Week. This is a national
                   campaign aimed at encouraging employees to commute sustainably for a week. It is hoped that
                   by conducting events such as this more people will realise that the car is not the only viable option
                   they have for commuting.
            What We’re Going To Do
            6.2.36 There is still a considerable amount of work to be done regarding the development of Employer
                   Travel Plans in the Falkirk Council area. The Council will therefore continue to work to raise
                   awareness and promote Travel Plans at existing sites and encourage the business community in
                   the Falkirk Council area to develop their own travel plans. There will now also be a requirement
                   for all new developments in the Council area which meet the requirements for a Transport
                   Assessment to develop a Travel Plan outlining how they intend to minimise the number of vehicles
                   entering their site and to control the impact of traffic generated by the development.
            6.2.37 Work will be carried out to further develop the Council’s Travel Plan and roll it out across all
                   of the Council. Up until now the Travel Plan work has mainly been focussed on Development
                   Services, however, work is soon to begin at the Municipal Buildings in order to get their Travel Plan
                   underway. Over the longer term it is anticipated that Travel Plans will be developed for all
                   Council sites.
            6.2.38 The Council will continue to work with external organisations such as the Scottish Executive,
                   Falkirk Enterprise Action Trust, My Future’s in Falkirk Business Panel and Falkirk Environment
                   Trust to promote sustainable travel. This will allow the continued involvement of local businesses
                   in the Travel Plan process and raise awareness amongst the population of the benefits of sustainable
                   travel.
            6.2.39 As a partner in the South East Scotland Transport Partnership (SESTRAN), Falkirk Council will be
                   able to make use of a regional car sharing database. The database will be able to match people from
                   the same area who are travelling to the same destination to allow them to car share. This system
                   should be operational by 2007 and will greatly help with developing employer travel plans.
            6.2.40 In regard to marketing, the Council has committed to carrying out a minimum of two national
                   campaigns per year, such as Bike Week and In Town Without My Car. Promotional work and general
                   awareness raising will be carried out on an ongoing basis. Travel Plan road shows are being prepared
                   to take round various local businesses and shopping centres in an effort to increase levels of
                   awareness. These will be comprised mainly of display boards and information leaflets, as well as
                   having staff on hand to discuss individual circumstances with people.
            6.2.41 Residential Travel Plans are a relatively new concept. Along with ensuring that appropriate
                   infrastructure is in place, such as cycle stands and links to existing cycling and walking routes,
                   residential travel plans generally include an information pack for each dwelling in the development.
                   This will provide new home owners with valuable information on the facilities and services that
                   are able in the local area, details of bus routes and times as well information on walking and cycling
                   routes. Together it is hoped that, with improved infrastructure and access to up to date information,
                   residents will consider more sustainable forms of transport over the car for certain trips.
            6.2.42 Based on guidance recently issued by the Department for Transport the Council will now be
                   requiring the development of residential Travel Plans for all new developments of 100 dwellings
                   or more.
                   Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
            6.2.43 Travel Plans are all about reducing travel by car by widening the alternative travel options to
                   employment areas and schools. In doing this, social inclusion and accessibility are significantly
                   improved as those without access to a car or on lower incomes have realistic alternatives to access
                   employment opportunities thus contributing to community regeneration.
   45
       Gender and Race Audit
6.2.44 As with community regeneration and accessibility, travel plans can positively contribute to gender
       and race equality. Travel plans are tailored to individual employment sites and as such should be able
       to promote transport options to meet the needs of that particular workforce. One element of this
       could be to provide travel information to that site in different languages and formats.
6.2.45 Employer and school travel plans operate to ensure travel for women is easier on a number of
       fronts. The measures put in place to make walking and cycling safer and more commodious to
       schools will automatically assist women in taking children to school. Similarly, the measures to
       improve walking, cycling and public transport options to employment sites will greatly assist
       women to access job opportunities as they are less likely to hold a driving licence or have access to
       a car than a man.
       Sustainability Audit
6.2.46 The travel planning process, where successful, will result in more opportunities for people to
       walk, cycle or take public transport thus this initiative will make a positive contribution to
       sustainability objectives.
SCHOOL TRAVEL PLAN POLICIES
POLICY TP1
      The Council will work with local schools to promote and implement school travel plans to
      reduce congestion around schools, improve safety, reduce environmental impact and promote
      good health.
POLICY TP2
      The Council will work with the Active School Co-ordinators to promote the uptake of initiatives
      contributing to the objectives and effectiveness of school travel plans.
BUSINESS & RESIDENTIAL TRAVEL PLAN POLICIES
POLICY TP3
      All new developments which meet the requirements for a Transport Assessment will be required to
      produce a Travel Plan.
POLICY TP4
      The Council will work with developers to secure Travel Plans for all new residential developments
      of 100 dwellings or more. Vigorous monitoring procedures will be put in place to ensure that all
      Travel Plans are adhered to.
POLICY TP5
      The Council will work with local businesses to develop Travel Plans for existing and new businesses.




                                                                                                                46
6.2 TRAVEL PLANS


           TRAVEL PLAN ACTIONS
           Policy   Description                                          Current Status    Time-scale        LTS / SCP
                                                                                                             Objective#
           Option 1 Actions*
           TP1       Hold 2 awareness campaigns for schools              4 completed       Ongoing           3 / B, C
                     per year                                            to date
           TP1       Complete School Travel Assessments at               41 completed      Summer            2, 3, 4 /
                     all 56 Schools in Falkirk Council Area              to date           2006              B, C, E, F
           TP1       Carry out annual hands up survey at all             1 complete by     May               3/B
                     schools to monitor modal shifts                     May 2005          2006
           TP1       Have 60% of schools signed up to                    20% are           Spring            3 / B, C
                     participating in their own school travel            currently         2008
                     planning process                                    involved
           TP2       Install cycle parking and playground                21 schools        Summer
                     markings at 7 schools                               completed         2006              2, 3, 4 / C, F
                                                                         to date
           TP1        20mph signing to be installed outside              Phase 1 to be     March             4/E
                      all schools                                        implemented       2007
                                                                         May 2006
           TP4        Conduct minimum of 6 Travel Plan road              To be started     Ongoing           3/B
                      shows at business sites per year                   March 2006
           TP4        Have car sharing database operational              Being             April             1, 3 / C, D
                      for Falkirk Council area                           purchased         2007
                                                                         by SESTRAN
           TP4      Develop 3 Council Travel Plans and                   Ongoing           2008              1, 3 / A, C, D
                    target sites with over 250 employees
                    to develop Travel Plans
           TP4      Develop a Council wide, generic Travel               To be started     Dec 2006          3 / B, C
                    Plan document
           TP3, TP4 Provide Travel Plan guidance pack for                To be started     Dec 2006          3 / B, C
                    developers and businesses
           TP4      Hold 2 pilot personalised Travel Planning            To be started     Dec 2006          3 / B, C
                    sessions within Falkirk Council
           TP4      Carry out a minimum of 2 campaigns per               Ongoing           Ongoing           3 / B, C
                    year involving local businesses.

           Option 3 Actions*
           TP1, TP2 Implement recommendations, including                 Completion                          2, 3, 4 /
                     infrastructure improvements, from                   dependent                           B, C, E, F
                         School Travel Assessments                       on level of
                                                                         extra funding
                                                                         secured
           TP1        Carry out marketing and awareness                                                      3/B
                      work with school pupils
           TP1        Put in place a monitoring programme                                                    3, 4/ B, C, E
                      that looks at the impact of cycle
                      proficiency
           TP1        Install cycle shelters at Falkirk Council High Schools               2, 3 / C, F

          # LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
          * Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
          * Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




   47
Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
6.3   PUBLIC TRANSPORT

        Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
6.3.1   An attractive and convenient public transport system is an essential component of a transport policy
        encouraging more sustainable travel. For an authority the size of Falkirk this fundamentally means
        an efficient and frequent bus service. The nature of the settlement pattern of a number of small to
        medium-sized towns and thus a fairly dispersed population, means light rapid transit, such as tram,
        is uneconomic.
6.3.2   However, the Falkirk Council area does benefit from having 5 railway stations located on the
        Edinburgh, Glasgow, Stirling triangle. The primary function of these stations is to provide inter-
        urban travel and means Falkirk has excellent connections north to Aberdeen and Inverness and
        south to Glasgow, Edinburgh and on to England. Rail is particularly important for work commuting
        trips between Falkirk, Glasgow and Edinburgh. Rail also provides for some local travel although
        this is more limited than the service the bus network provides for local journeys.
6.3.3   Taxis also play a valuable part in public transport provision. Whilst they can frequently be the main
        mode of travel, perhaps their most significant contribution is made in conjunction with other forms
        of transport such as providing for the journey from the train to home. They also perform a key role
        for short local journeys where goods or luggage are being carried, for example, from the
        supermarket to home. Falkirk has a fleet of just over 500 licensed vehicles of which around 50 are
        accessible.
The Challenge
6.3.4 The main barrier to public transport use is increasing car ownership and more importantly,
      increasing usage. This, combined with the associated convenience travel by car can offer in that you
      can go directly from your home to your chosen destination at precisely the time you choose,
      operates to make public transport less attractive than car travel. There is also the perception that
      it does not cost to use the car, as, with the exception of filling up with petrol on occasion, there is
      no payment at point of use. In addition, the individual rarely calculates the true cost of each car trip
      factoring in such expenses as road tax, car insurance and vehicle depreciation. Public transport, on
      the other hand, has an immediate and quantifiable cost.
6.3.5   Public transport also suffers from the real and perceived issues of journey reliability, poor quality
        or infrequent services, and overloaded services at peak times. The lack of direct routes and the need
        to interchange also operate to discourage public transport use. This is particularly so if the journey
        being made terminates somewhere other than a town centre, for instance in a business park located
        on the outskirts of a town. Interchange therefore needs to be as quick and convenient as possible
        in safe, clean and pleasant surroundings. The nature of the settlement pattern in the Falkirk Council
        area of a number of smaller towns and villages means that often public transport journey times are
        longer than the equivalent trip by car as a number of villages are served on route.
6.3.6   Perceptions of safety regarding the use of public transport can often present a barrier. For example,
        often women are reluctant to use public transport at night if they have to wait for a bus in a poorly
        lit or quiet street, or if they have to wait between connecting services at night. This is borne out by
        the conclusions of the Scottish Household survey 2001-02 which found that women in Scotland
        were much more likely than men not to feel safe when travelling on buses or trains. This deep
        concern about personal security has important implications for issues such as design of transport
        interchanges and waiting areas and for staffing.
6.3.7   Awareness of the public transport services available and how to access information on them can be
        a barrier that prevents use of public transport. This is particularly the case with travel by bus. The
        difficulty is most apparent for those who have never used their local bus service before. It can be
        difficult to find out where bus services operate as often timetable information, where it exists, does
        not include a map and without local place name knowledge, following the route to establish if it
        serves your destination can be difficult.


                                                                                                                  48
6.3 PUBLIC TRANSPORT

            6.3.8   Public transport can be difficult or impossible for people with disabilities, or parents with
                    pushchairs to use. Attempting to access a non- low floor bus with a small child, shopping and a
                    folded pushchair is particularly difficult without the help of a fellow passenger. The current practice
                    of One Person Operation of buses, does not help this matter. Steps within vehicles and the height
                    difference between the footway and the vehicle making a large step necessary, excludes a sizeable
                    element of the population from accessing public transport.
            6.3.9   For rail, an additional barrier is presented by the pedestrian bridges crossing the rail lines
                    themselves. For example, at Falkirk High and Polmont stations access to the Glasgow bound
                    platforms for wheelchair bound passengers is circuitous in order to avoid pedestrian bridges with
                    steps (although an improvement on what existed previously). For taxi use, both cost and physical
                    accessibility issues tend to present the main barriers to usage.
            Where We Are Now
            6.3.10 The key to meeting the challenge of increasing public transport use and reducing travel by car is
                   therefore to make public transport as frequent, safe, convenient and reliable as possible. To achieve
                   this, journeys need to be seamless through effective integration. Information needs to be easily
                   understood and easy to access in a number of formats and the services offered must serve the
                   origins and destinations people want to travel between. Reliability needs to be improved and safety
                   needs to be built into the transport system. This can be achieved by allowing public transport
                   vehicles to bypass the worst congestion, making service times more predictable throughout the day.
                   The following outlines what has been implemented within the Council area over the last four years
                   to support and encourage more use of public transport.
                   Bus Travel
            6.3.11 In 2001 the main local bus operator ceased operating a number of previously commercial services.
                   The Council took these on as subsidised services in order to maintain frequencies, particularly
                   during the evening, for a number of communities. This necessitated a 15% increase in the budget.
                   The Council has also carried out a revision of its contracted bus services to provide better links
                   between settlements and employment areas. These changes came into place in August 2005 and
                   are funded as part of the authority’s £1.5 million annual spend on bus service provision (2005/06).
            6.3.12 To improve public transport information we are continuing to maintain bus timetable displays and
                   approximately 50% of bus stops in the Council area have information at them. A public transport
                   information database has also been purchased which provides journey planner services via the
                   Council’s website. This should come online in early 2006. This is in addition to the information
                   service provided by Traveline Scotland, the national travel information database of which the
                   Council is a shareholder. Five Area Guides have been produced detailing timetable information of
                   all bus services serving that particular area. These have been available since August 2005.
            6.3.13 The Council is required under the Transport (Scotland) Act 2001 to produce a public transport
                   information strategy. This strategy details what local bus information should be made available to
                   the public and the way in which this information should be provided. The objective of the strategy
                   is to help existing public transport users and target non-users to help increase patronage. As part
                   of work carried out to develop a Public Transport Information Strategy for the Council, a small
                   survey of approximately 100 people was conducted. This established that 55% stated printed
                   timetables were the most useful type of public transport information with a further 23% finding the
                   internet most useful. This strategy is contained in Annex 2.
            6.3.14 Both the Transport Act 1985 and the Transport (Scotland) Act 2001 place a requirement on the local
                   authority to provide a policy document for the procurement of public transport services and to
                   formally consult on this. The Council has produced such a document detailing its policy and
                   procedures on procuring public transport services for the Council area (Annex 3).
            6.3.15 A park and ride service opened in 2003 providing a “straight into town” service from the Falkirk
                    Wheel site west of Camelon to Falkirk town centre. This facility uses bus lanes along Main Street,
                    Camelon and Camelon Road to help services avoid the worst of peak hour congestion and combines
                    a 200 space car park with high quality waiting facilities. The car park is lit and covered by CCTV
                    to provide high levels of security. Two new fully accessible vehicles were purchased specifically for
                    the park and ride service which operates from 7am to 7pm on a 10 minute frequency six days a
                    week.To date however, the level of usage of this facility is relatively low.
   49
6.3.16 A further three new vehicles were purchased using Scottish Executive funding, one to provide a low
       floor easyboarder service and the other two for contract services. These new vehicles were fully
       accessible and supplement the 50% of the commercial fleet operating in the Council area that is
       accessible. Quality of Life funding from the Scottish Executive of £87,000 over two financial years
       (2004/05 and 2005/06) has enabled the installation of CCTV on school buses and a number of
       public service buses. In total 25 buses have been equipped with 5 cameras per vehicle. This feature
       will significantly contribute to improved safety on those vehicles.
6.3.17 The Council secured £420,000 Bus Route Development Grant funding over 3 years to 2007/08 to
       increase frequencies and upgrade bus shelters and stops on the Larbert Circle routes. In addition
       to this, we are continuing to replace and upgrade bus shelters in poor condition as part of the
       ongoing maintenance works.
6.3.18 In terms of integration, the Council continues to support the SESTRAN (South East Scotland
       Transport Partnership) OneTicket initiative. This enables through tickets to be purchased through
       out the south east of Scotland and therefore should make interchange between services more
       straightforward.
6.3.19 To ensure safety for those travelling by public transport, the Council continues to maintain and
       improve street lighting. This is a key element in helping to minimise the fear of using public
       transport at night and is particularly relevant for the walking routes to and from bus stops and at
       the stop itself.
       Rail Travel
6.3.20 To facilitate more travel by rail we have worked with the rail industry to increase the car parking
       provision at Falkirk High and Polmont stations. Both car parks were frequently at capacity and, with
       the increase in service provision between Glasgow and Edinburgh from 2 to 4 trains per hour, more
       car parking was important to help meet demand for travel by train. In total, an additional 50 spaces
       were provided at Falkirk High with an extra 100 at Polmont. Both car parks are currently well used.
       Travel options to Falkirk High Station were increased with the introduction of a new tendered bus
       service directly connecting the residential area of Lionthorn to Falkirk High Station in August 2005.
6.3.21 In both the Council’s Local and Structure Plans, land is currently safeguarded for a number of new
       rail station sites across the Council area.
6.3.22 Travel by train has been steadily growing since the mid 1990s with substantial growth in the last
       few years. For example, there has been just under 13% increase between 2003/04 and 2004/05
       in the number of people travelling on trains to and from the five stations in the Falkirk Council area.
       Polmont has seen the highest individual station growth with a rise of just over 16% over the same
       time period. This growth is illustrated in Figure 6.3.

        Figure 6.3 Rail travel to and from stations in Falkirk Council area
             3,000,000

             2,500,000

             2,000,000

             1,500,000

             1,000,000

               500,000

                     0
                      1975              ‘80           ‘85     ‘90          ‘95         2000
                       Year
                         Sources: British Rail, Scot Rail
                                                                                                                 50
6.3 PUBLIC TRANSPORT

                   Figure 6.3 Rail Travel To and From Stations in Falkirk Council Area
                   Sources: British Rail, ScotRail
                   Concessionary Travel
            6.3.23 The Council continues to provide concessionary travel for elderly and disabled residents. From
                   2002 those eligible for the scheme have benefited from free bus travel within the Forth Valley area
                   after 9.30am, Monday to Friday and all day Saturday and Sunday. The concession also allows half
                   price rail travel between stations within the Falkirk Council area. In 2003 men between 60 and 64
                   became eligible for concessionary travel. At present there are just over 27,000 holders of the
                   concessionary travel pass, 1,200 taxicard holders and just over 300 people entitled to the Scottish
                   Blind Persons Travel Card.The Council spent £2.2 million on concessionary travel in 2004/05 that
                   provided just over 2 and a half million trips.
                   Taxi Travel
            6.3.24 Taxis and private hire vehicles play an important role in public transport provision in that they
                   complement most other modes of travel by efficiently providing links at the beginning, end or
                   between sections of a journey. Falkirk Council currently has 490 taxis and 46 private hire licenses.
                   There are approximately 50 accessible vehicles within the fleet. There are 17 taxi ranks across the
                   Council area with a small number of private ranks also operating at locations such as large
                   supermarkets and Central Retail Park.
            6.3.25 In 2002 the Council introduced the restriction that new taxi licenses would only be issued to
                   accessible vehicles. The objective of this was to encourage a greater number of accessible vehicles
                   so taxis are better able to serve the travelling public regardless of any disability. The Authority runs
                   a Taxi Forum that meets around twice a year to consult with the taxi trade and work to providing a
                   high quality service.
            6.3.26 In terms of integration between taxi and other transport modes, 4 of the 5 railway stations have taxi
                   ranks serving them and a rank at a supermarket adjacent to Falkirk bus station caters for integration
                   with travel by bus.


            What We’re Going To Do
            6.3.27 Over the next few years all bus stops in the Council area will be allocated SMS (Short Messaging
                   Service) numbers that will enable people to get travel information via their mobile phone. Funding
                   sources will be sought to provide new bus shelters and infrastructure upgrades.Travel information
                   will be provided through timetable cases at bus stops, production of Area Guides and via the
                   journey planner services the Council supports. The Council will also continue to work with bus
                   operators to provide information and service enhancements. The Council will implement the
                   recommendations of the Public Transport Information Strategy to improve ease of access to
                   information thus enabling people to make the choice of travelling by public transport where
                   feasible.
            6.3.28 In the longer term, the Council will seek to introduce real time information for bus travel and, in
                   partnership with First Edinburgh, to upgrade Falkirk bus station to improve the quality of the
                   interchange environment.
                    An extension to the parking provision at Larbert railway station is planned. This will increase the
                    car park facility to over 300 spaces. This extension should be in place during 2006. There will be
                    room to include bus interchange facilities connecting the station to the new hospital site serving
                    Falkirk and other ancillary business development at the hospital. Further car parking provision is
                    being sought for Falkirk High Station with an additional 50 spaces identified for construction within
                    the next 3 years.
            6.3.29 Again in the longer term, the Council will seek to establish the feasibility of implementing park and
                   ride facilities at Westfield to the east of Falkirk and also at a site to the north of the town. The
                   Westfield site is currently mentioned in the Local Plan. In the shorter term, a route action study
                   on the B902 from Stenhousemuir into Falkirk town centre, will look at securing increased bus
                   priority along this corridor. This study is expected to conclude Spring 2006.

   51
6.3.30 Significant changes will be seen in concessionary travel with the introduction in April 2006 of a
       national scheme. This will entitle those eligible to free travel by bus throughout Scotland and hence
       will offer far greater travel opportunities for those participating in the scheme.
6.3.31 The taxi operation will see a number of changes in the next few years. It is likely that legislation
       will be introduced requiring taxi radio stations to be licensed and the Council's next tariff review
       due within the next two years will see the introduction of calendar meters in vehicles. This means
       that all taxis in the Council area will operate with meters that have preset tariffs for peak and off-
       peak periods. At present some taxis operate with meters which can be manually adjusted to apply
       different tariff charges. The Council will continue to work with the taxi trade to encourage the
       purchase of accessible vehicles.
       Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
6.3.32 Much of the work being carried out in providing public transport options significantly contributes
       to community regeneration and with it, the social inclusion and accessibility agendas. The provision
       of non-commercial services by the Council ensures the continuation of travel options for specific
       areas or specific times, such as evenings or Sundays. The use of low floor vehicles on subsidised
       services will help those with a small degree of mobility difficulty, or parents with pushchairs, to use
       public transport.
6.3.33 Concessionary travel has social inclusion at its core. Elderly or disabled people, who for the most
       part tend to be on lower incomes, benefit from free travel by bus and reduced fare train travel. In
       the same way, the Council’s policy on requiring new licensed taxis to be fully accessible contributes
       to both social inclusion and accessibility by widening travel options for people who cannot use
       conventional transport.
       Gender and Race Audit
6.3.34 Research has found that women make shorter trips than men, are less likely to possess a driving
       licence and hence make more trips by foot and bus. Many of their trips will be escort trips such as
       taking children to school or healthcare. They are also more likely to feel unsafe when travelling on
       their own. The ongoing work to promote travel by bus through providing non-commercial services,
       improving infrastructure such as shelters and making travel information more accessible, for
       example providing it in different languages when requested, means we are working to ensure we
       tackling gender and race issues in transport.
6.3.35 Similarly, the provision of increasing numbers of low floor vehicles means the difficulties posed by
       traditional vehicle design which hinders those with children or shopping is beginning to decrease.
       The design of such features as step height, seating design, positioning of grab rails and push bells is
       now beginning to take into account the smaller dimensions of women and children who constitute
       the majority of bus passengers.12 Initiatives such as the increased frequency of service on the
       Larbert circular route provided though Bus Route Development Grant funding gives access to two
       primary schools and a business park with a call centre. As such these initiatives promote both
       gender equality in transport and community regeneration.
6.3.36 The provision of better interchange facilities as well as improved lighting and security features such
       as Help Points at railway stations will particularly contribute to making public transport more
       attractive to women by combating some of their safety concerns. This should also address a
       significant race issue as studies have found that women from ethnic minorities have heightened fears
       about safety.13
       Sustainability Audit
6.3.37 Travel by bus or train, due to the numbers of people that can be carried in comparison to single
       occupancy car trips, is considered to be a more sustainable travel option than the car. Therefore
       encouraging and facilitating more travel by public transport will assist with achieving a more
       sustainable community.



        12- Kerry Hamilton, Linda Jenkins, Frances Hodgson, Jeff Turner,“Promoting Gender Equality in Transport”, Equal
        Oportunities Commission, 2005
        13- Reid-Howie Associates (2000) “Women and Transport: Moving Forward” report for the Scottish Executive Central
                                                                                                                           52
        Research Unit. Edinburgh.The Stationary Office.
6.3 PUBLIC TRANSPORT

            PUBLIC TRANSPORT POLICIES
            POLICY PT1
                  The Council will continue to work with local bus operators to ensure the bus network, and
                  services offered, are comprehensive and meet the needs of the travelling public when making
                  journeys in and beyond the Falkirk Council area.
            POLICY PT2
                  The Council will continue to work with local bus operators to provide the public with easily
                  understood and easily accessible travel information in a variety of formats.
            POLICY PT3
                  The Council will continue to provide new and upgraded public transport infrastructure as
                  funding permits to provide a safe, clean and convenient travel experience.
            POLICY PT4
                  The Council will work with bus operators to secure the upgrading of Falkirk Bus Station to
                  improve interchange facilities.
            POLICY PT5
                  The Council will work with the Scottish Executive, SESTRAN, local authorities and public
                  transport operators to promote and implement regional and national initiatives including, but not
                  exclusively:
                        A national concessionary travel scheme
                        SESTRAN OneTicket scheme
                        Traveline public transport information initiative
            POLICY PT6
                  The Council will continue to work with the taxi trade to ensure the people of Falkirk benefit
                  from an accessible, high quality service.
            POLICY PT7
                  The Council will continue to work with the Scottish Executive and First ScotRail to improve
                  access to railway stations and encourage more travel by train.




   53
 PUBLIC TRANSPORT ACTIONS
 Policy   Description                                           Current Status    Time-scale       LTS / SCP
                                                                                                   Objective#
 Option 1 Actions*
 TP1       Hold 2 awareness campaigns for schools               4 completed       Ongoing          3 / B, C
           per year                                             to date
 TP1       Complete School Travel Assessments at                41 completed      Summer           2, 3, 4 /
 PT2       Install Journey Planner information system           System            May 2006         2, 3, 5 / C, D
                                                                purchased
 PT7        Extend Larbert Railway Station car park             Temp car park     Late 2006        5 / A, C
                and accommodate bus interchange                 operating         (subject to
            facilities                                          April 2006        SESTRAN
                                                                                  funding)
 PT5        Work with Scottish Executive to implement           Ongoing           April 2006       2/D
            national travel concessions scheme
 PT3        Construct new bus turning area at                   Site              2008       2, 3 / C, D
            Coneypark, Banknock                                 investigation     dependent
                                                                ongoing           on funding
 PT1, PT2, Implement remaining Bus Route                        Ongoing           March 2008 2, 3 / C, D
 PT3        Development Grant by installing
            infrastructure on specified routes
 PT3, PT5, Continue to safeguard sites for possible
 PT7        new railway stations, as identified in Local Plan   Ongoing                      5 / A, C, D
 PT6        Introduce calendar meters in taxi fleet             Principle         March 2008 1, 5 / C
                agreed
 Action 3 Actions *
 PT2        Install Real Time Information system for            Completion                         2, 3 / C, D
            bus travel in Falkirk                               for all schemes
                                                                dependent on
                                                                level of extra
                                                                funding secured
 PT4        Upgrade Falkirk Bus Stn                                                                2, 3, 5 / C, D
 PT3        Upgrade Bus Stances, Grangemouth                                                       2, 3, 5 / C, D
 PT3        Upgrade Bo’ness Bus Station                                                            2, 3, 5 / C, D
 PT7        Provide extra car parking at Falkirk High Station                     5 / A, C
 PT7        Improve cycling, walking, bus access                                                   2, 3, 4, 5 /
            to railway stations                                                                    A, C, D, E, F

# LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
* Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
* Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding




                                                                                                                    54
     6.4     ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT

     Introduction
     6.4.1 Accessible transport is a specialised area of the transport sector that makes a vital contribution
            towards the Council’s social inclusion objectives. For many people the use of conventional public
            transport is not an option due to physical disability. There is also a growing need for accessible
            transport for community groups. Without the provision of such services transport options would
            be severely limited or non-existent for a significant section of the community.
     6.4.2   The Council supports a variety of initiatives that positively contribute to the social inclusion and
             community regeneration agendas by widening travel choice. Dial-A-Journey, operated by Order
             of Malta Dial-A-Journey Ltd, offers door-to-door fully accessible transport for people with
             disabilities across Falkirk, Stirling and Clackmannanshire Council areas.The service, which operates
             seven days a week, needs to be pre-booked. Dial-A-Journey also offers group hire of accessible
             vehicles for registered community groups. This service is often the only transport option for many
             community groups.
     6.4.3   The Blue Badge parking scheme enables people who cannot walk more than short distances to park
             close to their destination. There are currently just under 7,500 registered Blue Badge holders in
             the Falkirk area who benefit from being able to use specially designated spaces, park free in Council
             car parks and park on most on-street restrictions provided they do not cause an obstruction or
             hazard. The Council also provides, where appropriate, on-street disabled parking bays in residential
             areas to assist those with limited mobility to park close to their home.
     6.4.4   The Shopmobility service, operated by Central Shopmobility Ltd, complements the above
             initiatives. It provides a free electric scooter or wheelchair loan service to people visiting the town
             centre. The service is offered in Falkirk town centre and via a retail outlet in Grangemouth.
     6.4.5   Concessionary travel directly supports accessible transport objectives. Taxicard is designed to
             benefit those who cannot use conventional public transport and the concessionary travel pass is only
             applicable to those over 60 years of age who are more likely to have mobility difficulties or those
             under 60 who have disabilities. The details of Falkirk Council’s concessionary travel scheme are
             given in the Public Transport section.
     6.4.6   Not only does transport need to be accessible, but the street environment should to be as accessible
             as possible for people with limited mobility. This involves the provision of facilities such as dropped
             crossings and a programme to ensure that all traffic signal junctions are compliant with the
             Disability Discrimination Act.
     The Challenge
     6.4.7 The need for accessible transport is likely to increase over time as future forecasts indicate the trend
           in the UK is for an ageing population. At the same time people have higher expectations regarding
           where, when and how they travel. The demand for more accessible transport services is therefore
           likely to grow.
     6.4.8   The challenge will be to provide the types of services, the quality expected, the flexibility to
             meet individual needs and to ensure quality of life within available transport budgets. A point in
             case is illustrated by the provision of dropped crossings to assist those in wheelchairs and electric
             scooters or those with pushchairs to cross roads. These are required across the Council area, but
             existing budgets dictate that a limited number can be provided each year. There is also an increasing
             demand for access to the countryside for people with limited mobility.
     6.4.9   Travel trends also change over time and adapting to meet these new changes can be challenging. An
             example of this is that in recent years the level of usage of Dial-A-Journey has decreased despite the
             ageing population, however, this now appears to be stabilising. The reasons for this are likely to be
             complex. It could be that the increase in low floor bus provision means that those on the borderline
             of requiring the Dial-A-Journey service can now use mainstream public transport. The introduction
             of free bus travel across Scotland, the fact that more older people own cars and are driving for
             longer than was previously the case, or are more reliant on taxis, may all have had an impact.

