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					Coral




 Corals 1
                 MARINE ENVIRONMENTS – II                              11.1 – 11.6
                             Reefs
NHEC Guidelines for Na Haumana:
   Be keen observers of the natural environment.
   Understand the natural rhythm of the environment, such as the winds, rains,
     tides, current, and seasonal changes, and learn how to live in alignment with the
     environment.
 Focus                     Lesson                          Purpose             Activity
  Coral     Coral Focus:                         To identify interests and     II.11.1
            “What do I know about coral found prior experiences; to
            around our island?”                  stimulate ideas, questions.
            Coral Relationships:                 To model exploration,         II.11.2
            “How are corals alike and how are develop meaning, identify
            they different?”                     attributes/elements, and
                                                 establish relationships.
            Coral Information Gathering:         To search for or gather       II.11.3
            “What corals live in different areas information about the
            or zones around our island?”         systems in the
                                                 environment.
            Coral Relationships:                 To investigate interactions   II.11.4
            “What are key relationships coral    among elements in the
            has with other elements in the       environmental system.
            shoreline ecosystem?”
             Human Impact Project:               To develop a performance      II.11.5
            “How do negative effects on corals or product that will
            affect other elements in the marine address a concern,
            habitat?”                            problem or need.
            Coral Study Reflection:              To assess concepts,           II.11.6
            “What have I learned about coral     attitudes, skills acquired
            growth around Maui?”                 and evaluate experience.




                                        Corals 2
Process: Motivating        MARINE ENVIRONMENTS – II                                 II.11.1
                                         Coral

Standard:
      3. ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity,
          and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of
          matter and energy in the environment.
      4. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ORGANISMS: Understand the structures
          and functions of living organisms and how organisms can be compared
          scientifically.
      5. DIVERSITY, GENETICS, AND EVOLUTION: Understand genetics and
          biological evolution and their impact on the unity and diversity of organisms.
      6. NATURE OF MATTER AND ENERGY: Understand the nature of matter and
          energy, forms of energy (including waves) and energy transformations, and
          their significance in understanding the structure of the universe.

       QUESTIONS                    VOCABULARY                        MODEL
What do I know about coral       Species                           Shore Profile
found around our island?         Skeleton
    What are its                Polyp
      characteristics?           Colonies
    Is it alive or dead?
    Is it a plant or
      animal?
    Where can coral be
      found?
    What are some uses
      of coral?



      Form a group of two or three students to discuss coral and to answer as many of
       the questions presented.
          o Select a recorder to take notes.
          o Select a member to be the artist to sketch corals and locations.
          o Select the presenter of your group’s report.

      In your group, review the basic questions and arrive at agreed upon answers to
       share with the class.

      Sketch the corals described by the group.

      Share your group‟s sketch and the agreed upon answers to the questions.




                                        Corals 3
Student Activity 11   CORAL DISCUSSION WORKSHEET                     II.11.1




    Form a group of two or three students to discuss coral and to answer
     as many of the questions presented.
        o Select a recorder to take notes.
        o Select a member to be the artist to sketch corals and locations..
        o Select the presenter of your group’s report.

    In your group, review the basic questions and arrive at agreed upon
     answers to share with the class.
        o What are the characteristics of coral we are familiar with?
        o Is the coral alive or dead?
        o Is it a plant or animal?
        o Where can coral be found?
        o What are some uses of coral?

    Sketch the corals described by the group.

    Share your group‟s sketch and the agreed upon answers to the
     questions.




                                  Corals 4
Process: Meaning              MARINE ENVIRONMENTS – II                               II.11.2
                                            Coral

Standard:
      3. ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity,
          and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of
          matter and energy in the environment.
      4. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ORGANISMS: Understand the structures
          and functions of living organisms and how organisms can be compared
          scientifically.
      5. DIVERSITY, GENETICS, AND EVOLUTION: Understand genetics and
          biological evolution and their impact on the unity and diversity of organisms.
      6. NATURE OF MATTER AND ENERGY: Understand the nature of matter and
          energy, forms of energy (including waves) and energy transformations, and
          their significance in understanding the structure of the universe.
Benchmarks:
      4.3.2. Describe how an organism‟s behavior is determined by its environment.
      5.3.2. Describe the interdependent relationships among producers, consumers,
      and decomposers in an ecosystem in terms of cycles of matter.
      3.4.1. Compare distinct structures of living things that help them to survive.
      3.5.1. Describe the relationship between structure and function in organisms.
      4.5.2. Describe the roles of various organisms in the same environment.
      4.5.3. Describe how different organisms need specific environmental conditions
      to survive.
      4.5.1. Describe how some materials may be combined to form new substances.

