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					                      UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA–LINCOLN
                        COLLEGE INDEPENDENT STUDY


                                                                                    Form A
Biopsychology                                                                Psychology 373
                                                                            (PSYC 373 001)

Student’s Name _______________________________________________ Closed Book

Address __________________________________________________ Date __________

You are NOT ALLOWED to take this examination, a copy of it, or any scratch paper
used during the examination out of the testing room or area. Violation of this rule will
automatically DISQUALIFY you from receiving credit for the course. You will be given
two hours to complete this test.


                                      Progress Test 3

Part A: Multiple-Choice

On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best completes or answers each of
the following statements or questions. Each question is worth one (1) point.

___ 1. In which of the following species would you expect to find the greatest sex
       difference in body size? (The numbers below represent the average ratio of
       females and males that mate with each other in that species.)

           a.   1 male to 1 female
           b.   1 male to 2 females
           c.   2 males to 1 female
           d.   1 male to 3 females

___ 2. Fred’s third interstitial hypothalamic nuclei are very small. Accordingly, one
       would predict that Fred

           a.   has the XXY chromosome syndrome.
           b.   is deficient in oxytocin.
           c.   has a below-average testicular quotient.
           d.   is homosexual.
           e.   has androgen insensitivity.
Progress Test 3-continued                    2                                       Form A
Biopsychology                                                                 Psychology 373
                                                                             (PSYC 373 001)




___ 3. Individual differences in proceptivity among men are not associated with
       differences in testosterone levels. The apparent lack of importance of
       testosterone can be explained by the finding that

           a. testosterone is converted to estradiol, which is the activating agent for
              sexual motivation.
           b. differences in the density of testosterone receptors are also important.
           c. testosterone works in conjunction with progesterone to influence male
              proceptivity.
           d. although the brain is organized by testosterone, it is not activated by
              testosterone.

___ 4. In rodent species X about 15% of the adult males fail to reproduce during their
       lifetimes; in rodent species Y about 35% of the adult males fail to reproduce. In
       both species, only about 5% of the adult females fail to reproduce. What can be
       concluded about these species?

           a. Y is more polygynous than X.
           b. Males mature more slowly than females in Y, but not in X.
           c. Males provide more parental care in Y than in X, although less than
              females in both species.
           d. Males are relatively more selective about mates in Y than in X.

___ 5. The evolutionary reason why facial symmetry is more attractive than
       asymmetry is that facial symmetry

           a. is indicative of good genes, able to work effectively to protect the
              individual against environmental problems.
           b. is predictive of symmetry of internal organs, which work more efficiently
              if symmetric.
           c. is more pronounced in younger than in older people, so symmetry is a
              good indicator of youthfulness and fertility.
           d. is preferred even by newborn babies, which predicts greater parental
              competence.

___ 6. An individual can be female in some features (e.g., external genitalia) but male
       in other features (e.g., play style). An observation such as this can be accounted
       for by the organizational effects of hormones

           a. only if there are separate genetic systems for each feature.
Progress Test 3-continued                   3                                       Form A
Biopsychology                                                                Psychology 373
                                                                            (PSYC 373 001)

           b. only if these features differentiate during separate sensitive periods.
           c. in females, but not in males.
           d. or equally well by environmental variables such as diet or socialization.




___ 7. A hormone was injected into female hamsters and urine specimens were
       collected from them the following day. Males spent more time sniffing these
       urine specimens than they did the ones collected from females that were not
       given the hormone. These data support the hypothesis that the hormone
       increases the females’ __________ to males. (Note: The other two may have
       changed, too, but further tests would be needed to confirm such changes.)

           a. attractivity
           b. proceptivity
           c. receptivity

___ 8. According to the “secret knock” hypothesis, species with complex copulatory
       patterns (involving such things as multiple mounts prior to ejaculation,
       sensitivity to the timing of mounts, etc.) are more likely to have __________
       than are closely related species with simple copulatory patterns.

           a.   Induced ovulation or implantation
           b.   anovulatory estrous
           c.   female sequestration
           d.   spontaneous ovulation

___ 9. Why do treatments of pregnant women with synthetic estrogens (such as DES)
       cause masculinization of their daughters?

           a. DES is not bound up by alpha-fetoproteins as readily as natural estrogens
              are.
           b. DES is metabolized into testosterone.
           c. DES triggers excessive androgen secretion by the mother’s adrenal glands.
           d. DES blocks secretion of natural estrogens, thus allowing the ration of
              estrogens to androgens to drop.