55
Where We Are Now
6.4.10 Since 2000 Dial-A-Journey has relocated to larger premises. Shopmobility has also extended its
       premises in Falkirk town centre in order to accommodate an increasing number of electric scooters
       and chairs required to meet the level of demand it experiences.
6.4.11 As previously mentioned in section 6.1, the Council has produced an Outdoor Access Strategy
       2005-2010. This strategy recognises the demand for accessible routes to enable people with limited
       mobility to enjoy the outdoor areas within and surrounding our towns and villages.
What We’re Going To Do
6.4.12 To ensure the travel needs of those with disabilities in the Falkirk Council area are met and in view
       of the changing population patterns, a study has been commissioned to review the Dial-A-Journey
       and Shopmobility operations. This will be completed by June 2006.
6.4.13 A review is currently underway regarding the whole issue of disabled parking spaces in residential
       areas. The objective of this review is to ensure that the qualifying criteria is such that the service
       is targeted toward those most in need and doing so in a way that represents best value. Work will
       carry on to install dropped crossings at identified locations across the Council area and to ensure
       the Council’s traffic signal junctions comply with the requirements of the Disability Discrimination
       Act.
6.4.14 Under the work being carried out as part of the Outdoor Access Strategy, the Council proposes to
       provide at minimum, one “access for all” route to British Telecom Countryside for all “Standards and
       Guidelines” in each settlement in the Falkirk Council area.
       Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
6.4.15 The main function of Dial-A-Journey is about addressing social inclusion and accessibility issues.
       This form of transport serves solely those who are excluded from using conventional transport.
       Similarly, Shopmobility’s core business is about providing a service to people who have difficulty in
       walking about the town centre and hence would be excluded from accessing the services and
       facilities located there. The Blue Badge parking scheme provides similar benefits to those eligible.
       These operations are fundamentally about providing services to directly address social inclusion and
       accessibility issues.
6.4.16 The concessionary travel scheme addresses both social inclusion and accessibility objectives by
       assisting those who are physically excluded from conventional public transport or those on lower
       incomes.
       Gender and Race Audit
6.4.17 The services provided by the community and accessible transport sector primarily address social
       inclusion and accessibility issues and as such older people and those with disabilities benefit
       regardless of gender and race. The fact that women live longer than men, however, means that
       women are more likely to be able to make greater use of this type of service.
       Sustainability Audit
6.4.18 The specialised nature of accessible transport in that, for many, it involves individual trips means
       that little contribution will be made to the sustainability agenda for larger numbers of people.

ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT POLICIES
POLICY AT1
      The Council will work in partnership with Order of Malta Dial-A-Journey Ltd and other
      organisations to ensure the provision of high quality accessible transport is available for those unable
      to use conventional public transport in the Falkirk Council area.
POLICY AT2
      The Council will continue to support the provision of the Shopmobility service to enable those with
      mobility difficulties to access the facilities of Falkirk town centre.
POLICY AT3
      The Council will work to implement “access for all” routes to assist people with limited mobility in
      accessing the outdoor areas around the settlements of Falkirk Council area.                                56
6.4 ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT

            POLICY AT4
                  The Council will continue to provide facilities, such as dropped crossings, to make the street
                  environment accessible for all.

          ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT ACTIONS
          Policy  Description                                           Current Status    Time-scale        LTS / SCP
                                                                                                            Objective#
          Option 1 Actions*
          AT1       Carry out review of Dial-A-Journey and Shopmobility services
                    Study commission-ed                           June 2006               2 / C, D
          AT4       Carry out review of procedures required       Ongoing                 September         2 / C, D
                    to implement on street disabled parking                               2006
                    bays in residential areas
          AT4       Ensure traffic signal junctions comply        Ongoing                 2009              2 / C, D
                    with the requirements of Disability
                    Discrimination Act
          AT3       Implement at least one “access for all”
                    route in each settlement in Falkirk Council
                    area to BT Countryside for all “Standards
                    and Guidelines”                               Ongoing                 2008              2 / C, D



          Option 3*
          AT1       Carry out feasibility study of implementing                           Completion
                    DRT service                                                           dependent
                                                                                          on level of
                                                                                          extra
                                                                                          funding
                                                                                          secured           2 / C, D
         # LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
         * Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
         * Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




   57
Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
6.5  MOTORCYCLING

Introduction
6.5.1 Motorcycling is becoming increasingly popular. Some people are using motorcycles to beat
       congestion, others for leisure activity. Falkirk Council recognises this choice and believe that
       motorcycling has a role to play within the transport system.The theme of this strategy therefore is
       to facilitate safer motorcycling as a choice of travel within a safe and sustainable transport system.
6.5.2   Motorcycling is the term used to describe motorcycles, mopeds and scooters and these offer a
        number of benefits for riders. They can offer a low cost alternative to the car, providing
        independence and mobility, and widening employment opportunities, especially where public
        transport is limited. They can also provide quicker travel for riders in congested traffic conditions
        and make efficient use of road space by taking up significantly less space than cars, a benefit which
        is magnified during peak periods when there are considerable numbers of single occupancy vehicle
        trips being made. Furthermore, many riders just enjoy motorcycling for the pleasure it gives them.
        Motorcycles also compare favourably to other classes of vehicles on most environmental
        parameters.
6.5.3   But it must be recognised that motorcyclists are vulnerable road users.The chief objective must be
        to make motorcycling a safe, enjoyable experience for those who choose this mode. This means
        taking account of the needs of motorcyclists, promoting safety measures and mainstreaming
        motorcycling, so that its needs are considered as fully as any other transport mode. It is important
        this work is carried out using data led analysis of the current situation.
6.5.4   The Government’s road safety strategy ‘Tomorrow’s roads: safer for everyone’ sets out casualty
        reduction targets for 2010.The targets include achieving a ‘40% reduction in the number of people
        killed or seriously injured’; and a ‘10% reduction in the slight casualty rate’ compared with the
        average 1994 to 1998 benchmark.
6.5.5   In general, progress towards these targets in Scotland is excellent. However over recent years,
        whilst the casualty rate for motorcyclists is decreasing, the actual number of motorcycle accidents
        involving motorcycles has been increasing. This reflects the growing number of people opting to
        use this mode of transport.
6.5.6   Motorcyclists contribute the largest number of killed and injured casualties to the overall figures
        after car drivers and occupants. At the same time, increasing numbers of people are using
        motorcycles for travel and recreation. Motorcyclists are more at risk of being killed or injured in a
        road traffic accident than any other type of vehicle user.
6.5.7   The UK is one of the largest motorcycle markets in Europe, with registrations of new machines
        (mopeds and motorcycles) having grown from just 46,000 in 1993 to 160,000 in 2003. Four out
        of every ten new machines is a scooter, half of which are mopeds but the trend is leaning towards
        larger-engine scooters. Sports motorcycles continue to be the most popular machines, Supersports
        represent 23% while Sports Tourers represent 13% of all new bikes sold. Motorcycle sales are
        higher now than they have been for 25 years.
The Challenge
6.5.8 In general, public opinion tends to be divided over the role that the motorcycle can play within an
      integrated transport system. To maximise the role of the motorcycle, as described in paragraph
      6.5.2, two main concerns for riders need to be addressed. These are road safety and secure and
      convenient parking facilities.
6.5.9   The Council therefore will work to ensure as safe a road environment as possible can be provided
        and high quality parking facilities for motorcycles are available at major shopping, leisure, health,
        employment and transport facilities. Motorcycles take up much less space than cars and can
        therefore be accommodated relatively easily in both new and existing streetscapes as well as
        dedicated parking areas.


                                                                                                                58
6.5 MOTORCYCLING

           6.5.10 Road maintenance plays an important part in assisting motorcyclist safety and as the Council faces
                  increasing challenges in addressing a backlog of road maintenance, this issue is likely to continue
                  into at least the medium term (see section 6.8). Whilst maintenance work is ongoing, it should be
                  adequately signed and should be completed to a high standard to minimise potential problems
                  arising from poor quality reinstatements.
           6.5.11 A number of other areas need to be considered in providing for motorcycling. Road and traffic
                  calming schemes should be designed and implemented with motorcycles in mind. This should
                  include both the layout and the materials used. All work should preferably comply with the
                  standards set out in the IHIE Guidelines for Motorcycling (April 2005).
           Where We Are Now
           6.5.12 Currently provision for motorcycles within the Falkirk area has been limited, however with the
                  increase in congestion and fuel costs there has been considerable growth in ownership levels of
                  motorcycles. The Council recognises the need to cater for the motorcycle.
           6.5.13 A number of Route Accident Reduction Plans (RARP) have been carried out or are in the process
                  of being carried out for the Falkirk Council area. Two of these have identified specific safety
                  problems relating to motorcycles. The RARP carried out for the A9 found that accidents in which
                  a vehicle emerged from a side road into the path of a vehicle on the main road, usually approaching
                  from the driver’s right, are the most common type of accident. Motorcycles were hit in four
                  accidents. The RARP for the A803 found a similar trend of right turn accidents at junctions, a
                  number of which involved motorcycles. Both RARPs go on to make recommendations to improve
                  safety for motorcyclists.
           What We’re Going To Do
           6.5.14 As already acknowledged, road maintenance is important in ensuring the safety and comfort of
                  motorcyclists. As such the ongoing maintenance of the network will support and assist
                  motorcyclists. As part of this it is proposed that for new developments, and other areas where
                  possible, public utilities are located in footways and service strips to minimise risk associated with
                  utility reinstatements in the carriageway surface.
           6.5.15 As part of the development control process, new developments with thresholds as specified in the
                  Council’s soon to be updated Car Parking Standards will be required to provide secure motorcycle
                  parking. Similarly, the Council will seek to provide secure parking for motorcycles at railway
                  stations to facilitate integration between travel modes and will establish the feasibility of providing
                  locker facilities for the purpose of storing motorcycle clothing and helmets. All parking facilities
                  will be provided in accordance with the IHIE Guidelines on this subject.
           6.5.16 Given the potential benefits that the motorcycle can offer of reducing congestion by taking up
                  minimal roadspace and improving social inclusion through offering a low cost transport option, this
                  mode of transport can make a significant contribution to meeting sustainable transport objectives
                  and working towards community regeneration. The main challenge therefore is to ensure
                  motorcycling becomes a mainstream element of the transport network.
           6.5.17 In terms of road safety, the Council is keen to work with motorcycle representative groups such as
                  the Motorcycle Action Group (MAG) and the British Motorcyclists Federation (bmf) to identify and
                  address specific road safety issues for motorcyclists within the Council area.
           6.5.18 At present, motorcycles are not permitted to use bus priority lanes within the Falkirk Council area.
                  It is proposed that this restriction be reviewed with the objective of permitting use of bus priority
                  lanes for this group where it is deemed safe and appropriate, and subject to there being no adverse
                  safety issues introduced by such a practice. All new bus lane schemes will consider the feasibility of
                  permitting use by motorcycles.
                  Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
           6.5.19 Motorcycles offer a relatively low cost transport option. Therefore for those on low incomes, this
                  mode of travel can promote community regeneration and social inclusion by enabling access to
                  employment opportunities and the services essential to quality of life.


   59
       Gender and Race Audit
6.5.20 For women and ethnic groups, who are less likely to have access to a car, the provision of improved
       facilities for motorcycles can make a positive contribution.
       Sustainability Audit
6.5.21 Whilst encouraging more trips by motorcycle should help tackle congestion through the fact that
       motorcycles take up less physical roadspace than cars, they still, however, create emissions.
       Therefore their contribution to sustainability will be limited.


MOTORCYCLE POLICIES
POLICY MC1
      The Council will continue to work to provide high quality maintenance of roads, and operation of
      the network, to assist in providing a safe and comfortable network for motorcyclists in line with
      IHIE Guidelines for Motorcycling.
POLICY MC2
      The Council will seek to ensure public utilities are located in footways and service strips where
      possible to minimise the risk presented by carriageway utility reinstatements and utility covers to
      motorcyclists.
POLICY MC3
      The Council will require new developments with thresholds as specified in the Council’s updated
      Car Parking Standards to provide secure parking for motorcycles.
POLICY MC 4
      The Council will review parking facilities for motorcycles and will endeavour to provide secure
      motorcycle parking at key locations such as town centres, health facilities and railway stations.
POLICY MC5
      The Council will consult with motorcycle groups and other interested parties to identify and
      address specific road safety issues for motorcyclists.




                                                                                                             60
6.5 MOTORCYCLING


          MOTORCYCLE ACTIONS
          Policy Description                                            Current Status    Time-scale        LTS / SCP
                                                                                                            Objective#
          Option 1*
          MC3       To ensure the requirement that all new              Car Parking       Summer            3/C
                    developments over thresholds provide                Standard          2007
                    secure motorcycle parking is included               Review to
                    in the review of the Council’s                      be started
                    Parking Standards
          MC1       To review the Council’s position on the             To be started     2007              4 / C, E
                    use of bus lanes by motorcycles.
          MC2       To include the requirement that utilities           Review of         Summer            4 / C, E
                    within all new developments to be provided          Roads Dev         2007
                    in service strips and footways is included          Guidelines
                    in the review of the Council’s Roads                to be
                    Development Guidelines                              started
          MC1       To include the requirement that all                 Review of         Summer            4/C
                    motorcycle related schemes and initiatives          Roads Dev         2007
                    are carried out in accordance with the              Guidelines
                    IHIE Guidelines for Motorcycling in the             to be
                    review of the Council’s Roads                       started
                    Development Guidelines
          MC4       Review and, where possible, provide                 To be             2007              3, 5 / C
                    secure motorcycle parking at Falkirk’s              started
                    railway stations
          MC4       To establish the feasibility of providing           To be             March             3, 5 / C
                    lockers for motorcycle clothing and                 started           2007
                    equipment at Falkirk’s main transport
                    interchanges
          Option 3*
          MC4       Provide secure motorcycle parking                                     Completion 3 / C
                    at key locations throughout Council area                              dependent
                                                                                          on level of
                                                                                          extra funding
                                                                                          secured
         # LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
         * Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
         * Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




   61
Promoting Sustainable Transport Choices
6.6   TRAVEL AWARENESS

Introduction
6.6.1 The way we choose to travel can have a serious effect on our health, our economy, our quality of
       life and our environment. Potentially, the most significant actions effecting change will be taken by
       the travelling public. Therefore, public awareness of the consequences of travel decisions must be
       raised. Every journey starts with a decision as to whether, and how, it has to be made.
6.6.2    As car traffic continues to increase, our roads become more congested. However, road space cannot
         indefinitely be increased to meet the growing level of demand. Further to this, it is recognised that
         increasing road space generates additional traffic, resulting in more congestion, pollution and noise.
         All this combines to reduce quality of life in our towns and communities.
6.6.3    Falkirk benefits from access to 5 railway stations, a substantial bus network along with a number of
         small communities that can easily facilitate cycling and walking for local journeys. Falkirk also has
         a sizeable proportion of its population who live and work within the area thus enabling the
         opportunity for cycling, walking and public transport use.


The Challenge
6.6.4 The main challenge here is to convey all the necessary information to the individual to allow them
      to make an informed choice regarding their mode of travel for each particular journey. Many people
      are simply not aware of the alternative services and facilities to the car that are available and have
      the perception that it is difficult or impossible to achieve the desired trips other than by car. The
      information required includes the following, but this list is not exhaustive:
            The times, cost and routes of public transport
            How to access public transport
            The cost of travel by car taking account of fuel, road tax, vehicle depreciation, driving technique etc
            The implications of using each mode of transport on the environment
            The location of local cycle and walking routes
6.6.5 Research carried out on behalf of the Scottish Executive showed that over three-quarters of all
      respondents agree that people should be encouraged to walk, cycle and use public transport more.
      The report also showed that there are mixed attitudes among car users towards their car use, with
      55% saying they would like to reduce their car use but saying there are no practical alternatives.
      23% of car drivers said it would be easy to reduce their car use and 41% said that there were already
      trying to use their car less. 44% stated that they find travelling by car can be very stressful.
      Information needs to be available to people to support them in finding alternative modes of
      transport by raising awareness of their options.
6.6.6 Often perceptions do not reflect reality and therefore in order to increase travel by more sustainable
      modes of travel, information on how to switch mode, along with the benefits of doing so and
      implications of not doing so, need to be clearly communicated. It is only through ongoing
      communication that awareness levels can be raised and inaccurate perceptions can be tackled.
6.6.7    It is recognised that not all trips are possible by non-car modes.The car will always be an important
         element of any transport strategy. There are a number of initiatives in which car users can
         participate to minimise some of the negative impacts such as congestion. Car sharing or pooling can
         assist greatly in reducing the number of cars on the roads without curtailing the mobility needs
         of individuals. Similarly, combined journeys or those avoiding peak times will have less impact on
         the capacity of the road network. The challenge here is to raise awareness of, and implement these
         types of initiatives so the car can play a part in achieving a sustainable transport system.




         14- Scottish Executive Transport Research Planning Group,“public Perception of Travel Awareness Phase 3”Anna
                                                                                                                        62
         Dudleston & Emma Hewitt, Professor Steve Stradling, Dr Jillian Anable, January 2005
6.6 TRAVEL AWARENESS

           Where We Are Now
           6.6.8 The Council is a member of the national Travelwise organisation which works to raise awareness of
                 sustainable travel and the impact that travel habits have on society and to promote travel plans. This
                 organisation supports its members through the networking of ideas and sharing of good practice
                 information.
           6.6.9   Falkirk Council is dedicated to improving and increasing the availability of information in
                   partnership with transport groups and operators, offering information on bus and train journeys as
                   well as walking, cycling and responsible driving habits. The Council’s Green Travel Map detailing
                   public transport, cycling and walking information is a good example of this. Making drivers and
                   non-drivers fully aware of the impact their travel choice can have and ways in which they can make
                   informed choices about their travel patterns/habits is a start in the process of achieving a sustainable
                   transport system.
           6.6.10 A number of campaigns are run or supported by the Council each year. These include two Walk to
                  School Weeks and activities carried out as part of National Bike Week.
           6.6.11 Additionally, the School Travel Plan work has as a key component the requirement that pupils make
                  the whole school community aware of the issues surrounding travel to school and the work
                  proposed for the school as part of the travel plan initiative. This element of the travel planning
                  process helps to market travel options and raise awareness of travel issues across a wide variety of
                  groups, including parents, teachers local residents and the children themselves.

           What We’re Going To Do
           6.6.12 Raising awareness of the issues surrounding travel and transport is an ongoing and long term
                  process. As such Falkirk Council will continue to run various awareness campaigns and provide
                  information on travel options to as wide an audience as possible. This includes providing that
                  information in various formats such as through leafleting, the Council Newspaper and the internet.
                  In order to focus resources and maximise the impact of campaigning, a marketing and publicity
                  strategy will be developed.
           6.6.13 Awareness raising is often most successful when information is provided in a number of ways. The
                  Council will therefore work in partnership with its SESTRAN partners and other agencies, such as
                  public transport operators and the health promotion sector, in encouraging modal shift and raising
                  the profile of services and facilities available within the Falkirk area.
           6.6.14 To complement these various awareness raising initiatives and campaigns, the Council would like to
                  introduce individualised travel marketing. This operates through individual visits being made to
                  householders or employees to look at their current travel patterns and examine where more
                  sustainable options could be used. Incentives can then be given to encourage people to use some
                  of the identified alternatives on a trial basis.
           6.6.15 The Scottish Executive is currently promoting this type of initiative through its Step Change project
                  to encourage personalised travel planning to effect travel behaviour change. Whilst this is an
                  aspiration of the Council, at the current time funding for a largescale personalise travel planning
                  initiative has not been identified, although a small pilot exercise will be carried out as part of the
                  Council’s own travel plan.
                  Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
           6.6.16 Promoting travel awareness should directly contribute to improving community regeneration and
                  social inclusion and, to a lesser extent, accessibility. By making people more aware of the transport
                  options available to them, such as local bus services serving the areas they want to travel to, the
                  location of local off-road cycle routes or the availability of accessible taxis, those without access to
                  a car may be able to make the journey they had previously thought impossible without a car.
                  Gender and Race Audit
           6.6.17 As for community regeneration, improving awareness of travel options will directly increase travel
                  opportunities for women and ethnic groups who are less likely to have a car at their disposal to make
                  the trips they need to for accessing services or employment, escort trips or leisure purposes.
                  Sustainability Audit
           6.6.18 By raising awareness of both the issues surrounding travel choice and the travel option available, the
   63             intention is to encourage more people to use the more sustainable transport modes. By achieving
                  this, sustainability will be promoted.
TRAVEL AWARENESS POLICIES
POLICY TA1
      The Council will work to market and increase awareness of sustainable transport objectives.
POLICY TA2
      The Council will work with partner agencies where possible to raise awareness of travel options.
POLICY TA3
      The Council will seek to roll out personalised travel planning with businesses and householders in
      the Falkirk Council area.

 TRAVEL AWARENESS ACTIONS
 Policy  Description                                           Current Status    Time-scale        LTS / SCP
                                                                                                   Objective#
 Option 1*
 TA1       Produce Publicity and Marketing Strategy            Started           End 2006          3/C
           for Transport                                       January 2006

 TA3        Hold 2 pilot Personalised Travel Planning          To start          July 2006         3/C
            sessions within Falkirk Council

 TA1, TA2 Carry out activities as part of In Town              To start          September         3/C
          Without My Car Week 2006                                               2006


 Option 3*
 TA1       Implement Personalised Travel                                         Completion        3/C
           Planning initiative                                                   dependent
                                                                                 on level of
            Design and carry out largescale                    To start          funding           3/C
            marketing and publicity campaign                                     secured
            to raise travel awareness
# LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
* Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
* Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding




                                                                                                                64
     Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
     6.7   ROAD SAFETY AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT

     Introduction
     6.7.1   Safety must be the top priority of any transport strategy. It is the duty of the local transport
            authority to carry out studies into road accidents and to take measures as seem appropriate to
            prevent them. Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and Stirling Councils support a joint roads accident
            investigation unit which provides advice in this respect.
     6.7.2 The Road Safety Plan 2001 was produced in co-operation with Central Scotland Police and Forth
            Valley Health Board. This plan, which provides a focus for inter-agency working, sets out the
            common goal of road accident casualty numbers and severity reduction in the Falkirk Council area.
            It also describes some of the activities being carried out by the various partners to help achieve this
            common goal. This plan has now been reviewed and updated to reflect the latest position on
            casualty statistics and is presented in Annex 1.
     6.7.3 The work carried out under network management is integral to improving road safety across the
            Council area. An important part of the roads and transport function carried out by the Council is
            implementing traffic management schemes. This work covers a wide range of projects as is
            demonstrated by the following:
                   Traffic management schemes with objective of improving road safety;
                   Traffic management schemes with objective of improving network operation;
                   Road lining and signing schemes;
                   Introducing Traffic Regulation Orders to improve network efficiency and safety, for instance parking
                   regulations or banning turning movements;
                   Installing new street infrastructure such as pedestrian crossings, traffic islands and bollards, and;
                   Responsibility for the Council’s traffic signal installations.
     The Challenge
           Road Safety
     6.7.4 The matter of promoting safety on the roads presents a major challenge for a number of agencies
           ranging from local authorities to the emergency services. The main reason for this is the number
           and variety of factors which come into play. The weather conditions, a person’s frame of mind, the
           nature of the trip, and a host of other factors can produce a causal chain which could result in an
           accident and casualties. Some of these factors, as well as issues which are central in enabling the
           promotion of road safety, are discussed below.
     6.7.5    Human behaviour can be key to whether an accident will occur or not. Familiarity with a road
              situation can lead to the road user being less vigilant and alert to the road environment. Combined
              with factors such as road users’ natural optimism and the relative rarity of accidents, this can be
              dangerous in terms of the likelihood of an accident occurring.
     6.7.6    Consistent data quality is essential to the process of accident reduction.This is particularly so as the
              education, enforcement, engineering and encouragement aspects of road safety work becomes
              increasingly “evidence led”. Achieving consistent high quality depends upon the understanding and
              co-operation of all those with an interest in data collection and use. Locally, Central Scotland Police
              are voluntary data collectors, and the accident unit is a main user.
     6.7.7    Road accidents are often defined as rare, random, multi-factor events always preceded by a situation
              in which at least one road user fails to cope with his or her environment.Various estimates have been
              made of the relative contribution of the basic human, vehicle and road factors. The ranges were:
              road 28-34%, human 93-94% and vehicle 8-12%. However, such estimates are of limited value.
              Indeed, it has been said that there is no useful distinction between roads as a cause or human factors
              as a cause: there is just a causal chain in which the road, its environment, markings and signs affect
              what road users do.
     6.7.8    This poses a difficult question for road safety engineers, namely: which factor to change? The
              Department of Transport long ago advised that the most effective remedy is not necessarily related
              directly to the main “cause” of the accident. It may lie elsewhere, entirely. For example, in
              circumstances in which human error or impairment has been judged the sole contributor, it may be
65            possible to influence human behaviour more directly by engineering means than by education or
              enforcement or legislation.
6.7.9   The Council co-operates with other interested agencies in activities intended to improve road safety
        in four main areas.They are:
              Education;
              Enforcement;
              Engineering, and;
              Encouragement.
6.7.10 A final factor in the challenge facing accident reduction is that of funding. A number of studies have
       been carried out across the Council area that have identified remedial actions required to improve
       safety. The main challenge here is to prioritise these works in line with available budgets.
       Network Management
6.7.11 One of the challenges facing network management is to deal with the large amount of requests
       received annually for improvements in the road network.These requests mean that the vast majority
       of the work tends to be reactionary precluding the option to work to any kind of work programmes.
6.7.12 Another challenge for this important area of work is prioritising schemes against a limited budget
       particularly when individual projects can be so diverse. For instance prioritising installing a new
       pedestrian crossing against an accident remedial road lining scheme or the reconfiguration of a set
       of traffic signals is challenging.
Where We Are Now
       Road Safety
6.7.13 Accident data shows the effect of the continuing effort to improve road safety and the most recent
       analysis for the Falkirk Council area shows that the casualty rate is approximately 22% lower than
       the Scottish average (307 compared to 393 for the five-year average casualty rate per 100,000
       population at the end of 2003). For all casualties the overall pattern is that of continued reduction.
       This is demonstrated by the fact that the average number of casualties has fallen by 11% when
       comparing the 1994-1998 and 2000-2004 periods.
6.7.14 Analysis of treated accident blacksites for the Falkirk Council area show that for 37 sites there has
       been a 59% reduction in accidents following treatment of these sites. This analysis is made using
       the data for the 3 years before the site was treated and the 3 years following implementation of the
       accident remedial work.
6.7.15 These figures suggest that the road safety work being carried out by various agencies in the Falkirk
       Council area may be contributing significantly to improving road safety. The financial advantage
       appears to be of the order of £1m/year. At 2003 prices, the average cost of road accidents in the
       Falkirk Council fell from £32 million for the period 1993-1997 to just over £26 million for 2000-
       2004. More detailed analysis of progress to date in accident reduction is provided in the Road
       Safety Review and Plan (Annex 1).
6.7.16 There are however, specific areas of concern within this general picture. When compared to the
       1994-1998 period, casualty numbers are rising amongst a number of groups. These are the
       driver/rider class for age groups 0-4, 25-54, 55-74 and 75-99 years and for passengers aged 5-10
       years. The highest casualty rate for any age group is found in the 17-24 year bracket and highest
       severity of injury is sustained by 75-99 year old pedestrians. The analysis of these statistics means
       road safety work can be targeted more effectively. The following considers the work being carried
       out under each of the four main areas used to tackle road safety issues
6.7.17 Education starts from an early age with road safety education being taught in schools as part of
       the national curriculum. The Executive also established and funds the Scottish Road Safety
       Campaign that promotes the Children’s Traffic Club. Central Scotland Police carry out a significant
       amount of road safety educational work through visiting playgroups, nurseries and schools as well
       as specific groups such as young drivers and motorcyclists. They also run safety related initiatives
       such as the Young Driver Project at schools and publicity campaigns aimed at motorcyclists and
       older people.
6.7.18 Falkirk Council’s educational role is provided through Education Services’ support of road safety
       education within the curriculum and the work carried out through the School Travel Plan initiative.
       This involves cycle training being provided at participating schools by the Active School Co-            66
       ordinators working within the Council area.
6.7 ROAD SAFETY AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT

           6.7.19 Encouragement operates to develop good practice in the use of the road network. Employers
                  are in a particularly good position to influence matters, by providing appropriate training and
                  encouraging appropriate behaviour for employees. Falkirk Council has adopted a Zero Alcohol at
                  Work policy. The health sector also plays an important role here with health professionals
                  contributing through their close contacts, in particular with children’s parents or guardians.
           6.7.20 Enforcement is primarily carried out by Central Scotland Police who have the legal responsibility
                  through the Road Traffic Acts to enforce traffic Regulations and Orders relating to speed,
                  parking and vehicle use. Enforcement is one means by which driver behaviour, over time, may be
                  altered to achieve safer use of the road network and hence improved road safety.
           6.7.21 As such, Falkirk Council is participating in a Speed Camera Partnership involving Central Scotland
                  Police, Stirling and Clackmannanshire Councils, the Scottish Executive and a number of other
                  stakeholders.
           6.7.22 A relatively recent emergence is the use of vehicle activated signs. These operate by flashing a
                  warning sign if the approaching vehicle speed is above that of the speed limit. These may prove a
                  valuable and socially acceptable tool.The results of research on their effectiveness suggest that their
                  careful deployment across a limited number of locations within the Falkirk Council area may be
                  helpful in controlling problems involving excessive speed..
           6.7.23 Engineering measures implemented since the production of the last LTS include:
                      A9 Torwood – Hollings: bend treatment
                      A8004 Checkbar to Bonnybridge: surfacing and lining
                      B902 Falkirk-Bellsdyke: speed reduction measures
                      C69 Larbert Road, Bonnybridge: traffic calming
                      C50 Carmuirs Avenue, Camelon: traffic calming
                      A803 Falkirk Road, Bonnybridge: traffic calming
                      Route accident reduction plan implementation (6 roads)
                      Routes to schools: Improved lighting, footways
                      At schools: 20miles/hr restrictions
                      At pedestrian crossings: Pedestrian/ cycle improvements.
                  Network Management
           6.7.24 A vast array of schemes have been implemented since the last LTS. Some examples include
                  an accident remedial scheme on A8004 between Checkbar and Bonnybridge involving signing and
                  anti-skid surfacing which was implemented to address a specific safety problem. Several PUFFIN
                  crossings have been installed, for example on Gartcows Road and Westburn Avenue in Falkirk and
                  numerous traffic orders have been put in place.
           6.7.25 There have been a number of legislative changes over the last few years that impact on network
                  management. Recent transport legislation places enhanced duties on local authorities to provide a
                  co-ordination role for works on the road network. In this respect the Transport (Scotland) Act 2005
                  extends and allows better enforcement of the New Roads & Street Works Act 1991. It also
                  establishes the post of Scottish Road Works Commissioner who has the function of monitoring
                  roadworks carried out, ensuring compliance with the obligations of the 1991 Act and promoting
                  good practice in relation to such works.
           6.7.26 The Commissioner now has the duty of keeping the Scottish Road Works Register with local
                  authorities now being required to enter details of all works for road purposes to be carried out
                  along with date of completion. A further requirement is for the local authority to enter in the
                  Register all ‘occupations’ of the road for skips, scaffolding, deposition of materials, placing of
                  apparatus and the like. The local authority has a duty to co-ordinate works within their area with
                  penalties being imposed if this is not done to the Commissioner’s satisfaction.
           6.7.27 In reality this duty involves discussions with public utility companies, who have a duty to help the
                  local authority to co-ordinate works in the road, prior to works commencing. It is also carried out
                  through submission of long term work programmes and monitoring of the Register itself. From
                  April 2006 these duties will expand to include the local authority’s works and those of any other
  67              party working in the road environment as detailed in paragraph 6.7.26 above
6.7.28 The co-ordination aspects referred to above are intended to reduce delays to the travelling public
       by providing a much more structured approach to works and occupations of the road. In turn this
       will reduce frustration that may lead to accidents.
6.7.29 The other thrust of the New Roads & Street Works Act and the Transport (Scotland) Act is to ensure
       that safety of road users is paramount through the control of signing and guarding of all works on
       the road. Further, these Acts provide controls to ensure that openings in the road are carried out
       in such a way that their excavation and reinstatement cause as little damage to the road as possible
       both in the short and long term. The implications of uncontrolled excavation and reinstatement on
       the safety of the road and its continued life as a valuable asset without requiring premature major
       reconstruction costs are considerable.
What We’re Going To Do
       Road Safety
6.7.30 The main GB target for casualty reduction is to have, on average, 40% fewer people killed or
       seriously injured in road accidents by the end of the period 2006-2010 than was the case during the
       period 1994-1998. Falkirk Council aims to contribute to this by maintaining the rate of casualty
       reduction of six per year with emphasis being placed, as far as reasonably possible, on reducing the
       numbers of those seriously injured or killed. The following paragraphs suggest how this might be
       achieved.
6.7.31 Route Accident Reduction Plans will be implemented for 6 routes. These involve the examination
       of routes chosen based on a suitable measure of accident rate, the development of acid at present
       relate to the local sections of the following roads:
             A9 Edinburgh-Perth
             A803 Edinburgh-Glasgow
             A904 Falkirk-Bo’ness-South Queensferry
             A905 Stirling-Edinburgh (Low)
             B902 Falkirk-Bellsdyke
             B816 Falkirk-Bonnybridge
6.7.32 Liaison will continue with Central Scotland Police, Forth Valley Health Board and other agencies to
       promote and encourage good road safety practices. In particular, the Joint Road Safety Group may
       be revitalised.
6.7.33 Under the Community Planning process sits a Community Safety Theme Group which is chaired by
       the Central Scotland Police local superintendent. This group is currently developing a new
       Community Safety Strategy for the period 2006 to 2010 for the Falkirk Council area. The strategy
       will cover a wide range of areas such as fire safety, racial incidents, crime and anti-social behaviour.
       Safety on the roads and while travelling will also be included under this remit. This LTS will directly
       contribute to the development of the Community Safety Strategy and joint working will help ensure
       maximum benefits for improving safety while travelling.
       Network Management
6.7.34 Traffic management schemes will continue to be implemented across the Council area as need is
       identified and as funds permit. This work will include accident remedial schemes, implementation
       of signing and lining with the associated Traffic Regulation Orders and provision of crossing facilities
       among other measures. In order to provide the best possible service to the travelling public, a
       framework for prioritising schemes will be developed to ensure those most needed are given the
       appropriate priority.
6.7.35 As a matter touching on road safety and on network management, and with the enhanced and
       extended duties under the Transport (Scotland) Act as impetus, the role of the section in the Roads
       and Development Unit dealing with current New Roads & Street Works Act tasks will be likewise
       enhanced and extended to provide a fully functioning co-ordination and control service capable of
       ensuring as good an outcome for road users as can realistically be achieved while, at the same time,
       ensuring that the valuable asset which is the roads themselves are not damaged and life-reduced
       beyond what is absolutely necessary. Procedures will be put in place within the Council between
       the several ‘roads’ sections and other interested parties to facilitate this overall task.
                                                                                                                  68
6.7 ROAD SAFETY AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT

           6.7.36 Currently there is work ongoing to review and consolidate Falkirk town centre signing which is
                  particularly aimed at catering for visitors to the town. This work will also include phase two of
                  signing the Falkirk Wheel and will improve the ease of access to the area thus encouraging return
                  visits, as well as raising the profile of the area in general. Another piece of work ongoing for
                  implementation in the near future is a Clearway Order which will manage parking in the Westfield
                  area and is being designed to alleviate parking problems generated by the Falkirk Stadium.
           6.7.37 Falkirk Council area has 44 signal installations, most of which operate independently from
                  surrounding junctions. Traffic levels in our town centres however, and particularly in Falkirk town
                  centre, are such that in order to minimise congestion, technical improvements need to be made to
                  street infrastructure to ensure optimal efficiency of the network. In this instance, one possibility is
                  for the traffic signals within Falkirk town centre to be linked and controlled by one traffic signal
                  management or urban traffic control system rather than operating as isolated units as at present. It
                  is therefore proposed that a study is carried out to assess the feasibility of introducing such a system
                  in Falkirk.
                  Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
           6.7.38 Road safety improvements positively contribute to the social inclusion agenda as those who have
                  no choice but to walk or cycle will benefit. Both road safety schemes and the work carried out
                  under network management will enhance community regeneration.
                  Race and Gender Audit
           6.7.39 Road safety improvements positively contribute to the race and gender agendas. If race or gender
                  contributes to the vulnerability of a group of road users, then the Council’s approach of prioritising
                  higher severities will automatically benefit these groups.
                  Sustainability Audit
           6.7.40 The main contribution to be made under road safety and network management to sustainability
                  will be in the choice of materials used when implementing new schemes.




