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					                                                                                                                                   S O C I E T                    Y
                                                                                                                                   O F P L A S T I C              S
                                                                                                                                   E N G I N E E R                S
                                                                                                                                   w w w . 4 s p e . o r          g

    SEPTEMBER 2006
                                           DON’T COME TO OUR MEETING ON SEPTEMBER 11– IT’S NOT UNTIL                                 Want to get involved?
        Table of Contents                  SEPTEMBER 18, AND IT WILL BE A TOUR OF THE SMALLEY LAB !                                   Contact Harish Sangani at
   President’s Message . . . . . . .2                                                                                                 harishsangani8 @ msn.com
                                                                                            From Main Street:
   New High Impact                                                                          Turn north onto Sunset Blvd (no
                                                                                            matter which way you are driv-
   Miscible Polycarbonate
   Polyimide Blends . . . . . . . .3
   Manipulation of Fiber
                                                                                            ing on Main, you can only turn
                                                                                            one direction onto Sunset).
                                                                                                                                   SECTION MEETINGS
                                                                                                                                 AND U PCOMING E VENTS
                                                                                            Sunset forks and you will want
   Orientation by Shear                                                                     to keep left which turns into Rice
   Rotation in Inj Molding . . .9                                                           Blvd. Once on Rice Blvd. you
                                                                                            can turn into either entrance 13                September 18
   SPE Member Profile . . . . .10                                                           or 14. Both Entrances share a
                                                                                                                                        Tour of Richard Smalley
   Education Corner . . . . . . .11        parking lot between them. The Space Science bldg is the second building from
                                           the far right of buildings facing the parking lot. Visitors parking is located        Howard Schmidt, Carbon Nanotechnology
   Entrepreneur’s Corner . . . .14         immediately in front of the Space Science building. Parking costs $1.50 per                            October 9
   Melt Flow . . . . . . . . . . . .14     hour up to $7.00 per day.
                                                                                                                                     10am-7:30pm at Brady’s Landing
   The Texas Margin Tax                    From Greenbriar:                                                                        Thermoplastic Elastomers, a Tutorial
   and Your Business . . . . . .15         Turn east onto Rice Blvd. Once on Rice Blvd. you can turn into either entrance          David Hansen, Kraton (Styrenic Block
                                           13 or 14. Both Entrances share a parking lot between them. The Space                                  Copolymers)
   SPE Book Bag . . . . . . . . . .16
                                           Science bldg is the second building from the far right of buildings facing the         Joe Pfeiffer, Santoprene (ThermoPlastic
   International Calendar                  parking lot. Visitors parking is located immediately in front of the Space                            Vulcanizates)
   of Events . . . . . . . . . . . . .16   Science building. Parking costs $1.50 per hour up to $7.00 per day.                          Lou Brandewiede , Noveon
                                                                                                                                        (ThermoPlastic Urethanes)
                                                                                                                                  Todd Glogovsky, Basell (ThermoPlastic
                                           PLASTICS ENGINEERING’S FUTURE IS HERE NOW, AND...                                                       Olefins)
                                                                                                                                    Ed Smith, DuPont (Thermoplastic
                                           IT’S RIGHT HERE IN HOUSTON                                                                       Polyester Elastomer)
                                           Nano Materials Lab Tour                                                                  Basker Lalgudi, Arkema (Polyether
                                                                                                                                                   Amides)
                                           Rice University’s Smalley Institute                                                          Karande Seema, Dow (New
                               ®           September 18, 2006                                                                           Thermoplastic Elastomers)
          w w w. s p e - s t x . o r g                                                                                                        November 13
                                             he Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Technology
                                           T at Rice University is devoted to nurturing the science,
                                                                            technology and commercial-
                                                                                                                                             Market Research
                                                                                                                                    Balaji Singh, Chemical Marketing
                                                                                                                                                Resources
                                                                            ization of nanometer scale                                       December 11
                                                                                                                                       Professional Development
                                                                            materials. It is equally
                                                                                                                                   Robert Shanley, Fortune and Career
                                                                            devoted to the education of                                 Management Personnel
                                                                            future scientists and engi-                           Tom Walsh, Walsh Consulting Services
                                                                            neers. Its mission is to                                           January 8
                                                                            provide a venue where                                       Nanotechnology: Flame
                                                                                                                                  Nandika d'Souza, Univ. Retardants and
                                           researchers from all disciplines of science and engineering                                   Foams of North Texas
                                           can come together to share ideas and discuss their views and
                                                                                                                                                February
                                           prospects of nanoscience, nanoengineering, and nanotech-                                             PO2007
       BREAKFAST BUNCH                     nology. The institute sponsors seminars and conferences,                                              March 12
 First Tuesday of each                     encourages entrepreneurism and the development of com-                                           Fracture Mechanics
month (next meeting is                     mercial applications.                                                                 Prof. Hung-Jue Sue, Texas A&M University
 October 3rd), IHOP at                          Bench and applications research is concentrated on                                                April
                                                                                                                                               Golf Outing
Washington Ave and I-10                    single walled carbon nanotubes, a.k.a. “buckytubes”. When
                                           made with molecular perfection these tubular fullerenes offer                                         May 14
                                                                                                                                          Product Design Tutorial
                                           revolutionary electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties                                   Ranga Shastri, CIATEQ
  POLYOLEFINS                              on the nanometer scale. The goal of the group is to develop                           SPI Joint Meeting with Part Competition
     2007                                  the underlying basic science, as well as the methods of                                               Display

      February 25-28, 2007                                                                        (continued on page 9)
     Wyndham Greenspoint
spe-stx.org/PolyolefinsConference
                         President’s Message                                                     SECTION OFFICERS
                                                                                                 President – Harish Sangani
                            am honored to be a part of this dynamic section of SPE and           PolyClean Technologies, Inc.