___ 10. Female moorhens express a mating preference for small, fat males. This
        preference has evolved because
Progress Test 3-continued                    4                                     Form A
Biopsychology                                                               Psychology 373
                                                                           (PSYC 373 001)

           a. Fatter males are better at finding food and thus are better at provisioning
              the female while she cares for the eggs.
           b. Fatter males are older, which demonstrates that they have better genes and
              survival skills.
           c. Fatter males have darker feathers, making them less conspicuous to
              predators.
           d. Fatter males can incubate eggs more consistently.

___ 11. Evolutionary psychologists have concluded that human males tend to find most
        attractive those females that have waistlines that are significantly narrower than
        their hips because

         a. this trait was associated with youth and fertility in previous generations.
         b. popular culture has emphasized this as an important component of female
             beauty.
         c. waistlines are narrowest when a woman has been eating a diet with ample
             protein, which is predictive of her offspring’s health.
         d. wider hips are associated with a greater amount of estrogens, which
             predicts more successful pregnancies.
___ 12. If a researcher injects a pregnant female rat with testosterone each day during
        the first week of her three-week pregnancy, we would expect which of the
        following behavioral outcomes in her offspring?

           a.   masculinized daughters and normal sons
           b.   normal daughters and feminized sons
           c.   masculinized daughters and feminized sons
           d.   normal daughters and normal sons

___ 13. Which of the following events would be least expected given that humans
        almost always demonstrate positive assortative mating?

           a.   marriage of persons differing in age by 10 or more years
           b.   marriage of persons of different “races”
           c.   marriage of two mentally-retarded persons
           d.   marriage of persons of different religions

___ 14. According to the point of view advocated by Udry and Morris, a woman who is
        given estradiol (which increases her estradiol level well above normal) will
        most likely

           a.   begin menstruating.
           b.   become disinterested in sex.
           c.   attempt to have sexual intercourse.
           d.   become less attractive to males.
Progress Test 3-continued                    5                                   Form A
Biopsychology                                                             Psychology 373
                                                                         (PSYC 373 001)

___ 15. Why is it dangerous to base conclusions about hormonal activation of women’s
        sexual behavior on studies of most non-human mammals?

           a. Women’s sexual behavior is influenced by estradiol alone, rather than
              estradiol plus progesterone as in most other mammalian species.
           b. Human typically have only one offspring at a time rather than in litters.
           c. Human ovulation is “concealed,” but ovulation is often conspicuous in
              other animals.
           d. The concentrations of estradiol present in women is much lower than in
              other animals.

___ 16. A particular mammal species has testes that weigh very little, relative to body
        weight, compared to most other mammals. From this information you would be
        wise to predict that males

           a.   show very little parental care.
           b.   guard mates while they are fertile.
           c.   employ copulatory plugs.
           d.   experience little or no sperm competition.




___ 17. “Incest taboos” are found in most human societies. The most valid evolutionary
        explanation for this phenomenon is that

           a. close relatives are seldom sexually attracted to each other.
           b. parents usually encourage their children to marry other, non-related
              individuals.
           c. incest often results in hybrid vigor.
           d. incest often results in inbreeding depression.

___ 18. In species X, females mature in 2 years and males mature in 3 years; in species
        Y females mature in 3 years and males mature in 6 years. On the basis of these
        data the most reasonable conclusion about these species is that

           a.   both are polygynous but X is less so than Y.
           b.   X is polyandrous, Y is polygynous.
           c.   X is monogamous, Y is polygynous.
           d.   both are promiscuous but X is more so than Y.