  69
ROAD SAFETY AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT POLICIES
POLICY RS1
      The Council will liaise with other interested agencies with a view to maximising its
      contribution to the accident reduction effort. Priority will continue to be given to
      accidents of higher severity within its own area.
POLICY RS2
      The Council will continue to carry out studies into accidents within its area and will give priority
      to the implementation of remedial measures at identified problem sites when allocating resources
      from its capital programme.
POLICY NM1
      The Council will work with partner agencies to ensure the road network is as efficient and safe as
      possible by implementing traffic management schemes where necessary and feasible.
POLICY NM2
      The Council will work to ensure road signing across the Council area is direct, easy to follow and
      comprehensive to minimise unnecessary traffic circulation and make driving around the area safe
      and commodious.

 ROAD SAFETY AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
 Policy  Description                    Current Status                    Timescale                LTS / SCP
                                                                                                   Objective#
 Option 1*
 RS2       Implement 6 Route Accident                                     End 2007                 4 / C, E
 Reduction Plans
 RS1       Participate in Speed Camera                  Ongoing           Ongoing                  4 / C, E
           Partnership
 NM1       Review and implement new signing             Review/design     March 2007               1, 4 / A, C
           for Falkirk Town Centre                      ongoing
 NM1       Implement Clearway Order in                  Drafting Order    Late 2006 subject        4 / A, C
           Westfield area                                                 to consultation
 NM1       Carry out study into feasibility of          To start          March 2008               1, 4 / A, C
           installing urban traffic control
           system in Falkirk
 NM1       Develop a framework for prioritising         Ongoing           End 2006                 4 / C, E
           new schemes
 Option 3*
 NM1       Install urban traffic control in Falkirk                       Dependent on             1, 4 / A, C
                                                                          funding secured

# LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
* Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
* Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




                                                                                                                 70
     Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
     6.8   ROAD NETWORK REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE

     Introduction
     6.8.1 Road network review and maintenance is primarily about asset management. With 890 kilometres
            of road, approximately 1,200 kilometres of footway, 500 structures, of which 360 are bridges, and
            22,000 street lighting columns within the Council area, the road network infrastructure is a major
            capital asset for the Council. It therefore falls within the Council’s duty to ensure these assets are
            maintained and managed effectively to maximise value for money and safety for the travelling
            public.
     6.8.2   As with any structure, without regular inspection and maintenance the asset value of the network
             will reduce dramatically over the longer term and indeed, is likely to become a major liability
             for the authority. If minor repairs cannot be carried out, what would have been small scale
             maintenance work escalates into major work as the residual life of the carriageway or structure
             reduces. Put at its simplest, this means that if minor works are ignored, eventually the road surface
             breaks up completely or a bridge or retaining structure will require major strengthening work. The
             implications of this are significant both in monetary terms and in potential risk and disruption to
             the public using the network.
     6.8.3   Whilst one of the main objectives of this LTS is to seek to reduce the level of car use in favour of
             the more sustainable modes of transport, part of the effective management of the road network is
             to consider the need for improving both local and strategic roads. The Council’s view is that road
             improvements may be considered where they allow access to improved services and facilities thus
             improving the quality of life for residents, strengthening the economy or providing environmental
             or safety benefits.
     6.8.4   Local authorities are responsible for local roads while the Scottish Executive is responsible for trunk
             roads and motorways that make up the strategic road network. Falkirk Council is currently seeking
             to implement a number of road improvement schemes covering both the local and strategic road
             network. Whilst the Council has no direct responsibility for these strategic road schemes, it will
             work in partnership with the Executive and other parties to progress their implementation because
             they significantly contribute to the Council’s transport objectives. There are also a number of roads
             that, although classed as part of the local road network, operate as strategic roads. One such
             example is the A801 which provides a north south link between the M9 and M8 and thus carries a
             higher proportion of regional and national traffic than would be expected of a local road.
     6.8.5   The main benefit of effective road network review and maintenance is simply that those
             travelling in and around Falkirk can do so efficiently, conveniently and safely. This should be the case
             regardless of how, when and where each person chooses to travel.
             The Challenge
     6.8.6   The most significant barrier to providing effective road network review and maintenance is that
             of funding. Without sufficient funding for both capital works and revenue for ongoing maintenance,
             even in the short term, the condition of the network infrastructure will deteriorate. This will
             manifest itself in low levels of service to users of roads and footways with potential safety
             implications resulting from the poor condition of the network, street lighting and bridges stock. It
             will also mean an increase in the number of liability claims submitted to the Council.




71
6.8.7      The Scottish Executive agreed in 2002 after consultation with SCOTS (Society of Chief Officers of
           Transportation in Scotland) to introduce a machine based survey system to assess the road
           conditions throughout Scotland. The latest results for the Falkirk Council area are as follows.

                                           Requires Immediate Requires Further
                                                Attention                 Investigation
                                        03/04     04/05 Scot. Ave 03/04       04/05 Scot. Ave.
                                         %          %        %       %         %        %
 A Class Roads                            6.7       5.68       6.2       26.5      23.99       24.7
 B Class Roads                           13.0       9.49      10.2       41.4      40.26       33.0
 C Class Roads                           13.7       3.51      4.91       31.9      29.61       26.1
 Unclassified Roads                      11.9      12.75      15.2       31.7      40.50       34.5
 Overall                                 11.5      10.38      11.0       33.0      37.06       31.0


6.8.8      From the above, the Statutory Performance Indicator for Falkirk is 47.44 (the total percentage of
           the road network requiring investigation). This compares to 44.5 in 2003/04 reflecting a
           deterioration in the figure for Unclassified roads. Results for A, B and C class roads demonstrated
           a minor improvement over the year. The improvement in the figures for A and B Class roads
           compared to Unclassified can be attributed to prioritising available funding to the more heavily
           trafficked routes.
6.8.9      Under- investment in the road network infrastructure has been highlighted by Audit Scotland in the
           report “Maintaining Scotland’s Roads” which was published in November 2004. This report found
           that, nationally, Councils’ spending on road maintenance had fallen since the mid 1990s.
6.8.10 Research carried out by SCOTS identified that £894 million is required to address the maintenance
       backlog on Scotland’s roads. Detailed figures from SCOTS have estimated that an annual additional
       spend of £2.743 million per annum for 10 years is required to address the backlog on the road
       network within the Falkirk Council area.
6.8.11 It is intended to produce a Roads Maintenance Plan which will support a Roads Asset Management
       Plan. It is intended that this plan will present a detailed analysis of the condition of the road
       network and infrastructure within Falkirk Council and present robust budget proposals for
       addressing the maintenance backlog and providing a suitable maintenance regime for maintaining
       the Council’s assets.
6.8.12 This situation is exacerbated when funding awards are restricted to use of capital works. An
       example would be capital funding for a new footpath/cycle path. Once this facility has been
       constructed there is often no additional revenue funding available to maintain the path into the
       future. This situation occurs relatively frequently and places a further burden on stretched
       maintenance budgets.
6.8.13 There is currently an annual revenue budget for bridge and structure maintenance of £118,000.
       This figure is only sufficient to ensure a safe and fit for purpose level of maintenance and means that,
       overall, the fabric of the bridge stock is deteriorating. This will ultimately have major repercussions
       for the bridges capital budget (typically £700,000 per annum). The ongoing work is adequate to
       keep the stock of bridges and structures safe. However, with sufficient funding, the stock could be
       brought up to a good standard of repair. Initial work carried out by SCOTS concluded that
       approximately 1% of an authority’s asset value should be spent on maintenance of that asset. An
       initial estimate for Falkirk Council indicates that approximately £500,000 should be spent on
       maintenance of structures. This contrasts with the current allocation of £118,000.
6.8.14 In the case of street lighting, despite a substantial capital investment in lighting improvements over
       recent years, the overall condition of the lighting stock continues to deteriorate. The present level
       of funding (£0.45 million capital and just over £1 million revenue in 2005/06) assumes a column
       life expectancy of approximately 60 years, as against an anticipated life span of 30 years.



                                                                                                                  72
6.8 ROAD NETWORK REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE

           6.8.15 It is estimated that the level of funding (at 2004/05 prices) should be £800k per annum in order
                  to achieve the compromise position of a 40 year replacement cycle. This means a current shortfall
                  of £350k per annum. It should be noted that this level of funding needs to be constant and inflation
                  linked in order to achieve the target and does not take account of the backlog of deteriorated
                  installations. When considering statutory performance indicators for 2004-05 from Audit Scotland,
                  Falkirk Council has 58.1% of street lighting columns less than 30 years old. The equivalent figure
                  for Scotland is 63.0%.
           6.8.16 Another challenge facing the Council in providing a high quality street lighting service is the
                  current increases in the price of energy. Increases of up to 100% in the cost of un-metered supplies
                  are expected for the next tendering contract for supply of energy for street lighting. These costs
                  will need to be met and, in a climate of increasing budgetary constraints, it is possible that the
                  consequence of this will be a level of service below recommended standards of good practice for
                  lighting management.
           Where We Are Now
           6.8.17 Despite the funding challenges presented in maintaining the network and road infrastructure, the
                  Council has achieved a significant amount in the last four years.
           6.8.18 In the four years from 2000 just over 15 km of road have been resurfaced with a further 36 km being
                  surfaced dressed. During the same time period 28 km of footway have been resurfaced with just
                  over 36 km being surfaced dressed. This equates to just under 6% of the road network and just over
                  5% of the footway network being treated over the four year period. Winter maintenance is carried
                  out in accordance with the Winter Maintenance Plan thus ensuring the work is planned and
                  prioritised.
           6.8.19 All bridges with a 3 metre or greater span have been structurally assessed since the production of
                  the last LTS. Falkirk Council is one of the few authorities in the country that has completed an
                  assessment of these bridges. Of the 360 bridges in the Council’s inventory, 38% failed the
                  assessment. Action has been taken to address all failing structures in the form of either
                  strengthening works or introduction of a weight restriction if appropriate. The considerable work
                  carried out means that the current position is that only 3% of structures are incapable of carrying
                  40 tonnes. In each of these cases an appropriate weight restriction has been put in place. The
                  statutory performance indicators for 2004-05 from Audit Scotland show Falkirk Council has 96.9%
                  of bridges meeting the Euro 40 tonne standard. The national figure for this is 89.8%.
           6.8.20 Between 2000 and 2004, 1,700 deteriorated lighting columns have been replaced, with the
                  underground cable network upgraded at the same time. Existing lighting has been maintained to a
                  good standard that involves being surveyed for lighting faults every two weeks in winter and every
                  four weeks in summer during the hours of darkness. Over 95% of faults were repaired within five
                  working days
           6.8.21 Street lighting procedures have also been improved to give environmental benefits. In the past,
                  street lighting used monochromatic “orange” low pressure sodium lighting, but a white light source
                  is now used. The benefits of this include:
                        Reduced energy consumption
                        Improved level of lighting
                        Improved quality of lighting
                        Increased reliability, and
                        Reduced light pollution.
           6.8.22 These features of using white light result in a reduction in crime and the fear of crime and an
                  enhanced night-time environment. Further to the improvements in the type of lighting used, the
                  disposal of lighting units has also been improved. Most types of street lighting lamps contain
                  mercury. These were previously disposed of by crushing, filtering out the mercury, and dumping
                  the remains in a landfill site. This is no longer considered a safe or environmentally sound option.
                  All of the Council’s used lamps (approximately 5,000 per year) are now fully recycled by an
                  authorised and licensed company.

  73
6.8.23 There have been two road improvement schemes implemented since 2000. The Falkirk Orbital
       Road, which provides a northern bypass to Falkirk town centre, was completed in late 2000. The
       main objective of this scheme was to open up areas to the east of Falkirk for business opportunities
       and improve town centre traffic flow. The second road project completed was the A905/B9143
       Inchyra Road upgrading to dual carriageway. This upgrading gives improved access to the industrial
       areas in southern Grangemouth and improved safety for all road users through the provision of a
       segregated cycleway/footway and upgrading of the Inchyra Road / Kersiebank Avenue junction.
What We’re Going To Do
6.8.24 Road and footway maintenance will continue to be provided to a high quality on a rolling
       programme of works. A Road Maintenance Plan is currently being developed and should be
       completed by mid 2006. This will set out how the Council prioritises its road and footway
       maintenance work and will take into account the new Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance
       Management (UK Roads Board, 2005). This promotes a core objective of focusing on the customer
       and emphasising risk management rather than the traditional road hierarchy principle. The Road
       Maintenance Plan will contribute to the authority’s Asset Management Plan.
6.8.25 The main changes proposed for maintaining the bridge and structures stock in the near future are
       a result of the new Code of Practice for Management of Highway Structures (Roads Liaison Group,
       September 2005) and Bridge Inspection Reporting (County Surveyors Society). These good
       practice guides seek to change traditional bridge maintenance procedures into an asset management
       process and will mean major changes in the way structures are inspected, costed, valued and how
       work is prioritised.
6.8.26 This asset management principle is based on allocating a cost to the structural value and repairs
       value for each structure thus producing its net asset value. By utilising this information, the Council
       can make decisions best reflecting value for money and risk minimisation, thus serving both the
       public and the Authority’s objectives. The first steps in implementing the changes brought about by
       these new codes of practice are in progress with the creation of an asset management database and
       new inspection methods currently being put into practice.
6.8.27 For the Council’s stock of retaining walls affecting highways, it is proposed that visual inspections
       be carried out over the next two years to qualitatively assess their structural integrity.
6.8.28 A new programme of detailed structural inspections of the street lighting stock commenced late in
       2005. This programme targets columns that have failed a visual inspection. It will enable more
       accurate prioritisation within the column replacement programme by focusing on those columns
       which have most deteriorated and therefore are potentially most hazardous.
6.8.29 Over the medium to longer term the Council will work with partner agencies to promote a number
       of new road improvement schemes on the local, strategic and trunk road network. These schemes
       are as listed below.
Trunk Road Improvements
            A80 Stepps to Haggs Upgrading
            A876 Upper Forth Crossing at Kincardine
            M876/A9 Glenbervie Interchange
            M9 Champany Slips
Strategic Road Improvements
            A801 Avon Gorge Bridge and Approach Roads
Local Road Improvements
            M9/A905 Glensburgh Road Junction Upgrade
            Newlands Industrial Access Upgrade and Bridge Strengthening
            A9 Icehouse Brae/Laurieston Road Junction Improvement
            A9/Grandsable Road Junction Improvement
            Falkirk Town Centre – Upgrade to Gyratory Systems
            A9 Hollings Realignment
            A803/ Salmon Inn Road Improvement
            A883 Headswood Realignment
            Off site roadworks for NPDO schools                                                                  74
6.8 ROAD NETWORK REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE

           Development Led/Funded Improvements
                        Lionthorn Distributor Road
                        A803 Upgrading at Gilston, Polmont
                        A904 Grangemouth Town Centre Bypass
                        Denny Eastern Access Road
                        Bo’ness Road Stopping Up/A905 Wholeflats Road Upgrade
                        A9 Larbert Cross Upgrade
           6.8.30 It is worth stating at this point that M876/A9 Glenbervie Interchange listed under Trunk Road
                  Improvements has been a longstanding commitment by Falkirk Council. Since its inception, SPP17
                  has been issued which states there is a general presumption against new motorway junctions except
                  where nationally significant economic growth or regeneration benefits can be demonstrated.
           6.8.31 This scheme will provide new slip roads giving access to the M876 to and from the east. It will
                  improve access to the Local Plan area, the Glenbervie Development Site which represents a
                  substantial business site and the new Acute Care Hospital for Forth Valley. It will also reduce
                  pressure on the Bowtrees Junction of the M876 and provide significant environmental safety and
                  network management benefits for Larbert and Stenhousemuir to the north of Falkirk. It is the
                  Council’s view therefore, that the M876/A9 Glenbervie Interchange scheme offers substantial
                  benefits and should be progressed.
           Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
           6.8.32 Improvement of the road and footway network has benefits across the board by improving
                  accessibility for all whether travelling by bus, car, bicycle or on foot and regardless of income. High
                  quality maintenance works will also operate to promote and assist with community regeneration.
           Gender and Race Audit
           6.8.33 Similarly, as women tend to make more journeys by bus and on foot than men, they will benefit
                  from a well maintained road and footway network. Street lighting provision makes a major
                  contribution to safety when travelling and will play an important part in minimising the fear of
                  travelling during the evening whether the trip is by bus, bicycle or on foot. Good street lighting
                  can also improve home security.
           Sustainability Audit
           6.8.34 The area in which new road schemes and road maintenance can assist with sustainability issues is in
                  the use of recycled materials and materials produced in more sustainable ways.


           ROAD NETWORK REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE POLICIES
           POLICY NWK1
                 The Council will give priority to investment in the maintenance of the road and footway network
                 in order to maximise safety and convenience for all network users in an environmentally responsible
                 way.
           POLICY NWK2
                 The Council will continue to implement good asset management practices to ensure the structures
                 stock is maintained to a safe and fit purpose and will endeavour to enhance this infrastructure to
                 meet the needs of current and future customers.
           POLICY NWK3
                 The Council will seek to prioritise investment in street lighting in order to continue with the
                 electrical and structural testing programmes and to ensure these are carried out to required
                 frequencies, and to accelerate the street lighting column replacement programme.
           POLICY NWK4
                 The Council will work with other authorities, the Scottish Executive and developers to deliver
                 network improvement schemes which contribute to the safety of the network, reduce congestion
                 or improve accessibility thus strengthening the economy as part of a package of measures that
                 support sustainable transport. Priorities in the medium term are:
  75
Trunk Road Improvements
            A80 Stepps to Haggs Upgrading
            A876 Upper Forth Crossing at Kincardine
            M876/A9 Glenbervie Interchange
Strategic Road Improvements
            A801 Avon Gorge Bridge and Approach Roads
Local Road Improvements
            Denny Eastern Access Road Phase 1
            M9/A905 Glensburgh Road Junction Upgrade
            A9 Icehouse Brae/Laurieston Road Junction Improvement
            A9/Grandsable Road Junction Improvement
            Falkirk Town Centre – Upgrade to Gyratory Systems
            A9 Hollings Realignment
            A803/ Salmon Inn Road Improvement
            Off-site roadworks associated with NPDO schools

 ROAD NETWORK REVIEW AND MAINTENANCE ACTIONS
 Policy  Description                         Current Status                      Time-scale        LTS / SCP
                                                                                                   Objective#
 Option 1*
 NWK1      Produce Road Maintenance Plan                       In progress       Mid 2006          4 / C, E
 NWK3      Carry out visual inspections of all                 Ongoing           April 2007        4/E
           retaining walls affecting highways
 NWK2      Detailed structural inspection of                   Started 2005      Ongoing 6 4 / E
           street lighting stock                                                 yearly cycle
 NWK4      Detailed design of A801 Avon Gorge                  Funding           April 2007   1, 4 / A, C, E
           improvement scheme                                  secured for
                                                               design work
 NWK4       Construct Denny Eastern Access                     To start on       Autumn            1 / A, C
            Road Phase 1                                       site Spring       2006
                                                               2006
 NWK4       Implement Icehouse Brae/ Laurieston                Land being        End 2006          4 / C, E
            Road junction improvement                          acquired
 NWK4       Construct off-site roadworks associated            Funding           End 2008          1, 4 / C
            with NPDO schools                                  being sought

 Option 3*
 NWK4      Construct A801 Avon Gorge                           Dependent                           1, 4 / A, C, E
           Improvement Scheme                                  on level of
                                                               extra funding
 NWK4       Consider joint funding with developers                                                 1 / A, C
            of Phase 2 Denny Eastern Access Road

 NWK2       Raise bridge stock to higher standard to                             Dependent         4 / C, E
            minimise future maintenance costs                                    on level of
                                                                                 extra
                                                                                 funding
 NWK1       Accelerate ongoing maintenance programme                             4 / C, E

# LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
* Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
* Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




                                                                                                                    76
     6.9     PARKING

     Introduction
     6.9.1 Parking management has traditionally been introduced to deal with the situation, particularly in
            town centres, of a higher demand for parking than spaces available. Key locations, such as town
            centres, have finite space for parking and as such charges are introduced to manage this demand.
            More recently however, parking management has become one of the few measures available to local
            authorities to restrain the growth in car use.
     The Challenge
     6.9.2 For towns such as Falkirk, the challenge is to strike the right balance in managing parking. The
           facilities provided and the charges made should operate to encourage people to consider whether
           the car is the most suitable form of transport for a particular journey. It should also ensure however,
           that the people who want to shop or work in Falkirk are not discouraged from doing so because of
           parking restrictions and hence the local economy is supported and strengthened. Achieving this
           balance, particularly since the Council does not control a significant proportion of town centre
           parking, can be difficult.
     Where We Are Now
     6.9.3 With 6,531 parking spaces (excluding disabled), parking provision within Falkirk town centre is
           now considered to be close to the maximum achievable or desirable. The town centre has a
           controlled parking zone, where the parking provision has been classified into 7 categories.

      Table 6.9 – Parking Categories and Capacities
      Category        Class        Type                 Charges        Ownership          Number of Spaces
          1           On-street    Restricted           Charges        Falkirk Council          185
          2           On-street    Restricted           None           Falkirk Council          118
          3           On-street    Unrestricted         Free           Falkirk Council          665
          4           Off-street   Public               Free           Falkirk Council          683
          5           Off-street   Public               Charges        Falkirk Council          833
          6           Off-street   Private-Retail       Free           Private                  2131
          7           Off-street   Private-Retail       Charges        Private                  1451

     6.9.4   There are several areas of high demand for both short stay and long stay parking. 57% of parking
             provision is free while 35% of spaces are Private Non-Residential (PNR).The level of free parking
             operates to encourage travel by car to the town centre and, hence, car parking controls cannot
             represent a comprehensive traffic restraint measure given the high level of free parking such as at
             Central Retail Park.
     6.9.5   The town centre has two multi storey car parks at Howgate and Callendar Square shopping centres.
             The Morrison Supermarket with 580 car parking spaces at the old Brockville site was opened late
             2004, which removed 115 spaces from the Hope Street car park. Further parking space was created
             on the western edge of Falkirk with the Carmuirs Park and Ride site which opened in April 2003
             with a capacity of 300 spaces.
     6.9.6   The introduction of pay and display (November 2005) at Kemper Avenue car park still permits long
             stay parking as it is possible to purchase daily, weekly or monthly tickets. With the resurfacing of
             Central Retail Park in 2005, speed reducing measures were introduced along with a barrier system
             to shut off parts of the car park at night.These measures were introduced to help prevent anti-social
             use of the car parks during the night.
     6.9.7   The responsibility for managing and enforcing car parking lies with a number of parties. The local
             authority is responsible for managing and enforcing public off street parking (categories 1-5 of the
             above table) and the Police are responsible for on-street parking enforcement. For private car parks
             such as Central Retail Park, the responsibility lies with the developer or owner.



77
6.9.8    Car parking standards for new developments are set out in Falkirk Council’s Roads Development
         Guidelines. These standards have not been included in this document as the Council is about to
         review them as part of the update of the Development Guidelines.
What We’re Going To Do
6.9.9 Variable Message Signs (VMS) to advise or route drivers to vacant car parking spaces have a
      number of advantages.They help reduce town centre congestion by alleviating the need for drivers
      to circle the town centre looking for a parking space.They also help direct drivers unfamiliar with
      the area to where the car parks are. Again, this helps reduce congestion as well as making the
      town an easy place to visit and so more likely to encourage return visits. Implementing a VMS
      system in Falkirk is an aspiration of this LTS and as such a review will be carried out into the
      feasibility of installing such a system.
6.9.10 Safer Parking Scheme is an initiative of the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) aimed
       at reducing the amount of crime and the fear of crime in parking facilities.The Park Mark is awarded
       to parking facilities that have achieved the requirements of the Risk Assessment carried out by the
       Police. It means measures have been put in place to deter criminal activity and anti-social behaviour
       and so helping create a safe parking environment. The Howgate Car Park is currently the only car
       park in Falkirk Town Centre that has this award although most town centre and railway station car
       parks have CCTV surveillance. A study into the feasibility of gaining Park Mark for a number of
       other car parks within Falkirk will be carried out.
6.9.11 Car parking enforcement is a complicated subject, as indicated in paragraph 6.9.7 above. A number
       of authorities across the country have introduced Decriminalised Parking Enforcement (DPE)
       which involves the on-street parking enforcement, currently carried out by the Police, being handed
       over to the local authority.
6.9.12 DPE enables the local authority to administer and enforce all on street, off street (where it owns the
       car park) and any residents parking.Whilst the workload for the authority will significantly increase,
       it has the benefit of permitting the income from parking to be retained by the authority and invested
       in further service provision such as more frequent patrols and reduced congestion.This income comes
       from penalty payments and on street charges, where these operate. The possibility of introducing a
       DPE operation in Falkirk will be considered during the lifetime of this LTS.
6.9.13 This review will also consider the management of car parks in Falkirk.This will include parking at
       railway stations (particularly Falkirk High, Larbert and Polmont) to which Edinburgh and Glasgow
       bound commuters from outwith the area seem to be attracted and where spaces allocated to
       disabled people cannot often be safeguarded at present.
6.9.14 Some residential areas around the town centre experience a high demand for parking, At the time
       of writing, the Council is looking at these parking issues to establish if there is a concensus on firstly,
       a problem existing, and secondly, the best solution if this is the case. A consultation exercise with
       residents in the affected areas is being carried out during the first half of 2006.
       Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility
6.9.15 Provision of a parking service assists with social inclusion and accessibility in so far as it enables
       those who are unable to walk any distance to park close to a particular destination such as the town
       centre. It also promotes community regeneration by encouraging people to visit an area and thus
       will operate to strengthen the local economy. Surplus revenue from car parking is used to subsidise
       park and ride and other bus services.
       Gender and Race Audit
6.9.16 By providing facilities such as lighting and CCTV in car parks, safety in using that facility is
       improved. This will particularly help women using these car parks as not only does crime itself
       reduce, but also the fear of crime is diminished.
       Sustainability Audit
6.9.17 Parking management policies have the potential to positively contribute to sustainability through
       parking restrictions and charges operating to encourage people to use alternative, more sustainable
       modes of transport. Surplus revenue is used to subsidise bus services.
                                                                                                                     78
6.8 PARKING

              PARKING POLICIES
              POLICY PK1
                    The Council will work to ensure short stay shopping and tourist journeys are accommodated in
                    order to protect the viability and vitality of the town centre while discouraging commuter car travel
                    especially to central areas which have higher levels of accessibility by alternative modes of transport.
              POLICY PK2
                    The Council will work to provide car parks that are safe and incorporate the best features to ensure
                    personal security for all users.
              POLICY PK3
                    The Council will work to ensure information about car parks is widely available and signing to car
                    parks is direct and easy to follow.
              POLICY PK4
                    The Council will keep under review its car parking management operation to ensure maximum
                    efficiency in delivering a high quality parking service.

