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Study Guide for Judging Market Hogs - PDF

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					                 Meat Identification Study Guide for Achievement Day

                                         9-12th Grade



Rules:
1.     Identify retail cuts of beef and pork, and know the primal cuts and preferred cooking
       method. These cuts are listed on the back and can be seen at your local grocery store
       meat department.
2.     Take a test from the following material


Test Material:

        Beef cattle are produced for meat. Bulls are uncastrated male cattle, steers are castrated
males, heifers are young females that have not calved, and cows are older females that have
calved. Calving is the process of a cow giving birth. The length of gestation, or pregnancy, in
beef cattle is 280 days. Steers normally reach market weight (1200 pounds) at 14 months of age.
Steers will normally dress out at 60% of live body weight. This means that a 1200 pound
liveweight steer will yield a carcass (after slaughter) of about 720 pounds. Finish is the amount
of fat covering the carcass. Marbling is the intermixture of fat and lean in a cut of meat, and is
an indicator of cutability. The process of which beef is held at 34 degrees F to 38 degrees F for a
period of 3 weeks or more is called aging. Meat from very young milk-fed calves usually not
over 12 weeks old at time of slaughter is called veal.

        Young female pigs are called gilts, older female pigs are called sows, uncastrated male
pigs are called boars, castrated male pigs are called barrows. The length of gestation in pigs is
114 days. The act of a sow giving birth is called farrowing. Market hogs will reach a market
weight of 240-250 pounds at 6 months of age. A 215 pound hog will yield about 150 pounds of
meat.

        The most expensive cuts of beef and pork come from the loin. Both beef and pork are
high in protein. The majority of beef and pork sold in supermarkets is boneless.




                                        Continued on back




P:\4-H\Achievement Day\Study Guide, Judging Tests\MeatID Study Guide.doc
Identification:

BEEF

Retail Cut             Primal Cut              Cookery Method

Blade Steak            Chuck                   Dry/Moist
Brisket                Brisket         Moist
Ground Meat            Various                 Dry/Moist
Liver                  Variety Meats           Dry/Moist
Porterhouse Steak      Loin                    Dry
Rib-Eye Steak          Rib                     Dry
Round Steak            Round                   Dry/Moist
Rump Roast             Round                   Dry/Moist
Sirlon Steak           Loin                    Dry
T-Bone Steak           Loin                    Dry




PORK

Retail Cut             Primal Cut              Cookery Method

Bacon                  Side                    Dry
Blade Boston Roast     Shoulder                Dry
Ham                    Ham/Leg                 Dry
Loin Chops             Loin                    Dry
Sausage                Various                 Dry/Moist
Shoulder Blade Steak   Shoulder                Dry/Moist
Sirloin Chop           Loin                    Dry/Moist
                 Meat Identification Study Guide for Achievement Day

                                        5-6, 7-8 Grade

RULES:
1.  Identify retail cuts of beef and pork, as listed below. These can be seen at your local
    grocery store meat department.
2.  Take a test from the following material

TEST STUDY MATERIAL:
        Beef cattle are produced for meat. Bulls are uncastrated male cattle, steers are castrated
males, heifers are young females that have not calved, and cows are older females that have
calved. Calving is the process of a cow giving birth. The length of gestation, or pregnancy, in
beef cattle is 280 days. Steers normally reach market weight (1200 pounds) at 14 months of age.
Steers will normally dress out at 60% of live body weight. This means that a 1200 pound
lightweight steer will yield a carcass (after slaughter) of about 720 pounds. Finish is the amount
of fat covering the carcass. Marbling is the intermixture of fat and lean in a cut of meat, and is
an indicator of cutability. The process of which beef is held at 34 degrees F to 38 degrees F for a
period of 3 weeks or more is called aging. Meat from very young milk-fed calves usually not
over 12 weeks old at time of slaughter is called veal.

        Young female pigs are called gilts, older female pigs are called sows, uncastrated male
pigs are called boars, castrated male pigs are called barrows. The length of gestation in pigs is
114 days. The act of a sow giving birth is called farrowing. Market hogs will reach a market
weight of 240-250 pounds at 6 months of age. A 215 pound hog will yield about 150 pounds of
meat.

        The most expensive cuts of beef and pork come from the loin. Both beef and pork are
high in protein. The majority of beef and pork sold in supermarkets is boneless.


IDENTIFICATION

Beef
Blade Steak                                          Pork
Brisket                                              Bacon
Ground Meat                                          Blade Boston Roast
Liver                                                Ham
Porterhouse Steak                                    Loin Chops
Rib-Eye Steak                                        Sausage
Round Steak                                          Shoulder Blade Steak
Rump Roast                                           Sirloin Chop
Sirlon Steak
T-Bone Steak

				
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