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					                                                                                   PSZ 19:16 (Pind. 1/97)


                           UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

                        BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS *
JUDUL :            ANALISIS PERSIMPANGAN YANG TIDAK BERLAMPU ISYARAT
                   BAGI SIMPANG TIGA.
                   KES KAJIAN : PERSIMPANGAN-PERSIMPANGAN UTAMA DI JALAN
                   KOTA BHARU/PASIR PUTEH

                                 SESI PENGAJIAN          :         2004/2005

Saya               RAHIM BIN ISA
Mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falasafah)* ini disimpan diperpustakaan Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:
1.       Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
2.       Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian
         sahaja.
3.       Perpustakaan dibenarkan salinan tesis ini srbagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian
         tinggi.
4.       ** Sila tandakan (/ )


                   SULIT            (mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan
                                    Malaysia seperti yang termaktub didalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI
                                    1972)


                   TERHAD           mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh
                                    organisasi/badan dimana oenyelidikan dijalankan)


          /        TIDAK TERHAD


…………………………………                                                   …………………………………..
(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)                                          (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)


Alamat tetap :     PT 882, SEKSYEN 52,                       PROF.MADYA ABD AZIZ BIN MUTI
                   MUKIM TELUK BARU,                                       NAMA PENYELIA
                   15200 KOTA BHARU,KELANTAN.


Tarikh   :         OKTOBER 2004                                 Tarikh :   OKTOBER 2004
CATATAN :   *      Potong yang tidak berkenaan
            **     Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD,sila lampirkan surat dari pihak berkuasa /organisasi berkenaan
                   dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikekalkan sebagai SULIT atau
                   TERHAD.
            *      Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falasafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan atau
                   disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan,atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda
                   (PSM).




  ANALISIS PERSIMPANGAN YANG TIDAK BERLAMPU ISYARAT BAGI
                         SIMPANG TIGA



   KAJIAN KES : PERSIMPANGAN – PERSIMPANGAN UTAMA DI JALAN
                    KOTA BHARU/PASIR PUTEH.




                                      RAHIM BIN ISA




    Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda Ini Dikemukakan Sebagai Memenuhi Sebahagian
       Daripada Syarat Pengurniaan Ijazah Sarjana Muda Kejuruteraan Awam




                               Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam
                    UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
                                        2004




“Saya akui karya ini adalah hasil saya sendiri kecuali ringkasan yang tiap-tiap satunya
                           telah saya jelaskan sumbernya.”




     Tandatangan       :    …………………………….

     Nama Penulis      :    RAHIM BIN ISA

     Tarikh            :    …………………………….
“Saya akui bahawa saya telah membaca karya ini dan pada pandangan saya karya
   ini memadai dari segi skop dan kualiti untuk tujuan penganugerahan Ijazah
                      Sarjana Muda Kejuruteraan Awam.”



            Tandatangan             : ……………………………..

            Nama Penyelia        : ……………………………...

             Tarikh             :   ………………………………
Teristimewa buat isteriku,

Noraini binti Salleh,



Anak-anakku yang disayangi,

                             Mohd. Irmanizam

                             Ili Ruzanna

                             Ida Ayuni

                             Nor Suhaila
                                 PENGHARGAAN


       Dengan nama Allah yang Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Penyayang, segala puji bagi
Allah yang mencipta seluruh alam.Selawat dan salam buat Junjungan Besar Rasulullah
S.A.W., keluarga baginda, para sahabat dan seluruh pejuang Islam hingga keakhir zaman.


       Penulis ingin merakamkan setinggi-tinggi penghargaan kepada Professor Madya
Abd. Aziz Muti selaku penyelia yang banyak membantu, membimbing, dan meluangkan
masa dan tenaga untuk untuk memberikan tunjuk ajar dan panduan yang sangat berguna.


       Sekalung penghargaan dan ucapan terima kasih kepada pensyarah-pensyarah
UTM dan orang perseorangan yang memberi semangat dan dorongan yang bukan sedikit
untuk menjayakan projek ini.


       Tidak ketinggalan juga kepada keluarga yang banyak berkorban masa dan tenaga
untuk saya meneruskan pengajian yang sudah hampir ke penghujung ini.