                         I  participate in its continued growth in the service to our local
                           membership and support of efforts to further the education and
                                                                                                 4709 Highway 36 South, #12
                                                                                                 Rosenberg, TX 77471
                                                                                                 832.595.9660 • harishsangani8@msn.com
                                                                                                 President-Elect – Donna Davis
                                                                                                 ExxonMobil Chemical Company
                           development of young people for entering the polymers industry.       5200 Bayway Drive, Baytown, TX 77522-5200
                                We have some very interesting changes planned for the            281.834.2036 • donna.s.davis@exxonmobil.com
                                                                                                 Vice President – Earl L. Johnson
                           coming year that I hope will provide more value to our mem-           Omicron Marketing
                                                                                                 74 Ruskin Drive, Montgomery, TX 77356
                           bership and draw more of you to come to our monthly                   936.756.5776 • earllj@omicronmarketing.com
meetings. Donna Davis/ExxonMobil (our Section President-Elect and former presi-                  Treasurer – Robert Goddard
                                                                                                 Ribelin Sales
dent of SPE International) has put tremendous effort into planning for a significant             18106 Spellbrook, Houston, TX 77084
                                                                                                 713.854.0386 • rgoddard@ribelin.com
expansion of format for the monthly meetings by inviting consultants, vendors, and               Secretary – Raj Saxena
industry leaders to provide up-to-date information on new materials, markets,                    Wacker, Inc.
                                                                                                 4807 River Hill Drive, Kingwood, TX 77345
methodologies. In a well-spent afternoon, attendees will be able to gain valuable                281.361.3119 • Raj.Saxena@wacker.com
                                                                                                 Councilor – Ray Johannessen
insight on areas of interest and then stay through dinner for additional discussions             Croda Universal
and networking with their industry peers.                                                        311 Odessa Drive, Magnolia, TX 77354
                                                                                                 281.252.5550 • r.johannessen@crodausa.com
      Dr. Earl Johnson/Omicron Marketing (our Section Vice-President) has and will               Past President – Ray Johannessen
                                                                                                 Croda Universal
continue to help us expand our Section’s reach to serve the local plastics professionals         311 Odessa Drive, Magnolia, TX 77354
                                                                                                 281.252.5550 • r.johannessen@crodausa.com
involved in high performance polymers. For those of us who know people that are
                                                                                                 Prior Past President – Suzanne Biggs
involved with these materials but are not members of SPE, I encourage you to help                Tru-Chem, LLC
                                                                                                 4119 Cason, Houston, TX 77005
them get involved in our section and make their voices heard.                                    713.664.2849 • suzannebiggs@yahoo.com
      Our first technical meeting will be a tour of Rice University’s Carbon Nanotube
Facilities. With all the rapid developments in everything “nano”, this is sure to be an inter-   COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSONS
                                                                                                 Advertising – Suzanne Biggs
esting meeting to learn about the latest developments in the area of carbon nanotubes.           281.240.0202 • sbiggs@tpcplastic.com
      Lastly, our Section has gotten where it is through the dedicated efforts of                Education – Mark Demark
                                                                                                 281.756.3785 • MDemark@alvincollege.edu
countless volunteers. However, for it to continue to grow and be successful, we need             Golf Outing – Lynnette Russo
                                                                                                 281.481.9100 • lynnette@bapoly.com
new volunteers to participate and learn what has been done and how, so that they
                                                                                                 Housing – Emery W. Jorgenson
can take on the reins for doing what can be done. I strongly urge everyone to get                713.827.1455 • emery@jorgensonmachinery.com
                                                                                                 Newsletter – Earl L. Johnson
involved and help shape the future of this great Section.                                        713.825.7372 • earllj@omicronmarketing.com
                                                                                                 Membership – James R. Gubera
                                                                                                 281.556.6481 • xspoly@swbell.net
                                                                                                 Polyolefins 2007 – Bill Diecks
                                                                                                 832.813.4451 • dieckwa@cpchem.com
                                                                                                 Technical Program – Donna Davis
                                                                                                 281.834.2036 • donna.s.davis@exxonmobil.com

                                                                                                 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
                                                                                                 Abel Garcia – 936.760.2311
                             Harish Sangani                                                      abel@phoenixplastics.com
                             SPE – South Texas Section President 2006-2007                       Larry Chriswell – 281.499.4393
                                                                                                 LChriswell@houston.rr.com
                                                                                                 Bounita Favorite – 225.413.5811
                                                                                                 bounitafavorite@bellsouth.net
                                                                                                 Kelly Harrison – 281.465.9013
                                                                                                 kelly.harrison@clariant.com
                                                                                                 Kevin Menchaca – 281.481.9100
                                                                                                 kevinm@bapoly.com
                                                                                                 Brandon Cleary – 936.760.2311
                                                                                                 brandon@phoenixplastics.com
                                             PLASTICS INFORMATION: CHECK IT OUT                  James Gubera – 281.556.6481
                                                                                                 xspolymers@houston.rr.com
                                      The Houston Public Library, 500 McKinney St.,              William Talbott – 281.218.6305
                                                                                                 Billtt8@cs.com
                                        has a major collection of books on plastics,             Mike McMahon – 281.681.2500
                                           donated by the South Texas Section.                   mmcmahon@nfm.net
                                                                                                 Gerry Wissler – 817.944.5135
                                         The library’s services are easily accessible            gewissler@att.net
                                           on the Internet at: www.hpl.lib.tx.us                 Kevin Robel – 713.888.4505
                                                                                                 krobel@na.ko.com
                                                                                                 Emery Jorgenson – 281.481.9100
                                                                                                 kevinm@bapoly.com


                                                                           2
New High Impact                                                                                                  Personnel Consultants Of Houston, Inc.

Miscible Polycarbonate                                                                                                    Nick Marino – Sales/Marketing
                                                                                                                        George Menghi – Additives Technical
                                                                                                                           Bob Shanley –R&D/Technical

Polyimide Blends                                                                                                            Joe Shanley – Engineering
                                                                                                                   2555 Central Parkway, Houston,Texas 77092
Robert Gallucci, Mark Sanner and Paul Sybert                                     SPE Member since 1966             713-680-9132 | fpchouston.com | Nationwide
GE Advanced Materials
1 Lexan Lane
Mt. Vernon, IN, 47620

Abstract
Blends of polyetherimides usually form phase separated mixtures
with polycarbonate or polycarbonate esters, however recent work                                     Consider NFM for your compounding applications.
                                                                                                    NFM provides a Total Package System — the products,
shows surprising miscibility when a polycarbonate ester with a high                                  expertise and technical support to take your compounding
                                                                                                       process to a whole new level.
percentage of resorcinol derived ester linkages is used. The transpar-
ent blends have lower color, improved melt flow and increased
practical toughness compared to an unblended polyetherimide.
Additionally, three component blends of resorcinol based polycar-
bonate ester, polyetherimde and polyester also demonstrate
miscibility.

Introduction
Blending of different polymers has been a commercially efficient
route to develop new materials. There are two general types of
blends; phase separated and single phase or miscible blends. In gen-
eral to produce a miscible blend the free energy of mixing ( G)
must be favorable; G= H– T( S). Miscible blends are relatively
rare. Since the combinatorial entropy of mixing large molecular
weight polymers always gives an unfavorable S term, formation of
                                                                                                                       NFM                 NFM-UK                 NFM-SW USA
miscible blend requires a favorable enthalpic interaction ( H).                       Call or fax
                                                                                                                       577 Oberlin Road    Quin Street            25325 Borough Park Dr. #105
                                                                                                                       Massillon, OH       Leyland, Lancashire    Woodlands, TX
                                                                                      for a copy
Predicting favorable enthalpic interactions apriori has been difficult.               of our new
                                                                                      TEM Series
                                                                                                                       44647-7899 USA
                                                                                                                       330.837.3868
                                                                                                                                           PR25 2TB UK
                                                                                                                                           44.1772.421.258
                                                                                                                                                                  77380 USA
                                                                                                                                                                  281.681.2500
                                                                                      Brochure.                        Fax: 330.837.2230   Fax: 44.1772.431.114   Fax: 281.681.2501
Miscible blends are often a surprise, found by trial and error and                                                     www.nfm.net         www.nfmiddon.co.uk     extrudersales@nfm.net


later rationalized by invoking various favorable interactions.
      Polyetherimide (PEI), made from BPA-DA and m-phenylene
diamine (Eq. 1), has had more than its share of surprising blends
many of them commercially important.