         QUESTIONS                       VOCABULARY                   MODEL
How are corals alike and how        Nature of Matter                 Coral Profile
are they different?                 Unity and Diversity
    What is a coral?               Interdependence                Polyp
    What do corals eat?            Form and Function                o Tentacle
    What eats corals?               Species                        o Planula (baby)
    Do they move around?            Skeleton                       o Secretion tissue
    What are the key parts          Polyp                        Cup or hole
       of a coral that help it to    Colonies                       o Septa
       survive?                      Symbiosis

                                    The Coral as a System

Developing a framework for meaning: (driving question for instruction)

              What are the key elements of a coral?

Identifying attributes/elements: (using students‟ knowledge and experience)
            Categorize the responses (common features) from the groups as each
               makes the presentation.


                                           Corals 5
             Record the categorized features and agreed upon answers to the
              questions on chart paper. This will be a composite of all the groups‟ input.
             Label the characteristics of coral identified using the students‟ words.
             Introduce as many of the standard or scientific vocabulary as appropriate,
              by using the terminology and linking with the students‟ words or labels.

Establishing relationships: (inferring and concluding)

             Ask students to read the “Coral‟s Chorale” and imagine, infer, predict, and
              invent a picture or set of pictures. (Making Meaning Worksheet 21)

              o   What cues or hints are given?
              o   What descriptions are related to something we know?
              o   What kind of picture comes to mind?
              o   What conclusions can we draw?

             Have students work in teams to develop a mural or painting to illustrate
              the interpretations and conclusions arrived at from reading the “Coral‟s
              Chorale.” The teams may also add verses to the poem to describe an
              “enemy” of the coral. (See Process Booster Worksheet 22 for Inferring
              and Induction.)

             Have the teams present their illustrations and expanded poems. Ask
              students to describe what negative events or input might harm the coral.

              o How can the coral’s home be destroyed? Without the home (or hard
                cup), what might happen to the coral?
              o How will silt and sedimentation in the water affect the coral?
              o What animals are threats to the coral?

Validating and synthesizing understandings: (gathering information and selecting
formal labels for elements and functions of the coral)

             Have teams do a quick search for information on corals and their general
              anatomy (references or online). Formal terminology should be added to
              their illustration as labels (or in the back as glossary list). Encourage them
              to think of both positive and negative situations that affect the coral.

              o Storms => strong wave actions wrecking skeleton
              o Dredging/run offs => sedimentation covering corals and impeding
                respiration and eating
              o Trampling => smashing and breaking protective hard skeletons
              o Monitoring => clean water, less invasive threats, controlled human
                actions
              o Community cleanup => less litter, vegetation deadwood cleared



                                         Corals 6
Student Activity 21       MEANING MAKING WORKSHEET        II.11.2



                             A Coral’s Chorale


                           I’m like an anemone –
                          (where Nemo was born).
                            I may live in a colony
                            or alone and forlorn.

                       I build my house just like a cup
                          with my “cement” so hard.
                      I reach out to catch food to sup,
                         pulling back when on guard!

                    I have no eyes, yet many hands;
                      no teeth, but a large mouth.
                  Food and secretions done by glands;
                       no feet to go north-south.

                Our cups form houses hard and strong
                       in holes or solid ground.
                  Building reef habitats takes long.
                         Malama must abound!




                                   Corals 7
Student Activity 22   PROCESS SKILLS BOOSTER WORKSHEET               II.11.2

Reference: “A Coral‟s Chorale”

INFERRING: With information and cues given, we may be able to “read
into” what is given or stated and make a tentative conclusion. Inferences
may need to be revised as we get more information.
                Statement                            Inference
“I‟m like an anemone –“

“I build my house just like a cup …”

“with my „cement‟ so hard.”

“I have no eyes, yet many hands”

“no feet to go north-south.”

INDUCTION: We make conclusions or create generalizations after
studying given information and making inferences. We must describe the
reason for making the conclusion or generalization.
            Induction Question                     Response(s)
 What specific pieces of
  information are important to our
  conclusion(s)?
 What inferences or interpretations
  did we make from the information
  given?
 What conclusion(s) did we make
  about the coral?

 How do our given information and
  interpretations relate or link to our
  conclusion(s)?