               PARKING ACTIONS
               Policy       Description                                  Current        Timescale         LTS / SCP
                            Status                                                      Objective#
               Option 1*
               PK1, PK2     Investigate feasibility of achieving         To start       2007              1, 4 / A, C,
                            Park Mark for Falkirk town centre                                             E
                            car parks
               PK1          Review car parking standards as              To start       Mid 2007          1/C
                            part of update of Roads
                            Development Guidelines
               PK1, PK3     Establish feasibility of installing          To start       2007              1 / A, C
                            a Variable Message Signing
                            system in Falkirk
               PK4          Review car park management,                  To start       End of 2007       1/C
                            including station car parks, and
                            investigate feasibility of introducing
                            Decriminalised Parking Enforcement
                            in Falkirk
               Option 3*
               PK4          Implement Decriminalised Parking                            Completion          1/C
                            Enforcement if study has                                    dependent on
                            established this would be the                               level of extra
                            most effective method of car park                           funding
                            management                                                  secured

              # LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
              * Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
              * Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




   79
DEVELOPING A SAFE AND EFFICIENT TRANSPORT NETWORK
6.10 TOWN CENTRE ACCESS

Introduction
6.10.1 Travel within the town centres in the Falkirk Council area has become increasingly difficult in
       recent years. Rising car use has contributed to generally greater levels of traffic on main roads and
       growing pressure on town centre parking resources. Rising car ownership has also contributed to
       these increases. It is also true to say that the retail facilities offered by Falkirk town centre in
       particular have attracted shopping trips from a wide area, in the same way that smaller centres in
       the area attract local trips.
The Challenge
6.10.2 The pressure on Falkirk town centre parking infrastructure is unsustainable and action must be
       taken to address it. In considering how best to address the issues arising from transport in our town
       centres, it is important to realise that we are attempting to balance a number of competing themes.
6.10.3 Town centres are important economic resources. They contain retail and employment centres and
       substantial populations. The economic functions require an effective transport system if they are
       to be sustained. Equally, the transport infrastructure of our town centres has a finite capacity. It
       cannot accommodate unrestrained demand and many parts of the network are already exhibiting
       strain at peak times.
6.10.4 The provision of improved access to town centres must similarly be balanced against the
       consequences of encouraging additional car trips on an already congested network. It might be
       possible, for instance, to provide new or substantially upgraded road links to town centres, if
       addressing congestion were the only issue (and if land and funds were available).Aside from the cost
       constraints, such improvements would increase community severance along the upgraded routes,
       impact adversely on walking, cycling and public transport and risk overwhelming existing town
       centre parking resources. Increasing the amount of town centre parking would, equally, attract
       more trips than the network might accommodate, whilst taking up land at the expense of other
       functions.
6.10.5 At the same time, a key objective for our town centres it to support and increase visits to the
       town centre by foot. We also need to ensure that the pedestrian experience when in the town
       centre is a pleasant and safe one. It is only by achieving this that we will increase footfall and
       encourage return trips by both visitors and local residents and hence support and strengthen our
       town centre economies.
6.10.6 It is clear that a balanced approach that caters for the needs of all users is required. Such approaches
       are difficult to deliver, however, in that they inevitably involve some degree of compromise on the
       part of each of the interested parties.
Where We Are Now
6.10.7 The approved Structure Plan outlines a hierarchy of town centres. The consultation for this Local
       Transport Strategy, together with its companion Area Wide Local Plan, highlights the concerns
       expressed over the impact of travel on existing town centres. Comments over parking, congestion
       and the conditions experienced by pedestrians are widespread.
6.10.8 These concerns, coupled with our own data on traffic growth and network capacity, highlight
       the need to address a number of issues in and around the existing town centres. At the same time,
       proposals have been advanced for the redevelopment of several town centres in the Council
       area. These bring further impetus to the desire to improve general access. They also afford
       opportunities to combine transport improvements with wider redevelopment of the town centres
       themselves.
6.10.9 Each of the town centres has specific issues. Many of our centres are currently subject to various
       redevelopment proposals. These will shape many of our transport responses, but we must
       understand that the essential roles of parking management, access and urban design need to be
       balanced to ensure that we do not compromise our wider objectives for road traffic reduction.

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6.10 TOWN CENTRE ACCESS

           What We’re Going to Do
           6.10.10 Enhancement proposals exist for Falkirk, Denny, Grangemouth, Stenhousemuir and Bo'ness Town
                   Centres. Each has specific issues.
                   Falkirk Town Centre
           6.10.11 As the largest town centre in the area, Falkirk contains the most comprehensive suite of retail units.
                   It also has 6,500 parking spaces for public or retail use. There are 5 main routes into Falkirk town
                   centre, which between them carry 93,000 vehicles per day (combined for both directions). Other
                   routes add traffic to the extent that traffic to or from Falkirk town centre reaches around 100,000
                   vehicle movements per day.The Falkirk North Distributor Road carries roughly 20,000 vehicles per
                   day around the town centre.
           6.10.12 Significant congestion is encountered on several of the main routes, particularly at peak times of
                   the day.This creates issues both for those travelling within and around the town. These issues could
                   be addressed by a variety of means:
           6.10.13 Additional road construction or parking provision - in theory this provides additional
                   capacity, so reducing congestion. In practice, experience indicates that spare capacity is occupied,
                   either by new trips, or suppressed demand from existing travellers. In the longer term, congestion
                   re-emerges and the situation is worse than originally was the case.
           6.10.14 In addition, providing new road capacity in town centre areas also usually means losing, or seriously
                   affecting, properties. It is difficult to see how significant widening of any of the routes currently
                   running into Falkirk town centre could be accomplished without the need to relocate businesses or
                   homes in some locations.
           6.10.15 Providing a southern bypass of the town has been suggested.The costs of such a route are likely to
                   be considerable, as any link to the south of the town would have to cross one or both of the existing
                   canals, one or two railways and the Antonine Wall, which is a scheduled monument.
           6.10.16 Parking provision is important in the context of the town centre environment. Falkirk town centre
                   has roughly 6,500 parking spaces, including 1,800 or so at the Central Retail Park and
                   approximately the same number at other town centre supermarkets and shopping centres. Falkirk
                   Council provides additional parking within and around the town centre. We must identify the
                   best use of this parking to support the town centre whilst at the same time meeting our wider
                   transport objectives.
           6.10.17 Provision of alternative modes of travel - primarily through bus or tram based systems.The
                   former requires no specialist infrastructure and is capable of offering flexibility in terms of route or
                   timetable. Buses in the Falkirk Council area are generally operated on a commercial basis, meaning
                   that those services which are commercially profitable are provided at little or no cost to the
                   Council. For other services, such as those in rural areas, or evening services, operations are not
                   commercial and are often replaced by publicly subsidised services. The use of bus services to
                   offset traffic growth is difficult in that issues of cost, timetable or service coverage arise.
           6.10.18 Trams are less flexible in routeing terms than buses and much more expensive. Costs have been
                   assessed for providing trams in the Falkirk Council area. Estimates suggest a cost of £20million per
                   kilometre of line. This is based on estimates from other tram schemes in the UK. For illustrative
                   purposes, this means that it would take roughly 6 years to build a tram line from Westfield Stadium
                   to Falkirk town centre, assuming that the Council's entire transportation capital budget was spent
                   on this project. This would mean that all other schemes would be stopped for that period. On the
                   basis of such estimates, it is considered impractical to provide any form of tram system in the Falkirk
                   Council area.
           6.10.19 Buses can be promoted as alternative modes by giving them priority over other road users. Bus
                   lanes, linked signals and junction designs can all be used. At present Falkirk has one bus lane on
                   the A803 between Camelon and Falkirk. It may be possible to provide similar infrastructure on
                   other important bus routes, although the comments made earlier about widening roads must be
                   borne in mind. It may also be possible to reconfigure the traffic management on routes to promote
                   bus travel.At present, a study is being undertaken into the B902 corridor.This will offer alternatives
                   on how best this route can be optimised to ensure maximum efficiency. It will also consider the
   81              traffic arrangements around the town centre itself.
6.10.20 Promotion of pedestrian links/ streetscape initiatives - the design and layout of the town
        centre is important in shaping the way people use it. Signing, the provision of adequate routes and
        appropriate surfacing material are all important.The relationship of town centre functions, while in
        itself not a transport concern, is important in that trips are generated between functions and it is
        important to understand how the spatial relations of various functions affects the number and
        patterns of trips created.
6.10.21 At present, proposals are being prepared for regenerating parts of Falkirk town centre. We will
        carry forward practical traffic management and pedestrian/cycle infrastructure improvements
        where these contribute to this regeneration.
       Grangemouth Town Centre
6.10.22 Grangemouth town centre is the subject of proposed improvements, based around a new
       supermarket, changes in the existing traffic management and longer term provision of a bypass of
       the existing main street.
6.10.23 Longer term development opportunities may also exist around the dock area and the re-provision
        of a direct passenger rail connection to Grangemouth is currently under investigation. Falkirk
        Council is also working with neighbouring local authorities to provide a Round the Forth Cycle
        Route, which will pass through Grangemouth.
6.10.24 The provision of transport infrastructure to support Grangemouth is based around addressing the
        existing problems, and seeking opportunities to link new infrastructure to proposed developments.
        Parking is an important component of this infrastructure and new parking will be sought where a
        justification to do so is identified.
6.10.25 Links to Falkirk Town Centre are focused around the existing road and bus connections.The A904
        and A9 Laurieston bypass are the two main road links between Grangemouth and Falkirk. Each is
        subject to capacity issues where it crosses the M9 and both experience congestion on the approach
        to Falkirk itself. Nevertheless, these routes will remain the prime road links as there is no practical
        opportunity to provide a new road link.
6.10.26 Options are being considered for signalising the Earl's Gate junction, although this may be linked to
        the signalising of Dalgrain Road and the off slip from the M9 at Glensburgh. Further improvements
        to the Westfield roundabout may be forthcoming in light of the Falkirk Gateway proposals.
6.10.27 In total, Grangemouth is well served by buses to Falkirk.There are currently 17 buses per hour from
        Grangemouth into Falkirk. Some parts of the town, however, such as the Old Town, have relatively
        low service frequencies.
        Denny Town Centre
6.10.28 Denny town centre is the subject of proposed redevelopment. A significant part of this
        redevelopment is focused on improving the fabric of the town centre, including many of the
        buildings. Significant changes may be incorporated in the traffic management of the town centre. In
        transport terms, the congestion currently experienced at Denny Cross is an issue for the town.
6.10.29 Proposals have been developed to partially relieve this congestion by the provision of a south eastern
        bypass of the town. The Denny Eastern Access Road will, when complete, link the A883 near
        Herbertshire with the A872 at Nethermains Road. Phase 1 of this route will be completed by
        Falkirk Council. It is expected that the remaining sections of the route will be substantially
        developer funded.
6.10.30 Further proposals are being developed to alter the traffic management within the town centre itself.
        These are not finalised, and we will work with development partners to incorporate these into the
        wider redevelopment of the town centre.
        Bo’ness Town Centre
6.10.31 Proposals are being prepared to enhance much of Bo'ness town centre with redevelopment being
        focused on the dock and waterfront.These proposals are based around the provision of new housing
        and commercial development that will require new infrastructure.This infrastructure will, in turn,
        benefit the wider community.
                                                                                                                  82
6.10 TOWN CENTRE ACCESS

           6.10.32 It is further proposed that improvements take place to the existing bus station and its surroundings.
                   These will involve removal of the existing facility and provision of two new online stances.
           6.10.33 The details of the enhancement of Bo'ness town centre are at an early stage, however the Council
                   will work with others to deliver such improvements as are practical in this context.
                  Stenhousemuir Town Centre
           6.10.34 Stenhousemuir town centre is also subject to proposed enhancement, based around retail
                  development and community infrastructure. These proposals are being developed and Falkirk
                  Council is in discussion with developers to ensure the best balance of infrastructure is provided.
                  Wider links to Stenhousemuir town centre could also be provided as new developments, such as the
                  Bellsdyke Hospital development, are delivered.
                   Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
           6.10.35 Improving access to our town centres will substantially aid the community regeneration and
                   accessibility agendas. By making access to central areas easier by all modes of transport, and
                   particularly for those walking, cycling or using public transport, it means that those on lower
                   incomes, without access to a car or with limited mobility will be better placed to access the wide
                   range of services and facilities offered by the town centre. This also means that community
                   regeneration will be promoted through encouraging more trips to the town centres thus supporting
                   the local economy.
                   Gender and Race Audit
           6.10.36 For women, who are less likely to have access to a car, improving access to town centres by non-car
                   modes will assist them in accessing the services of the town centre and hence contribute to quality
                   of life. These improvements will similarly apply to ethnic groups within the community.
                   Sustainability Audit
           6.10.37 By widening the choice of travel options for trips into the town centres across the Council area, the
                   opportunity to travel by the more sustainable modes will be increased. Therefore the work carried
                   out under this subject should positively contribute to sustainability in Falkirk.


           TOWN CENTRE ACCESS POLICIES
           POLICY TCA1
                 The Council will work with partner agencies, developers, businesses and retailers to improve the
                 accessibility, efficiency and environment of town centres across Falkirk Council area.




   83
 TOWN CENTRE ACTIONS
 Policy       Description                                  Current        Timescale         LTS / SCP
              Status                                                      Objective#
 Option 1 *
 TCA1         Carry out study of B902 and                  Study          May 2006          1, 4 / A, C
              Falkirk town centre traffic                  ongoing
              arrangements
 TCA1         Identify traffic management and              Study          March             1, 3, 4 /
              walking/cycling schemes that                 ongoing        2007              A, C, F
              can be implemented as part of
              Falkirk town centre regeneration
              study
 TCA1         Work with developers to identify             Work           2008              1, 4 / A, C
              appropriate traffic management               ongoing        subject to
              schemes as part of Grangemouth                              developer
              town centre regeneration
 TCA1         Finalise traffic management                  Phase 1        Spring            1, 4 / A, C
              proposals for Denny town centre              design         2007
              regeneration in conjunction with             and build      subject to
              developers                                   bidder         developer
                                                           selected
 TCA1             Finalise traffic management              Ongoing        Mid 2006          1, 4 / A, C
                  proposals for Stenhousemuir                             subject to
                  town centre regeneration in                             developer
                  conjunction with developers
 TCA              Finalise traffic management              Ongoing        Late 2006         1,4 / A, C
                  proposals for Bo’ness town
                  centre regeneration
 Option 3*
 TCA1             Implement recommendations of             To start       Completion        1, 4 / A, C
                  B902 and Falkirk town centre study                      dependent on
                                                                          level of extra
                                                                          funding
                                                                          secured
 TCA1             Implement traffic management             To start                         1, 3, 4 / A, C
                  schemes identified as part of
                  Falkirk town centre regeneration
                  study
 TCA1             Implement appropriate traffic            To start                         1, 4 / A, C
                  management as part of
                  Grangemouth town centre
                  regeneration

# LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
* Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
* Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




                                                                                                             84
     Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
     6.11 REGIONAL TRANSPORT

     Introduction
     6.11.1 Increasingly, travel patterns across Scotland are characterised by longer journeys than those
            undertaken in previous years.The population is generally becoming more mobile, reflecting in
            part increasing car ownership.The use of cars and other long distance modes of transport has
            increased.This reflects the greater mobility of employment and the priority many now place on
            where to live over where to work.
     6.11.2 Analysis undertaken for the Central Scotland Transport Corridor Studies suggests that many in
            the population are choosing a home location, then seeking employment. If the employment
            location changes, the home location is often retained, leading to long distance commuting.This is
            true of Falkirk as much as other areas in Scotland.
     6.11.3 Falkirk Council is one of 8 local authorities forming the statutory South East Scotland Transport
            Partnership.This replaced the previous voluntary SESTRAN partnership on 1st April 2006.The
            new partnership will prepare a statutory Regional Transport Strategy, outlining those schemes and
            other policies that affect the members of the partnership on a cross boundary basis, or which can
            bring benefits as part of a widely applied package of measures.
     6.11.4 Some of the proposals included in this LTS, for example the A801 Avon Gorge Bridge upgrade or
            access to the area's rail stations, offer regional/ national benefits and will be included in Falkirk
            Council's contribution to the Regional Transport Strategy.
     The Challenge
     6.11.5 One of the main challenges for this topic is to work in partnership with a multitude of other
            organisations to achieve regional and strategic transport benefits. Falkirk Council must work
            effectively with others to realise a regional transport vision and put real travel options on the
            ground for those travelling across the region.We must also take care to recognise that strategic
            issues have local consequences.
     6.11.6 The promotion of rail use often means that more cars park close to local stations. Problems with
            parking have arisen at Falkirk High, Polmont and Larbert stations as a consequence. Similarly,
            local roads carry traffic coming from or going to other areas but it is very difficult to separate
            these trips from other road based journeys.We know from census data that approximately 12,500
            weekday trips enter the Council area and 17,000 leave it for work or study purposes by car.When
            totalled, these flows are 50% greater than the daily flow on Grahams Road, Falkirk, which is one
            of the most heavily trafficked routes in the Council area.This gives an indication of the scale of
            this commuting by car.
     6.11.7 Costs are an important consideration in delivering strategic schemes. It has become increasingly
            difficult to deliver new rail station car parks as more difficult sites are developed. Many of the
            sites now being investigated have engineering or access issues.They are also expensive because
            they command intrinsically high land values.
     6.11.8 Rail station car parks frequently cost £5,000 to £8,000 per space. In extreme cases, for instance
            where double decking of existing facilities has been investigated, this cost rises considerably.The
            costs for bus services are also considerable and the resources currently available are limited.
     6.11.9 It is important that we recognise the role that strategic trips play and identify the most
            appropriate mechanisms for addressing them. It is equally clear that it is difficult to make
            significant progress on this, unless appropriate resources are targeted towards this task.
     Where We Are Now
     6.11.10 Data from the 2001census indicates that Falkirk is a net exporter of people travelling for work or
             study purposes. The range of destinations for commuters from the Falkirk Council area is diverse.
             The same is true for the trips originating in other Council areas and travelling to Falkirk.The 2001
             census provided the following general data for work and study trips.
             In commuting trips - terminating in Falkirk Council area          14,200 per day.
85           Out commuting trips - leaving Falkirk Council area                22,300 per day.
6.11.11 The most significant origins and destinations for Falkirk Council trips are as follows.
        In Commuting                                     Out Commuting
        Stirling                2,950 (21%)               Edinburgh                5,300 (24%)
        North Lanarkshire       2,100 (15%)               Stirling                 4,500 (20%)
        West Lothian            1,900 (13%)               West Lothian             3,700 (16%)
        Fife                    1,700 (12%)               Glasgow                  2,600 (12%)
        Clackmannanshire        1,600 (11%)               North Lanarkshire        2,200 (10%)
        Edinburgh               1,000 (7%)                Fife                     1,300 (6%)
        Glasgow                 800 (6%)                  Clackmannanshire         900 (4%)
6.11.12 This data suggests that the 5 Councils adjacent to Falkirk Council and the two main cities beyond
        them comprise the main origins and destinations for strategic commuter trips. These 7 authorities
        account for 85%-90% of cross boundary trips.
6.11.13 Data for mode of travel also suggests that car trips account for 89% of in commuting trips and 75%
        of out commuting trips. Buses account for 5% of in commuting and 8% of out commuting while
        trains account for 2% of in commuting and 13% of out commuting.
6.11.14 Whilst the car is dominant in both cases, it appears that Falkirk is relatively successful in exporting
        work or study based trips by non car modes, particularly train. This may reflect the good rail
        coverage, exemplified by the Council area's 5 rail stations. Patronage figures suggest increases of 6%
        per year from 2000/01 to 2004/05, a figure 6 times greater than the growth of road traffic on the
        local network over the equivalent period.
6.11.15 Falkirk Council's area also contains nationally significant freight resources in the shape of
        Grangemouth Docks, their connecting road and rail lines and adjacent freight centres.These play an
        important role on the local economy, while reinforcing the Council area's links with surrounding
        communities.The distribution centres at Grangemouth and ASDA further demonstrate the role this
        Council area has come to play in regional and national transport.
What We’re Going To Do
6.11.16 Falkirk Council will address many of its cross boundary transport issues through involvement with
        the new Regional Transport Partnership. Links to Edinburgh,West Lothian, Clackmannanshire and
        Fife will be particularly important in this respect.
6.11.17 Falkirk Council has strong links to other areas, but, over 40% of both incoming and outgoing trips
        involve local authorities that will not be in the South East of Scotland partnership. It is important,
        therefore that we remain in communication with our neighbours in other partnerships. We must
        also remain in communication with the Scottish Executive who, through the new National Transport
        Agency (Transport Scotland), have responsibility for Trunk Roads, rail provision and concessionary
        travel, and with bus operators who provide cross boundary services and train operators who offer
        strategic links to other areas.
6.11.18 The Council’s proposals for regional transport by travel mode are set out below.
        Rail Travel
6.11.19 As stated earlier, these are rising at 6% per year across the Council area. Further increases in this
        figure may take place as Falkirk Council's population grows, although it should be noted that the
        rate of rail trip increase is much greater than the rise in population (part of this increase may be due
        to better record keeping because of new ticket barriers at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Falkirk High and
        Stirling stations). It is difficult therefore to estimate how much rail patronage will vary by, although
        we should plan for continued increases, particularly at Larbert, Falkirk High and Polmont.
6.11.20 At Polmont, we have provided over 100 new parking spaces. A further 60 new spaces have already
        been provided at Falkirk High and we are investigating proposals for additional parking. Progress is
        well advanced on delivering 245 new spaces at Larbert.When complete, this will mean that the 5
        stations in the Falkirk Council area will have over 1300 spaces, a rise of over 50% on those available
        three years ago.
6.11.21 In future, we will investigate further parking requirements where a need is identified. In the short
        term, this will most probably focus attention on Falkirk High, where parking demand has risen              86
        considerably following increased service frequency and the provision of longer trains.
6.11 REGIONAL TRANSPORT

            6.11.22 In the longer term, we will examine opportunities for better links to stations under a Safer Routes
                    to Stations initiative. These will be aimed at reducing car borne travel to the stations. It is not
                    practical to continue providing parking at stations where the costs are greater than can be justified
                    or where land is becoming scarce. Some footway and street lighting improvements have been
                    carried out for all 5 stations. Networks of walking and cycling routes, supported by bus services,
                    will be considered, rather than continued development in parking. However, previous dedicated
                    bus services to Falkirk High Station have not been well used.
            6.11.23 The Council will also assist the Scottish Executive in considering new stations where these can be
                    justified and accommodated.The costs of such stations are considerable, being in the order of £2.5
                    million to £4 million for small stations. It is important, therefore, that any station being considered
                    has demonstrable economic value and does not adversely affect wider train operations. Funding
                    would have to be found from the Scottish Executive.
            6.11.24 Rail freight plays an important role, particularly for larger users such as those near Grangemouth.
                    An increasing proportion of freight from some of these users has been moved by rail in recent years.
                    The Scottish Executive has supported this by the use of Freight Facilities Grants. Falkirk Council is
                    intending to assist this interconnection by improving road access to the main freight areas, so
                    reducing existing pressures on the network.This work includes the recently completed upgrade of
                    Inchyra Road and the forthcoming junction improvement at the junction of Icehouse Brae and the
                    A9 Laurieston Bypass.
            6.11.25 The Council will also work with the Scottish Executive, National Transport Agency, SESTRAN
                    partners and the rail industry to bring forward schemes that support necessary improvements in rail
                    travel, both for passengers and freight. One such project that the Council welcomes, although is
                    not directly involved in, is the provision of the Edinburgh Airport Rail Link. This will give direct
                    access to the airport for people travelling from Falkirk by rail and so removes the need to go into
                    the centre of Edinburgh and travel back out to the terminal. It will also improve connections with
                    services to Fife.
                    Bus Travel
            6.11.26 Buses offer some potential for long to mid distance travel. At present, Falkirk is poorly served by
                    strategic bus/ coach services, most of which bypass the area on the motorway network.Those links
                    that do exist offer connections to Stirling,Alloa, Linlithgow, Glasgow, Cumbernauld and Edinburgh.
                    These services are typically provided by scheduled commercial services that stop at many
                    intermediate destinations. As such, journey times are long. Therefore these services do not always
                    offer realistic alternatives to the quicker and more direct rail services.
            6.11.27 There may be potential to improve strategic coach/ bus links in future and Falkirk Council will
                    work with its partners where such opportunities arise.
                    Road Travel
            6.11.28 Many of the main road connections out of the Falkirk Council area are formed by Trunk Roads.
                    These are the responsibility of the Scottish Executive/Transport Scotland and their maintenance
                    contractors.These routes, while of regional and national significance, also offer connections to the
                    local network. In this context, the junctions between the local and trunk networks are very
                    important.
            6.11.29 Falkirk Council will work with Transport Scotland and other service providers to bring forward
                    necessary improvements and alterations to the local and trunk road interface.These improvements
                    will seek to bring greater efficiency to the networks and mitigate problems where they arise.
            6.11.30 The Council will also work with the Executive and other agencies to improve trunk road corridors
                    where these support the wider development aspirations of Falkirk Council.
            6.11.31 Schemes to be included in this are the proposed M876 Glenbervie Slips, near Larbert. These will
                    improve access to the Larbert and Stenhousemuir area, including the investment sites near
                    Glenbervie and Central parks. They will improve the efficiency with which traffic uses both the
                    local and trunk networks. At present, traffic wishing to travel east from Larbert and Stenhousemuir
                    has no alternative but to use the local road network until it reaches the A876 at Bowtrees. The
                    provision of east facing slips at Glenbervie would allow traffic from the west of Larbert and
   87               Stenhousemuir to access the M876 directly, so reducing the impact of this traffic on the local
                    network. It is important to highlight that this is not, in fact, introducing new trips to the trunk road
        network, as these vehicles would access it anyway, but by an alternative and less direct means.
6.11.32 Further improvements may also be possible at Junction 6 of the M9, where it meets the A905 near
        Dalgrain Road giving access to Grangemouth. The eastbound off slip from the M9 experiences
        queuing, particularly during the morning peak. This is associated with the give way junction onto
        the A905. Traffic on that route is, in turn, affected by the junction of Dalgrain Road and the
        interchange at Earls Gate.
6.11.33 It may be possible to mitigate much of this by signalising the junctions to actively control traffic
        flows, so improving the interface between the Trunk and local roads systems whilst at the same time
        improving conditions for local road users and reducing the likelihood of queuing traffic on the M9.
6.11.34The proposed upgrades of the A80 and A876 Kincardine crossing are welcomed by Falkirk Council.
       Both of these links will improve connections between the Falkirk Council area and other parts of
       Scotland.
6.11.35 Some non-trunk roads also serve strategic roles. The A9 towards Stirling carries some 11,000
        vehicles per day. It offers connection to Stirling and the M9 at Pirnhall. The quality of this link is
        compromised by its overall geometry and the restrictions imposed by its role by the need to travel
        through the village of Plean. It is proposed that local improvements be provided where appropriate
        within the Falkirk Council section of this route, if funds become available in the future.
6.11.36 The A801 offers links to the M8 corridor and West Lothian from the Forth Valley. 10% of traffic is
        HGVs. Much of the 14km length of the route was upgraded decades ago, leaving some 3.2km of
        poor quality link. This link contains the valley of the River Avon that, due to its topography, presents
        the most significant barrier to completing the final section of the upgrade.
6.11.37 After many years of co-operative working, Falkirk Council and West Lothian Council have arrived
        at a preferred alignment for the upgrade. This comprises a 3.2km off line improvement
        incorporating a 250m long and 28m high multi-span bridge. Following public consultation and an
        environmental assessment, the Councils have been granted planning consent for this route and are
        now working on land acquisition and detailed design.
6.11.38 The A801 offers a significant opportunity to improve strategic connections between the M8 and M9
        corridor. Importantly, it also offers the possibility of a high quality bypass of the west Edinburgh
        motorway network. It is the only route offering the potential of a dedicated, high quality link that
        does not impact on the already congested motorway links around Edinburgh.
        Freight
6.11.39 Road based freight is an important component of overall traffic.The A80, M80, M90 and A801 all
        carry significant amounts of road freight. Some 15-20% of traffic on these routes is goods traffic,
        operating over mid-long distances. Locally, routes such as the Laurieston bypass, Grangemouth
        Road and A803 carry between 5 and 10% freight traffic.
6.11.40 It is important to recognise the role that freight plays and the impacts it has on communities. On
        strategic links, freight vehicles contribute to congestion and have significant impacts on the
        structure of the route. On the busiest links, however, it is important to recognise that the vast bulk
        of traffic is made up of cars, the majority of which have single occupants. The economic role of
        freight is adversely impacted by the congestion that these cars create.
        Other Regional Issues
6.11.41 Falkirk Council is already working with SESTRAN, the Scottish Executive and other agencies to
        bring forward schemes and initiatives that offer cross boundary benefits. Falkirk Council is
        participating in a car share scheme now being established by SESTRAN.This Council is also working
        to deliver a Round the Forth access initiative for cyclists and walkers. SESTRAN is considering
        using its economies of scale to expand real time information at bus stops across the region.
6.11.42 The Council is also working with colleagues in the Scottish Executive, Strathclyde Passenger
        Transport (SPT), North Lanarkshire Council, Stirling Council and the rail industry to bring forward
        proposals for public transport improvements along the A80 corridor.We will also contribute, along
        with our partners, to the National and Regional Transport strategies.
                                                                                                                   88
6.11 REGIONAL TRANSPORT

                    Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
            6.11.43 As for local transport, there are a number of issues facing regional transport in ensuring
                    community regeneration and accessibility objectives are met. Regional transport, by its very
                    nature, tends to involve mid to long distance journeys. With the exception of express coach
                    services, bus travel tends to be extremely time consuming over longer distances due to the
                    number of stops and locations served throughout the journey. Rail, on the other hand, whilst
                    more comparable with the car in terms of journey time, tends to be more expensive. Both travel
                    by rail and travel by coach present problems for people with limited mobility and wheelchair
                    users. Much remains to be done to improve this picture and this is something which would be
                    best pursued through national standards for accessibility of vehicles.
            6.11.44 The expanding population of the Falkirk Council area is partly a consequence of rising property
                    prices in both Edinburgh and Glasgow. This means that more people are living within the Council
                    area and commuting to the two cities. This influx of people however will contribute to
                    community regeneration within Falkirk as more houses and services are provided.
                    Gender and Race Audit
            6.11.45 Improvements made for regional transport such as interchange upgrades, parking at railway
                    stations including lighting, CCTV and help points such as the infrastructure installed at Falkirk
                    High, Polmont and Larbert stations all operate to address specific gender issues related to travel
                    and transport.
                    Sustainability Audit
            6.11.46 The main thrust of the work to assist with regional transport is concerned with improving
                    regional travel by modes other than car. As such, sustainability will be enhanced as more people
                    have increased opportunities to use the more sustainable transport modes.
            REGIONAL TRANSPORT POLICIES
            POLICY RT1
                  The Council will contribute to the workings of the new SESTRAN Regional Transport Partnership.
            POLICY RT2
                  The Council will fully participate in the development process for the new Regional and National
                  Transport strategies.
            POLICY RT3
                  The Council will continue to work with partner agencies to secure the implementation of the
                  following schemes:
                        A801 Avon Gorge
                        New Kincardine Crossing
                        Upgrading of A80 to M80
                        M876 Glenbervie slip roads
            POLICY RT4
                  The Council will work with the Scottish Executive/Transport Scotland to promote improvements
                  to the trunk road network and its connections to the local road network to maximise safety and
                  minimise congestion.
            POLICY RT5
                  The Council will continue to work with other local authorities and agencies as appropriate to bring
                  forward and deliver cross boundary initiatives where these arise.
            POLICY RT6
                  The Council will work to progress locally based schemes such as safe routes to stations and bus
                  corridor improvements, which positively contribute to regional travel.