Eq.1. Polyetherimide of BPA-DA /MPD (PEI)


     Blends of PEI with polyetherether ketone (PEEK) are miscible
[1,2] as are blends of PEI with aliphatic-aromatic polyesters like PET
and PBT [3,4,5].
     On the other hand blends of PEI with bisphenol-A polycarbon-
ate (PC) Eq. 2, which has many structural similarities with PEI, are
immiscible [6].                                                                                                                                 1300 McCabe Rd.
                                                                              Custom, Proprietary and Toll                                   LaPorte, Texas 77571
                                                  (continued on page 4)       Manufacturer of Polyolefin                                            281-867-3000
                                                                              Based Products                                                    Fax 281-471-1741
                                                                              ISO 9001/2000                                            bayshore@icopolymers.com

                                                                          3
(Miscible Polycarbonate – continued from page 3)




Eq.2. Polycarbonate (PC)
                                                                               Chemtura. Value is our strongest additive.         ™




     Likewise PEI polycarbonate ester (PCE) blends are also immis-
                                                                               Monomer Polymerization Finishing Compounding Fabrication
cible [7,8]. PCEs are copolymers containing BPA carbonate linkages
and aryl ester linkages arising from condensation of BPA with iso
and tere phthalate functionality (Eq. 3).




                                                                               Adding new possibilities, all along the value chain.
Eq. 3. Polycarbonate Ester (PCE)                                               We add exceptional value, with a powerhouse portfolio of polyolefin additives,
                                                                               antioxidants, flame retardants, vinyl stabilizers, intermediates and a host of
                                                                               other plastics additives.
      From these known miscible and immiscible blends one can see              We’re Chemtura, the world’s largest plastics additives company and a global
                                                                               specialty chemicals company. We advance ideas in polymers and the additives
how predicting the chemical basis of a favorable enthalpic interac-            which enhance their performance across the full polymeric range.
tion, which would give rise to miscible systems, would be difficult.
                                                                               Please visit www.chemtura.com.
Resorcinol Based Polycarbonate Ester Blends
Recently a series of polycarbonate ester copolymers based on BPA,
resorcinol and iso/tere phthalates have been prepared (Eq. 4) [9].
These resorcinol containing polycarbonate ester copolymers display
excellent weathering characteristics.




Eq. 4. Resorcinol Polycarbonate Ester (ITR)


     Combination of these resorcinol based ester carbonate polymers
with PEI has made PEI blend chemistry even more complex, show-
ing compositions that are miscible or immiscible depending on ITR
structure.
     A series of ITR copolymers were prepared where the ratio of
BPA carbonate linkages to resorcinol iso/tere ester linkages (x and y)
was systematically varied from 20% ITR:80%carbonate (ITR2080) to
90% ITR:10%carbonate (ITR9010). The ratio of iso to terephthalate
derived linkages was held constant in the ITR resins tested. All ITR
resins were of comparable molecular weight.
     Depending on the composition of the ITR copolymer blends
with PEI were either one phase or two phase. Table 1 shows the Tgs                                        Ribelin Sales, Inc.
                                                                                                          69 Years of Service
observed for the blends of 70% PEI (Ultem*1000 from GE                                                    Supplying:
                                                                                                          Pigments, Fillers, Extenders, Polymers,
                                                   (continued on page 5)                                  Resins, Additives & Containers
                                                                                                          1-877-Ribelin

                                                                           4
(Miscible Polycarbonate – continued from page 4)

Advanced Materials) with 30% of ITR resins with varying resorci-
nol ester content. Some interesting behavior is observed as
resorcinol ester content (REC) of the ITR is increased. At low REC
the PEI/ITR blends behave in a similar fashion to PEI/PC blends            Eq. 5. Polyetherimide Sulfone (PEIS)