                                    Corals 8
Process: Searching          MARINE ENVIRONMENTS – II                              II.11.3
                                           Coral

Standard:
      3. ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity,
          and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of
          matter and energy in the environment.
      4. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ORGANISMS: Understand the structures
          and functions of living organisms and how organisms can be compared
          scientifically.
      5. DIVERSITY, GENETICS, AND EVOLUTION: Understand genetics and
          biological evolution and their impact on the unity and diversity of organisms.
      6. NATURE OF MATTER AND ENERGY: Understand the nature of matter and
          energy, forms of energy (including waves) and energy transformations, and
          their significance in understanding the structure of the universe.
Benchmarks:
      4.3.2. Describe how an organism‟s behavior is determined by its environment.
      5.3.2. Describe the interdependent relationships among producers, consumers,
      and decomposers in an ecosystem in terms of cycles of matter.
      3.4.1. Compare distinct structures of living things that help them to survive.
      3.5.1. Describe the relationship between structure and function in organisms.
      4.5.2. Describe the roles of various organisms in the same environment.
      4.5.3. Describe how different organisms need specific environmental conditions
      to survive.
      4.5.1. Describe how some materials may be combined to form new substances.

          QUESTIONS                    VOCABULARY                      MODEL
What corals live in different     Nature of Matter                   Coral Profile
areas or zones around our         Unity and Diversity              Polyp
island?                           Interdependence                    o Tentacle
      Where are corals           Form and Function                  o Planula (baby)
        found?                     Species                          o Secretion tissue
      How do the corals           Skeleton                       Cup or hole
        look?                      Polyp                            o Septa
      What are their names?       Colonies
How does the structure (form)      Symbiosis                       Reef Zonation
of the coral help it to survive                                    Reef flat
in its habitat or zone?                                            Bench
                                                                   Slope
                                                                   Rubble

                         Systems at Work Among Our Corals

Gathering information: (search question)

             What corals live in the various zones or areas around our island?


                                         Corals 9
Building a foundation about coral: (relating prior knowledge to new schema)

             Conduct a “Rubble Rummage” at a beach site that has sea “rubble” (e.g.,
              broken coral, shells, dried algae) strewn or piled on the shore. An
              alternative is to collect the rubble into bags for students to study in the
              classroom. The objectives are:
                  1) to sort out the rubble that is coral;
                  2) to surmise (or guess) what the coral looked like and where it lived.

             Whether at the beach or collecting rubble from the beach, use quadrats to
              mark the selected rubble to be studied by each team. (Note: Do not dig
              into the sand. Study only the rubble on the surface, within the quadrat.)
             In Rummage Teams, students are to do classification of rubble using two
              categories at a time. (Observation/Classification Worksheet 31)

                 o   Size: Big or Small
                 o   Condition: Whole or Broken
                 o   Origin: Living or Non-living
                 o   Living: Plant or Animal
                 o   Non-living: Natural or Man-made
                 o   Animal: Coral or Non-coral

             Have Rummage Teams report their findings, including the “?” category.
              (Observation/Classification Summary 32)
                 o At what point of the classifying process were there disagreements
                    among team members?
                 o What disagreements are there among teams? What rubble was
                    classified into different categories?
                 o What rubble was left unclassified? At what step of the process did
                    you five up (what was the question)?

             Have the Rummage Teams examine the large pieces of rubble they
              classified as coral and report their inferences or conclusions and the
              reasons. (Clues to Original Conditions Worksheet 33)
                 o Did the rubble belong to a solitary coral or a colony?
                 o What shape(s) might the rubble have been a part of?
                 o Where did the coral live? Shallow waters? Chest or person high?
                      Beyond breakers?
                 o What might have caused the coral to break apart?

             Have the class identify what they know and what they don‟t know about
              coral that may have resulted in not completing the “Rubble Rummage”
              task or difficulty in inferring or concluding things about the original
              conditions of the coral. (KNG Worksheet 34)



                                        Corals 10
Identifying sources of information: (expanding students‟ references)

             From the KNG results, have the students prioritize the “Need to Know”
              items and identify the basic questions relating to these items. For
              example:

                 o How can you tell the difference between a piece of rubble that
                   originally came from a living source (coral or shell) compared to
                   one that came from a non-living source (rock or crystal)?
                 o What makes the plant rubble different from the animal rubble?
                 o Why are there more coral rubble of one type than a variety of
                   types?