   89
 REGIONAL TRANSPORT ACTIONS
 Policy       Description                                  Current       Timescale         LTS / SCP
              Status                                                     Objective#
 Option 1*
 RT2          Participate in the development               Ongoing       March 2007        1, 2, 3, 4,
              of the new statutory RTS                                                       / A, C
 RT3, RT4     Work with Scottish Executive to              Design        2008              1, 4 / A, C
              implement M876 Glenbervie                    finalised,
              slip roads                                   Orders to
                                                           be
                                                           re-published
 RT6               Investigate the feasibility of          Initial       2007              1, 5 / A, C
                   providing additional car parking        investigation
                   at stations, particularly Falkirk       started
                   High
 Option 3*
 RT6               Implement Safe Routes to
                   Station improvements                    To start     Delivery           1, 2, 3, 4, 5
                                                           dependent on                    / C, D, E, F
                                                           level of
                                                           funding
                                                           secured.
 RT5, RT6          Implement re-alignment                  To start                        4 / C, E
                   scheme for A9
 RT6               Provide additional car parking
                   at railway stations                     To start                        1, 5 / A, C
# LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
* Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
* Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding




                                                                                                           90
     Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
     6.12 FREIGHT

     Introduction
     6.12.1 Freight is fundamental to the performance of the economy through the movement of goods,
            materials and products. The logistics of freight deliveries are an integral part of modern life and
            must be accommodated by the transport network if we are to support and strengthen local, regional
            and national economies.This should, however, be balanced against measures to minimise the impact
            that freight movements can have on local communities. The Council will work with its partners in
            My Future’s in Falkirk (MFIF) to address freight issues.
     The Challenge
     6.12.2 The main challenge for the Council is to support the freight industry and enable it to carry out its
            functions but, at the same time, doing so in a way that minimises any negative impacts on the wider
            community.
     6.12.3 Fundamentally this means encouraging freight traffic where possible to transfer from road to rail or
            even water based movements. Where this is not possible, it will involve creating HGV routes so the
            impact of freight traffic movements on residential communities in particular is minimised.
     Where We Are Now
     6.12.4 Falkirk Council area is located at the hub of Scottish transport infrastructure which is likely to be a
            key factor in the location of a number of industries necessitating large scale freight movements. For
            example, the ASDA distribution centre located just west of the M9 generates significant freight
            movements onto the road network.
     6.12.5 The Falkirk Council area also has a number of freight transfer facilities that allow transfer of goods
            onto rail.WH Malcolms and TDG Nexus have received Freight Facilities Grants (FFG) to facilitate
            transfer of goods to rail. Another example of this is the Port of Grangemouth which is a hub for the
            transfer of freight between sea and road/rail, allowing Scottish industries to import and export and
            operate within the international market.
     6.12.6 Grangemouth is Scotland’s largest port and main container port, and handles approximately 9
            million tonnes of cargo through the dock facilities each year. Grangemouth is ideally located
            adjacent to the Scottish motorway network and close to rail routes to the north and south allowing
            rapid transit of goods to and from the port serving customers throughout Scotland and the North
            of England.
     6.12.7 Falkirk Council has provided advisory black signage for HGVs on specific routes. For example, an
            HGV route has been signed on the M9 to Grangemouth. Where possible, the Council has
            strengthened all its bridges to take 44 tonne lorries. Where routes are inherently incapable of
            catering for HGVs, such as over a weak bridge, an appropriate weight restriction has been
            implemented.
     6.12.8 HGV signing is also provided around town centre areas through signing retail service areas. This
            signing tends to be very local in nature.
     6.12.9 The Forth & Clyde and Union Canals are a major feature of the Council area, forming an east-west
            corridor running though many of its communities. Built between 1750 and 1830, the canals were
            central to the area's industrial pre-eminence in the 18th and 19th centuries, and form a distinctive
            element in both the urban and rural landscape. The canals basically operated as the motorways of
            their day carrying predominantly freight.
     6.12.10 With the completion of the £85m Millennium Link project in 2001, which has restored coast-to-
             coast and city to city navigation along the two canals and linked them at the Falkirk Wheel, the canal
             network has become a corridor of economic and environmental opportunity. At present the canals
             are predominantly used for leisure purposes. However, Phase 1 of a canal freight study for the
             Lowland canals has been commissioned by British Waterways and jointly funded by various canal
             partners including Falkirk Council. The purpose of this study is to identify existing businesses near
             the canal that might make use of the canal network for the transport of raw materials, products or
91           waste, and to identify potential canalside commercial, freight facilities and wharf sites. The study is
             due to report in 2006.
What We’re Going to Do
6.12.11 The multi-modal hub of the Port of Grangemouth, the most integrated sea, rail and motorway
        facility in Scotland, is set to develop further with the construction of four new rail-linked
        warehouses. A full warehousing service is being developed for companies wishing to store goods
        either short-term or long-term. This warehousing expansion is currently partially complete.
        Companies wishing to integrate the Grangemouth facilities into their UK logistics requirements
        will receive tailored packages in dedicated areas of the facility.
6.12.12 The Council is currently undertaking a review of the HGV signing from the motorway into
        Grangemouth with a view to splitting Grangemouth into distinct areas. This will take into account
        changes in accessing a number of industries and hence will sign the most appropriate HGV route to
        each area.
6.12.13 There are currently no designated quality lorry park facilities within the Council area. This is a
        matter that the Council would be keen to work with industry and freight bodies to identify the need
        for, and an appropriate location for, such facilities if required.
6.12.14 The Council, in conjunction with British Waterways and other key partners, will seek to promote
        the sustainable development of the Forth & Clyde and Union Canals as a major recreational, tourism
        and heritage asset. Accordingly, the Council will support the protection and enhancement of the
        operational capacity of the canals for freight use, including the development of any necessary freight
        transfer facilities. The conclusions of Phase 1 of the Canal Freight Study currently being undertaken
        will be carefully considered in order to maximise the opportunities the canal offers for freight
        transfer.
        Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
6.12.15 The work carried out to support the freight industry and hence strengthen the economy, will
        not directly contribute to social inclusion and accessibility but will assist with community
        regeneration by contributing to the local economy. Indirectly, however, the location of businesses
        and industry within the Falkirk area because of advantages it offers for freight will mean more local
        job opportunities and, combined with real transport options to these sites, social inclusion
        objectives will be met.
       Gender and Race Audit
6.12.16 Again, as for social inclusion and accessibility, improving facilities for freight will not directly
       contribute to the gender and race agendas as this area does not represent an opportunity for travel
       by the general public.
        Sustainability Audit
6.12.17 The majority of the projects proposed under the LTS for freight are primarily about making freight
        movements within the Council area more efficient and as such, there will be few implications for
        sustainability. In the longer term however, where support can be given to providing new freight
        transfer facilities which enable freight to be transported by rail (or water) rather than road, a
        significant contribution will be made towards sustainability objectives.
FREIGHT POLICIES
POLICY F1
      On local roads, Falkirk Council will focus on reducing the unnecessary impacts of freight primarily
      through signing appropriate routes, whilst recognising the essential role freight plays in supporting
      the wider economy.
POLICY F2
      The Council will work with the freight industry to seek opportunities to mitigate the impacts of
      larger freight vehicles, either by identifying routes that are appropriate for them to use, or by
      improving routes where specific issues have been identified.
POLICY F3
      The Council will work with British Waterways and other organisations to encourage the use of the
      canals for freight use, including the development of any necessary freight transfer facilities.
POLICY F4
      The Council will support and encourage business in providing facilities for freight within the             92
      Council area such as freight transfer and quality lorry parking.
6.12 FREIGHT


                FREIGHT ACTIONS
                Policy        Description                                 Current       Timescale         LTS / SCP
                              Status                                                    Objective#
                Option 1*
                F1, F2        Revise HGV signing route from               Ongoing       March 2007        1, 3, 4
                              motorway to Grangemouth                                                     / A, C
                F2            Implement Laurieston Road                   Ongoing       End 2006          1, 4 / A, C
                              Bridge Strengthening
                Option 3*
                F2            Newlands Industrial Area –                  To start      Completion      1, 4 / C, C
                              Access Upgrade of Laurieston                              dependent
                              Road                                                      on level of
                                                                                        funding secured
                F1, F2            Install further HGV routes              To start                      1, 3, 4 /
                                  across the Council area                                               A, C
                F4                Work with freight industry to           To start                      1 / A, C
                                  identify need for quality lorry
                                  park facility
               # LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
               * Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
               * Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




   93
Developing a Safe and Efficient Transport Network
6.13 AIR QUALITY AND NOISE

Introduction
6.13.1 In comparison to the main cities in Scotland, the Falkirk area does not suffer from prolonged traffic
       congestion. Where traffic congestion does occur however, such as in town centres and along radial
       corridors into those central areas, problems can be considerable at peak times.This can often result
       in pockets of localised air pollution and excessive noise thus affecting the quality of life for those
       living and working within these areas.
6.13.2 Exhaust emissions from road vehicles, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), are the greatest source of
       air pollution in Scotland, accounting for up to 32% of emissions. By 2010 the Government aims to
       reduce CO2 emissions by 20% from 1990 levels. CO2 however, is not one of the eight pollutants
       to be monitored under the National Air Quality Strategy. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), on the other
       hand, is. This is formed by a build up of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Studies have found that the
       majority of nitrogen oxides come from road transport, with smaller amounts coming from
       domestic heating and such things as air transport.
6.13.3 Different vehicles give off different amounts of nitrogen oxides. Larger and older vehicles,
       particularly diesel, produce more nitrogen oxides than new vehicles. New vehicles are ‘cleaner’
       because of new technology, such as catalytic converters. Air quality has improved greatly over the
       last 10-15 years as a result of technological improvements and tighter legislation which has led to
       significantly reduced emissions. Increasing traffic levels however, are forecast to start off-setting
       these gains unless more is done.
6.13.4 Falkirk Council has a duty under the Environment Act 1995 to monitor local air quality and to
       designate Local Air Quality Management Areas (AQMA) where monitoring has established that
       national air quality objectives are unlikely to be met. Under this legislation Falkirk Council has
       carried out an Updating and Screening Assessment (U&SA) in 2003 which was the first stage of
       Round Two of the Review and Assessment process for air quality monitoring.
6.13.5 This U&SA concluded that there was potential for exceedence of National Air Quality Strategy
       objectives for NO2 in Falkirk town centre and for sulphur dioxide (SO2) in Grangemouth
       surrounding the petrochemical complex. Further monitoring has since been carried out to establish
       in more detail the current air quality position in the Falkirk Council area.
6.13.6 The results of this work has led to the designation of an AQMA for SO2 in Grangemouth from 1
       November 2005. The area covered by the AQMA is the vicinity of the Grangemouth Petrochemical
       complex. The need for the AQMA is due to a likely breach of the sulphur dioxide objectives, as
       specified in the Air Quality (Scotland) Regulations 2000.
6.13.7 An action plan aimed at reducing the sulphur dioxide levels within the designated area will be
       produced by November 2006. This AQMA is required as a result of emissions from industry only.
       The results for traffic related emissions are discussed more fully in the next section.
6.13.8 The LTS seeks to assist in reducing traffic related emissions through implementing initiatives such
       as the provision of improvements to public transport as well as cycling and walking for shorter,
       more local, journeys.
6.13.9 Road traffic noise has two main components, mechanical noise associated with engine and
       transmission and the “rolling noise” of the vehicle, the latter is due to the frictional contact between
       the road and the tyres and the aerodynamic noise caused by the vehicle passing through the air.The
       noise levels caused by traffic are dependent on the speed and the number of vehicles using the road.
       Other factors are road surfaces and the immediate topography of the street.
6.13.10 Rough road surfaces cause more noise than smooth ones, asphalt surfaces generate less noise than
        other conventional surfaces. Nearby high walls or buildings also reflect noise causing an increase in
        the overall noise level. Also, noise from smoothly passing traffic is less than noise from interrupted
        flow due to the change in engine speed and use of low gears.
6.13.11 Consultation with Falkirk Council residents in early 2005 indicated that 42% felt that air pollution,
        noise and vibration were a problem where they live.                                                       94
6.13 AIR QUALITY AND NOISE

            The Challenge
            6.13.12 Two-thirds of the trips made by Falkirk Council residents are undertaken by car yet 31% of
                    households do not own a car. Apart from the fact that a transport network and local services based
                    on car transport produces social exclusion particularly for those without access to a car, there are
                    also significant environmental impacts. Car use contributes greatly to climate change; affects human
                    health through local air pollution, noise and discouraging exercise; and damages ecosystems through
                    pollution and other indirect effects.
            6.13.13 The main challenge therefore is to encourage increasing number of trips to be made by the more
                    sustainable modes. In the face of rising car ownership, and perhaps more significantly, rising car
                    usage, the work carried out under the LTS is even more important in order to help met the air
                    quality objectives for the Falkirk Council area. The key policies of the LTS to encourage more active
                    travel through walking, cycling and use of public transport, improving health, strengthening the
                    economy and improving the environment are entirely consistent with the aims of the Council’s
                    forthcoming Air Quality Action Plan.
            Where We Are Now
            6.13.14 As already stated, the Council currently monitors pollution levels in line with the Environment Act
                    1995 and produces and Annual Air Quality Report. The most recent monitoring carried out has
                    been reported in the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) Progress Report April 2005 and
                    follows on from 2004 Annual Air Quality Report and the U&SA carried out in 2003. This work
                    concluded the following regarding the pollutants generated by emissions from traffic.
            6.13.15 Monitoring data for NO2 during 2004 indicated that measured concentrations reduced from 2003
                    levels. Of the eight sites that the U&SA report showed to have high NO2 concentrations in 2003,
                    all but the A80 Northbound carriageway recorded annual mean concentrations below the National
                    Air Quality Strategy objectives. However, four other sites, Kerse Lane, West Bridge Street, Kerr
                    Crescent and Arnot Street, measure annual mean concentrations within 10% of the objective, and
                    as such will need continued attention to observe how concentrations vary in future years.
            6.13.16 The most recent monitoring data indicates that NO2 objectives that require to be met by 31
                   December 2005, will be achieved. It should be stated however, that Falkirk town centre remains
                   borderline in terms of declaring an AQMA and will continue to be monitored closely.
            6.13.17 The reasons for the variation in pollutant concentrations between 2002-2004 are partially
                    explained by the fact that national trends in measured concentrations have indicated that 2003 was
                    a poor year for air quality whereas 2004 did not experience the same number of days with anti-
                    cyclonic meteorological conditions. This would explain an increase in measured concentrations in
                    2003 and subsequent reduction in 2004, a situation replicated in neighbouring local authorities.
            6.13.18 No new emissions sources were identified for the remaining pollutants, therefore based on the
                    monitoring data obtained during 2004 it is considered unlikely that National Air Quality Strategy
                    objectives for Benzene, 1,3-butadiene, CO or PM10 will be exceeded.
            6.13.19 The Council is also currently involved in a vehicle emissions testing initiative whereby motorists
                    can have their vehicle tested to check its emissions output. This test is free. The initiative also
                    involves warning, and possibly fining, motorists who idle their engines unnecessarily, particularly
                    near sensitive areas such as schools. Other areas being targeted are bus stations, taxi ranks and with
                    the public in general. The project is being run jointly with Midlothian and West Lothian Councils
                    and is funded by the Scottish Executive.
            What We’re Going to Do
            6.13.20 No specific transport projects have been identified at the present time to directly address air quality
                    or noise matters. A large number of projects and initiatives the Council are implementing under
                    the LTS however, should operate to improve air quality and also reduce noise. These include the
                    wide range of initiatives to encourage people to travel by modes other than the car, such as
                    supporting and promoting cycling and walking and using public transport.
            6.13.21 Continued maintenance to improve the quality of road surfaces will operate to reduce both noise
                    and emissions by reducing unnecessary braking and acceleration. Similarly, the commitment to
                    consider installing an urban traffic control system which, through linking the traffic signals in the
   95               town centre, would mean more free flowing traffic and hence have benefits in terms of potentially
         reducing emissions. Details of these are given in the preceding sections. The campaign to reduce
         unnecessary engine idling and emissions testing will also continue.
        Community Regeneration, Social Inclusion and Accessibility Audit
6.13.22 Improvements in air quality will benefit all individuals in a specific area regardless of income,
        disability or any other factor. The impacts of improved air quality will contribute to higher quality
        of life. The only exception to this is if the air quality benefit occurs in an area of social deprivation.
        Race and Gender Audit
6.13.23 As for the above, improved air quality will benefit all, regardless of race or gender, unless the
        improvement is within an area with a high concentration of an ethnic group.
        Sustainability Audit
6.13.24 Improving the air quality of the Council area through encouraging more use of sustainable modes
        of transport will directly benefit the sustainability agenda.


AIR QUALITY AND NOISE POLICIES
POLICY AQ1
      The Council will continue to monitor and analyse air quality data throughout the Council area in
      compliance with the requirements of the Environment Act 1995 and subsequent regulations.
POLICY AQ2
      The Council will work with partner agencies, to implement transport initiatives to assist in
      improving air quality across the Council area where possible.
POLICY N1
      The Council will work in partnership with the Scottish Executive and other agencies to meet its
      obligations under the EU Environmental Noise Directive.


 AIR QUALITY AND NOISE ACTIONS
 Policy        Description                                    Current        Timescale          LTS / SCP
               Status                                                        Objective#
 Option 1*
 AQ1           Continue to monitor and report                 Ongoing        Ongoing            3 / C, F
               on levels of NO2 emissions from
               traffic across the Council area
 AQ2           Continue to participate in the                 Ongoing        Ongoing            3 / C, F
               Vehicle Emissions Testing                                     subject to
               initiative with neighbouring                                  funding
               authorities
# LTS Objectives set out para 2.3. Strategic Community Plan themes set out para 3.17
* Option 1 Strategy – Cycling, m/cycling, walking, public transport priority, some car restraint
* Option 3 Strategy – as for Option 1 but with increased funding.




                                                                                                                     96
7.    TARGETS AND FUNDING


7.1   The following table shows the funding available over the lifetime of the LTS. The future year
      budgets are indicative only as these can be subject to change. This level of funding reflects
      the budgets available to implement the Option 1 LTS scenario of promoting walking, cycling and
      public transport with some car restraint measures at a continuation of existing funding levels from
      existing sources. In order to implement the Option 3 scenario, additional funding would need to
      be secured.
7.2   To assess the impact of the transport policy contained in this LTS, a number of outcome targets have
      been devised. Progress on a number of these will be reported on an annual basis but, for some, the
      only source of information is from Census data and these can only be reported over the longer
      term. It should be stressed at this point, however, that it is only over the longer term that a true
      assessment of the effectiveness of the policies being implemented can be made. The targets set for
      this LTS are contained in Table 7.2 below.
7.3   Whilst Table 7.2 looks at outcome targets, which will ultimately show the effect our policies are
      having by examining the results the work carried out produces, it is also interesting to consider a
      number of output targets. These are directly related to the work carried out which, through
      their implementation, should contribute to meeting the outcome target. Examples of each are
      as follows:
             Outcome target – 2.5% of all trips to work by bicycle by 2011
             Output target – 10 km of new cycleway constructed by 2009
7.4   Table 7.3 sets out a number of output targets against each of the LTS objectives. These will be
      monitored and reported along with progress towards our outcome targets in the Annual
      Progress Reports.




                                                                                                             98
7 TARGETS AND FUNDING


            Table 7.1 Indicative Transport Capital Programme*

            Project                                         2005/6     2006/7   2007/8    2008/9
                                                              £          £        £         £
            Scottish Exec funding
            Cycling, Walking and Safer Streets indicated        248     259      267       None
                                                                                         indicated
            20mph limits at schools                             295     330      340       None
                                                                                         indicated
            Major Roads schemes
            M876 Glenbervie Slip Roads                            0    1716        0       Expect
                                                                                         complete
            A801 Avon Bridge                                    210     210       10       Needs
                                                                                          funding
            A9 Icehouse Brae junction improvement               400     300        0       Expect
                                                                                         complete
            Denny Eastern Access Road                           450     425       20       Needs
                                                                                          funding
            Infrastructure protection
            Bridge Assessment and Strengthening                 1170    700      500     Ongoing
            Roads - structural maintenance                      1700   1800     1800     Ongoing
            Lighting - structural maintenance                    500    500      500     Ongoing

            New schemes
            Road Safety                                         200     200      200      Expect
                                                                                         ongoing
            Cycling initiatives                                  50      50       50      Expect
                                                                                         ongoing
            Pedestrian facilities                                 25     25       25      Expect
                                                                                         ongoing
            Land compensation                                    30      30       30      Expect
                                                                                         ongoing

            Flood prevention
            Flood prevention - minor schemes                    250     250      250      Expect
                                                                                         ongoing
            Flood prevention - Bo'ness                           50    2000     4000       2000
            Flood prevention - RSNH                              20      50      700       800

            SESTRAN & other budgets                             380     850        ?     unknown

            * Figures in ‘000s




   99
Table 7.2 Outcome Targets for LTS

LTS Objective               Key LTS            Data              Baseline            Local
                            Performance        Source            Position            Target
                            Indicators
Objective 1:
To support the              Non car mode       Census            2001 Census data:   For journey to
growth of the local         split to work                        Walk 8.6%           work increase
economy in a                                                     Cycle 1.5%          by 2011:
sustainable way                                                  Bus 7%              Walking to 10%
                                                                 Train 3.9%          Cycling to 2.5%
                                                                 M/cycle 0.6%        Bus to 8%
                                                                 Car 74%             Train to 5%
                                                                                     M/cycle to 1%
                                               Employer survey   Baseline data to
                                                                 be collected 2006

Objective 2:
To contribute to            Walking flows      Annual Survey     Baseline data to    Increase
community                   at key                               be collected 2006   walking
regeneration                locations                                                by x% on 2006
through promoting                                                                    base by 2009*.
social inclusion

Objective 3:
To protect the              Travel mode to     Annual Survey     2005 data:          For journey to
environment by              primary school     at primary        Walk 52.1%          primary school
minimising the                                 schools           Cycle 1.4%          increase:
impact transport                                                 Bus 7.6%            Walking to 54%
can have on it and          Cycling flows      Annual Survey     Car 37.2%           Cycling to 4%
improve health by           on key                               Taxi 1.78%          On 2005 base
promoting more              corridors                                                by 2009
active travel                                                    Baseline data to
                                                                 be collected 2006   Increase cycling
                                               by x% on 2006
base by 2009*

Objective 4:
To improve safety           Casualty           Police Accident   Avg number          Achieve 6
for all those using         reduction          Statistics        casualties (all     fewer casualties
transport network           statistics                           severities) per     per annum
                                                                 year for
                                                                 1999/03 - 429.4

Objective 5:
To improve                  Public transport   Journey           Baseline data to    Increase
integration between         Information        Planner system    be collected        information
different forms of          requests                             during 2006         equests by x%
transport                                                                            on 2006 base by
                            Passengers using   Train operator    2,590,543           2009*
                            Falkirk’s 5 rail   data              passengers in
                            stations                             2004/05             Increase rail
                                                                                     passengers by
                                                                                     5% for 2005/06
                                                                                     4% for 2006/07
                                                                                     3% for 2007/08
Road Traffic
Reduction Objective:
To restrain the rate        Traffic Volumes    Automatic Count   4% Traffic growth   Restrain traffic
of traffic growth           on key links       Data              from 2001 to 2004   growth levels
across Falkirk                                                                       to 1% growth
Council area to                                                                      per annum
improve the quality
of life for those living,
working and visiting
the area
* To be determined when baseline data collected during 2006


                                                                                                        100
      Table 7.3 Output Targets for LTS

      LTS Objective           Key LTS Performance               Data Source       Local Target
                              Indicators
      Objective 1:
      To support the          Number of Employer Travel         Employer survey   Develop 3 Travel
      growth of the local     Plans in place                                      Plans with existing
      economy in a                                                                businesses
      sustainable way

      Objective 2:
      To contribute to        Increase in walking routes        Annual Survey     Construct 3 km of
      community                                                                   walking routes per
      regeneration                                                                annum to 2009*
      through promoting
      social inclusion

      Objective 3:
      To protect the          Increase in cycle routes          Annual Survey     Construct 10 km of
      environment by          cycling to schools                                  new cycle route
      minimising the                                                              by 2009
      impact transport        % increase in                     Annual Survey
      can have on it          cycling to schools                                  Construct cycling
      and improve                                                                 facilities at 2
      health by promoting                                                         schools per annum
      more active travel                                                          to 2009

      Objective 4:
      To improve safety       Casualty reduction                Police Accident   Implement 2 accident
      for all those using     statistics                        Statistics        remedial schemes per
      the transport network                                                       annum to 2009

      Objective 5:
      To improve              Number of schemes to              Annual survey     Implement 2 schemes
      integration between     assist easy integration                             per annum to 2009
      different forms of      between transport
      transport               modes

      Road Traffic            Number of schemes                 Annual survey     Implement 2 schemes
      Reduction               which encourage                                     per annum to 2009
                              more sustainable travel

      * Dependent on continuation of existing funding streams




101
8. MONITORING AND REVIEW


8.1   An essential component of any strategy is the monitoring and review process put in place. Without
      monitoring and review of a strategy, the effectiveness of that particular policy cannot be assessed,
      nor indeed can any remedial action be taken to improve performance.
8.2   A comprehensive monitoring programme has therefore been set up to establish the effectiveness
      of the policies being pursued in this LTS. The objective of this process is to measure progress
      towards each of the performance indicators identified in Tables 7.2 and 7.3 and to set in place
      regular monitoring.
8.3   From Table 7.2 it can be seen that for a number of indicators the baseline data will be collected in
      2006. For the indicators where data is already available, annual data will be gathered during 2006
      which will start to build up a picture of progress towards the set targets for each indicator.
8.4   One area which is comprehensively monitored at present is that of traffic counting. Falkirk Council
      has 94 permanent count sites around the Council area. Of these 75 are counted for one week in
      every month with the remaining being counted on a continual basis all year round.
8.5   Further count sites will be added to this during financial year 2006/07. Regular monitoring of the
      other transport modes will be set up as part of the annual reporting process as detailed in Table 8.1.
8.6   Whilst this document covers a three year period, it is useful for the Council to monitor how
      effective its strategies are before the end of this period. This will allow alterations to be made in
      approaches found to have little or no impact and helps build up a more realistic picture of what can
      be achieved over time under the current transport policy. In order to assess this, an annual progress
      report will be produced.
8.7   The annual progress report will be placed on the Council’s website that will allow the public to
      follow progress during the lifetime of the LTS. This will be a significant improvement on the
      previous situation where no information on progress was available until a new LTS was produced
      several years later.
8.8   The monitoring surveys to be carried out for each performance indicator are outlined in the
      monitoring programme set out in Table 8.1 below.




                                                                                                               102
8. MONITORING AND REVIEW


          Table 8.1 Monitoring Programme

          Performance        Means of Monitoring                         Action to be Taken
          Indicator

          Outcome Performance Indicators
          Non car mode      Review census data 2011                      Review census data as
          split to work                                                  available

                             Carry out modal split surveys at a number   Carry out first annual
                             of employers implementing Travel Plans      surveys by March 2007

          Walking flows at   Survey a number of locations across the     Determine location of all surveys
          key locations      Council area to measure pedestrian flows.   by May 2006.
                             Carry out surveys annually at the same      Carry out programme of 12 hour
                             time each year                              counts each day for three days
                                                                         at all locations during May to
                                                                         September 2006

          Travel mode to     Annual hands-up survey at all primary       Carry out survey in 2006 to build
          school             schools in Council area                     on baseline data collected 2005

          Cycling flows on   Carry out cycle counts at 7 locations       7 automatic cycle counters key
          corridors          around Council area on annual basis         installed March 2006
                                                                         Begin continuous counting
                                                                         Spring 2006

          Casualty           Accident unit to continue analysing         Work ongoing.
          reduction          accident data using Police Stats 19         Produce annual update
          statistics         information                                 figures

          Public transport   Measure volume of enquiries to Council’s    Complete installation of
          Information        Journey Planner system                      Journey Planner system
          requests                                                       by May 2006

          Bus Punctuality    Carry out surveys on punctuality of a       Establish bus services to be
                             number of bus services based on actual      surveyed by June 2006
                             departure times compared to timetabled      Carry out first round of surveys
                             departure times                             Autumn 2006

          Train Passenger    Information from relevant body (train       Request information for 2005 by
          Numbers            operating company (TOC) or Transport        April 2006
          Scotland

          Traffic Volumes    Automatic traffic counts                    Continue annual programme of
          on key links                                                   automatic traffic counting
                                                                         around the Council area.




  103
Table 8.1 Monitoring Programme

Performance          Means of Monitoring                          Action to be Taken
Indicator

Output Performance Indicators
Number of          Employer survey                                Carry out annual survey of local
Employer Travel                                                   major employers
Plans in place

Increase in cycle    Length of new cycle route provided           Record length of cycle route
routes                                                            installed as schemes
                                                                  implemented throughout year

Increase in          Length of new walking routes provided        Record length of walking route
walking routes                                                    installed as schemes
                                                                  implemented throughout year

% increase in        Number of new cycle schemes serving          School Travel Plan Officer to
cycling to           schools implemented                          record number of cycle schemes
schools                                                           constructed through School
                                                                  Travel Plan work

Casualty             Number of accident remedial schemes          Project managers to record
reduction            implemented                                  number of accident remedial
statistics                                                        schemes implemented during
                                                                  year

Number of            Record number of schemes implemented         Project managers to record
schemes to help      to assist integration between transport      number of access to stations
integration          modes                                        schemes constructed during
between travel                                                    year
modes

Number of            Record number of schemes implemented         Project managers to record
schemes which        to discourage travel by car such as          number of compliant schemes
encourage more       introduction of bus lanes, one way streets
sustainable travel   banned turns and car park management




                                                                                                     104
Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009
9.      ROAD TRAFFIC REDUCTION


Setting the Context
9.1    This road traffic reduction section has been produced in light of the findings of, and guidance
       contained within, the Scottish Executive’s report ‘Term Commission for the Evaluation and Review
       of Local Authority Road Traffic Reduction Targets published early 2006.
9.2     Traffic growth has been highlighted as one of the 8 key issues of the public consultation undertaken
        in support of this strategy. The Council's own traffic monitoring indicates that traffic on the main
        roads in the Falkirk Council area has grown at roughly 1% per year over the last 4 years. This figure
        is based on counts of a selection of A class and B class roads within the Council area.
9.3     Of the five objectives of the LTS (paragraph 2.3), three are particularly relevant to road traffic
        reduction. These are:
             To support the growth of the local economy in a sustainable way;
             To protect the environment by minimising the impact that transport can have on it and to improve
             health by promoting more active travel; and,
             To improve safety for all those using the transport network.
9.4     Continued growth in traffic is unsustainable and presents one of the most significant challenges to
        community regeneration, social inclusion, economic growth, safety, health and the environment in
        the Council area. Addressing the effects of this growth is a central theme of the Local Transport
        Strategy, as witnessed by comments in each of the rounds of public consultation. This has led to the
        identification of a road traffic reduction objective for Falkirk Council area as follows:
              To restrain the rate of traffic growth across Falkirk Council area to improve the quality
              of life for those living, working and visiting the area.
9.5     It is vital that work is undertaken to address this situation not only to minimise those negative effects
        of increasing traffic levels such as growing congestion and the impact this has on public transport
        reliability, safety and environmental quality through noise and air emissions from traffic, but also in
        recognition of the Council’s growth strategy as set out in the Structure and Local Plans. Significant
        housing and business land allocations will bring with them not only a strengthening economy for the
        area but also growing traffic levels, resultant congestion and increasing challenges in ensuring
        personal accessibility, community regeneration and safety.
9.6     It should be stressed that, whilst the actions to be carried out under this LTS will seek to reduce
        the increase in traffic growth whilst supporting the economy of the area, they are unlikely to have
        any long term significant impact on the continuing trend of traffic growth. As such it is likely
        congestion will increase across the network.
9.7     The LTS 2000-2004 set out eight road traffic reduction targets (Appendix 3). Three of these targets
        cannot be reported upon either because the monitoring surveys required have not been carried out
        or the travel diary survey carried out to report on these has been found to be insufficiently robust
        for some modes of transport. The results for the remaining targets are given in Table 9.1 below.
9.8     From the table it is evident that little progress has been made towards the target 5% reduction in
        traffic flows across the town centre cordon. Traffic monitoring between 2000 and 2003 has shown
        that there has actually been an 8% increase in traffic across the cordon during this time period.
        Parking demand has seen a similar increase, however this has not been so dramatic as for traffic
        growth. Peak demand for parking in Falkirk is experienced on a Saturday and between 1996 and
        2001, when the latest parking survey was carried out, there was a 2% increase in demand.
9.9     Regarding modal split for journeys to primary schools, it should be noted that whilst progress
        towards these targets for travel to school appears to have been poor, the baseline data was collated
        from information for 3 primary schools only. The figures reported for 2005 are based on
        information from 41 primary schools and therefore should be more robust. This 2005 data has
        therefore been used to set new targets for the future. These new targets are reported in Table 7.2.
        Both the air quality and safety targets are currently being met.                                            106
9. ROAD TRAFFIC REDUCTION