giving a two-phase opaque system. However as the REC content
increases above ~50% the PEI/ITR blends become transparent giv-                PEIS is also miscible with high REC ITR9010 resin (Table 3).
ing a single Tg, which indicates miscibility with PEI. All blends          HDT and Tg of several PEIS blends with 330wt% ITR9010 are
were prepared by melt extrusion at ~340 oC. Test specimens were            shown in Fig. 3.
injection molded. Tgs were measured by DSC and in some cases
                                                                           Polyester - PEI - ITR Blends
also by DMA.
                                                                           As mentioned earlier aliphatic diol aromatic diacid based poly-
      The Mechanical properties of miscible blends of PEI/
                                                                           esters like PET, PEN and PBT are miscible with PEI resins [3,4,5].
ITR6040 were investigated where the ITR content varied from 20-
                                                                           Limited experimentation shows that the three component high
50 wt% (Table 2). ITR copolymers have a lower Tg than PEI and,
                                                                           REC-ITR:PEI:PET blends are also miscible giving transparent com-
as expected in a miscible system, the blend Tg is reduced as ITR
                                                                           positions with a Tg reflecting contributions from all three
content is increased. Properties related to Tg, such as HDT and
                                                                           polymers (Table 4). The ITR9010 also appears to improve impact
Vicat temperature are also reduced with increasing ITR content in
                                                                           even at these low levels.
the blend. Modulus and strength are largely retained, especially at
higher PEI content. Additionally, since the ITR resins have much           Conclusion
lower yellowness index values (YI) than the amber PEI, the misci-          The blends of BPA-DA based PEI resins continue to show a sur-
ble blends have reduced YI and a higher %T compared to the PEI             prising, if unpredictable, degree of miscibility. Slight changes in
control.                                                                   the structure of polycarbonate ester copolymers can have a dra-
      The most noted performance feature of the miscible PEIITR            matic effect in going from phase separated opaque systems to clear
blends is an improvement in biaxial impact. PEI resins do not              one phase mixtures. The PEI-ITR blends may provide many
have high fracture strength and while their practical impact is suf-       options for developing new materials especially for medical and
ficient for many applications [10] improved ductility in a clear           food service applications.
formulation is desired. In these experiments the notched Izod
impact of the PEIITR blends is slightly improved over the base PEI         References
                                                                            1) Shibata, M., Fang, Z. and Yosomiya, R. “Miscibility and Crystallization Behavior
resin, but biaxial impact energy is greatly enhanced (Fig.1). In               of PEEK-PEI Blends” J. Applied Polymer Sci., 80, 769-775 (2001).
addition the blends show ductile-brittle transitions of about 0oC           2) Chen, H-L and Porter, R. “Melting Behavior of PEEK in its Blends with PEI”
                                                                               J. Poly. Sci., 31, 18451850 (1993).
while maintaining Tgs over 190oC. This discovery allows the                 3) Woo, E. and Yau, S. “Peculiar Glass Transition Behavior and Miscibility in a
potential to develop heat resistant trays and containers that will             Binary Mixture Comprising Amorphous PEI with Semicrystalline PBT”
                                                                               Macromolecules, 30, 3626-3631 (1997).
also be ductile when taken from refrigeration.                              4) Chen, H-L., Hwang, J., Chen, C-C., Wang, R-C., Fang, D-M. and Tsai, M-J.
                                                                               “Phase Behavior of Amorphous and Semicrystalline Blends of PBT and PEI”
                                                                               Polymer, 38(11), 2747-2752 (1997).
Melt Flow of PEI-ITR Blends                                                 5) White, D. and Matthews, R., “Novel Polyetherimide Polyester Blends”
The addition of the ITR resins to PEI reduces Tg while maintain-               US patent 4,141,927 (1979).
                                                                            6) Chun, Y-S., Lee, H., Kim, W. and Oh, T. “Thermal Properties and Morphology of
ing transparency. The reduced Tg also results in improved melt                 Blends of Polyetherimide and Polycarbonate” Poly Eng. & Sci., 36(20)
flow for the blends allowing easier injection molding. Viscosity vs.           2694-2702 (1996).
                                                                            7) Sanner, M. and May, A. “Injection Molding of a High Flow PEI-Polycarbonate
shear rate curves at 340oC for several blends of PEI with 20-50                Ester Blend” 62nd SPE ANTEC, 2854 - 2857 (2004).
wt.% ITR6040 are shown in Fig 2. As can be seen viscosity is                8) Gunduz, N. and Gallucci, R. “Glass Filled Polycarbonate Ester-Polyetherimide
                                                                               Blends” 61st SPE ANTEC, 1842 - 1864, (2003).
reduced by as much as about 50%. Melt Flow Index (MFI) is also              9) Plastics Technology, Feb. 2004, 44-45.
                                                                           10) Sanner, M.A., Haralur, G. and May, A., “Effect of Molecular Weight on the
increased with higher ITR content (Table 2).                                   Brittle-to-Ductile Transition Temperature of Polyetherimide” J. Applied Poly. Sci.,
                                                                               92, 1666-1671 (2004).
Polyetherimide Sulfone - ITR Blends                                        11) Odle, R. and Gallucci, R. “New High Heat Polyetherimide Resins” 61st SPE
                                                                               ANTEC, 1853 1857, (2003).
The ITR blends investigation was extended to mixtures with a
higher Tg (246oC) polyetherimide sulfone (Ultem*XH6050 from
GE Advanced Materials) [11]. This high heat amorphous thermo-
plastic polyimide has both sulfone and ether linkages (Eq. 5).

                                                                                                                                        (continued on page 6)


                                                                       5
(Miscible Polycarbonate – continued from page 5)

Figures and tables are provided for general information and are not for the purpose
of warranty or specification. * Trade mark of the General Electric Co.




                                                                                          (continued on page 7)


                                                                                      6
(Miscible Polycarbonate – continued from page 6)




                                                       (continued on page 8)


                                                   7
(Miscible Polycarbonate – continued from page 7)




                                                   8
(Smalley Lab Tour – continued from page 1)

production, purification, derivatization, analysis, and assembly of
these wonderful objects to hasten the day when they are used to
solve real world problems.
      Nanomaterials are already showing great potential in a wide
variety of practical applications. Work to develop commercial                                     Your Innovative Partner for
applications for these new materials is underway at the Smalley
Institute. NASA, The Department of Energy, The National Science
                                                                                                   Pigments and Additives
                                     Foundation, The Naval Research
                                     Laboratory and many others are                        I Pigments and Dyes for Plastics                    I Antistats
                                     funding a wide variety of pro-                        I Antioxidants                                      I Flame Retardants
                                     grams all geared toward refining                      I UV Stabilizers                                    I Waxes
                                     and commercializing the
                                     polymer engineering concepts                                     Contact Kelly L. Harrison, Sales Executive
                                                                                                                     281.465.9013
                                     that involve “bucky balls”,
                                     “nanotubes”, and many of the                          Clariant Corporation, Pigments & Additives Division
commercial polymers with which you are currently working.                                  500 Washington Street, Coventry, RI 02816, Tel: 800.441.4414, Fax: 401.823.2565
                                                                                           www.pa.clariant.com
      Please join us on September 18, 2006. The Smalley Institute is
located on the north side of the Rice University campus in Building
67, the Space Science & Technology Building. Clicking on the build-
ings shown in the link below show a map of the Rice University
campus. http://www.rice.edu/maps/maps.html. For more information
about the Smalley Institute please go to http://cnst.rice.edu/.




Manipulation of Fiber
Orientation by Shear Rotation
in Injection Molding
C. A. Silva, J.C. Viana, F. Van Hattum, A. M. Cunha
IPC – Institute for Polymers and Composites
Polymer Engineering Department, University of Minho,
Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal

Abstract
   he development of fiber orientation in injection molding was
T  manipulated by a special molding tool, the RCEM mould, which
imposes a rotation action of one of the cavities wall during mould
filling. Central gated disc moldings were produced in a glass fiber
reinforced polypropylene, GFRP, with different cavity rotation veloci-
ties, inducing distinct distributions and levels of fiber orientation.                       7095 Industrial Rd., P.O. Box 6270 (41022-6270)
                                                                                             Florence, KY 41042 • www.berstorff.com
The microstructures of the moldings were characterized by optical                            859-283-0200 • Fax 859-283-1860 • Info@berstorff.com
and electronic microscopy. The through-the-thickness profiles of                             Compounding, Pelletizing and Calenderizing Equipment

fiber orientation (orientation tensor) were measured. The relation-
ship between the processing thermomechanical environment and the                          Comprehensive Plastics Testing Since 1973
fiber orientation are established.                                                           Chemical • Thermal
                                                                                            Mechanical • Compounding
You can find the full text of this article at                                                  Failure • Weathering                        LABORATORIES, INC.
http://www.4plasticsresearch.org/abstract.php?id=2005-101868.pdf&type=hitlist&num=0       PLASTICS | POLYMERS | RUBBER | ASTM               www.polyhedronlab.com
                                                                                             10626 Kinghurst, Houston, TX 77099 • 281-879-8600 • Fax: 281-879-8666