       Kepada Allah jua saya serahkan segala-galanya kerana Dia sahaja lah yang
mampu membalas segala budi baik tuan-tuan semua.
Wassalam


RAHIM BIN ISA




                                   ABSTRAK



     Fenomena kesesakan jalanraya telah menjadi sebati kepada
pengguna-pengguna jalanraya di bandar-bandar besar.Bandar-
bandar seperti Kuala Lumpur,Johor Bahru dan Ipoh telah menjadi
semakin sesak dan banyak memberi kelengahan kepada pengguna-
pengguna.Pembangunan kawasan-kawasan perumahan
misalnya,telah menambahkan lagi kesesakan yang sediada.

Berbagai-bagai jenis pengangkutan awam telah diwujudkan oleh pihak kerajaan dan
swasta untuk menggalakkan orang ramai menggunakan perkhidmatan awam agar
kesesakan lalulintas dapat dikurangkan.Walaubagaimanapun,peningkatan taraf hidup
rakyat Malaysia dan pertumbuhan ekonomi Malaysia yang mapan telah menggalakkan
peningkatan jumlah kenderaan persendirian dan kenderaan perdagangan dan seterusnya
menyumbang kepada kesesakan jalanraya.


Obektif utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengukur tahap kesesakan yang berlaku
dipersimpangan-persimpangan utama Jalan Kota Bharu / Pasir Puteh dimana kawasan
dipersekitaran jalan ini mengalami pembangunan pesat seperti pembinaan taman-taman
perumahan, premis-premis perniagaan dan menaikkan taraf kemudahan-kemudahan
awam.Hasil dari kajian ini akan dapat mengutarakan cadangan-cadangan yang boleh
mengurangkan tahap kesesakan yang sediada dan unjuran kesesakan yang akan berlaku
pada tahun 2006.




                                       ABSTRACT




        Road congestion phenomenon is just a norm to the road users in large cities.Cities
such as Kuala Lumpur,Johor Bahru and Ipoh experienced a long and delayed congested
traffic.The development of housing estates surrounding the cities for example,worsen the
situation.


        Various types of public transport are provided by the government and private
sectors to urge public to make full use of the facilities in order to minimized road
congestion.However,due to the growth of living standard and Malaysian’s sustainable
economic growth,lead to the increased of private and comercial vehicles and thus
contribute to road congestion.


        The main objective of the study is to determine the level of service of the main
junctions at Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh where at the moment, this area is facing a
rapid development mainly housing projects,business premises and upgrading of public
utilities. A new traffic management will then be suggested as the result of the study, to
minimize the current and the future targeted traffic congestion at the junctions in the year
2006.
        The main objective of the study is to determine the level of service of the main
junctions at Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh where at the moment, this area is facing a
rapid development mainly housing projects,business premises and upgrading of public
utilities.A new traffic management will then be suggested as the result of the study, to
minimize the current and the future targeted traffic congestion at the junctions in the year
2006.
                             SYNOPSIS

                                 ( SAA 4064 )




    TOPIC : ANALYSIS OF UNSIGNALISED INTERSECTION FOR T - JUNCTION



CASE STUDY : MAIN INTERSECTIONS AT JALAN KOTA BHARU/PASIR PUTEH,
                              KELANTAN




           SUPERVISOR’S NAME :         ASSOC.PROF. ABD. AZIZ BIN MUTI


           STUDENT’S NAME    :         RAHIM BIN ISA

           COURSE            :         SARJANA MUDA KEJ.AWAM

           MATRIX NO   .     :         SX011234AWJ07

           I/C               :         570805-03-5759


           DATE SUBMITTED    :         5 OCTOBER 2004
TOPIC : ANALYSIS OF UNSIGNALISED INTERSECTION FOR T - JUNCTION


  CASE STUDY : Main Intersections At Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh,Kelantan.

                                     Prepared by
                                    Rahim bin Isa




       ABSTRACT : Road congestion phenomenon is just a norm to the road users
in large cities. Cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru and Ipoh experienced a
long and delayed congested traffic. The development of housing estates surrounding
the cities for example, worsen the situation. Various types of public transport are
provided by the government and private sectors to urge public to make full use of
the facilities in order to minimize road congestion. However, due to the growth of
living standard and Malaysian’s sustainable economic growth, lead to the increased
of private and commercial vehicles and thus contribute to road congestion. The
main objective of the study is to determine the level of service of the main junctions
at Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh where at the moment, the area is facing a rapid
development mainly housing projects, business premises and upgrading of public
utilities. A new traffic management will then be suggested as the result of the study,
to minimize the current and the future targeted traffic congestion at the junctions in
the year 2006.