            Existing and Forecast Traffic Levels
            9.10 As previously stated, the council has 94 permanent count sites for automatic traffic counting (ATC)
                    across the Council area, 75 of which are counted for one week in every month. The remaining 19
                    are counted on a continual basis. The information from these counters has built up a significant
                    picture of traffic data and growth over time. This information is contained in Appendix 4 and
                    includes data on the following:
                          Annual Average Daily Flows for all ATC sites since 1999
                          vehicle kilometres for all ATC sites since 1990
                          graphs showing traffic growth by road type
                          Plans showing the locations of all ATC sites.
            9.11    It is evident from this data that, with the exception of ‘A’ class rural roads, traffic is growing
                    across the Council area. The highest individual growth is found on motorways with 4.31%
                    growth between 2003 and 2004. Urban ‘A’ class roads are also experiencing high levels with 3%
                    growth during the same period. Overall, across the network in Falkirk there was 2.72% growth
                    from 2003 to 2004.
            9.12    During 2004, the Council commissioned a Paramics microsimulation model for Falkirk. This model
                    enables the future traffic growth position for the area to be forecast and uses realistic estimates of
                    levels of new development and for existing development, half the NRTF low growth rate Early
                    results from this work indicate that, by 2014, the Council area is likely to see a 20% increase in
                    traffic levels on the 2004 base. As would be expected, the model shows that this increases traffic
                    levels, delay and queue lengths on the main links and the existing stress points on the network.
            Strategy Appraisal
            9.13 The STAG evaluation of the three possible transport strategies considered under this LTS showed
                   that Option 3 of promoting sustainable travel with additional funding over the existing committed
                   transport expenditure would produce the greatest benefits in relation to achieving the set transport
                   objectives. Option 1, which was the same as option 3 but included only committed transport
                   funding was the next best option. As has been evident throughout section 6 of the LTS, actions for
                   both Option 1 and Option 3 have been identified.
            9.14    This strategy of promoting sustainable transport is primarily centred on increasing the convenience
                    and attractiveness of cycling, walking and using public transport and at the same time endeavouring
                    to make travel by car as efficient and safe as possible. Whilst this strategy employs little direct
                    demand management other than through car parking policies, it is entirely centred on reducing
                    travel by car by encouraging increased use of the alternative, more sustainable modes. In these
                    terms, the transport strategy set out here will significantly contribute to restraining road traffic
                    growth.
            9.15    The main activities which should significantly contribute are as follows. Details of each and the
                    actions to be taken during the life of the LTS are contained in section 6.
                          Provision of cycling and walking facilities and the marketing of them
                          Facilitating and encouraging the uptake of business and school travel plans
                          Providing infrastructure and information to make travel by public transport more commodious, safe and
                          attractive
                          Encouraging the provision of more accessible transport options; and,
                          Carrying out initiatives to raise awareness of the issues surrounding travel choices
                          Reviewing the Council’s car parking standards
                          Providing traffic management and road safety schemes.
            Target Setting
            9.16 The Council has reviewed its position with regard to the targets set in the previous LTS and in light
                   of more recent baseline information and the onerous and costly nature of carrying out a travel diary
                   survey every 5 years as required by a number of the previous targets. A new target for road traffic
                   reduction has therefore been set as follows:
                         To restrain traffic growth at 1% per annum for the Falkirk Council area.
            9.17    This target is considered to be realistic as well as ambitious. The level of development planned for
  107               the Council area as detailed in the Structure and Local Plans, combined with recent growth in car
        ownership, the national and local pattern of increasing car usage and the fact that the Paramics
        model for Falkirk is predicting 2% growth to 2014, means that solely restraining traffic growth will
        be an ambitious target. This is highlighted by the 8% growth experienced across Falkirk town
        centre cordon for 2000 to 2003.
9.18    Given the fact that 1% per annum growth in traffic has been recorded over the four year period
        2001-04 with much higher levels on some roads, and the projects and initiatives set out in this LTS
        should operate to widen choice for the majority of people in terms of how they travel, this target
        is also considered to be realistic.
9.19    Other factors which need to be taken into account in setting this target is not only forecast growth
        and the development plan growth strategy, but also Falkirk’s geographic position in Central
        Scotland.
9.20    This target is also in line with the target set out in the Indicators of Sustainable Development for
        Scotland by the Scottish Executive that aims to stabilise traffic growth at 2001 levels, although it is
        acknowledged that debate is currently ongoing as to whether this target should be scrapped. As
        indicated above, traffic grew by 1% in 2001 therefore setting the above target complies with the
        Scottish Executive’s Indicators.
9.21    In putting into place measures to encourage the use of alternative modes of travel to the car and
        thus reduce traffic flows, Falkirk Council hopes to achieve a number of significant benefits for those
        living, working and visiting the area.
9.22    These benefits include less time spent in congestion with resultant reductions in air pollution and
        noise from traffic as well as reduced community severance for areas where main routes travel
        through residential areas. Another major benefit will be improving the health and fitness of the
        population by encouraging more walking and cycling and less car use which is sedentary in nature.
        All these factors add up to an improved quality of life. The business community should benefit by
        suffering less from goods and employees being delayed in congestion and equality of opportunity
        should be enhanced for all by enabling people to access employment, health, shopping and leisure
        opportunities regardless of having access to a car.
9.23    The impacts of such a strategy will extend to other transport modes. In the longer term, it
        is possible that a number of current subsidised bus services could become commercially viable and
        bus operators may be in a position to increase the frequency of specific services. There may also be
        more demand for provision of additional walking and cycling routes currently not provided as part
        of the existing networks across the Council area. With this there will be additional requirements
        for maintenance of these facilities thus placing greater pressure on the maintenance budget that
        is already faced with significant challenges.
9.24    Table 7.2 of section 7 summarises the linkages between the overall road traffic objective and the
        performance indicators being used to measure progress and examples of the type of project which
        will be implemented through the LTS to work towards this objective.
Consultation
9.25 Consultation regarding the RTRA element of the LTS was contained within the overall LTS
      consultation exercise, details of which are contained in section 5 and Appendix 2. It is worth
      highlighting, however, that the main element of the consultation process which is relevant to RTRA
      was the consultation on the draft document carried out in the early part of 2006, as this was the
      main opportunity for people to comment specifically on the proposed approach to RTRA and the
      target set.
9.26    The responses submitted to this stage of the consultation exercise generally supported the overall
        strategy approach. The widespread consultation exercise included writing to key stakeholders and
        advertising the consultation in the local press, however the responses submitted made no specific
        comment on the proposed road traffic reduction target.
9.27    In formulating this road traffic reduction report cognisance has been taken of the recommendations
        made within the Scottish Executive’s Term Commission for the Evaluation and Review of Local
        Authority Road Traffic Reduction Targets. The Executive’s report made specific comment on
        Falkirk Council’s previous RTRA target and process of monitoring and analysing the traffic situation
        and this report seeks to address those comments and recommendations.                                      108
      Monitoring
      9.28 Monitoring to enable annual reporting on progress towards the RTRA target will be carried out on
            an ongoing basis as part of the Council’s established traffic count programme. The traffic count
            monitoring programme for the Council is extensive, covering 94 permanent traffic count sites, and
            this information will be used to determine progress on the target.
      9.29    A quality assurance system is in operation as part of the count programme which ensures that
              any failed counts are detected thus enabling a recount to be carried out for that site within specified
              periods to ensure any overall omissions in the count programme are kept to a minimum. This
              quality assurance system has been in operation for some time now and has been found to work well.
      9.30    Reports on progress towards the overall target will be made on an annual basis and will be included
              in the annual progress report to be produced as part of the Council’s LTS process.
      Forecasting Details
      9.31 This section sets out the details of the methodology used in producing the traffic forecasts used in
             Table 9.2 above.
      9.32    The Paramics model was used to produce the forecasts with the base year being 2004. Detailed
              information was then produced for the years 2009 and 2014. The background assumptions made
              relating to the base scenario were as follows.
      9.33    The Structure and Local Plan growth strategies were utilised. The 2009 model incorporates
              4,300 new houses over the 2004 base. The 2014 model has an additional 5,360 houses with the
              2020 model proposing a further 4,730 houses. The 2009 and 2014 models also incorporates
              non-residential development with the major development sites of The Gateway, Gilston and
              Glenbervie included
      9.34    Trip generation for the model is based on house numbers and development square meterages
              using the TRICS database. Standard categorise of vehicles are used with the bus network modelled
              through inclusion of bus timetable data. The model covers all urban areas within the Falkirk Council
              area with the exception of Bo’ness. The reasoning for this is this area is remote from the bulk of
              the urban area and its traffic enters the main network through links to Grangemouth and Linlithgow
              and so will be accounted for in the overall network.




109
Table 9.1 Targets included in LTS 2000-2004                                            Progress Made

1. reduction in traffic flows across the town centre cordon of 5% by 2003              8% increase

2. The peak level of parking demand in Falkirk town centre will be retained            2% increase
   at 1996 levels.

3. The modal split for journeys to Primary Schools will be altered over time           Based on surveys carried
   as listed below: (based on surveys carried out at 3 primary schools)                out at 41 primary schools:

Mode                 1998                  2003                  2008                  2005

Car                  20%                   20%                   15%                   37.2%

Walk                 70%                   70%                   70%                   52.1%

Bus                  10%                   10%                   10                    7.6%

Rail                 0                     0                     0                     0

Cycle                0                     0                     5%                    1.4%

Other                0                     0                     0                     1.78%

4. The Council will endeavour to reduce traffic levels at key locations to             Air quality objectives
    reduce the level of the following air pollutants by 2005 in line with              currently being met.
    Government targets:
          Nitrogen Dioxide
          PM10 Particulates

5. The Council will reduce road accident casualties in line with the targets           Road safety targets
   set out by the Scottish Executive.                                                  currently being met.


Table 9.2 Road Traffic Reduction Act Targets
RTRA Target: Restrain traffic growth at 1% per annum for the Falkirk Council area
              Traffic Growth           Traffic Data
Area:                     Base       2006       2011    2021        Base       2006             2011      2021
Falkirk                   Year                                       Year
Council                   2004                                       2004
area        Do Min-imum 1.00         1.04       1.14    1.34       606,585 630,848             691,507   812,824
Vehicle
Type:       Target        1.00       1.02       1.07    1.17       606,585 618,717             649,046   709,704
All Time
period:     Reduction       0        0.02       0.07    0.17           0      12,131           42,461    103,120
24 hour     against
flows       Do -min




                                                                                                                    110
Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009


APPENDIX 1
SCOTTISH TRANSPORT APPRAISAL GUIDANCE (STAG)




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      Appraisal Summary Table

      OPTION 1 – BASE STRATEGY
      Proposal Details: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 1

         Name and address of authority or organisation promoting         Falkirk Council
         the proposal: (Also provide name of any subsidiary
         organisations also involved in promoting the proposal)

         Proposal Name:     Falkirk Council -                            Name of Planner:   Falkirk Council
                            Local Transport Strategy 2 – Option 1

         Proposal           Option 1 aims to achieve the Council’s       Estimated Total    £30 million over
         Description:       objectives by investing, promoting and       Public Sector      3 years
                            enhancing sustainable transport, e.g.        Funding
                            cycling, walking and public transport.       Requirement:
                            It is also focussed on implementing
                            measures to discourage unnecessary
                            car use whilst still providing for car use
                            where this is necessary.

         Funding Sought     N/A                                          Amount of          Sum N/A
          From:                                                          Application:
         (if applicable)

      Background Information: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 1

         Geographic:        The Falkirk Council area covers 114 miles2 (295 km2) and lies north of the Scottish
         Context            Central Belt, between the country’s two main cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. The
                            area has a population of 146,000 spread across a network of small and medium sized
                            settlements separated by narrow wedges of countryside. Falkirk itself is the largest
                            settlement with just over 32,000 inhabitants. Due to its location, Falkirk is well
                            served by road, rail and sea connections. It is ideally located at a crossroads for
                            key east-west and north-south links and is within easy and quick access to
                            Edinburgh and Glasgow, whilst Grangemouth, 8 miles east of Falkirk is a major port.

         Social Context:    Although manufacturing is still important in the area, particularly the chemical and
                            petrochemical sector in Grangemouth, the local economy is becoming more diverse.
                            The main sectors for employment in 2002 were: public sector (28.7%), retailing,
                            hotels and restaurants (24.7%); manufacturing (17.6%); and banking / finance (11%).
                            2.6% percent of the population is unemployed, which is the same as the Scottish
                            average (October2005). Sixty-nine percent of Falkirk Council households had access
                            to one or more cars in 2001, whereas 30% of households did not have access to a
                            car. The latter represents a 10% fall from the previous census results in 1991
                            indicating greater use of the car for travel.

      Economic Context:     See above for economic sectors. As the largest town in the area, Falkirk serves as
                            the principal centre for the area and has re-emerged as a thriving shopping and
                            service centre over recent years. However, the easily accessible city centres of
                            Edinburgh and Glasgow exert a significant influence in employment and retail terms.
                            There are also significant trade and labour flows in both directions between the
                            surrounding areas of Stirling, Cumbernauld and Livingston.




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Appraisal Summary Table

Planning Objectives: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 1
Objective:            Performance against planning objective:

1. To support the     The local economy is likely to grow as the area becomes more attractive for new
   growth of the      investment due to the availability of good and reliable transport links and reduced
   local economy      congestion on the roads.
   in a sustainable
   way.
2. To promote         Improved levels of social inclusion will be achieved through the provision of good
   social inclusion   walking, cycling and public transport facilities, in particular for those without access
   throughout the     to a car.
   community.

3. To protect the   Adverse environmental impacts of road transport will be reduced by increasing use
   environment by of sustainable transport modes, whilst the overall health and fitness of the local
   minimising the   community will improve through increased levels of walking and cycling.
   impact transport
   can have on it
   and improve
   health by
   promoting more
   active travel.

4. To improve         Overall safety of all road users will be improved as investment in safety measures is
   safety for all     continued, with greater safety for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users
   those using the    achieved as more people use the enhanced networks.
   transport
   network.

5. To improve         Improved integration between different forms of transport will be achieved through:
   integration        improved service integration, enhanced facilities, better information, through-
   between            ticketing and bus priority measures.
   different forms
   of transport.
   Rationale for      This option has been selected as a suitable proposal as it will achieve all of the
   Selection or       Council’s transport objectives in a sustainable manner. It is listed here to provide an
   Rejection of       assessment/outline of what the Council is likely to achieve if additional funding for
   Proposal:          transport is not obtained.

Implementability Appraisal: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 1
   Technical:         Technology would be used to a greater extent to manage traffic to seek maximum
                      efficiency of the existing road network and providing greater public transport
                      priority. However, no technical risks have been identified.

   Operational:       The strategy will be managed and implemented by the Council.

   Financial:         The strategy is likely to be funded by the Scottish Executive and from the Council’s
                      own resources.
   Public:            The approach outlined in Option 1 is in line with the majority of responses received
                      from the public during consultation for the LTS2 in December 2004 - March 2005.
                      Responses from the public included strong support for the pursuit of road safety and
                      investment to cycle lanes, public transport facilities and car sharing.




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      Government's Objectives for Transport: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 1

      Objective          Assessment Summary              Supporting Information

         Environment: Improvements to the local a        Increased use of sustainable transport modes will
                      nd wider environment.              reduce the adverseenvironmental impacts of road
                                                         transport, whilst the overall health and fitness of the
                         Moderate benefit                local community is likely to increase through increased
                                                         levels of walking and cycling.

         Safety:         Enhanced safety for             Personal security of walking and cycling will be
                         pedestrians and cyclists in     improved as more people use the pedestrian and
                         the medium/long-term.           cycle network. Greater numbers of pedestrians and
                                                         cyclists would also increase driver awareness and
                         Moderate benefit                overall accident numbers would reduce.
                                                         However, until this ‘critical mass’ is reached, there
                                                         could be more accidents in the short-term due to
                                                         increased levels of walking and cycling.

         Economy:        The growth of the local         New investment in the local economy likely due to
                         economy is supported in         good provision of alternative transport modes and
                         a sustainable way.              reduced congestion on the roads improving access and
                                                         deliveries to jobs and businesses, enlarging the
                         Moderate benefit                potential labour market for employers and enhancing
                                                         ability to recruit and retain staff.

         Integration:    Improved integration            Improved integration between different forms of
                         between transport modes         transport through increased integration between
                         and enhanced information        services, through- ticketing, infrastructure
                         provision.                      improvements, provision of bus priority measures and
                                                         information on public transport in as many
                         Moderate benefit                forms and mediums as possible/required
                                                         to ensure good level of knowledge of alternatives.

         Accessibility   Improved accessibility          The accessibility of the elderly, the young and those
         & Social        and social inclusion            without access to a car to opportunities, services
         Inclusion:      throughout the community.       and employment will be enhanced through the
                                                         provision of good walking, cycling and public
                         Moderate benefit                transport facilities, thereby ensuring social inclusion
                                                         throughout the community.




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OPTION 2 – ROAD-BASED STRATEGY
Proposal Details : Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 2

   Name and address of authority or organisation promoting
   the proposal: (Also provide name of any subsidiary
   organisations also involved in promoting the proposal)          Falkirk Council

   Proposal Name:      Falkirk Council - Local Transport           Name of Planner:       Falkirk Council
                       Strategy 2 – Option 2

   Proposal            Option 2 aims to achieve the Council’s      Estimated Total        £32 million
   Description:        objectives by investing more in road-       Public Sector          over 3 years
                       based schemes to assist car travel.         Funding
                       Greater free flow for traffic would be      Requirement:
                       provided by releasing more capacity
                       for cars to reduce congestion and
                       journey times. Significant investment
                       in the pedestrian environment would
                       still take place, however, investment
                       in cycling would be limited to off-road
                       cycleways and public transport
                       investment would be limited to
                       integration, through - ticketing and
                       safety improvements.

   Funding Sought      N/A                                         Amount of Application:    Sum N/A
   From:
   (if applicable)

Background Information: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 2

   Geographic          The Falkirk Council area covers 114 miles2 (295 km2) and lies north of the
   Context:            Scottish Central Belt, between the country’s two main cities of Glasgow and
                       Edinburgh. The area has a population of 146,000 spread across a network of small
                       and medium sized settlements separated by narrow wedges of countryside. Falkirk
                       itself is the largest settlement with just over 32,000 inhabitants. Due to its location,
                       Falkirk is well served by road, rail and sea connections. It is ideally located at a
                       crossroads for key east-west and north-south links and is within easy and quick
                       access to Edinburgh and Glasgow, whilst Grangemouth is a major port.
   Social Context:     Although manufacturing is still important in the area, particularly the chemical and
                       petrochemical sector in Grangemouth, the local economy is becoming more diverse.
                       The main sectors for employment in 2002 were: public sector (28.7%), retailing,
                       hotels and restaurants (24.7%); manufacturing (17.6%); and banking / finance (11%).
                       2.6% of the population is unemployed, which is the same as the Scottish average
                       (October 2005). Sixty-nine percent of Falkirk Council households had access to one
                       or more cars in 2001, whereas 30% of households did not have access to a car. The
                       latter represents a 10% fall from the previous census results in 1991 indicating
                       greater use of the car for travel.

   Economic            See above for economic sectors. As the largest town in the area, Falkirk serves
   Context:            as the principal centre for the area and has re-emerged as a thriving shopping and
                       service centre over recent years. However, the easily accessible city centres of
                       Edinburgh and Glasgow exert a significant influence in employment and retail terms.
                       There are also significant trade and labour flows in both directions between the
                       surrounding areas of Stirling, Cumbernauld and Livingston.




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      Planning Objectives: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 2

      Objective:                                          Performance against planning objective:

      1. To support the growth of the local economy       Reduced congestion would benefit the local economy
         in a sustainable way.                            in the short-term; however the continuing build up of
                                                          traffic and congestion in the medium to longer term
                                                          would hinder economic growth.

      2. To promote social inclusion throughout           There will likely be no improvement or reduced levels
         the community.                                   of social inclusion due to a growing dependency on the
                                                          car to access opportunities, services and jobs.

      3. To protect the environment by minimising         Environmental impacts of road transport likely to
         the impact transport can have on it and          worsen as congestion increases. Air pollution and
         improve health by promoting more active          noise from road traffic will have a detrimental impact
         travel.                                          on people’s health. This will be compounded by people
                                                          becoming less and less active as they increasingly opt
                                                          to drive for more journeys rather than walk, cycle or
                                                          take public transport.

      4. To improve safety for all those using the        Road traffic accident numbers may stabilise overall but
         transport network.                               likely to worsen at rate per km travelled. Overall safety
                                                          unlikely to improve due to the removal and less use of
                                                          20 mph zones and other speed management measures.

      5. To improve integration between different         Some improvements in integration achieved, however
         forms of transport.                              due to reduced resources available investment limited
                                                          to some service integration, through-ticketing and
                                                          safety / security improvements.

      Rationale for Selection or Rejection of Proposal:   This option has been rejected as it outlines an
                                                          approach that does not achieve all of the Council’s
                                                          transport objectives and because it is inconsistent with
                                                          the Governments five objectives for transport.


      Implementability Appraisal: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 2
         Technical:                                       Technology would be used to maximise road capacity
                                                          through traffic management, however, no technical
                                                          risks have been identified.

         Operational:                                     The strategy will be managed and implemented by the
                                                          Council.

         Financial:                                       The strategy is likely to be funded by the Scottish
                                                          Executive and from the Council’s own resources.

         Public:                                          The approach outlined in Option 2 is not in line with the
                                                          majority of responses received from the public during
                                                          consultation for the LTS2 in December 2004 - March
                                                          2005. Responses from the public included strong
                                                          support for the pursuit of road safety and investment to
                                                          cycle lanes, public transport facilities and car sharing.




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Government's Objectives for Transport: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 2

   Objective             Assessment Summary                        Supporting Information

   Environment:          Environmental impacts of road             There may be small short-term benefits in
                         transport likely to worsen as             in air quality in having more free-flowing
                         congestion increases.                     traffic, however, congestion will naturally
                                                                   build-up over time with resulting
                         Moderate negative impact                  worsening of air and noise pollution, with
                                                                   detrimental impacts on the environment
                                                                   and people’s health.

                                                                   To cater for increasing congestion, there
                                                                   will also likely be an on-going requirement
                                                                   for more land to build more roads with
                                                                   negative impacts on the environment and
                                                                   people’s quality of life.

   Safety:               Slight improved safety for motorists      Investment in road infrastructure may
                         in general, although safety for other     stabilise road traffic accident numbers
                         non-motorised users is reduced.           overall, although likely to worsen at rate
                                                                   likely to worsen accident severities for all
                         Moderate negative impact                  road users. Overall safety of non-
                                                                   motorised users unlikely to improve due to
                                                                   the removal and less use of 20 mph zones
                                                                   and other speed management measures.
                                                                   Less investment in facilities will likely see
                                                                   fewer cyclists and public transport users,
                                                                   which in turn likely to reduce driver
                                                                   awareness and personal security.
                                                                   However, there may be lower rates of
                                                                   cycle-related accidents in the medium to
                                                                   long-term due to reduced levels of cycling.

   Economy:              The local economy will benefit from       Reduced congestion due to increased
                         more free-flow traffic in the             road capacity would benefit business and
                         short-term. However, as congestion        the economy in the short-term. However,
                         builds-up the economic comp               the continuing build up of traffic and
                         etitiveness of the area will ultimately   congestion in the medium to longer term
                         be reduced.                               would result in less reliable journey times,
                                                                   lack of travel choice for employees and
                         Moderate negative impact                  poor access, reducing the area’s
                                                                   economic competitiveness and
                                                                   attractiveness for existing and potentially
                                                                   new businesses.
   Integration:          Limited investment to improving           There would be reduced resources to
                         integration between transport             invest into public transport and investment
                         services.                                 would be limited to some improvements to
                                                                   integration between modes, through-
                         Moderate negative impact                  ticketing and safety / security
                                                                   improvements. Buses would not be given
                                                                   priority on roads, making bus journey times
                                                                   less reliable with increasing congestion
                                                                   and less attractive to users.




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      Government's Objectives for Transport: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 2


         Accessibility &       In the short-term, accessibility and    Investment in roads and car based
         Social Inclusion:     social inclusion is improved to those   measures will mainly benefit those with a
                               with a car, but reduced for those       car, improving their accessibility and
                               without access to a car, including      social inclusion in the short-term, until
                               the elderly and the young.              road congestion builds up again in the
                                                                       medium to long term. With a road-based
                               Moderate negative impact                strategy, there is likely going to be a
                                                                       growing dependency on the car to
                                                                       access opportunities, services and jobs.
                                                                       This will undermine social inclusion and
                                                                       accessibility on those within the
                                                                       community without access to a car,
                                                                       including the elderly and the young.




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OPTION 3 – PREFERRED STRATEGY

Proposal Details : Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 3

   Name and address of authority or organisation promoting            Falkirk Council
   the proposal: (Also provide name of any subsidiary
   organisations also involved in promoting the proposal)

   Proposal Name:      Falkirk Council - Local Transport              Name of Planner:     Falkirk Council
                       Strategy 2 – Option 3

   Proposal            Option 3 aims to achieve the Council’s         Estimated Total      £35 million
   Description:        objectives in a similar approach to            Public Sector        over 3 years
                       Option 1 with the exception that funding       Funding
                       for strategic transport projects is            Requirement:
                       increased. As with Option 1, Option 3
                       aims to promote and enhance sustainable
                       transport (e.g. cycling, walking, public
                       transport and car sharing) and is focussed
                       on implementing measures to discourage
                       unnecessary car use whilst still providing
                       for car use where this is necessary.

   Funding Sought      N/A                                            Amount of Application:          Sum N/A
   From:
   (if applicable)


Background Information: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 3

   Geographic          The Falkirk Council area covers 114 miles2 (295 km2) and lies north of the
   Context:            Scottish Central Belt, between the country’s two main cities of Glasgow and
                       Edinburgh. The area has a population of 146,000 spread across a network of small
                       and medium sized settlements separated by narrow wedges of countryside.
                       Falkirk itself is the largest settlement with just over 32,000 inhabitants. Due to its
                       location, Falkirk is well served by road, rail and sea connections. It is ideally located
                       at a crossroads for key east-west and north-south links and is within easy and quick
                       access to Edinburgh and Glasgow, whilst Grangemouth is a major port.
   Social Context:     Although manufacturing is still important in the area, particularly the chemical and
                       petrochemical sector in Grangemeouth, the local economy is becoming more
                       diverse. The main sectors for employment in 2002 were: public sector (28.7%),
                       retailing, hotels and restaurants (24.7%); manufacturing (17.6%); and banking /
                       finance (11%). 2.6% of the population is unemployed, which is the same as the
                       Scottish average (October 2005). Sixty-nine percent of Falkirk Council households
                       had access to one or more cars in 2001, whereas 30% of households did not have
                       access to a car. The latter represents a 10% fall from the previous census results in
                       1991 indicating greater use of the car for travel.

   Economic            See above for economic sectors. As the largest town in the area, Falkirk serves as
   Context:            the principal centre for the area and has re-emerged as a thriving shopping and
                       service centre over recent years. However, the easily accessible city centres of
                       Edinburgh and Glasgow exert a significant influence in employment and retail terms.
                       There are also significant trade and labour flows in both directions between the
                       surrounding areas of Stirling, Cumbernauld and Livingston.




                                                                                                             120
  APPENDIX 1
  APPENDIX 1 SCOTTISH TRANSPORT APPRAISAL GUIDANCE (STAG) STAG - Part 1
      OPTION 3 – PREFERRED STRATEGY

      Planning Objectives: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 3
      Objective:                                           Performance against planning objective:

      1. To support the growth of the local economy      The local economy will continue to grow as greater use
         in a sustainable way.                           of sustainable transport modes reduces unnecessary
                                                         car use and thus road congestion and provides better
                                                         and more reliable access to jobs and businesses.

      2. To promote social inclusion throughout          Significant improvements to alternative travel modes to
         the community.                                  the car will enhance social inclusion benefits.

      3. To protect the environment by minimising        Greater investment in sustainable transport modes is
         the impact transport can have on it and         likely to see a greater number of users in the medium to
         improve health by promoting more active         longer-term, thus reducing the adverse environmental
         travel.                                         impacts of road transport. Higher levels of walking and
                                                         cycling in the area are likely to improve the general
                                                         health and fitness of the local community.
      4. To improve safety for all those using the       Overall safety of all road users will be improved as
         transport network.                              additional resources will allow for greater investment in
                                                         safety measures.

      5. To improve integration between different        Higher levels of investment compared to the Base
         forms of transport.                             Strategy will see greater integration between various
                                                         transport modes


         Rationale for Selection or Rejection            This option has been selected as the preferred strategy
         of Proposal:                                    to take forward as it is presents an approach that will
                                                         achieve all of the Council’s transport objectives in a
                                                         sustainable manner and produce more benefits than
                                                         the Base Strategy (Option 1). However, the strategy is
                                                         subject to receiving the additional funding required.


      Implementability Appraisal: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 3

         Technical:                                      Technology would be used to a greater extent to
                                                         manage traffic to seek maximum efficiency of the
                                                         existing road network and providing greater public
                                                         transport priority. However, no technical risks have
                                                         been identified.

         Operational:                                    The strategy will be managed and implemented by the
                                                         Council.

         Financial:                                      The strategy is likely to be funded by the Scottish
                                                         Executive and from the Council’s own resources. The
                                                         additional funding required is likely to come from: the
                                                         Scottish Executive, Regional Transport Partnership,
                                                         developers or other grants, e.g. from the EU.

         Public:                                         The approach outlined in Option 3 is in line with the
                                                         majority of responses received from the public during
                                                         consultation for the LTS2 in December 2004 / January
                                                         2005. Responses from the public included strong
                                                         support for the pursuit of road safety and investment to
                                                         cycle lanes, public transport facilities and car sharing.

121
APPENDIX 1
APPENDIX 1 SCOTTISH TRANSPORT APPRAISAL GUIDANCE (STAG) STAG - Part 1
OPTION 3 – PREFERRED STRATEGY

Government's Objectives for Transport: Falkirk Council LTS2 - Option 3

   Objective             Assessment Summary                     Supporting Information

   Environment:          Improvement to the local and           Increased spending to the Base Strategy
                         wider environment                      on sustainable transport modes will likely
                                                                see greater number of users, thus
                         Major benefit                          reducing the adverse impacts of road
                                                                transport on the environment.

   Safety:               Enhanced safety for pedestrians        Greater management of traffic speed and
                         and cyclists in the long-term.         use of appropriate engineering and
                                                                enforcement on the transport network
                         Major benefit                          likely to reduce the rate and severity of
                                                                accidents. Significant investment in public
                                                                transport, pedestrian and cycling facilities
                                                                will see a growing number of users, which
                                                                in turn is likely to increase personal
                                                                security and driver awareness. However,
                                                                as with Option 1, until a ‘critical mass’ for
                                                                pedestrians and cyclists is reached, there
                                                                could be more accidents in the short-term
                                                                due to increased levels of walking and
                                                                cycling.

   Economy:              Significant benefits to the local      As with Option 1, investment directed at
                         economy as enhanced transport          providing good alternative transport modes
                         links widen the areas labour and       and reducing congestion on the roads will
                         employment market.                     improve access and deliveries to jobs and
                                                                businesses, which is likely to support the
                         Major benefit                          existing local economy as well as
                                                                encourage new investment. However,
                                                                increased benefit to the Base Strategy will
                                                                be derived from targeted investment to
                                                                improving walking, cycling and public
                                                                transport services. Some projects funded
                                                                through the Regional Transport
                                                                Partnership are likely to benefit regional
                                                                transport movements. This could
                                                                potentially have the impact of widening
                                                                Falkirk’s labour market thus bringing
                                                                economic benefits to the area.

   Integration:          Integration between                    Additional funding to the Base Strategy
                         transport services.                    would allow increased spending on
                                                                improving integration between different
                         Major benefit                          forms of transport by: enhancing cycle,
                                                                pedestrian and public transport facilities;
                                                                providing additional park and ride
                                                                facilities; better information; through-
                                                                ticketing; and improvements to public
                                                                transport service integration.