                                                                                      9
SPE MEMBER PROFILE
Jeff Applegate
President, Blackwell Plastics
Custom Injection Molding and Extrusion
Houston, Texas

Background:
• Grew up in West Houston
• Baylor University BBA dual majors in Finance and Entrepreneurial
  Management
• Married 12 years to Julie Applegate, proposed during the Houston
  Marathon
• 3 Children: Drew (9), Ben (7), Summer (5)
• Enjoys all sports, hunting, fishing, found most early mornings
  training for life and long distance triathlons

How I got into plastics?
The short answer is by accident. I had no plans to be in plastics, but
found plastics as the material of choice for so many of the products
that we manufactured. I started my career in 1989 with LSI                                                                Plastics, additives, for:
                                                                                                                          Injection, Blow Molding
Industries in Houston Texas. I was responsible for selling the design,                       9708 S.P.J.D., Suite B-IOI   and Extrusion
manufacture and installation services of permanent retail identity                           Corpus Christi, TX 78418     Specializing in prime, virgin
                                                                                             Phone: 361-939-9898          materials, custom compounds
products to large national petroleum retailers. We were responsible                          Fax: 361-939-9853            and full material development
for consistently transforming a 2D design for a retail identity to hun-                      www.tdlplastics.com          TDL is a NMSDC certified minority supplier.

dreds of unique building sizes, styles and locations. We specified
and converted plastic sheet and many other materials by printing,
routing, laminating, die cutting, painting and thermoforming. We
worked closely with suppliers such as GE, 3M and Alucobond on
metal, polycarbonate, acrylic, and vinyl sheet to ensure that design
elements would perform in their environments for many years. In
1997 I assumed the leadership responsibility of the Technology
Graphics Division of LSI Industries where I gained experience with
the plastic film business. Technology Graphics converted polyester
and polycarbonate films for product Identification and labeling of
OEM products. Products manufactured included membrane switch
assemblies, graphic overlays, display lenses and pressure sensitive
labels. Printing processes included screen, flexography, rotary letter
press and offset. Secondary operations included, die cutting, lami-
nating, thermoforming, solvent and U.V. hard coating. Customers
                                                                                       At Cytec, we help plastics
included Compaq Computer Corporation, Nokia, Motorola, and
                                                                                     perform better and last longer.
multiple industrial equipment OEMs. My first experience with injec-
                                                                               Cytec is a leading global supplier of stabilizers to the polymer
tion molding came as Motorola and Nokia directed us to work with               industry. Our product portfolio includes:
their injection molding suppliers to decorate plastics during the                 • CYASORB® light stabilizers
molding process. We partnered with GE, Bayer and many ink, coat-                  • CYANOX® antioxidants
ing and tooling companies to develop the processes to decorate                    • CYASTAT® antistats
plastics in the molding process. We developed the technology to
provide print, form and trimmed polycarbonate film inserts to deco-
                                                                               Cytec Industries Inc.
                                                 (continued on page 13)                                       Polymer Additives Customer Service:
                                                                               www.cytec.com                                         888-CYTECPA


                                                                          10
         E DUCATION C ORNER
                 – Mark Demark, Education Chair



Texas Tech University
College of Engineering
and Its Students
Send Letters of Thanks
   regory B. McKenna, Professor of Chemical Engineering, sent a
G  letter thanking SPE, South Texas Section, for our scholarship
money support. Of the $3,000 total, they have already awarded
four $500 scholarships, and will award the two remaining $500
scholarships in the fall.
      Each of the four students sent letters thanking all of us for
making this possible.



University of Houston
Kicks Off New
SPE Student Chapter
   tudents and faculty of the University of Houston received the
S  SPE Student Chapter charter on July 24 from South Texas
Section liaison, Ted Marker. The ceremonies were held at the office
of Associate Engineering Dean Dr. Ramanan Krishnamoorti, who
is also the faculty advisor for the SPE student chapter. Ted is an
extrusion technologist at BayPort USA and has worked diligently
to get this new student chapter up and going.




                                                                             more affordable and reliable automobiles that rely on plastics. New
2006 ESSAY WINNER
                                                                             innovations push our technology to extreme limits, unreachable
Precious Complexities of                                                     without the varying uses of plastics. The precious complexities of

Plastics in Society                                                          plastics in society allow us to expand our capabilities and enable
                                                                             us to better our lives and our world.
by Mark Thompson
                                                                                   As we look to explore the deepest reaches of space we turn to
Humble High School
Humble, Texas                                                                revolutionary new advances in structure and imaging components
                                                                             made from plastics. Newly developed solar sails, a reliable alterna-
   early everyone knows the obvious uses for plastics, but most
N  don’t realize that the varying plastic structures and uses provide
infinite solutions for common problems, which go far beyond
                                                                             tive to satellite propulsion, rely on plastics for strong light
                                                                             structural support(7). The International Space Station is composed
                                                                             partially of composites, a mixture of materials bonded by high
water bottles and disposable utensils. From bio-molecular engi-
                                                                             strength plastics, which allow for a much lighter stronger
neering to deep space exploration, plastics play a crucial role in
                                                                             structure(3). The power supply of the International Space Station,
the advancement of our society. Plastics continue to make our
daily lives safer and more comfortable with new developments in                                                            (continued on page 12)


                                                                        11
(Education Corner, Essay Winner – continued from page 11)