             Have students conduct a multi-pronged search for needed information
              about types of coral.
                 o Online or print references about coral in Hawaii
                 o Invite a marine biologist/MCC researcher or DLNR/DAR
                     educational specialist to conduct a mini-lesson or exhibit of the
                     primary types of coral (Guest Speaker Worksheet 35)
                 o Have students, individually, compile a summary of information
                     collected. (Coral Summary Worksheet 36)

Producing Information: (using technological skills and equipment) See Product
Planning Worksheet 37.

             Develop Coral ID Teams, one for each of the primary corals found in our
              waters. Each team will complete an ID Card for the assigned coral. Use
              technology to prepare and produce the cards. (See Coral ID Preparation
              Worksheet 38.) The original search question can help in summarizing:
              What corals live in the various zones or areas around our island?

             Assess the product and the presentation with the involvement of the
              students. (See Product Assessment Rubrics 39.)




                                        Corals 11
                       Student Activity 31 OBSERVATION/CLASSIFICATION WORKSHEET II.11.3


Keying Targets: Beach Rubble
Enter Quantity.
                                                                                        (Note: Discard too small pieces.)
                               Large Sizes:                                                       Small Sizes:


          Whole Pieces:                       Broken Pieces:                      Whole Pieces:                     Broken Pieces:


Living               Non-living:      Living           Non-living:       Living Origin:    Non-living:      Living Origin:      Non-living:
Origin:                               Origin:


Plant     Animal     Natural   Man-   Plant   Animal   Natural    Man-   Plant    Animal   Natural   Man-   Plant   Animal      Natural   Man-
                               made                               made                               made                                 made



   Coral     Other                        Coral   Other                        Coral   Other                    Coral   Other




   TOTALS            Coral                                        =
                     Other                                        =
                  ANIMALS                                         =               PLANTS                                          =
             LIVING                                       =                    NONLIVING                                          =
                    Natural                                       =             Man-made                                          =
             WHOLE                                        =                      BROKEN                                           =
                   LARGE SIZES                                +            SMALL SIZES                      =



                                                                   Corals 12
Student Activity 32     RUBBLE RUMMAGE SUMMARY                 II.11.3


 Category       #     Category   #           ?   #     Total     #
LARGE                 SMALL                          SIZES
WHOLE                 BROKEN                         PARTS
LIVING                NON-                           ORIGIN
                      LIVING
PLANT                 ANIMAL                         LIVING

NATURAL               MAN-                           NON-
                      MADE                           LIVING

Other Observations:




Questions:




                                 Corals 13
Student Activity 33   CLUES TO ORIGINAL CONDITIONS                 II.11.3

QUESTION: Did the rubble belong to a solitary coral or a colony?
Conjecture:                          Reason(s):




QUESTION: What shape(s) might the rubble have been a part of?
Conjecture:                          Reason(s)”




QUESTION: Where did the coral live? Shallows? Chest high? Deep?
Conjecture:                          Reason(s):




QUESTION: What might have caused the coral to break apart?
Conjecture:                          Reason(s):




QUESTION:
Conjecture:                          Reason(s);




QUESTION:
Conjecture:                          Reason(s);




                                Corals 14
Student Activity 34      KNOW-NEED-GATHER WORKSHEET            II.11.3

Topic: Coral Rubble and More
    WHAT WE KNOW               WHAT WE NEED TO   HOW TO GATHER THE
                                    KNOW         NEEDED INFORMATION




                                   Corals 15
Student Activity 35         GUEST SPEAKER WORKSHEET   II.11.3

Preparing for a Guest Speaker
    What information do we
      need?


      What qualifications
       does/should the guest
       speaker have?

      What are important
       questions to ask the guest
       speaker?

      By the time the speaker
       leaves, what facts should we
       have?

      How can we get an idea of
       the speaker‟s own
       perspective of the topic?

Debriefing After a Guest Speaker
   What were the things we
      learned from the speaker?


      How does the new
       information affect our
       thinking about the topic?

      Do we need to reorganize
       our plans or findings so far?


      Did this presentation show a
       particular bias? If so, what?


      Do we need another
       perspective or more
       information?




                                       Corals 16
Student Activity 36   CORAL SEARCH SUMMARY WORKSHEET              II.11.3

Common Coral:
    Scientific Name        Distance from Shore   Depth of Water



           Food                  Friends           Enemies




                                 Sketch:




Common Coral:
    Scientific Name        Distance from Shore   Depth of Water


           Food                  Friends           Enemies




                                 Sketch:




                                Corals 17
Student Activity 37     PRODUCT PLANNING WORKSHEET   II.11.3

Purpose and Audience
    What is the primary
     message we want to
     convey?
    Who will be the
     audience?