       Keywords : road congestion, intersection


       1.0       INTRODUCTION
       Interrupted traffic flow conditions predominate on most urban roads.
Generally, it is the major intersections, signalized or not, which determine the
overall capacity and performance of the road network. Significant volumes of
crossing or turning traffic at minor roads cause interruptions and capacity
reductions, which can be lessened by channelisation and intersection control. The
capacity of the intersections are very important and to achieve balance, the
intersection design should take into account the capacity of the approach roads.


       2.0     Aim of the study

The aim of the study is to evaluate the ability of the unsignalised T-Intersection to
accommodate the traffic flow with respect to the Capacity of the Intersection in the form
of Level of Service as stipulated in the Highway Capacity Manual, Special Report
209,Transportation Research Board Washington D.C.1985.


3.0 Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study are as follows :-


       a) To determine the Level of Service of the intersection for the current year.


       b) To determine the Level of Service of the intersection for the targeted year
          without any changes to the geometric design of the intersection.


4.0    Case Study

Two main intersections have been selected for the study. Both intersections are situated
along the main road from Kota Bharu to Pasir Puteh in the state of Kelantan.
Intersection of Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh – Jalan Melor/Ketereh is situated at KM 16
and intersection of Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh – Jalan Selising/Kok Lanas is situated at
KM 29.Both roads are classified as primary road and secondary road respectively and
categorized as rural roads.
Observations indicates that both junctions facing congestion and could probably due to
the location of the Melor Market which is situated just opposite to the junction and at the
roadside of Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh. Furthermore, rapid development mainly
housing projects, business premises and upgrading of public facilities might contribute to
the road congestion. Adding to that, with the expected development of the area, there will
be an increased in traffic approaching the intersection and as a result, the road congestion
could be worst in the future.

5.0     Methodology of the project
 Several methods of collecting traffic information in the field mainly by means of
mechanical instruments and manual are available. In this study, the counting of traffic is
carried out manually whereby the operators are needed to record the number of traffic
approaching and leaving the intersection on a standard worksheet. The counting is done
for the duration of 5 hours, starting from 7.00am in the morning until 12.00 noon based
on the existing traffic flow and the average hourly flow is then calculated. The analysis is
carried out according to the Highway Capacity Manual, Special Report
209,Transportation Research Board Washington D.C.1985. Traffic flow for the targeted
year 2006 of the intersection is based on 6 % annual traffic growth for the area under
study.
The current traffic flow for the year 2004 and the targeted traffic flow for the year 2006
are presented in Figure 5(a), 5(b), 5(c), and 5(d).
               509                                      389

  Kota Bharu                                           86           Pasir Puteh


                     422
     174                                                      586




                                 120             164




                           260
                                  From Ketereh




FIGURE 5(a) TRAFFIC FLOW AT THE INTERSECTION FOR THE
            CURRENT YEAR 2004
            INTERSECTION 1 – AVERAGE HOURLY FLOW
                 561                                           481

    Kota Bharu                                                             Pasir Puteh
                                                               171

                       489
                                                                     731
       96




                                   80                    242




                             267
                                        From Kok Lanas




FIGURE 5(b) TRAFFIC FLOW AT THE INTERSECTION FOR THE
            CURRENT YEAR 2004
                  INTERSECTION 2 – AVERAGE HOURLY FLOW
                   572                                          437

     Kota Bharu                                                             Puteh Puteh
                                                                97

                         474
                                                                      658
       195




                                     135                  184




                               292
                                           From Ketereh




FIGURE 5(c)        TRAFFIC FLOW AT THE INTERSECTION FOR TARGETED
                                       YEAR 2006
                  INTERSECTION 1 – AVERAGE HOURLY FLOW
               630                                            540

  Kota Bharu                                                              Pasir Puteh
                                                              192

                     549
                                                                    821
     108




                                  90                    272




                            300
                                       From Kok Lanas




FIGURE 5(d) TRAFFIC FLOW AT THE INTERSECTION FOR TARGETED
                               YEAR 2006
               INTERSECTION 2 – AVERAGE HOURLY FLOW
                 6.0       Result and analysis



         TABLE 5(a) SUMMARY OF INTERSECTION FOR THE CURRENT YEAR
                     (2004) AND TARGETED YEAR(2006)

                                         YEAR 2004                          YEAR 2006
                 Movement           Reserve
Intersection                                  Level of             Reserve         Level of
                   no.              Capacity
                                              Service              Capacity        Service

                       7               -9              F              -16               F
     1
                       9               508             A              347               B

                       4               356             B              212               C

                       7               -12             F             -149               F
     2
                       9               514             A              461               A

                       4               396             B              322               B

          The table shows the intersection capacity for the current year 2004 and targeted capacity
          for the year 2006 evaluated in the form of Level of Service.