large flexible solar panels, are held together by light pliable, but                  Plastics play a key role in our day-to-day transportation.
strong, plastics that both decrease cost and increase efficiency(4).            Plastics increase the safety and decrease the cost of modern tech-
Space telescopes are also beginning to incorporate plastics into not            nologies in automobiles, trains, and airplanes. Both the tail and
only their structure but also their mirrors(10). These new carbon               the fuselage of Boeing’s new 787 Dreamliner will be made nearly
fiber plastic mirrors will be a fraction of the weight of traditional           entire of plastic composites(2). This will not only lighten the air-
glass mirrors, reducing cost and increasing range of the telescopes(10).        plane and increase its efficiency, but will decrease the cost of a
      Due to their large working temperature range, plastics are                ticket and increase the comfort of the flight. Boeing is not the only
essential components of almost every space mission. The wiring                  aircraft manufacturer incorporating these new technologies into
connected to the ignition that controls the rocket motors is cov-               their aircraft. Airbus uses complex composite plastics in parts for
ered by a polymer-based fabric, which protects the wires from the               many of their aircrafts(2). Plastics are now being used more in air-
extreme heat of the flame(1). During re-entry into the atmosphere,              craft engines, in some cases increasing efficiency up to 20%(5).
the extremely high temperatures a spacecraft experiences are toler-             Plastics have been incorporated into the appearance of automo-
able because of the heat shields made of composite plastics(1).                 biles for decades but they are beginning to play a crucial role in
Plastics are often used in the computers of satellites and other                the performance as well. Composite plastics are now being used
space craft to reduce the temperature of the crucial components(1).             for structural components, engine parts, and body sections, which
      Some of the most important advancements in plastics with                  increase the efficiency and performance of the car while decreasing
regards to outer space are those that increase the safety and com-              the cost(6). High-speed trains built from light composite plastics
fort of astronauts. Space suits are designed to allow astronauts to             allow for quicker and cheaper land travel.
                                                       ,
tolerate temperatures ranging from –250°F to 350°F the shadows                        Plastics have and continue to help the technology age blos-
and spotlights of outer space. NASA uses many different plastics                som. Plastics are an indispensable component to nearly every
to make a seven layer insulating airtight suit to provide both maxi-            computer and portable electronic device. Not only does plastic
mum protection and maximum mobility for the astronaut(8). The                   provide for a hard durable outer shell for anything from CD play-
helmet of the space suit is composed of several polycarbonate lay-              ers to laptop computers, plastics are revolutionizing the internal
ers for maximum strength, and the visor is made of a transparent                structure of computers. With newly developed plastic transistors,
plastic coated with gold(8). The new water filtration system of the             made from organic polymeric conductors, it is now possible to
international space station uses a porous plastic that captures par-            print circuit boards on thin sheets of plastic(11). These printed
ticles that are thirty times smaller then those a traditional filter            pages of circuit boards will do everything a traditional one does
could capture(1). The most intriguing new plastics that will soon be            but will be much cheaper and much more efficient(11).
used in all manned flight vehicles turn different colors when exposed                 From deep space exploration to printed circuitry, the precious
to excess hydrogen or oxygen environments or even the slightest                 complexities of plastics in society allow for us to achieve unimag-
bit of neutron radiation, insuring the safety of the astronauts.                inable heights, and as we enter into the twenty first century it is
      Plastics have revolutionized the medical field. Plastics have             obvious that plastics will continue to play an ever-increasing role
replaced traditional glass and metal parts because of their durabil-            in our world.
ity and their low cost. For instance, traditional syringes were                  1) “Benefits of Plastics in Space” American Plastics Council. 2005.
expensive and therefore had to be used multiple times and would                  2) “Commercial Airplanes” Boeing. 2006.
                                                                                    http://www.boeing.com/commercial/787family/background.html
have to be sterilized thoroughly before another use. Because of                  3) “International Space Station: Components and Structures” Boeing. 2006.
their low cost, plastic syringes can be disposed of after one use,                  http://www.boeing.com/defensespace/space/spacestation/components/index.html
                                                                                 4) “International Space Station” Wikipedia. 2005.
eliminating any need for local sterilization(9). Packaging of medi-                 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Space_Station#Building_the_ISS
cines is extremely crucial, and before plastic, medicine companies               5) “Our Engines” General Electric. 2006. http://www.geae.com/engines/index.html
                                                                                 6) “Plastics and Today’s Automobiles” Automotive Learning Center. 2004.
were forced to use expensive and less airtight glass bottles.                       http://www.plasticscar.com/s_plasticscar/sec.asp?CID=402&DID=1306
      In the age of plastics, these companies now use durable plas-              7) “Solar Sails” Wikipedia. 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
                                                                                    Solar_sail#Sail_materials
tics that are resistant to changes in temperature and allow for a                8) “Space Suit Evolution” NASA. 2005. http://history.nasa.gov/spacesuits.pdf
                                                                                 9) Graff, G. “Plastics Make New Inroads in Medical Fields” Omnexus. April 2005.
more airtight seal, maintaining the effectiveness of the medicine                   http://www.omnexus.com/resources/articles/article.aspx?id=7530#Introduction
for longer periods of time(9). New catheters, made of Nylon, can be             10) Hale, R.“Structural and Aerodynamic Optimization of Ultra-lightweight
                                                                                    Technology for Research in Astronomy” The University of Kansas Engineering
inserted with very little pain because the plastic does not interact                Department. http://www.engr.ku.edu/ae/telescopes.htm
with human tissue(9). Thin strong plastic rods are used in heart                11) Muldoon, D. “Opticom and Bell Labs Agree to Explore Plastic Transistors in
                                                                                    Memory devices” Bell Labs. October 2006. http//www.bel-labs.com/news/
surgery to help keep the surgical opening stable(9).                                1997/October/7/2.html




                                                                           12
(Member Profile – continued from page 10)
                                                                                  Adding Value to Polymers
rate products for Motorola, Nokia, Dell, Palm Computing, Microsoft,
K2, and others. We co-developed these programs with leading injec-
tion molders such as Intesys Technologies, Perlos, Complex Tool and               Polymer Protection
Mold and UPG.                                                                     • Antioxidants
                                                                                  • Processing stabilizers
      In May of 2003 I had the opportunity to join LD Blackwell and               • Discoloration resistant stabilization systems
assume the responsibilities of President of Blackwell Plastics. LD                • UVAs, HALS
Blackwell and Blackwell Plastics have been true pioneers in the plas-             • High performance stabilization systems

tics industry and have a tremendous history. Blackwell Plastics was               Special Effects
                                                                                  • Antifog agents              •   Antimicrobials
founded in 1939 and had the privilege of working with Houston’s                   • Antistatic agents           •   Clarifying agents
greatest entrepreneurs to bring products to market such as the first              • Flame Retardants            •   Hydrophilic additive
heart by-pass pump, the first geophone, parts used on some of the                 • Nucleating agents           •   Optical brighteners
                                                                                  • Oxygen absorbers            •   Photoselective additive
first space missions, the first plastic ice chest, and the production of          • Ultraviolet filters         •   Viscosity modifiers
the original Weedeater. Many ask why I would invest my career in
                                                                                  Polymer Recycling
an industry that has seen – the processors leave the country or close             • Additives for recycled and degradable plastics
shop. I believe there will always be a need for a good custom injec-
tion molder that provides quality and service to the lower volume                 For more information about Ciba Specialty Chemicals, visit our
                                                                                  website at www.cibasc.com/plastics, or call 1 800 431 1900.
industrial market. I also thoroughly enjoy working with people to
develop new products and see these products come to life. The tech-
nical challenges and diversity of products provide opportunities to                                         NORAC® ADDITIVES
personally grow and learn every day. As a leader of a small business                                            COAD® and
                                                                                                               ®
my greatest privilege is to know and work with a fantastic group of                                       MATHE Metallic Stearates
employees and customers. The last three years have been an exciting                            Let Norac show you how our high quality metallic stearates
                                                                                                and related products provide solutions for your polymer
time of growth at Blackwell Plastics. Our regional marketplace is full                            processing problems and enhance your profitability.
of innovative entrepreneurial companies that will continually pro-              Our products find use as lubricants, mold releases agents, acid
                                                                                scavengers, and costabilizers in the PVC, Polyolefin, Thermoset, and
vide a pipeline of new products and new opportunities for custom                Rubber Industries. Our line includes Stearates of Calcium, Zinc,
plastic processors. The plastics industry will continue to develop              Magnesium, Aluminum, Lithium, and Sodium.
new materials and push the mechanical limits that will make plastics                                        NORAC, Inc.
                                                                                                       405 South Motor Avenue
the material of choice for more opportunities. I am excited about the                               Azusa, California 91702-3232
opportunities at Blackwell Plastics and confident that there is a very                           (626) 334-2908 Fax (626) 334-3512
                                                                                                           www.norac.com
bright future for those custom processors that choose to expand
their vision, pursue new technology, follow growth companies, and
work hard to provide innovative solutions to their customers.