   Accessibility &       Improved accessibility and social   Significant investment into public
   Social Inclusion:     inclusion throughout the community. transport, cycling and walking schemes
                                                             likely to improve accessibility for all users,
                         Major benefit                       but particularly for those without access to
                                                             a car (e.g. the elderly and the young) and
                                                             for mobility impaired people, thereby
                                                             enhancing social inclusion throughout the   122
                                                             community.
  APPENDIX A List of Attendees at the Stakeholder Seminar and Programme

      GROUP 1 (Red)
                                           GROUP 2 (Yellow)                  GROUP 6 (Green)
      Facilitator:                         Facilitator:                      Facilitator:
      Graeme Johnstone                     Stuart Wilson                     Adele du Feu
      Scribe:                              Scribe:                           Scribe:
      Lynn Slavin                          Claire Fitzsimmons                Mark Rinkus
      Greg Pender                          Roy McQuaker                      Jonathon Bryant
      (Falkirk Council – Roads)            (Falkirk Council Roads)           (British Waterways)
      Robert Gordon Adams                  Charles Ambrose                   Francis Donnelly
      (Community Council)                  (Community Council)
      Patricia Grant                       Brian Peat                        Katharine Taylor
      (Central Scotland Police)            (First Buses)                     (Sustrans)
      Hugh Lyon                            Stuart McArthur                   Brian Cochrane
      (CTC)                                (Community Council)               (Falkirk Council Roads)
      Brenda Roddy                         Alan Rodger
      (Falkirk Council – Sustainability)   (Falkirk Council Planning & Environment)



      GROUP 4 (Blue)                       GROUP 5 (Orange)                  GROUP 6 (No Colour)


      Facilitator: Gordon Boyd             Facilitator: Julie Cole           Facilitator: Renata Smit
      Scribe: Nicola Bennie                Scribe: John Angell               Scribe: Ann Carruthers


      Shona McDonald                       Findlay Brown                     Sheila Terry
      (Community Council)                  (Falkirk Council Roads DC)        (Falkirk Council – Head of Planning
                                                                             & Transport)
      DJ Holwell                           Alec Little                       Evelyn Crosbie
      (WH Malcolm – Haulage)               (Community Council)               (Community Council)
      Duncan Hearsum                       Alistair Mitchell                 John Yellowlees
      (Dial-A-Journey)                     (Falkirk and District             (First Scotrail)
                                           Town Centre Manager)
      Gordon Laird                         Tonia Sobieraj                    David Moffat
      (Falkirk Council – Sustainability)   (Falkirk Council                  (Falkirk Council – Economic Dev)
                                           Community Planning)
      Bev Ferguson                         Rhona Gibb                        Raymond Smith
      (Falkirk Council – Education)        (Paths for All)                   (Falkirk Council Roads)
                                           Jim McDonald
                                           (Community Council)
                                           Councillor Khalid Hamid




123
PROGRAMME

9.00-9.30am   Arrival and Coffee

9.30am        Welcome and Introduction
              Councillor David Alexander, Leader of Falkirk Council

9.35am        The Current Transport Situation in Falkirk Council Area
              John Angell, Transport Planning Manager, Falkirk Council

9.55am        Falkirk’s Transport Future – Where Do We Want to Be?
              Kaye Adams, Television Presenter

10.20am       Focus Group Session

11am          Coffee Break

11.20am       Focus Group Session

12pm          Buffet Lunch

12.50pm       Feedback Session

13.05pm       Question and Answers

13.30pm       Seminar Close




                                                                         124
Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009


APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION




                                                     126
            Contents
            Section                                                                      Page
      1.    Introduction                                                                  128
            Background
            Aim of Report
            Structure
      2.    Stakeholder Seminar                                                          129
            Strategic Issues
            Local Issues                                                                 131
            Common Themes                                                                132
      3.    Evening Meetings                                                             134
            Denny High School
            Avonbridge Primary School                                                    135
            Grangemouth High School
            St. Margarets Primary School, Polmont
            Larbert Village Primary School                                               136
            Lesser Town Hall, Falkirk
            Bonnybridge Community Centre                                                 137
            Bo’ness Town Hall
            Common Themes
      4.    Secondary Consultation                                                       138
            Policy Issues
            Public Transport Services
            Rail Services                                                                139
            Walking and Cycling
            Journeys by Car
            Other Issues
      5.    Conclusions                                                                  140
            Policy Issues
            Public Transport
            Rail Services
            Walking / Cycling                                                            141
            Journeys by Car


      List of Appendices
               Appendix A – List of Attendees at the Stakeholder Seminar and Programme
               Appendix B - LTS Consultation Exercise – Responses January 2006




127
1. INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
1.1  The Falkirk Local Transport Strategy (LTS) sets out Falkirk Council’s transport policies for the next
     few years and gives a long term transportation vision for the Council area.The first LTS document
     for the Falkirk Council area was produced in 1999 and covered the period between the years 2000
     and 2004. Draft guidance issued by the Scottish Executive in February 2005 seeks that the strategy
     be reviewed and updated as necessary.
1.2     The proposed timetable for carrying out the review of the Falkirk LTS is as follows:
             Public consultation exercise – completed by the end of April 2005;
             Production of first draft – completed by the end of November 2005;
             Second round of Public consultation, based on the first draft – completed by the end of January 2006;
             and
             Submission of finalised draft of LTS to Council – April 2006.
AIM OF REPORT
1.3  This report summarises the public consultation phase of this process undertaken by the Council,
     which includes:
           A stakeholder seminar;
           A series of public meetings (eight) in various locations throughout the Falkirk Council area; and
           A second round of public consultation, based on the draft LTS document.
1.4     This information will be used by the Council to inform the proposed LTS document.
STRUCTURE
1.5  The report has been divided into four further sections following this introduction, as follows:
          Section two – A summary of the responses that were given at the Stakeholder Seminar held in January
          2005;
          Section three – A summary of the consultation responses that were given at the eight evening
          consultation meetings;
          Section four – A summary of comments on the draft LTS document from key stakeholders and members
          of the general public; and
          Section five – General conclusions that can be drawn from the consultation exercise.




                                                                                                                     128
APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION
2. STAKEHOLDER SEMINAR

             2.       STAKEHOLDER SEMINAR
             2.1      The stakeholder seminar was held in the Park Lodge Hotel, Falkirk on the 17th of January 2005.
                      The stakeholders consisted of members of the Community Council, a number of Falkirk Council
                      employees, public transport operators, the police and other interested parties. A list of attendees
                      and details of the programme are shown in Appendix A.
             2.2      Following the introductions and the nominated speakers, the attendees were split up into six groups
                      and asked to discuss a list of six specific questions which related to strategic and localised travel in
                      and around the Falkirk area.
             2.3      The six questions that were discussed at the seminar were devised by Falkirk Council and Atkins and
                      were designed to provide a focus for the seminar and to offer a valuable input into the LTS
                      document in terms of possible transport improvements and on transport priorities. The six
                      questions are detailed below:
                            “What are the main issues in travelling around the Falkirk Council area”?
                             “What are the main issues in travelling between Falkirk and other neighbouring Local Authorities”?
                            “How can Falkirk Council help improve air quality levels, reduce noise levels and encourage a reduction
                            in the use of fossil fuels in and around the Falkirk area”?
                            “In Falkirk, what should be done to improve travel by the following modes of transport”?
                            “What are your top five priorities in terms of improving travel in the Falkirk Council area”?
                            ® “What would it take to make you leave your car at home one day per week”?
             2.4      A summary of the main comments and discussion points are detailed below.

             STRATEGIC ISSUES
             Question One
             2.5    “What are the main issues in travelling around the Falkirk Council area”?
                    Public Transport
                          The condition of Public Transport services – In general the vehicles are not new, they are not clean and
                          do not encourage people to use them;
                          Lack of Public Transport information – People wanted more timetable and electronic information to be
                          readily available;
                          Lack of Public Transport services – A number of services were found to be too sporadic (too far apart or
                          too close together);
                          High fares – The fares on the trains were found to be particularly high;
                          There was an impression that off-peak services were not particularly good;
                          There was found to be a lack of bus shelters in the Falkirk area;
                          Is the Falkirk Bus Station in the best location in terms of promoting transport interchange;
                          There are a lack of direct routes to Falkirk – People travelling from outlying and rural areas
                          (particularly from the west of the country) found it difficult to get to Falkirk in comparison to taking
                          the car;
                          Lack of integration between different modes of transport; and
                          Accessibility – More low-floor vehicles were required.
                    Cars
                          Congestion on the B902 and on the eastern and western gyratories was a particular problem;
                          There is a shortage of town centre car parking;
                          Bus lanes are a hazard for other traffic;
                          Traffic calming is also a problem for a number of vehicles; and
                          There is a lack of disabled parking at train and bus stations.
                    General
                          Out of town economic developments lead to more car use; and
  129                     The traffic signing in Falkirk needs to be improved.
         Cycling / pedestrian
              There is not enough town centre cycle parking;
              The safety aspects of cycling in Falkirk needs to be improved – more segregation between modes is
              required, including the interface of cyclists and pedestrians;
              There are too many hills in the Falkirk area and the weather puts a lot of people off cycling;
              There are too many narrow pavements in the Falkirk area to promote cycling and walking;
              There is a lack of direct footpaths between points of particular interest and employment area etc; and
              The maintenance of roads/footpaths and cycleways needs to be improved.
Question Two
2.6    “What are the main issues in travelling between Falkirk and other neighbouring Local
       Authorities”?
           People prefer the train as opposed to the bus;
           There is not enough car parking at the rail stations and it is too expensive;
           The bus links between the two rail stations in Falkirk needs to be improved to promote integration;
           There needs to be more direct services to Falkirk from other parts of the country;
           There is a lack of good waiting facilities at the rail and bus stations;
           The cleanliness of public transport services and waiting facilities is poor;
           More discounts for rail use need to be introduced to encourage more people to use the train services;
           There is a lack of integration between transport modes;
           The planned A801 improvement needs to be implemented as soon as possible;
           Slip-roads need to be provide on the M9 motorway at Earlsgate;
           There needs to be more strategic transport thinking within the Council; and
           The Edinburgh Airport Rail link should be promoted.
Question Three
2.7    “How can Falkirk Council help improve air quality levels, reduce noise levels and encourage a
       reduction in the use of fossil fuels in and around the Falkirk area”?
             There were mixed views from the stakeholders as to whether this was a priority for Falkirk;
             There needs to be more integration in terms of transport policy thinking;
             New roads and better traffic management would offer less pollution because the number of queuing
             vehicles would be significantly less;
             Better Park and Ride facilities are required in the Falkirk areas which should be cheaper to use for
             commuters;
             More travel planning should be used throughout the Falkirk area;
             Higher charges for car parking in the town centre are required;
             Falkirk Council as a major employer should lead by example in terms of travel planning and car
             sharing;
             Education in terms of teaching people about the effect of traffic on the environment is required;
             The Focus for developments should be based around public transport;
             Better Public Transport information is required;
             There should be more covered areas at the Park and Ride sites serving Falkirk;
             A Passenger Transport Executive (PTE) was suggested to offer more control over strategic planning issues;
             and
             A monorail for Falkirk was suggested.




                                                                                                                         130
APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION
2. STAKEHOLDER SEMINAR

             LOCAL ISSUES
             Question Four
             2.8 “ In Falkirk, what should be done to improve travel by the following modes of transport”?
                         Bus;
                         Walking;
                         Cycle;
                         Rail; and
                         Car.
                     Bus
                            More Public Transport information is required along with improved signing to the stations and more and
                            better bus shelters;
                            Higher frequencies of bus services are required;
                            The buses need to be reliable to encourage more patronage;
                            Integration with other modes of transport needs to be improved;
                            Buses need to have additional space for luggage;
                            Buses should be as economical in terms of fuel – electric buses were suggested;
                            More low-floor buses are required;
                            More marketing for Park and Ride is required;
                            Operators need to provide promotional tickets to try and encourage more people to try the bus; and
                            Customer care for operator staff is required.
                     Walking/Cycling
                         More segregation from other modes (including walking and cycling) is required;
                         Better maintenance of footways and cycle-ways is required;
                         More cycle parking in the town centre would be beneficial;
                         More cycle training, especially for children is required;
                         The identification of core networks for walking and cycling are required;
                         Links to other policy documents within the council such as the community plan, health and Local Plans
                         should be established;
                         Car-free days should be encouraged;
                         Facilities such as showers at work should be encouraged; and
                         Allowances for cyclists should be encouraged by employers.
                     Rail
                            More car parking at train stations is required;
                            Rail capacity should be improved wherever possible;
                            Better accessibility for all passengers is required but primarily disabled passenger are needed;
                            Discounted commuter parking is required at rail station car parks;
                            Better bus links between stations, especially between Falkirk High and Grahamston are required;
                            More cycle racks are required at rail stations;
                            Studies to look at the possibility of opening more lines in and around the Falkirk area should be
                            promoted;
                            A new station at Allandale is required; and
                            More passenger information at stations is required.
                     Cars
                            Car sharing should be encouraged wherever possible; and
                            Improved signing for Falkirk is required.

  131
Question Five
2.9    “What are your top five priorities in terms of improving travel in the Falkirk Council area”?

         The Public Transport experience should be improved to encourage more people to use it. (This
         includes cleanliness, frequent direct routes, cheaper fares, good information and integration with
         other modes;
               Better Public Transport information is required;
               More integration between modes is required;
               A reduction in congestion and traffic speeds would be beneficial;
               Better connections to the motorway network are required;
               Enhanced accessibility for all;
               The transfer of freight from road to rail;
               Better maintenance of infrastructure;
               A better fare system for Falkirk is required;
               More transport and environmental education is required; and
               Additional enhancements for rural transport are required.
Question Six
2.10 “What would it take to make you leave your car at home one day per week”?
            Home-working;
            Service reliability for Public Transport;
            Very high Public Transport frequencies;
            More direct Public Transport services;
            Better employer flexibility in terms of work/life balance;
            Cheaper parking at stations;
            Car sharing;
            More bus/rail integration;
            More sticks such as parking charges;
            More flexible fares; and
            Personalised travel planning

COMMON THEMES
2.11 The common themes running through the six groups in relation to each of the questions are detailed
     below:
Question One
             Additional Public Transport information required;
             Better passenger accessibility on Public Transport is needed; and
             Public Transport services are too expensive.
Question Two
             People prefer trains to buses;
             The Edinburgh Airport Rail Link is a main requirement; and
             The perception of the public is that the strategic links to Falkirk from other parts of the country are
             poor.
Question Three
             More Public Transport information is required;
             More travel planning would be beneficial;
             Falkirk Council should lead by example in terms of car sharing and travel planning; and
             Park and Ride should be encouraged and developed.
                                                                                                                       132
APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION
2. STAKEHOLDER SEMINAR

             Question Four
                    Bus
                          More promotion is required to encourage more patronage;
                          More passenger information would encourage more people to use the bus; and
                          Improved bus frequencies would make bus travel more popular.
                    Walking
                          Enhanced infrastructure maintenance is required;
                          More street-lighting is required; and
                          More direct routes would be beneficial.
                    Cycling
                          Additional cycle parking is required; and
                          More segregation would encourage more cycling.
                    Rail
                          More car parking at rail stations is required; and
                          More passenger information would be beneficial.
                    Car
                          Improved signing in the town centre; and
                          Car sharing would be beneficial to town centre congestion;
             Question Five
                          Enhanced maintenance is required;
                          Better passenger information;
                          More transport integration; and
                          The Public Transport experience should be enhanced to encourage enhanced patronage.
             Question Six
                          Flexible working;
                          Car sharing;
                          More frequent Public Transport; and
                          Better Public Transport infrastructure and services.




  133
3.       EVENING MEETINGS


3.1      A series of eight evening meetings open to all the general public were held in various locations
         throughout the Falkirk Council area between 10th February and 30th March 2005. Falkirk Council
         publicised the meetings in the local media and provided an appropriate number of staff members to
         facilitate the meetings. Atkins also supplied a member of staff at each meeting to help with
         facilitation and to help monitor the consultation process.
3.2      The dates and locations of the meetings are detailed below:
              10th February – Denny High School;
              15th February – Avonbridge Primary Scholl;
              16th February – Grangemouth High School;
              22nd February – St. Margarets Primary School;
              24th February – Larbert Village Primary School;
              1st March – Lesser Town Hall, Falkirk;
              3rd March – Bonnybridge Community Centre; and
              30th March – Bo’ness Town Hall.
3.3       A total of 43 people attended the series of evening meetings. A summary of the main comments
         and discussion points from each meeting are detailed below.


DENNY HIGH SCHOOL
3.4  Four members of the public attended this evening meeting.
     General Comments
           There are too many houses being built in the Falkirk Council area which leads to additional car trips
           and congestion;
           There are too many cars on the road as a direct result of poor integrated local planning;
           It was felt that a lack of foresight by planners has led to traffic levels that are having a detrimental
           effect on the environment;
           It was felt that the Council didn’t keep the local community fully informed, and there was a concern
           that there was a lack of local democratic decision making;
           Road surfaces throughout the Falkirk area are in a poor condition;
     Site Specific Issues
           There is a possible safety risk with a number of heavy goods vehicles travelling on Duke street in Denny
           town centre;
           There should be no parental parking at the proposed high school in Denny;
           Two gullies on Winchester Avenue in Denny have be covered in bitumen;
           There is a defective gully on Duke Street;
           A number of paving blocks between the library and Stirling Street require remedial works.




                                                                                                                      134
APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION
 3. EVENING MEETINGS
             AVONBRIDGE PRIMARY SCHOOL
             3.5  No members of the public attended this evening meeting
             GRANGEMOUTH HIGH SCHOOL
             3.6      Twelve members of the public attended this evening meeting.
                      General Comments
                             In general, there was not much support for park and ride. Some of those present also felt that charging
                             for the Park and Ride, especially at Christmas, was not appropriate; and
                             It was felt that in general drivers were poorly educated, particularly in terms of speed and the safety of
                             cyclists/ pedestrians.
             Site Specific Issues
                             The A801 at Avon Gorge should be upgraded as a matter of urgency;
                             Park Street in Falkirk town centre should be made one way;
                             The traffic signals at the Morrisons supermarket should be linked to West Bridge Street;
                             The speed tables at the Falkirk Retail Park were deemed to be too high;
                             The use of on-road cycle paths in the Braes area was not felt to be appropriate, as there was too much
                             traffic;
                             Passenger train services should be reinstated at Grangemouth station;
                             Improvements at Falkirk Bus station, including safety, information, and the general quality of the
                             environment should be made;
                             At the junction of Newlands Road and MacKenzie Terrace in Grangemouth, localised widening should
                             be carried out to try and accommodate BP traffic. Local pedestrian facilities are poor.
                             There is a lot of congestion on Graham's Road in Falkirk town centre; and
                             The footpath west of Polmont station needs to be upgraded;
                             Another bus stop in Abbots Road is required;
                             Too many heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) travel along Kerse Road and park overnight inYork Square car
                             park.


             ST. MARGARETS PRIMARY SCHOOL, POLMONT
             3.7   Three members of the public attended this evening meeting.
                   General Comments
                         Provide a half hour frequency on the Falkirk Grahamston / Glasgow rail service;
                         An improved link between the bus station and the rail station would be beneficial;
                         The condition of the footways in the Falkirk Council area needs to be improved;
                         Provision of shared access links between the main towns and villages in the Falkirk Council area; and
                         It would be helpful if more bicycles could be carried on trains and buses to improve integration;
                         A route timetable for all bus services in the Falkirk area would be useful;
                         The price of public transport is generally high and is a particular problem for younger people;
                         There needs to be better footpath links, streetlighting and surfacing to promote walking.
                   Site Specific Issues
                         There are no suitable facilities for pedestrians and cyclists between Camelon and Denny and
                         Grangemouth and Bo’ness;
                         Access could be improved by providing cycling facilities at the Kincardine Bridge and at Avon Gorge;
                         Graham’s Road is very congested and prohibits access from Falkirk town centre;
                         Falkirk bus station needs to be improved;
                         The bus link between Polmont and Grangemouth is poor;
                         The links to Callender woods in Falkirk needs to be improved for cyclists and pedestrians;
                         There are two pelican crossings on Corporation Street, when only one is required
  135
LARBERT VILLAGE PRIMARY SCHOOL
3.8  One member of the public attended this evening meeting.
     General Comments
           Traffic congestion needs to be tackled;
           The Council needs to encourage people out of their cars;
           Park and Ride needs to be encouraged;
           Children walking to school needs to be encouraged.
     Site Specific Issues
           The Falkirk gyratory system needs to be converted to two way;
           The Glenbervie slips need to be constructed;
           More car parking needs to be supplied at Larbert Station;
           Possible pedestrianisation scheme at Tryst Road.

LESSER TOWN HALL, FALKIRK
3.9   Nineteen members of the public attended this evening meeting.
      General Comments
            Better public transport is required to help limit the number of cars coming into Falkirk;
            The public’s attitude to car parking needs to be changed to encourage more sustainable forms of
            transport;
            Better parking management in the Falkirk area would help to relieve traffic congestion;
            More road building is required;
            Public transport costs need to be made more attractive to encourage use;
            Park and ride schemes need to be well advertised;
            People are forced to use cars because of infrequent and expensive public transport;
            The roads system in Falkirk is too complex and allied with congestion, puts people off coming into the
            town centre;
            Promote key high capacity traffic corridors in the Falkirk Council area and provide adequate parking at
            the ends of these corridors;
            Promote park and ride by providing cheap and frequent bus services;
            Improve the links between towns and rail and bus stations;
            Road maintenance needs to be improved;
            Public transport information needs to be improved by displaying timetable information at each bus stop;
            Traffic calming measures should be removed to encourage cycling;
            Reduce congestion by improving alternatives to car use;
            Better segregation of cycle routes from road traffic would improve the number of cyclists;
            The linking of traffic signals needs to be improved;
            Access to the Trunk Road network from Falkirk is poor;
            More enforcement of waiting regulations and parking measures is required;
            Lower fares on the railway might encourage more people to use them;
            There is a distinct lack of street lighting on street and in car parks;
      Site Specific Issues
            The Falkirk distributor is inadequate at peak times;
            A rail station at Bonnybridge would improve interchange;
            A dedicated cycle route between Falkirk, Grangemouth and Bo’ness would be helpful;
            More residents parking in Falkirk town centre is required;
            A drive through post office in Garrison place would be useful;
            A fast bus link from Falkirk to the airport would be useful;
            A Falkirk bypass would help reduce traffic flows in the town centre;
                                                                                                                      136
            More cycle paths along the canal might encourage more cycling in Falkirk;
            Falkirk bus station should advertise all bus services and not just First bus services.
APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION
 3. EVENING MEETINGS
             BONNYBRIDGE COMMUNITY CENTRE
             3.10 Two members of the public attended this evening meeting.
                  General Comments
                        The Council needs to reduce traffic congestion in and around Falkirk town centre;
                        Provide more free parking in Falkirk town centre.
                  Site Specific Issues
                        The Council needs to try and reduce the congestion at Camelon Road and Grahams Road in Falkirk;
                        Falkirk bus station needs to be improved;
                        The provision of a cycle route across the Forth and Kincardine would help to encourage cycling.


             BO’NESS TOWN HALL
             3.11 Two members of the public attended this evening meeting.
                   General Comments
                         Improved bus services between Bo’ness, Linlithgow and Edinburgh would be beneficial;
                         More public transport information would help, especially Real Time Information. Improved punctuality
                         of buses would help encourage people to use public transport;
                         There should be better signage for public paths and rights of ways;
                         The easiest way to travel to Edinburgh is by car and therefore people chose the car over public transport;
                         It appears that taxi fares in the Falkirk area are expensive when compared to the rest of Scotland;
                         The Council needs to encourage the segregation of footways away from main roads to improve safety;
                         In general Public Transport access to Bo’ness is poor.
                   Site Specific Issues
                         There is one section of the Bo’ness – Blackness path that requires remedial measures;
                         There is no footway or lighting between Bo’ness and Linlithgow;
                         The evening bus times between Bo’ness and Linlithgow are poor and do not encourage people to use the
                         service;
                         There is no footway on the Bo’ness Road through Grangemouth;
                         Cycling measures need to be improved on the section of road between Grangemouth and Bo’ness and at
                         the Bowtrees Roundabout.


             COMMON THEMES
             3.12 The common themes that were discussed or brought to the Council’s attention at the eight
                  evening meetings are detailed below:
                  General Comments
                        The maintenance of roads and footway in the Falkirk Council area needs to be improved;
                        There is too much congestion in and around Falkirk town centre;
                        Park and Ride within the Council area needs to be encouraged;
                        Improved links to and between bus and rail stations in the Falkirk Council area are required;
                        More segregated waking and cycling routes should be provided;
                        Public transport costs need to be more attractive to encourage more people to switch from car to public
                        transport.
                  Site Specific Issues
                        Falkirk bus station needs to be improved in terms of improved safety, information and the general
                        environment to help encourage more people to use it;
                        Improved cycle and pedestrian links between Falkirk, Grangemouth and Bo’ness are required; and
                        Localised congestion on Graham’s Road needs to be addressed.

  137
4. SECONDARY CONSULTATION
4.1      A consultative draft LTS document was produced by Falkirk Council in November 2005 and was
         sent to a range of key stakeholders throughout the Falkirk area, with comments requested by the
         31st January 2006.
4.2      In addition, a comments form was posted on the internet and members of the public were invited
         to make comments within a similar timescale. The consultation was also advertised in the local
         press. The actions taken against each of the comments made during this consultation are presented
         in Appendix B to this report.
4.3      The comments received by the Council have been separated into the following categories:
              Policy Issues;
              Public Transport Services;
              Rail Services;
              Walking and Cycling;
              Journeys by Car; and
              Other Issues.

POLICY ISSUES
          Closer links with the Falkirk Council Access Strategy should be made in the LTS document;
          There are no direct linkages with other local authorities to try and encourage more integration;
          There is no strategy to deal with increasing volumes of traffic in the Falkirk area and especially in
          connection with the new hospital at Larbert;
          Falkirk Council should continue to adopt a balanced approach to managing transport in and around
          Falkirk town centre by providing good access for shoppers and visitors and good quality car parking and
          a well maintained and clean public transport network;
          The LTS should bear in mind that the car is very important to the local economy of Falkirk.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES
          Local operators need to improve the standard and comfort of vehicles to encourage people to use them;
          Falkirk bus station should be upgraded;
          There are too many buses using the Newmarket area of the town which causes congestion;
          The reliability of buses should be automatically monitored;
          The possible construction of Park and Ride site at Westfield is an excellent idea;
          Park and Ride in the Falkirk area should be encouraged;
          The Council should work with its partners to upgrade the bus station;
          A feasibility study should be undertaken to determine whether the bus station could be the main drop-
          off point for passengers as opposed to Kerse Lane;
          The bus stances in the town centre and particularly Newmarket Street should be upgraded;
          Real time information in Falkirk town centre should be introduced to improve public transport;
          The Park and Ride service from the Falkirk Wheel should be promoted because it is underused at present,
          including appropriate signing in the town centre;
          The Council should make provision for drop-off and pick-up points for coaches within easy reach of the
          town centre;
          A shopper/visitor shuttle bus linking the Falkirk Wheel, Callender House, Falkirk High Station and
          other key locations should be investigated;
          The removal of Bo’ness bus station and replacement with a series of roadside stops will be of
          considerable disbenefit to passengers. Lay-over vehicles would cause congestion and passengers will have
          to cross a busy road to access the vehicles.



                                                                                                                     138
APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION
 4. SECONDARY CONSULTATION
             RAIL SERVICES
                        The potential of providing rail stations in Bonnybridge and Allandale should be made clear in the LTS
                        document;
                        The current rail concessionary scheme should be continued;
                        The existing service levels at Polmont Station should be maintained;
                        There should be dedicated short stay parking bays at station car parks for visitors;
                        Potential station sites at Grangemouth, Laurieston and Bonnybridge should be given a mention in the
                        LTS document;
                        The Council should work with its partners to upgrade the stations in the Falkirk area, which are not
                        maintained to a high standard.
             WALKING AND CYCLING
                      The LTS does not refer sufficiently to the substantial efforts being made in providing or promoting
                      walking and cycling;
                      Local residents should be encouraged to do more walking and cycling;
                      Cycle pathways and safer routes to schools initiatives should be introduced.
             JOURNEYS BY CAR
                       Car parking should not be encouraged in the Falkirk area;
                       The present condition of the road network in the Falkirk area is unsatisfactory and therefore this
                       situation needs to be given a higher priority and more funding;
                       No scheme should be introduced before a full safety audit is carried out;
                       Car usage will still be major form of transport in the Forth Valley, as alternative forms of transport in
                       this area are poor;
                       There is no provision in the LTS document for an increased volume of traffic in the Bo’ness area,
                       especially from the town centre to new development, via Carriden Brae;
                       Any review of parking policy undertaken by Falkirk Council should ensure that any price increases are
                       competitive when compared with similar sized towns such as Stirling, Perth, Dunfermline and Kirkcaldy;
                       Falkirk Council should consider introducing some form of managed voucher system for Falkirk town
                       centre employees. Suggested locations for car parking areas include Meeks Road and Kemper Avenue;
                       The Council should consider reducing the charge for short stay parking so that people who only park for
                       a few minutes in Falkirk town centre do not pay the £1.10 charge.This could be achieved by the
                       introduction of shorter time bands and appropriately lower charges;
                       The number of car parking spaces in Falkirk should not be reduced and new developments should
                       provide additional parking spaces;
                       Park Mark should be encouraged throughout the Falkirk Council area and Falkirk Town Centre
                       Management would be happy to work with the Council to achieve this goal;
                       Falkirk Town Centre Management is keen to assist the Council with a “leave the car at home day” or
                       equivalent initiative;
                       A southern bypass should be built to relieve congestion in Falkirk town centre which also takes into
                       account potential environment damage.
             OTHER ISSUES
                       The journey planner system should be expanded to give more data on different modes of travel so that
                       people could compare the different options;
                       If implemented, the LTS will go a long way to reducing congestion and providing sustainable modes of
                       transport in the Falkirk area;
                       There are no detailed plans in the LTS that relate to the new hospital in Larbert and the problems that
                       staff and patients will have in terms of access and travel options;
                       A feasibility study aimed at introducing a possible VMS system in Falkirk town centre is good idea, and
                       will help to give drivers more information and will help to speed up traffic flows;
                       The review and implementation of new road signing throughout the area should be encouraged,
                       especially from local attractions such as the Falkirk Wheel, Callender House, the Community Stadium
  139                  and the Bo’ness Railway;
              The Council should encourage the Scottish Executive to improve signing for Falkirk on the motorway
              network;
              The Falkirk Gateway development needs to have appropriate traffic management to ensure that it has a
              minimal impact on the town centre;
              The existing provision of accessible transport throughout the Falkirk Council area, such as Dial a
              Journey and Shopmobility should be maintained because they provide a vital service to the elderly and
              disabled customers;
              The Council should consider upgrading areas of the High Street to encourage pedestrian activity and
              stimulating economic activity;
              The Council should consider removing some of the “street clutter” that causes obstructions in the
              pedestrianised area of the town centre.