     What do we expect to
      accomplish with this
      product?
Content and Sequence
   What are the key
      components or parts of
      our product?
   What approach will we
      use in presenting the
      information (e.g.,
      or     )?
   What are the main
      facts that must be
      included?
   In what order will they
      occur?
   What key point must
      be made at the
      beginning?
   What key point must
      be made in the middle?
   What key point must
      be made at the end?
Development and Production
   Managing Team:
      Timelines, Resources,
      Support/Help,
      Monitoring, Editing?
   Writing Team: Who,
      What, By When, How
      Well?
   ProductionTeam:
      Who, What, By When,
      With What, How Well,
      What Formats?


                               Corals 18
Student Activity 38 CORAL ID PREPARATION WORKSHEET                                    II.11.3

        Steps                                     Information/Plans (Examples Only)
1. Select full or half-
    page size for a
    book-type ID
    reference.
    Student may do
    smaller sizes.
2. Determine
    information to be               Front
    placed on each            Hawaiian Name
    side of the card.         Scientific Name
    For each, identify        Picture (photo or drawing)    Back
    source of the
    information (e.g.,                                       Measurements
    guest speaker,                                           Habitat
    website, print                                           Physical description
    source, etc.)                                            Behavior patterns
                                                             Food and Prey
3. Develop 2 column                        Front            Back
    table (using                        Cauliflower
    WORD or                             Coral (Ko‟a)
    manual drawing),                    Pocillopora
    where each cell                     meandrina
    is the size of the
    desired card
     Type, write,
         or insert
         (Text Box)
         planned
         information
     Left column
         will be front
         and right
         column will
         be back of
         card
     Each row is
         a pair of front
         and back




                                              Corals 19
4. Prepare cards by:
     Printing
        required
        number of
        copies of
        table for the
        team (or
        class)
     Cut out the
        pairs of cells
     Paste on
        front and
        back
     Laminate
        cards
5. Assemble ID
    cards:
     Do covers if
        desired
     Punch holes
        in upper
        corner (or
        lower)
     Use plastic
        ties, string,
        or other cord
        to pass
        through the
        holes and
        form a loop.
        Provide
        allowance so
        cards may
        be “flipped”
        when in use.




                         Corals 20
Student Activity 39 PRODUCT ASSESSMENT WORKSHEET                        II.11.3

          (Key: 4=Exceeds; 3=Meets; 2=Approaching; 1=Needs More Work)

                    Criteria                      4    3        2         1
Information collected shows planning and
concern for accuracy. (Give examples.)




Extent of information collected is
comprehensive and the sources of the
information are varied. (Give examples.)




Presentation is clear and captures the
attention of the audience. (Give examples.)




Ideas show creativity, openmindedness,
and/or inventiveness. (Give examples.)




Plan and presentation made optimum use of
team concept and members‟ contributions.
(Give examples.)




                                      Corals 21
Process: Investigating       MARINE ENVIRONMENTS – II                    II.11.4 & II.11.5
                                           Coral

Standard:
      3. ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity,
          and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of
          matter and energy in the environment.
      4. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ORGANISMS: Understand the structures
          and functions of living organisms and how organisms can be compared
          scientifically.
      5. DIVERSITY, GENETICS, AND EVOLUTION: Understand genetics and
          biological evolution and their impact on the unity and diversity of organisms.
      6. NATURE OF MATTER AND ENERGY: Understand the nature of matter and
          energy, forms of energy (including waves) and energy transformations, and
          their significance in understanding the structure of the universe.
Benchmarks:
      4.3.2. Describe how an organism‟s behavior is determined by its environment.
      5.3.2. Describe the interdependent relationships among producers, consumers,
      and decomposers in an ecosystem in terms of cycles of matter.
      3.4.1. Compare distinct structures of living things that help them to survive.
      3.5.1. Describe the relationship between structure and function in organisms.
      4.5.2. Describe the roles of various organisms in the same environment.
      4.5.3. Describe how different organisms need specific environmental conditions
      to survive.
      4.5.1. Describe how some materials may be combined to form new substances.