Blackwell Plastics and the SPE?
LD Blackwell was a founding member of our local SPE chapter and
past president. I have noticed that today few local processors partici-
pate in the association. I believe there are great opportunities to
improve our businesses through better communication, education
and networking. I would like to extend an invitation to other
processors in our region to contact me or the leadership of our local
SPE chapter to discuss how we can use the SPE as an association to
improve our companies’ performance and do a better job serving
and educating local industry about the opportunities in plastic. I
believe that the friendships developed, education, and networking
can strengthen our companies and create more opportunity for all
processors in our market place.




                                                                           13
2006 AWARD WINNER
                                                                                               BAYLAND, INC.
Larry Nunnery Jr.                                                                               CUSTOM PLASTIC EXTRUSION
2007 Award Application                                                                                P.O. BOX 467
                                                                                           7900 BISSELL, MANVEL, TEXAS 77578
                arry Nunnery Jr, an entrepreneur since the age of five,                               281-489-1930
            L   when he sold boiled peanuts at entertainment venues
              in South Carolina, Larry Nunnery, Jr., is now Chairman
                                                                                                    www.bayland.com


              and CEO of Bulk Molding Compounds, Inc. in West
Chicago, IL. He received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the
                                                                                               Chemtrusion
University of South Carolina. While in college, he obtained his
introduction to plastics when he worked for Cardinal Chemical, a                         Plastic Compounding Services
PV stabilizer manufacturer.                                                               Analytical Testing Services
      After graduation, Larry worked for G.E. Plastics as a salesman.
The head of the plastics division at that time was Jack Welch, who                Chemtrusion, Inc. 7115 Clinton Dr. Houston, TX 77020
had a tremendous influence on Larry’s career tactics and approach.                          713/675-1616 FAX 713/675-8479
                                                                                                   www.chemtrusion.com
Larry left G.E. after 12 years to become Vice President of Sales and
Marketing for Alpha Chemical & Plastics, and then joined Oneida                                              Contact
Molded Plastics as equity partner and Vice President of Business                   Edward Bourbonais, Rick Stephens, Wayne Howard
Development.
      In 1989, Larry bought a small compounding business that
would become BMC, Inc. At the time of his purchase, seven million
pounds of product were being produced each year. Since then, BMC
has expanded to three U.S. facilities with additional locations in
Mexico City, Juarez, Brazil, Germany and China. BMC is now the
world’s leading supplier of bulk molding compounds, with produc-
tion of 150 million pounds per year.
      But Larry is not just a good businessman – he is also a humani-
tarian. He sponsors his employees’ education, silently paid the
medical bills for two employees who were diagnosed with cancer,
and gives his employees the opportunity to do more and to do bet-
ter. He is a man who recognizes that personal success depends much
on those around him.
      Mr. Nunnery has been Chair of the SPE Thermoset Division,
has been honored by the University of South Carolina as a
Distinguished Alumnus, and has endowed a four-year scholarship at
the school that is awarded to chemical engineering majors.


SOUTH TEXAS MELT FLOW: ABOUT YOUR FRIENDS AND ALLOYS
Dan Cox, from Century Extruders, to Bayshore Industrial as Sales
Manager replacing Paul Lewis who has been named President of
Heritage Bag.                                                                  WORLDWIDE LEADER IN UNDERWATER KNIFE TECHNOLOGY

Ray Herring, formerly with Dow, has become manager at Houston for              RITCH HELLER, Sales Manager                          Tel 713-688-6388
                                                                               5615 Mitchelldale                                   Fax 713-688-4222
Century Extruders.                                                             Houston, Texas 77092 USA                            Cell 713-703-0949
                                                                               www.pelletizerknivesinc.com     Email: Rheller@pelletizerknivesinc.com



                POLYOLEFINS 2007
                        February 25-28, 2007
                       Wyndham Greenspoint
                  spe-stx.org/PolyolefinsConference



                                                                          14
The Texas Margin Tax and                                                  Annual School Tax Rate Increases Are Now Capped
                                                                          At $0.040...
Your Business                                                             Currently, school districts seeking to exceed the $0.060 cap may
                                                                          do so without placing their request before the public via ballot.
COULD LOWER TAXES BE A REALITY ??                                         Prior to this work by Senator Williams and others, tax rate
33% Lower School Taxes                                                    increases were capped at $0.060. With the new tax law in place,
  exas State Senator Tommy Williams and his colleagues may have           should a school district want to exceed the new $0.040 cap, it
T succeeded in doing the impossible. For decades, Texas has strug-
gled to find a system of taxation to support our state’s growing
                                                                          must return to the voters and seek their permission.
                                                                                Tax Appraisal District Creep Stopped...Districts may no
educational needs. Property taxpayers were carrying the entire tax        longer simply slide a school district tax increase into their annual
burden and the state’s share of support was decreasing.                   assessments. If any increase exceeds the above $0.040 increase,
      But relief appears to be in sight. During the early summer 2006     they must allow voters to vote on that increase.
special legislative session, the Texas State Legislature provided $15           Sole Proprietors & General Partnerships Exempted...
billion for local property tax rate cuts and $1.4 billion in new          Businesses whose structures fall under these two (2) categories are
funding for public education. This was accomplished by the passage        exempt from the tax, as well as those businesses whose gross receipts
of bills HB 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.                                            total $300,000 or less, and those whose tax bill is less than $1,000.