          The Level of Service evaluated is referring to the Level of Service which is certified by
          Highway Capacity Manual,Special Report 209,Transportation Research Board
          Washington D.C.1985.
7.0    Conclusion

       Based on the result of analysis summarized in Table 5(a) which shows the
capacity of the intersections under study for the current and targeted year,the following
conclusions can be made.


       7.1    Intersection capacity for the current year (2004)

              Intersection 1 experienced an extreme traffic delay for the movement no.7,
              that is right turn from minor road whereas movement no.9, there is little or
              no delay.A short traffic delay is seen to the traffic movement no.4
              The reserve capacity of the movement no.7 is -9 pcph and at level F.This
              means that, the number of traffic using the intersection is beyond the
              capacity of the intersection and thus resulting An extreme traffic delay.

              In the case of intersection 2,movement no.7 is facing an extreme delay,
              that is the right turn from minor road and no delay to movement no.9
              whereas a short traffic delay to movement no. 4.
              The reserve capacity for movement no.7 is –12 pcph and at level F.This
              means that,the number of traffic using the intersection is far beyond the
              capacity of the intersection and thus resulting extreme delay to the traffic.


       7.2    Intersection capacity for the targeted year (2006)

              When analysis for the targeted year is carried out,the level of service for
              the intersection 1 shows that the reserve capacity for movement no.7 is at -
              16 pcph and indicates that this movement experienced an extreme traffic
              delay.For the traffic movement no.9 and 4,there is short delay to the traffic
              flow and average traffic delays respectively.
              The reserve capacity for the movement no.7 is -16 pcph and at level F and
              indicates that,the number of traffic using the intersection is beyond the
              capacity of the intersection.The situation results an extreme delays
              especially to the movement no.7.

              Quite similar situation occurs at intersection 2. The reserve capacity for
              movement no.7 is -149 and at level F,thus facing extreme delays to the
              traffic flow.The number of traffic using the intersection is beyond the
              capacity offered by the intersection.Movement no.9 and 4,little or no delay
              and short traffic delays respectively.
                         ISI KANDUNGAN




BAB     PERKARA                          MUKA SURAT


        JUDUL                                       i
        PENGAKUAN                                  ii
        PENGAKUAN PENYELIA                        iii
        DEDIKASI                                  iv
        PENGHARGAAN                                v
        ABSTRAK                                   vi
        ABSTRACT                                 vii
        KANDUNGAN                                viii
        SENARAI RAJAH                            xii
        SENARAI JADUAL                           xiii
        SENARAI GAMBAR                           xiv




BAB 1   PENGENALAN                                 1


        1.1 Pengenalan                             1
         1.2 Kedudukan Kawasan Kajian                2
         1.3 Matlamat Kajian                         5
         1.4 Objektif Kajian                         5
         1.5 Skop Kajian                             6
         1.6 Kaedah Penilaian Analisis Lalulintas    6
              1.6.1    Kajian Awalan (Fasa 1)        6
              1.6.2    Kajian Teori (Fasa2)          7
              1.6.3    Menganalisis Data             7
              1.6.4    Cadangan (Fasa4)              8


BAB II   KAJIAN LITERATUR                           10
         2.1 Definasi Jalanraya                     10
         2.2 Fungsi Jalanraya                       11
         2.3 Pengurusan Lalulintas                  11
         2.4 Alat Kawalan Lalulintas                11
              2.4.1    Lampu Isyarat                12
              2.4.2    Penyaluran                   13
              2.4.3    Kerb Dan Lorong              14
                       Pejalan Kaki
         2.5 Isipadu Lalulintas                     14
         2.6 Ciri-Ciri Isipadu Lalulintas           17
              2.6.1    Jangka Masa Kiraan           18
                       Isipadu Lalulintas
              2.6.2    Kandungan Isipadu            19
                       Lalulintas
              2.6.3    Isipadu Setiap Jam           20
                       Reka Bentuk
         2.7 Muatan Persimpangan                    20
              2.7.1    Tahap Perkhidmatan           21
              2.7.2    Muatan Persimpangan          22
                       Yang Tidak Berlampu
                         Isyarat
               2.7.3     Prosedur                  22
               2.8       Keperluan Pembaikan       31
BAB III   METHODOLOGI                              32
          3.0 Kaedah Pengukuran Isipadu            32
               Lalulintas
          3.1 Kaedah Secara Manual                 32