        QUESTIONS                    VOCABULARY                      MODEL
What corals live in different    Nature of Matter                  Coral Profile
areas or zones around our        Unity and Diversity            Polyp
island?                          Interdependence                  o Tentacle
     How do the zones or        Form and Function                o Planula (baby)
       habitats differ?           Species                        o Secretion tissue
     What are the natural        Skeleton                       o Mouth
       elements that affect       Polyp                          o Mesenteries
       the coral?                 Colonies                     Cup or hole
     What external inputs        Symbiosis                      o Septa
       negatively affect the
       coral?                                                     Reef Zonation
How does the structure                                          Reef flat
(form) of the coral help it to                                  Bench
survive in its habitat or                                       Slope
zone?                                                           Rubble

                           Systems at Work Along Our Shores

Gathering information: (search question)


                                         Corals 22
                    What are the zones along our shores and what corals live there?

Identifying sources of information: (expanding students‟ references)

             Begin with students‟ knowledge and experiences about different
              shorelines and the generalized shore or beach profile. (Beach Zones
              Profile 41)
             Have students, in groups, draw a Coral Reef Zonation Profile extending
              from the intertidal area out to deeper water using distance from the shore.

             Organize the students into SEARCH TEAMS to validate or refine their
              profiles by gathering information from local skin divers who frequent
              different kinds of reef zones around Maui. Coral Reef Zones Search
              Worksheet 42 may be helpful.

                 o Emphasize the goal or outcome of the search: To develop an
                   informational, descriptive report on the reef zones of Maui.
                 o Discuss subgoals or secondary outcomes that may be of interest to
                   the students. For example:
                        To describe how the seascape of the zones have changed
                          since grandparents were children.
                        To identify modern day concerns about the coral reef by
                          shore/ocean users of the area.
                 o Discuss key questions for which each team will need to seek
                   answers and the sources of information. (Sample Questions
                   Worksheet 43)
                        Family or friends who snorkel or skin dive
                        Commercial tour companies
                 o Collaboratively decide on how to “divide” the search among the
                   teams. For example, the shorelines could be divided using a map
                   of Maui and dividing the island by: (See Island Map Worksheet 44.)
                        Direction (N, S, E, W)
                        Location (windward, leeward)
                        Preference (i.e., students may have family living in certain
                          areas).
                 o Complete the Coral Zones Search Plan to record agreements and
                   requirements for the local information search. (Search Planning
                   Worksheet 45)
                 o Have the Search Teams report their data and conclusions to the
                   class and compile the information. (Search Summary Worksheet
                   46)

             Facilitate group analysis of the information gathered so far from their own
              experience or knowledge and from the interviews of local divers. The
              KNG Worksheet 47 may be helpful.



                                        Corals 23
            Invite guest speakers (MCC, DLNR, or other marine experts) to share
             needed information on the various coral zones and concerns of specific
             sites. See Guest Speaker Worksheet 48.

Producing Information: (using technological skills and equipment) See Product
Planning Worksheet 49.

            Develop and work with a PUBLICATION TEAM, comprised of students
             representing each of the SEARCH TEAMS. Use technology to prepare
             and produce the final report. The original search question can help in
             summarizing: What are the zones along our shores and what corals live
             there?

            Assess the product and the presentation with the involvement of the
             students. (See Product Assessment Rubrics 50.)




                                      Corals 24
Student Activity 41   BEACH ZONES PROFILE WORKSHEET   II.11.4




                               Corals 25
Student Activity 42 CORAL ZONES SEARCH WORKSHEET                 II.11.4


 Location &   Distance from   Depth of Water   Abundance of   Type of Coral
   Zone           Shore                           Coral




                                Corals 26
Student Activity 43             SAMPLE QUESTIONS TO ASK                              II.11.4

A. Overall Question:                                                           Yes      No
     As you dive at your favorite site, do you see distinct zones or areas
     where there are differences in the coral present?

B. How would you describe each of the zones or areas you observed?

     Zone             Distance from   Depth of Water    Abundance of         Type of Coral
                          Shore                            Coral




C. What changes have you noticed in the habitat of the coral zones over the years?

      1.

      2.

      3.

D. What negative impact have you observed? What are possible causes?

      1.

      2.

      3.