                                                                          HB 4 - Liar’s Affidavit...
     Here is how it will work...
                                                                          The so-called “liar’s affidavit bill” tightens rules on sales taxes on
HB 1 - Reduces Local School Property Tax Rates...                         used vehicles and requires the buyer reveal and pay sales tax on
This bill places a statutory cap on local maintenance and operation       the true value of the used vehicle. The value must be at least 80
taxes. The current rate of $1.50 will be lowered to $1.33 in 2007         percent of the “blue book” value of the used vehicle.
and will be reduced again in 2008 to $1.00. This change represents        HB 5 - “Taxes on Tobacco Products Increased...
a 33.00% tax rate cut in school maintenance and operation taxes.
                                                                          Taxes on cigarettes will be increased from $0.41 to $1.41 per
HB 2 - Property Tax Relief Fund...                                        pack. The tax on all other tobacco products (excluding cigars) is
                 All new tax revenues created from                        increased to 40 percent of the corresponding retail price. These
                        HB 3, HB 4 and HB 5                               tax increases will take effect on January 1, 2007.
        will be dedicated to the Property Tax Relief Fund.
Any appropriation from this fund can only be used to reduce school
property tax rates until the tax rate reaches $1.00. At that point two-   The Plastics Industry
thirds of the income raised must go to tax relief, while one-third will
be used to increase the level of equalization.
                                                                          in the 21st Century:
HB 3 - Franchise Tax is Repealed...
                                                                          The Rules Have Changed
                                                                          Roger F. Jones
Historically the Texas Franchise tax has been relatively easy for busi-   Franklin International LLC, Broomall, PA
nesses to avoid by placing and holding any of their Texas assets in a
separate limited partnership. The result has been the fact that many      Abstract
businesses have not been paying their fair share. The 2006 session
                                                                             ver the past decade the acceleration of manufacturing produc-
of the Texas State Legislature has amended the Texas Constitution.
HB 3 replaces the franchise tax with a low rate broad-based business
                                                                          O  tivity growth, a shift in regional raw material costs, the advent
                                                                          of the information age, globalization, and the power of Wall Street
tax. Under the historical franchise tax, businesses were taxed at a
                                                                          over the business strategies of publicly-held companies, have all
rate of ~4.50%. Under the new “Margin Tax”, manufacturing busi-
                                                                          had a cumulative, significant impact on the plastics industry.
nesses will pay ~1.00% and retailers and wholesales will pay ~0.50%,
                                                                          These effects went relatively unnoticed during the bubble econ-
of their gross margins. By collecting taxes from a much larger number
                                                                          omy of the 1990s, but now are increasingly revealed as the root
of businesses, the new “Margin Tax will generate over $3,400,000,000
                                                                          causes of much of the dramatic change in the business environ-
in annual revenue to support Texas’ local school systems
                                                                          ment of the 21st century. How did these changes come about?
    Margin Tax = [ Gross Revenue – Cost of Goods Sold ] X R
                                                                          What is the outlook for the next decade?
              R = 0.50 % For Retailers & Wholesalers
                    R = 1.00 % For Manufacturers                          You can find the full text of this article at
                                                                          http://www.4plasticsresearch.org/abstract.php?id=2005-102282.pdf&type=hitlist&num=1


                                                                          15
From the SPE Book Bag
          Pocket Specs for Injection Molding,
          7th Edition (#0617) 2006, $43.00 (member)
          $52.00 (nonmember)                                                                                 Crodamide
                                                                                                             high quality slip and antiblock
Description: Pocket Specs for Injection Molding provides you with a                                          Croda Inc.
compact guide for the injection molding of thermoplastic and ther-             Polymer Additives             300-A Columbus Circle, Edison, NJ 08837-3902
                                                                                                             732-417-0800 • FAX 732-417-0804
moset materials. Data are provided for thousands of individual
grades of molding materials from 260 manufacturers. The data pro-
vided in the tables are intended to give you the basic information for
determining regrind levels, material drying temperatures and times,
and initial machine settings for injection pressure, barrel heats, and        Additive technology helping
mold temperature. Additional physical property data include specific          brilliant ideas take shape.
gravity, shrink data, melt flow, and processing temperature ranges.           Products of proven performance – brought to you by a company
                                                                              committed to the development of new plastic additive
     Includes: 16 key processing properties: Grade, Filler, Specific          technology and dedicated to providing exceptional service
Gravity, Shrink, Melt Flow, Drying Temp, Drying Time, Max. % Moisture,        and customer support – that’s Lonza.
Max. % Regrind, Injection Pressure, Rear Temp, Mid Temp, Front Temp,          The Product Edge                 The Performance Edge
                                                                              Offering an extensive selection of                    • Lubricants
Nozzle Temp, Processing Temp, Mold Temp                                       amide waxes and specialty esters.                     • Antifog Agents
     18,000 injection molding grades                                             • Acrawax ®                                        • Antistatic Agents
                                                                                 • Glycolube ®                                      • Viscosity Modifiers
                                                                                 • Glycomul ®                                                  • Dispersion Agents
                                                                                 • Glycostat®                                                       • Slip/Antiblock
                                                                                                                                                       Agents
                            INTERNATIONAL                                                                                                           • and More

             Calendar of Events
                         September 2007
                                                                                                  Lonza. The Additives Edge.®
   8th Thermoplastic Elastomers Topical Conference™ 2007                          Lonza Inc., 90 Boroline Road, Allendale, NJ 07401 • www.lonza.com
                                                                                  Technical Service: 800 777-1875 • Customer Service: 800 631-3647
                   September 17-19, 2007
                         Akron, Ohio
             Contact: SPE Conference Department
            PH: 203/775-0471 FX: 203/775-8490
                    conferences@4spe.org

                          October 2007
    K' 2007 17th International Trade Fair Plastics + Rubber
                     October 24-31, 2007
                                                                                                   Synergistic Polymer Systems, Inc.
                     Düsseldorf, Germany
                                                                                                Plastics Additives Technical Sales & Service since 1992

                           March 2008                                          Steve D. Pontiff                                       Phone: (713) 780-8888
                                                                               Post Office Box 69                                     Fax: (713) 780-8887
                        Plastics USA 2008                                      Sugar Land                                             Steve.Pontiff@SynPoly.com
                         March 4-6, 2008                                       Texas 77487-0069 U.S.A.                                www.SynPoly.com

                         McCormick Place
                                                                                                             “Forecasting Tomorrow's Technology”
                      Chicago, Illinois, USA
                                                                                                              •   Stabilization • Essential Oils • CFA’s • VCI’s
       Contact: The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. (SPI)                                              •   Specialty Compounding • Cleansing Compounds
                                                                                                              •   Halogen Free F.R. Conc. • Process Enhancement
              PH: +1.800.SPI.0015, +1.202.974.5235                                                            •   Antimicrobials • Ethylene Scavenging Additives

                       FX: +1.202.296.7243                                                                          5400 Jefferson Chemical Road
                                                                                         An ISO 9001:2000
                                                                                                                    Conroe, Texas 77301
                     tradeshows@socplas.org                                              Certified Company          Ph. 936-760-2311 Fax. 936-7660-2322
                                                                                                                    www.phoenixplastics.com


                                                                         16