          3.2 Kaedah Menggunakan Peranti           33
               Pengesan
          3.3 Kaedah Tinjauan Pemerhati Bergerak   35
BAB IV    ANALISIS DAN KEPUTUSAN                   36


          4.0 Kajian Kes Persimpangan              36
               Persimpangan Utama Di Jalan
               Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh
          4.1 Tujuan Kajian                        36
          4.2 Bidang Kajian                        37
          4.3 Tinjauan Kawasan                     38
          4.4 Stesen Kajian                        38
          4.5 Pengiraan Isipadu Lalulintas         38
          4.6 Inventori Persimpangan               39
          4.7 Lalulintas Sediada                   42
          4.8 Isipadu Lalulintas                   42
               Dipersimpangan
          4.9 Lalulintas Dipersimpangan Jalan      43
          4.10 Analisa Keupayaan                   46
          4.11 Keupayaan Persimpangan              46
               Sediada
          4.12 Ulasan Terhadap Keupayaan           57
               Semasa Persimpangan
        4.13 Lalulintas akan datang         59
        4.14 Ramalan Perubahan Lalulintas   59
        4.15 Analisis Keupayaan             60
             Persimpangan Tahun 2006
BAB V   KESIMPULAN DAN CADANGAN             68
        5.1 Pengenalan                      68
        5.2 Kesimpulan                      68
        5.3 Cadangan Penyelesaian           69
                                  SENARAI RAJAH




NO. RAJAH                 TAJUK                        MUKA SURAT


Peta 1   Lokasi Persimpangan Persimpangan dan Jalan             4
         Kota Bharu/Pasir Puteh
1.0      Sumber : Transportation Engineering Planing            9
         and Design
4.1(a)   Pergerakan Lalulintas Di Persimpangan 1               44
4.1(b)   Pergerakan Lalulintas Di Persimpangan 2               45
4.2      Penandaan Bagi Pergerakan Di Persimpangan             47
4.3      Persimpangan 1- Purata Aliran                         48
4.4      Analisis Keupayaan Persimpangan Pada                  54
         Keadaan semasa Tahun 2004
4.5(a)   Analisis Jangkaan Keupayaan Persimpangan              61
         1- Purata aliran Sejam
4.5(b)   Analisa Jangkaan Keupayaan Bagi Tahun                 65
         2006 Persimpangan 2- Purata aliran Sejam




                                  SENARAI JADUAL
NO. JADUAL           TAJUK                         MUKA SURAT


1     Tahap Perkhidmatan                                   21
2     Pertukaran Ke Unit Kenderaan Penumpang               25
      Untuk Persimpangan Yang Tidak Berlampu
      Isyarat
3     Pemilihan Sela Genting (Arahan Teknik JKR            49
      11/87)
4     Paras Perkhidmatan Untuk Simpang Tidak               50
      Berlampu Isyarat (Arahan Teknik JKR 11/87)
5     Keupayaan Persimpangan Semasa (P1)                   53
6     Keupayaan Persimpangan Semasa (P2)                   57
7     Ringkasan Keupayaan Persimpangan Semasa              58
      (Tahun 2004)
8     Ringkasan Keupayaan Persimpangan Semasa              64
      P1 (Tahun 2004)
9     Ringkasan Keupayaan Persimpangan Semasa              67
      P2 (Tahun 2006)
10    Tahap Perkhidmatan Persimpangan Semasa               71
      (2004) Dan Tahun (2006)




                           SENARAI GAMBAR
NO. GAMBAR             TAJUK                    MUKA SURAT


4.1   Persimpangan 1 – Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir           40
      Puteh (Keadaan Sediada)
4.2   Persimpangan 1 – Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir           40
      Puteh (Keadaan Sediada)
4.3   Persimpangan 2 – Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir           41
      Puteh (Keadaan Sediada)
4.4   Persimpangan 2 – Jalan Kota Bharu/Pasir           41
      Puteh (Keadaan Sediada)
4.5   Taman Sri Sentosa-Taman Perumahan Yang            42
      Sedang Dimajukan Di Jalan Kok
      Lanas/Selising
                  LAMPIRAN




1.   BORANG VEHICLES TALLY SHEET

2. BORANG WORKSHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF T-
INTERSECTION

3. BORANG WORKSHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF T-
INTERSECTION
1.   BORANG VEHICLES TALLY SHEET
2.   BORANG WORKSHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF T-INTERSECTION
3.   BORANG WORKSHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF T-INTERSECTION

				
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