E. What is one thing you are willing to do to improve our beaches and shoreline?




                                       Corals 27
Student Activity 44   ISLAND MAP WORKSHEET   II.11.4




                             Corals 28
Student Activity 45      SEARCH PLANNING WORKSHEET                          II.11.4

Focus of Search: Coral Reef Zones Observed by Local Divers

                              KEY DATES TO REMEMBER
COLLECTION        Begin:                        End:

REPORT            Complete:                       Presentation:

TEAM PLANS

                                    ASSIGNMENTS
Team/Individual       Location(s)      Samples       Number           Description




                          CHECKLIST & NOTATIONS
    Protocol      Questions     Equipment    Spreadsheet              Summary
   Courtesy     Recording    Camera       Sites                  By Site
   Purpose       sheets       Sketch pad  Zones                   Across
   Appointment                Recorder     Distance                zones
    or Time                                  Depth                   (distance)
   Thank you                                Abundance              Concerns
                                             Types                  Actions

Notes:




                                      Corals 29
Student Activity 46       SEARCH SUMMARY WORKSHEET                               II.11.4

                           NUMBER IN SAMPLE INTERVIEWED
 Team 1       Team 2         Team 3    Team 4   Team 5           Team 6        TOTAL

            ITEMIZATION OF RESPONSES (Sort by Distance from Shore)
     Site             Distance from   Depth of Water   Abundance of       Type of Coral
                          Shore                           Coral




   Composite I




   Composite II




  Composite III




  Composite IV
C. What changes were noticed over the years?
    Element             +                -             Cause                Sites
 Coral Amount
 Coral Type
 Sedimentation
 Limu or Algae
 Fish, Animals
 Other
D. What were the major negative impacts and probable causes?

      1.

      2.

      3.

E. What voluntary actions were proposed?




                                       Corals 30
Student Activity 47   KNOW-NEED-GATHER WORKSHEET        II.11.4

Topic: Coral Zones
    WHAT WE KNOW        WHAT WE NEED TO   HOW TO GATHER THE
                             KNOW         NEEDED INFORMATION




                            Corals 31
Student Activity 48         GUEST SPEAKER WORKSHEET   II.11.4

Preparing for a Guest Speaker
    What information do we
      need?


      What qualifications
       does/should the guest
       speaker have?

      What are important
       questions to ask the guest
       speaker?

      By the time the speaker
       leaves, what facts should we
       have?

      How can we get an idea of
       the speaker‟s own
       perspective of the topic?

Debriefing After a Guest Speaker
   What were the things we
      learned from the speaker?


      How does the new
       information affect our
       thinking about the topic?

      Do we need to reorganize
       our plans or findings so far?


      Did this presentation show a
       particular bias? If so, what?


      Do we need another
       perspective or more
       information?




                                       Corals 32
Student Activity 49     PRODUCT PLANNING WORKSHEET   II.11.4

Purpose and Audience
    What is the primary
     message we want to
     convey?
    Who will be the
     audience?

     What do we expect to
      accomplish with this
      product?
Content and Sequence
   What are the key
      components or parts of
      our product?
   What approach will we
      use in presenting the
      information (e.g.,
      or     )?
   What are the main
      facts that must be
      included?
   In what order will they
      occur?
   What key point must
      be made at the
      beginning?
   What key point must
      be made in the middle?
   What key point must
      be made at the end?
Development and Production
   Managing Team:
      Timelines, Resources,
      Support/Help,
      Monitoring, Editing?
   Writing Team: Who,
      What, By When, How
      Well?
   ProductionTeam:
      Who, What, By When,
      With What, How Well,
      What Formats?



                               Corals 33
Student Activity 50 PRODUCT ASSESSMENT WORKSHEET                        II.11.4

          (Key: 4=Exceeds; 3=Meets; 2=Approaching; 1=Needs More Work)

                    Criteria                      4    3        2         1
Information collected shows planning and
concern for accuracy. (Give examples.)




Extent of information collected is
comprehensive and the sources of the
information are varied. (Give examples.)




Presentation is clear and captures the
attention of the audience. (Give examples.)




Ideas show creativity, openmindedness,
and/or inventiveness. (Give examples.)




Plan and presentation made optimum use of
team concept and members‟ contributions.
(Give examples.)




                                      Corals 34
Process: Assessing         MARINE ENVIRONMENTS – II                            II.11.6
                                         Reefs
Standard:
      3. ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: Understand the unity, diversity,
          and interrelationships of organisms, including their relationship to cycles of
          matter and energy in the environment.
      4. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ORGANISMS: Understand the structures
          and functions of living organisms and how organisms can be compared
          scientifically.
      5. DIVERSITY, GENETICS, AND EVOLUTION: Understand genetics and
          biological evolution and their impact on the unity and diversity of organisms.
      6. NATURE OF MATTER AND ENERGY: Understand the nature of matter and
          energy, forms of energy (including waves) and energy transformations, and
          their significance in understanding the structure of the universe.
Benchmarks:
      4.3.2. Describe how an organism‟s behavior is determined by its environment.
      5.3.2. Describe the interdependent relationships among producers, consumers,
      and decomposers in an ecosystem in terms of cycles of matter.
      3.4.1. Compare distinct structures of living things that help them to survive.
      3.5.1. Describe the relationship between structure and function in organisms.
      4.5.2. Describe the roles of various organisms in the same environment.
      4.5.3. Describe how different organisms need specific environmental conditions
      to survive.
      4.5.1. Describe how some materials may be combined to form new substances.