5.      CONCLUSIONS
5.1     Falkirk Council has undertaken this consultation exercise in connection with the production of a
        new LTS document because it recognises the need to include a strong representation of local views
        and issues. As an independent consultant working with Falkirk Council on this project, Atkins can
        verify that the Council has carried out a robust consultation on transport issues and has noted the
        various opinions and comments made by stakeholders and members of the general public.
5.2     From the stakeholder seminar and the evening consultation meetings, a number of common themes
        and comments can be noted which will help to inform the proposed LTS document.
POLICY ISSUES
5.3   From the secondary consultation period, it can be noted that the car is important to the local
      economy of the Falkirk Council area, but at the same time the Council needs to introduce traffic
      management strategies to deal with increasing levels of traffic.
5.4     There was a perception that more co-operation with neighbouring Local Authorities was required
        in order to produce more integrated transport proposals. In addition, more reference to the Falkirk
        Access Strategy was requested.
PUBLIC TRANSPORT
5.5   The public’s perception is that public transport must be improved in order to encourage people out
      of their cars. The areas of concern outlined in the stakeholder seminar included the lack of up to
      date information, poor accessibility and the perceived high cost of travelling by public transport.
5.6     From the evening meetings there was a perception that Park and Ride should be promoted and that
        the existing bus station in Falkirk town centre required immediate upgrading.
5.7     From the secondary consultation exercise it was noted that Park and Ride services should be
        encouraged throughout the Falkirk Council area and that public transport facilities including Falkirk
        bus station and the bus stances at Newmarket Street require upgrading.
RAIL SERVICES
5.8    The opinion of the stakeholders was that they preferred to take the train as opposed to the bus.
       However the main comments and concerns regarding rail travel centred on the lack of parking
       facilities at rail stations and on the expense of tickets when compared with the perceived cost of
       driving. Another strong theme was the lack of integration between rail and bus and in particular the
       links between rail and bus stations.
5.9     At the evening meetings and at the secondary consultation phase, there was more of a demand for
        additional stations at locations such as Grangemouth and Bonnybridge and for the frequency of the
        Falkirk Grahamston to Glasgow service to be improved.
5.10    A strong theme at all parts of the consultation was the lack of integration between rail and bus and
        in particular the links between rail and bus stations, and a popular request was a good shuttle link
        between Falkirk High and Falkirk Grahamston stations. In addition, it was also suggested that rail
        station facilities needed to be upgraded.
                                                                                                                      140
APPENDIX 2
REPORT ON RESPONSE FROM LTS PUBLIC CONSULTATION
 5. CONCLUSIONS
             WALKING / CYCLING
             5.11 The lack of direct routes between towns and villages, and the lack of segregation between
                  motorised transport and pedestrians and cyclists were the main issues highlighted at the stakeholder
                  seminar. Other issues included the lack of cycle parking at key points within the Council area such
                  as train and bus stations and the lack of cycling facilities on existing bus and rail services. It was felt
                  that the lack of facilities didn’t encourage integration between modes.
             5.12    At the evening meetings, a common issue was for improved pedestrian and cycle access in the
                     Falkirk Council area and especially in the Falkirk, Grangemouth and Bo’ness area where a lack of
                     footpaths was seen as a disadvantage for local residents. More segregation between cyclists and
                     pedestrians and the general traffic was also called for at the evening meetings.
             5.13    Improved lighting in terms of providing enhanced security was also a popular issue at both the
                     stakeholder and evening meetings.
             5.14    From the secondary consultation exercise it was suggested that the LTS should do more to promote
                     walking and cycling schemes.
             JOURNEYS BY CAR
             5.15 There were mixed views on the role of the car within the Falkirk Council area. People generally
                  wanted less congestion on the road network and indicated that more sustainable forms of transport
                  should be encouraged to reduce pollution and reduce car use. However the other point of view was
                  that there should be more roads built to improve congestion and pollution and that more parking
                  spaces should be created, especially in Falkirk.
             5.16    At the stakeholder seminar the main issues were the lack of town centre parking and the need for
                     an improved signing strategy in Falkirk. Other suggestions were that there should be more disabled
                     parking at rail and bus stations.
             5.17    At the evening meetings, people thought that the there was a lack of road maintenance throughout
                     the Falkirk Council area and that the A801 at Avon Gorge should be upgraded as a matter or
                     urgency.
             5.18    From the secondary consultation exercise it was noted that road based travel and car parking are
                     always going to be important issues in the Falkirk area.




  141
Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009


APPENDIX 3
ROAD TRAFFIC REDUCTION TARGETS




                                                     142
      The following were the road traffic reduction targets in the previous Local Transport Strategy.
      1       A reduction in traffic flows across the town centre cordon of 5% by 2003.
      2       The modal share for people visiting the town centre should be retained as 48% by bus, 40% by car
              and 12% walking/cycling.
      3       The peak level of parking demand in Falkirk town centre will be retained at 1996 levels.
      4       The modal share for all journeys made by Falkirk Council residents should be altered over time to
              the following levels:
              Mode         1998           2003          2008          2013           2018
              Car          63%            63%            60%           55%           50%
              Walk         24%            24%            26%           30%           33%
              Bus            7%            7%             8%            9%           10%
              Rail           1%            1%             1%            2%             2%
              Cycle          1%            1%             2%            2%             3%
              Other          4%            4%             3%            2%             2%




143
Falkirk Council Local Transport Strategy 2006-2009


APPENDIX 4
TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA




                                                     144
      APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

      4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
      Route      Link    Location                                        Date of   AADT*
                                                                          Count      Flow
      M80          1    Between the A80 and M876                           2004     64,451
      M80          2    From junction of M876 to Council Boundary          2004     34,907
      M876         5    East of Checkbar Interchange                       1999     30,350
      M876         6    West of Checkbar Interchange                       2004     29,544
      M876         7    West of Hill of Kinnaird                           2004     26,324
      M876         8    Hill of Kinnaird to Bowtrees                       2004     20,305
      M9          11    Burghmuir to Lathallan                             2004     40,025
      M9          12    Lathallan to Cadgers                               2004     41,134
      M9          13    Cadgers to Earlsgate                               1999     26,746
      M9          14    Earlsgate to Longdyke (A88 Overbridge)             2004     44,126
      M9          17    Longdyke to Moss Road Overbridge                       -         -
      M9          18    Moss Road Overbridge to Pirnhall                       -         -
      A80(T)      21    Council Boundary to M80 at Haggs                   2003     67,116
      A876(T)     39    Bowtrees to Kincardine Bridge                      2004     25,430
      A706        51    Seaview Place to Dean Road, Bo'ness                2002      5,960
      A706        52    South of Dean Road, Bo'ness                        2002      6,341
      A706        53    Swordy Mains at Council Boundary                   2005      4,776
      A8004       54    Checkbar to M876 Slip                              2001      8,141
      A801        55    Lathallan to Bowhouse Roundabout                   2005      9,946
      A801        56    Bowhouse Roundabout to Council Boundary            2005     10,587
      A803        57    Linlithgow Bridge to Lathallan Interchange         2005      9,494
      A803        58    Lathallan to Gilston Crescent, Polmont             1997      7,375
      A803        59    Gilston Crescent to Kirk Entry, Polmont            2003      8,527
      A803        60    Kirk Entry to Station Road, Polmont                2003     11,539
      A803        61    Station Road to Millfield Lodge, Polmont           2003     11,048
      A803        62    Millfield Lodge to Grandsable Road                 1992     11,068
      A803        63    Grandsable Road to Sandy Loan, Laurieston          1995     10,121
      A803        64    Sandy Loan to Boyd Street, Laurieston              2003      8,755
      A803        65    Boyd Street to 200m East of Skew Bridge            2005      9,544
      A803        66    East of Skew Bridge to Bellevue Street             2005     17,603
      A803        67    From Bellevue Street to Callendar Riggs            1992     15,488
      A803        68    Bellevue Street, Falkirk                           2004     12,794
      A803        69    Princes Street 2-way Section                       2003     18,065
      A803        70    Princes Street / Vicar Street / Park Street            -         -
      A803        71    Garrison Place / Hope Street                       2005     20,001
      A803        72    Cockburn Street South of High Street               1994     12,656
      A803        73    Tanners Road, Falkirk (1-Way)                      2005     12,697
      A803        74    West Bridge Street (West of Hope Street)           1995     13,797
      A803        75    Camelon Road, Falkirk (to Glenfuir Road)           2005     17,582
      A803        76    Glenfuir Road to Rosebank Roundabout               1996     29,465
      A803        77    Main Street, Camelon (Rosebank to A9)              2005     25,563
      A803        78    Glasgow Road Camelon (A9 to 3 Bridges)             2005     18,534
      A803        79    Three Bridges to Park & Ride Roundabout            1997     21,742
145
      A803        80    P&R Roundabout to Gateside Ave, Bonnybridge        2005      8,017
APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
Route      Link    Location                                           Date of   AADT*
                                                                       Count      Flow
A803        81    Gateside Ave to Bridge Street, Bonnybridge            2003      8,007
A803        82    Bridge St to the Bypass Road, Dennyloanhead           2003     12,186
A803        83    Bypass Rd to Denny Rd, Dennyloanhead                  1994      4,967
A803        84    Denny Rd to M80                                       2005     11,139
A803        85    M80 Overbridge                                        1997      8,731
A803        86    West of Overbridge to Kelt Road, Banknock             1996      9,956
A803        87    Kelt Road to Council Boundary                         2005      8,094
A872       173    Council Boundary to Dunipace                          2005      7,515
A872       174    Stirling Street, Dunipace to A883 Junction            1996     11,447
A872       175    Nethermains Road to Stoneywood Road, Denny            1999      5,742
A872       176    Stoneywood Road to Glasgow Road, Denny                2004      6,298
A872       177    Glasgow Rd to Bypass Rd, Dennyloanhead                2003      4,013
A872       178    Bypass Rd to A803 Junction, Dennyloanhead             1999      5,474
A872       179    Bypass Road, Dennyloanhead                            1999      1,562
A88        199    Bellsdyke Road, North Broomage to Hamilton Rd         2005     12,280
A88        200    Hamilton Road to Antonshill Roundabout                2005     12,146
A88        201    Antonshill Roundabout to Kincardine Road              1996      7,882
A88        202    Kincardine Road to Waterslap Road to Airth            1993      8,712
A88        203    Waterslap Road to South Bellsdyke Roundabout          2005      9,081
A883       206    Three Bridges, Camelon to Checkbar Interchange        2005     11,879
A883       207    Checkbar to M876 Slip Northbound                      1996     11,277
A883       208    M876 Slip Road to Herbertshire, Denny                 2005      9,879
A883       209    Herbertshire to The Vennel, Denny                     2004      9,740
A883       210    Broad Street, Denny (Vennel to Denny Cross)           1993     10,226
A883       211    Denny Cross to Carronbank Crescent                    1996      9,939
A883       212    Carronbank Crescent to A872 junction                  2004     12,137
A9         217    Laurieston Bypass - Cadgers to Grandsable Rd          2005     22,546
A9         218    Laurieston Bypass - Grandsable to Icehouse Brae       2005     20,541
A9         219    Laurieston Bypass - Icehouse to Bog Roundabout        2005     20,248
A9         220    Laurieston Link Road - Bog R/bt to Westfield R/bt     2005     24,283
A9         221    Stirling Road, Camelon - A803 to Railway Bridge       1996     10,392
A9         222    Stirling Road - Railway Bridge to Lochlands Road      2005     12,048
A9         223    Stirling Road - Lochlands Road to Larbert Cross       1996     11,489
A9         224    Stirling Road - Larbert Cross to North Broomage       2005      9,448
A9         225    Stirling Road - North Broomage Council Boundary       2005      8,770
A904       242    Kerse Lane - Callendar Riggs to Bellsmeadow           2005     14,086
A904       243    Kerse Lane / Ladysmill to Thornhill Road              1996     14,508
A904       244    Grangemouth Rd - Thornhill Rd to Middlefield Rd       1996     16,087
A904       245    Grangemouth Rd - Middlefield Rd to Alexander Ave      2005     19,907
A904       246    Grangemouth Rd - Alexander Ave to Westfield R/bt          -         -
A904       247    Falkirk Road - Westfield R/bt to Railway Bridge       2005     24,803
A904       248    Falkirk Road - Railway Bridge to Earlsgate            2003     14,136
A904       249    Earlsgate to Abbots Road, Grangemouth                 2005      8,908
                                                                                          146
A904       250    Bo'ness Road - Abbots Road to Inchyra Road            2005     10,143
      APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

      4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
      Route      Link    Location                                         Date of   AADT*
                                                                           Count      Flow
      A904       252    Bo'ness Road - River Avon Bridge to Inveravon R/bt 1997       5,272
      A904       253    Grangemouth Rd - Inveravon R/bt to Snab Brae        1997     12,854
      A904       254    Kinneil Road, Bo'ness - Snab Brae to Church Wynd    2005     12,050
      A904       255    From Church Wynd to Gledhill Avenue, Carriden       2004      4,586
      A904       256    Gledhill Avenue to Grahamsdyke Road, Bo'ness        1996      1,680
      A904       257    Grahamsdyke Road to Blackness Road                  2005      7,815
      A904       258    Blackness Road (B903) to A803 at Champany           1996      8,466
      A904       259    From A803 at Champany to Council Boundary           1997      5,015
      A905       268    From Council Boundary to Junction with Moss Road 1997         3,539
      A905       269    From Moss Road to B9124 Cowie Road Junction         1997      2,832
      A905       270    Cowie Road to North Green Farm Access, Airth        2005      4,173
      A905       271    North Green Farm Access to South Green Dr. Airth    2005      5,643
      A905       272    South Green Dr. to Junction with C116 Waterslap Rd 2005       5,991
      A905       273    Waterslap Road to Bowtrees                          2005      5,631
      A905       274    Bowtrees to South Bellsdyke Roundabout              2005     12,518
      A905       275    South Bellsdyke to Dutch Inn, Skinflats             1995      7,446
      A905       276    Dutch Inn to Bennie Place, Skinflats                2005     13,796
      A905       277    Binnie Place to River Carron Bridge                 2005     13,178
      A905       278    River Carron Bridge to M9 Glensburgh Slip Road      1998     13,526
      A905       279    Glensburgh Slip Road to Earlsgate                   2005     14,728
      A905       280    Earlsgate to Newlands Road, Grangemouth             2005     14,696
      A905       281    Newlands Road to M9 Beancross Slip                  1999      9,138
      A905       282    Beancross Slip to Cadgers, Grangemouth              2005     11,990
      A905       283    Inchyra Road - Cadgers to Wholeflats Road           2005     18,044
      A905       284    Wholeflats Road - Inchyra to Inveravon R/bt         2005     11,508
      A993       332    From A904 to A706 Linlithgow Road, Bo'ness          2003      8,843
      A993       333    Dean Road, Bo'ness - A706 to Drum Road              2005      7,344
      A993       334    Grahamsdyke Rd, Bo'ness - Drum Road to A904         2005      5,824
      B8022      341    Slammannan Road to Leppie Road, Slamannan           2002        500
      B8022      342    Leppie Rd to Hillhead Farm Access, Slamananan       1996        444
      B8022      343    Hillhead Farm Access to High St, Slamannan              -         -
      B8022      344    High St, Slamannan to B825 Black Loch                   -         -
      B8028      350    Glen Brae - Slamannan Rd to Railway Tunnel              -         -
      B8028      351    Railway Tunnel to Hallglen Road, Hallglen           2005     10,415
      B8028      352    Hallglen Road to Wester Shieldhill Road             2003      6,936
      B8028      353    Wester Shieldhill Road to Union St Glen Village     2003     10,593
      B8028      354    Union St to Lower Greenbank Farm, Shieldhill        1998      1,032
      B8028      355    Lower Greenbank Farm to Darnrigg Rd Shieldhill          -         -
      B8028      356    Darnrigg Rd to Reddingmuirhead Road                     -         -
      B8028      357    Reddingmuirhead Rd to Princes St, California        1996      1,983
      B8028      358    Princes Street to Black Braes Centre, California    1998      1,335
      B8028      359    Black Braes Centre to Grayrigg Farm                 1998      1,335
      B8028      360    Grayrigg Farm to Avonview, Avonbridge               1996      1,004
147
      B8028      361    Avonview to Standburn Road, Avonbridge                  -         -
APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
Route      Link    Location                                            Date of   AADT*
                                                                        Count      Flow
B8028      362    Standburn Road to Craigbank Quarry, Avonbridge             -         -
B8028      363    Craigbank Quarry to Council Boundary                       -         -
B803       365    Cockburn St - Burnfoot Lane to Hodge St, Falkirk       2005      6,859
B803       366    Cow Wynd - Comely Park Terr to Griffiths Street        1996      8,200
B803       367    High Station Road - Griffiths St to Gartcows Rd        1993     11,750
B803       368    Glen Brae - Gartcows Rd to Slamannan Rd                1996     16,312
B803       369    Slamannan Road - Glenbrae to Lochgreen Rd              2005      7,295
B803       370    Slamannan Road - Lochgreen Rd to Hillcresst Rd             -         -
B803       371    Hillcrest Rd to Lionthorn Road, Falkirk                1999      9,575
B803       372    Lionthorn Road to Darnrigg Road                        1992      1,937
B803       373    Darnrigg Road to Balmulzier Farm, Slamannan                -         -
B803       374    Balmulzier Farm to High Street, Slamannan                  -         -
B803       375    High Street to Brownrigg, Slamannan                    2002      2,579
B803       376    Brownrigg Slamannan to Council Boundary                1998      3,348
B805       392    Boyd Street - Mary Street to Redding Road              2002      3,199
B805       393    Redding Road - Boyd Street to Main Street              2005     12,086
B805       394    Redding Road - Main Street to Blairs Cottage               -         -
B805       395    Blairs Cottage to B810 to Shieldhill                   2001      8,770
B805       396    B810 to Shieldhill to Main Street, Brightons               -         -
B805       397    Main Street Brightons to Standrigg Road                2002      6,716
B805       398    Standrigg Road to Quarry Brae                              -         -
B805       399    Quarry Brae to Wallacelea in Rumford                   2003     13,889
B805       400    Wallacelea to Smithy Hill Road, Maddiston              2001      7,236
B805       401    Smithy Hill Road to Vellore Road, Maddiston            2002      6,981
B805       402    Vellore Rd to Cairneymount Church, Maddiston           2002      4,436
B805       403    Cairneymount Church to Bowhouse Roundabout             1992      4,151
B8080      430    Westburn Ave - Glenfuir Rd to Maggieswood Loan         2001      9,047
B8080      431    Westburn Ave - Betweeen Maggieswood Loan               2001      8,129
B8080      432    Westburn Ave - Maggieswood to Cockburn St              2005      8,900
B8080      433    Hodge Street - Cockburn St to Griffiths Street             -         -
B8080      434    Cochrane Ave - Griffiths St to Comely Park Terrace     1996     10,014
B8080      435    Comely Park Terrace to Callendar Road                  2005     19,630
B8080      436    Bellsmeadow Link Road                                  2005      6,269
B810       437    Station Road, Polmont - Main St to Salmon Inn Rd       2002     10,248
B810       438    Station Road, Polmont - Salmon Inn Rd to Quarry Br 1999         11,163
B810       439    Main Street, Brightons - Quarry Brae to Maddiston Rd 1992        5,483
B810       440    Newlands Rd - Maddisotn Rd to Reddingmuirhead Rd 1998            4,290
B810       441    Shieldhill Rd - Reddingmuirhead Rd to Main St, S/hill      -         -
B816       443    Gelnfuir Rd - Camelon Rd to Westburn Ave, Falkirk      2001      9,037
B816       444    Glenfuir Rd - Westburn Ave to Windsor Rd, Falkirk      2003      8,371
B816       445    Glenfuir Rd - Windsor Rd to Lime Rd, Tamfourhill       1998     16,981
B816       446    Bonnyhill Rd - Lime Road, Tamfourhill to Beam Road 2005          1,926
B816       447    Broomhill Rd, Bonnybridge - Beam Road to Reilly Rd 2003          2,753
                                                                                           148
B816       448    Broomhill Rd, Bonnybridge - Reilly Rd to Seabegs Rd 2005         1,958
      APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

      4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
      Route      Link    Location                                          Date of   AADT*
                                                                            Count      Flow
      B816       449    Bridge St, Bonnybridge - Seabegs Road to Main St     1997      7,012
      B816       450    Seabegs Road - Bridge Street to Greenhill Rd         1992      2,808
      B816       451    Greenhill Road to Muirhead Cottage, Allandale        1995      2,959
      B816       452    Muirhead Cottage to Lochgreen Road, Allandale        2005      4,885
      B816       453    Lochgreen Road to Dundas Cottages, Allandale             -         -
      B816       454    Dundas Cottages to M80 Southbound Slip               1992      2,716
      B816       455    Between Southbound and Northbound Slips              2001      4,266
      B816       456    M80 Northbound Slip to Council Boundary                  -         -
      B818       460    Stoneywood Road - Nethermains to Grahamshill Terr 2003         1,264
      B818       461    Grahamshill Terr to Overton Farm                     2002      1,351
      B818       462    Overton Farm to Carron Bridge Inn                    1999        515
      B825       500    Linlithgow Bridge to Vellore Road                        -         -
      B825       501    Vellore Road to Railway Bridge East of Whitecross        -         -
      B825       502    Railway Bridge to Myrehead Road                      1996        892
      B825       503    Myrehead Road to Bowhouse Roundabout                     -         -
      B825       504    Bowhouse Roundabout to Boxton Road                   2002      1,317
      B825       505    Boxton Road Juntion to 220m South                    1998        999
      B825       506    From 220m south of Boxton Rd to south of War Mem 1999            953
      B825       507    From War Mem to Main Street Avonbridge                   -         -
      B825       508    Main Street to B8028 Junction North of Avonbridge    2002        896
      B825       509    Between Junctions of B8028 in Avonbridge                 -         -
      B825       510    South Junction to Slamannan Road, Avonbridge         2005      1,138
      B825       511    Slamannan Road to junction with B8022 Avonbridge         -         -
      B825       512    Junction of B8022 to Limerigg Primary School         1998        505
      B825       513    Limerigg Primary School to B8022 Junction            2002        379
      B825       514    B8022 Junction to Council Boundary                   2001        855
      B902       540    New Carron Road - Bellsdyke Road to King Street      1996     10,071
      B902       541    New Carron Road - King Street to Stenhouse Road      2005     11,392
      B902       542    Carron Bellsdyke Rd - Stenhouse Rd to Mungalhead 2005         24,184
      B902       543    Main St, Bainsford - Mungalhead to FND Overbridge 2005        18,881
      B902       544    Main St - FND Overbridge to Dalderse Ave, Falkirk    2005     19,873
      B902       545    Grahams Rd, Falkirk - Dalderse Ave to Gowan Ave      2005     17,869
      B902       546    Grahams Road, Falkirk - Gowan Ave to Meeks Rd        2005     20,930
      B902       547    Grahams Road, Falkirk - Meeks Rd to Garrison Place       -         -
      B903       551    Champany to Mannerston Road near Blackness           2002        696
      B903       552    Mannerston Road to the Square, Blackness             1999        752
      B904       554    Kirk Entry, Polmont - A803 to Grange Road            1998      4,753
      B904       555    Grange Road to Northfoot Farm                            -         -
      B904       556    Northfoot Farm to Avondale Road                      2001        706
      B904       557    Avondale Road to Wholeflats Road                         -         -
      B905       559    Denny Road - Checkbar to Kirkmailiing, Larbert       1992      2,210
      B905       560    Denny Road - Kirkmailing to Larbert Cross                -         -
      B905       561    Main Street, Larbert - Larbert Cross to Muirhead Rd 1992       9,217
149
      B905       562    Muirhead Road to Tryst Road, Stenhousemuir           2005     11,539
APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
Route      Link    Location                                            Date of   AADT*
                                                                        Count      Flow
B905       563    King St Stenhousemuir - Tryst Road to Kirk Avenue      1990     12,103
B905       564    King St Stenhousemuir - Kirk Ave to Carron Road        2004      7,856
B9109      600    Mannerston Road near Blackness                         2002        522
B9124      611    The Cowie Road - Council Boundary to North Airth       2002        281
B9132      621    Newlands Rd - Beancross to Newhouse Rd                 2005     10,823
B9132      622    Abbots Road - Newhouse Road to Bo'ness Rd              2005      7,066
B9143      637    Inchyra Road - Wholeflats to Bo'ness Road              1999      7,601
C1         642    Muirhall Rd, Larbert                                   2001      3,109
C100       645    Manor Street, Falkirk                                  2001      3,332
C103       649    Maggieswood Loan (North), Falkirk                      2001      1,438
C103       650    Maggieswood Loan (South), Falkirk                      2001      1,437
C103       651    Windsor Road, Falkirk                                  1996      5,043
C109       657    Thornbridge Road, Falkirk                              2001        661
C111       661    School Road, Redding                                   2001        773
C115       665    Stenhouse Road, Stenhousemuir                          2005      8,038
C116       666    Waterslap Road to Airth                                2001      1,635
C116       667    Kincardine Road, Carronshore to North Main Street      2005      1,908
C116       668    Kincardine Road, North Main Street to Main Street      2001      3,348
C116       669    Kincardine Road - Main Street to Carron Works          2005     11,869
C117       670    Griffiths Street, Falkirk                              2002        389
C12        675    Drove Road, Denny - Nethermains Rd to Kelt Rd          2001        193
C12        676    Kelt Road to Castlerankine Road                            -         -
C12        677    Castlerankine Rd to Langhill Farm                          -         -
C13        678    Peathill Road, Bonnybridge                             2001      3,155
C14        679    Sunnyside Rd - Maddiston Rd to Wallacestonebrae        2005      1,787
C14        680    Standrigg Rd - Wallacestonebrae to Smithyhill Rd       2005        920
C14        681    Standrigg Rd SmithyHill Rd to Melville Terrace             -         -
C15        682    Lochgreen Rd - B803 to Beam Road                           -         -
C15        683    Lochgreen Rd - Beam Road to Greenhill Rd                   -         -
C15        684    Lochgreen Rd - Greenhill Rd to Allandale                   -         -
C16        685    Greenhill Rd, Bonnybridge - Seabegs to Reilly Rd           -         -
C16        686    Greenhill Rd, Bonnybridge - Reilly Rd to Lochgreen         -         -
C19        691    North Main Street, Carronshore - C116 to C42           2001        885
C19        692    North Main St, Carronshore - C42 to C116               2001      5,331
C2         693    Darnrigg Rd, Shieldhill - Nappyfaulds to Leppie Rd     2001        968
C2         694    Darnrigg Rd - Leppie Rd to Wester Shieldhill Road          -         -
C2         695    Darnrigg Rd - Wester Shieldhill Rd to Cross Brae       2001        783
C20        696    Denovan Road (Dunipace to Checkbar)                    2001        472
C26        706    Kelt Road, Banknock                                        -         -
C27        707    North Bank Rd, Bo'ness - A706 to Gauze Road            2001      1,052
C27        708    North Bank Rd, Bo'ness - Gauze Rd to A904              1999        962
C28        709    Reddingmuirhead Rd - Salmon Inn Rd to School Rd            -         -
C28        710    Reddingmuirhead Rd - School Rd to Redding Rd           2001      2,946
                                                                                           150
C28        711    Reddingmuirhead Rd - Redding Rd to Newlands Rd         2001        176
      APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

      4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
      Route      Link    Location                                            Date of   AADT*
                                                                              Count     Flow
      C28        712    Reddingmuirhead Rd - Newlands Rd to Standrigg Rd 2001           1,075
      C29        713    Quarry Brae, Polmont                                   2001     5,461
      C3         715    Moss Road - Bellsdyke Rd to Bogend Rd                  2005     1,998
      C3         716    Moss Road - Bogend Road to Cowie Road                      -        -
      C3         717    Moss Road - Cowie Road to A905                         2005     1,471
      C30        718    Salmon Inn Rd - Grandsable to Main St, Redding         2001     6,474
      C30        719    Salmon Inn Rd - Main Street to Staion Rd, Polmont      2001     5,209
      C32        723    Gauze Road, Bo'ness                                    2004     2,776
      C39        731    Mungalhead Road, Falkirk                               2001     2,872
      C41        737    Tak' Me Doon Road near Dunipace                            -        -
      C42        738    Bothkennar Road, Carronshore                           1999     3,417
      C43        739    Drove Loan, Dennyloanhead                              2001     3,808
      C40        740    Castlerankine Road, Denny                                  -        -
      C45        741    Leppie Road, Slamannan to Boxton Road                      -        -
      C45        742    Boxton Road to Darnrigg Road                               -        -
      C46        743    Beam Road, High Bonnybridge                                -        -
      C47        744    Wester Shieldhill Road, Glen Village                   2001       510
      C49        746    Wyndford Road, Near Banknock                               -        -
      C50        750    Wilson Road, Carmuirs, Camelon                         2005     3,096
      C50        751    Carmuirs Avenue / Union Road, Camelon                  2005     6,538
      C51        752    Avondale Road at Lathallan Interchange                 1996       778
      C53        755    Boxton Road - Leppie Road to Avonbridge                    -        -
      C53        756    Boxton Road - Btween B825 and B8028 Avonbridge         2001        72
      C64        773    Cadgers Loan, Dunipace - Plean to Roman Road               -        -
      C64        774    Cadgers Loan, Dunipace - Roman Road to Dunipace 2001              408
      C65        775    From Moss Road to Hamilton Road                            -        -
      C65        776    Hamilton Road - Moss Road to Bellsdyke Road                -        -
      C65        777    Bogend Road near Torwood                               2001       131
      C66        778    Smithyhill Road, Maddiston                             2001     1,716
      C67        779    Northfield Road, Denny                                 2001     1,316
      C69        781    Larbert Rd, Bonnybridge - Checkbar to Peathill Rd      2003     6,017
      C69        782    Larbert Rd, Bonnybridge - Peathill Rd to High Street 2003       5,808
      C7         783    Vellore Road, Maddiston - Main St to Myrehead Rd       2001       977
      C7         784    Vellore Road - Myrehead Rd to Linlithgow Bridge            -        -
      C70        785    Reilly Rd, Bonnybridge - Broomhill Rd to Greenhill Rd 2001        984
      C71        786    Grange Road, Grangemouth                                   -        -
      C72        787    Grangemouth Central - Union Road, Dundas Street        2002     2,688
                        South Lumley Street, Newhouse Road
      C73        788    Dalgrain Road, Grangemouth                             2004     5,537
      C75        790    Gartcows Road, Falkirk                                 2001     8,378
      C9         809    Roman Road, Torwood                                    2001       694
      C9         810    Glen Road, Torwood                                     2005       964
      C92        813    Grange Loan, Bo'ness                                       -        -
151
      C80        797    Dalderse Avenue, Falkirk                               2000     6,684
APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA

4a. Road Links Traffic Flows: Average Annual Daily Totals (AADT)
Route      Link    Location                                        Date of   AADT*
                                                                    Count      Flow
C80        798    Thornhill Road, Falkirk                            2002      7,117
C8         796    Tryst Road, Stenhousemuir                          2003      3,076
A9                Falkirk Orbital Road - Rosebank to Merchiston      2005     17,597
A9                Falkirk Orbital Road - Merchiston to Mungalend     2003     10,558
A9                Falkirk Orbital Road - West of Abbots Road         2005     12,553
A9                Falkirk Orbital Road - East of Abbots Road         2005     15,272
A9                Falkirk Orbital Road - Etna Road to Westfield      2005     19,090
B805              Laurieston Link Road - Dual Carriageway            2005     18,315
B805              Boyd Street Diversion                              2005     12,025
B906              Ronades Road                                       2005     13,217




                                                                                       152
APPENDIX 4 TRAFFIC AND GROWTH DATA
Appendix 4b  Total Annual Average Vehicle Kilometres by Road Type for Falkirk Council Area
Road Type                                                                       Total Annual Average Vehicle Kilometres
                    1990        1991      1992         1993        1994      1995        1996        1997      1998      1999      2000      2001        2002        2003      2004       2005
Motorways        909,246     985,587 1,088,456    1,055,497   1,083,201 1,151,334   1,185,975   1,204,697 1,297,692 1,398,019 1,427,242 1,454,256   1,466,226   1,502,236 1,583,734
Trunk Roads      911,236     987,578 1,090,448    1,057,490   1,085,195 1,153,329   1,187,971   1,206,694 1,299,690 1,400,018 1,429,242 1,456,257   1,468,228   1,504,239 1,585,738
A Class Urban    392,950     409,743   412,344      432,132     427,273 433,686       437,103     437,237   434,635 432,759 465,212 472,635           488,854     484,984 505,388       517,445
A Class Rural    405,690     421,987   436,165      476,431     484,135 522,845       547,459     566,610   534,256 526,305 582,580 599,017           615,472     612,996 609,638       610,370
Total           2,619,122   2,804,895 3,027,414   3,021,550   3,079,804 3,261,194   3,358,507   3,415,237 3,566,273 3,757,099 3,904,277 3,982,165   4,038,779   4,104,455 4,284,497 1,127,815




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Local Transport Strategy
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November 2006




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