         QUESTIONS                  VOCABULARY                       MODEL
What have I learned about the    Nature of Matter                  Coral Profile
corals around Maui?              Unity and Diversity            Polyp
     What new concepts or       Interdependence                  o Tentacle
       ideas or skills did you   Form and Function                o Planula (baby)
       learn in this module?      Species                        o Secretion tissue
     What was easy? What         Skeleton                       o Mouth
       was hard? Why?             Polyp                          o Mesenteries
     What did you enjoy          Colonies                     Cup or hole
       doing?                     Symbiosis                      o Septa
     What would you like to
       spend more time on or                                      Reef Zonation
       practice more?                                           Reef flat
How have my learning and                                        Bench
science process skills                                          Slope
improved?                                                       Rubble




                                        Corals 35
                         Concepts and Processes of Corals

Identifying what was learned: (declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, or
contextual knowledge evidenced in discussions, writing, presentations, etc.)

            What did you learn and where did you demonstrate this learning?

Assessing Knowledge and Habits of Mind: (self-assessment by students)

            Discuss and, as part of the classroom routine, have students reflect on
             what they learned and how they learned. Provide lead questions as
             suggested above.

            (Optional) Have students respond to content assessment (Activity 61).

            (Optional) Have students do self-assessment of their self-regulation,
             critical thinking, creative thinking skills applications (Rubrics 62).




                                       Corals 36
Student Activity 61           CORAL LEARNING ASSESSMENT                               II.11.6


     1.      Olden days‟ and modern time skin divers and fisher persons around Maui
             knew/know the marine environment well.

             a. Why are corals and reefs important to them?




             b. What are some negative effects they may have on the corals and reefs
                around our island?




     2.      Corals have some common features. These features interact with each other
             to enable the coral to live. In turn, corals are elements in the zone or habitat
             along with other elements, and they interact to form an ecosystem where
             each survives, grows, and reproduces.

             a. Sketch a coral and its common features and parts.



             b. Sketch a zone or habitat around the coral and include other key elements
                that interact with the coral.

             c. What outside factor or force can change this interaction? What results?



3.        What are some important reasons for protecting our corals and reefs?




                                           Corals 37
Student Activity 62   HABITS OF MIND ASSESSMENT RUBRICS                             II.11.6

       (Key: 1=needs work; 2=getting better; 3=satisfactory; 4=exceed standard)

 Expectation                        Benchmark                           4   3   2      1
Self-Regulation   Describes the thinking used. Provides some
                  ideas on how own thinking helped performance.
                  Sets a goal. Adds some subgoals. Creates and
                  carries out useful timeline.
                  Assesses a project to identify needed resources.
                  Reviews available and alternative resources to
                  determine those that are suitable.
                  Reviews actions from an objective perspective.
                  Finds lessons in what worked well.
                  Responds and adjusts to feedback when
                  correction is needed. Listens to advice of others.
Critical          Pays attention to detail. Checks several sources.
Thinking          Recognizes and corrects major inaccuracies.
                  Produces work that is clear and free of confusion.
                  Is aware of points of view that differ from own.
                  Makes a good effort to consider alternative views.
                  Considers when more study is needed before
                  acting. Gathers sufficient information before
                  acting.
                  Takes a position that is appropriate for the
                  circumstances. Provides sufficient justification
                  for the position.
                  Shows ability to communicate with persons of
                  diverse knowledge and sensitivities. Encourages
                  respect for feelings, knowledge, and abilities of
                  others.
Creative          Shows determination in the pursuit of a solution.
Thinking          Uses strategies to keep self on track.
                  Accepts challenges presented and works on the
                  task until completed or until attaining significant
                  understandings.
                  Generates personal standards for completion of
                  task and applies those standards in the final
                  product (or performance).
                  Generates alternative ways of approaching the
                  task and analyzes how the task would be
                  affected by each. Alternatives show originality in
                  the approach to the task.

Comments or References to Student Works:




                                            Corals 38

				
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