___ 19. Sexual jealousy in men has evolved because
Progress Test 3-continued                    6                                       Form A
Biopsychology                                                                 Psychology 373
                                                                             (PSYC 373 001)

           a. it is favored by women since it indicates the man’s ability and willingness
              to protect her and her children.
           b. it reduces the chances of female sequestration.
           c. the human testicular quotient is insufficient to use “sperm lottery”
              competition.
           d. it reduces the chance of cuckoldry.

___ 20. A mammalian species has adult males that weigh nearly twice as much as adult
        females, on average. Which of the following statements about this species is
        probably false?

           a.   Male sexual motivation is driven by testosterone.
           b.   Ovulation is concealed.
           c.   Males do little parental care.
           d.   There is much competition among males for mating with females.

___ 21. Which of the following is invariably found in species that engage in lek
        behavior?

           a.   Offspring care is provided only by the female.
           b.   Males and females are similar in body size.
           c.   Males are more numerous than females in the general population.
           d.   Courtship is inconspicuous because of the risk of predation.

___ 22. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) appears to be due to __________ during
        the sensitive period.

           a.   exposure to the mother’s adrenal progestins
           b.   over-production of alpha-fetoprotein by the adrenal glands
           c.   excessive secretion of androgens by the adrenal glands
           d.   greatly increased numbers of estradiol receptors in the adrenal glands



___ 23. Christine is an adolescent who is concerned because she has not begun
        menstruating even though all her friends have. She went to the doctor to find
        out what was wrong. The doctor discovered that she has no ovaries or uterus,
        but does have undescended testes. What is the correct diagnosis of this
        disorder?

           a.   prenatal exposure to DES
           b.   congenital adrenal hyperplasia
           c.   androgen insensitivity
           d.   estrogen hyposensitivity syndrome
Progress Test 3-continued                    7                                     Form A
Biopsychology                                                               Psychology 373
                                                                           (PSYC 373 001)

___ 24. If a newborn male rhesus monkey is given a large dose of estrogens for the first
        20 days after birth, he will probably exhibit play patterns later in life that are

           a.   intermediate to those of normal males and normal females.
           b.   typical of normal males.
           c.   typical of normal females.
           d.   intermediate to those of normal males and males that were castrated at
                birth.

___ 25. Estrous refers to

           a. intense female motivation for sexual activity.
           b. the release of estrogens from the ovaries.
           c. the strong disinclination to behave sexually immediately following
              pregnancy.
           d. the continuation of sexual intercourse throughout pregnancy in some
              species.

___ 26. Neurons develop differently if gonadal steroids such as estradiol or testosterone
        accumulate within them. How do these hormones affect the neurons?

           a.   by increasing their permeability to sodium
           b.   by lowering the action potential threshold
           c.   by increasing the abundance of certain amino acids
           d.   by speeding the movement of neurotransmitter along the microtubules
           e.   by influencing the expression of certain genes

___ 27. If Dobbins’s computer simulation of human sexual intercourse is correct, then
        the peak in intercourse rate that is sometimes observed at mid-cycle is

           a.   due to progesterone.
           b.   not hormonally induced.
           c.   due to biased reporting of data.
           d.   an organizational hormonal effect.




___ 28. From an evolutionary psychological perspective, the reason why movies such
        as Pretty Woman are so popular is that they
Progress Test 3-continued                     8                                        Form A
Biopsychology                                                                   Psychology 373
                                                                               (PSYC 373 001)

           a. provide unambiguous masculine and feminine role models, which are
              easier to understand and to imitate than are real people, who tend not to be
              so extreme.
           b. tap into our evolved psychologies of what constitutes attractiveness in men
              and women.
           c. show men and women solving the complexities of mate choice in a short
              period of time because these things normally take much longer to
              accomplish.
           d. allow us to “escape” temporarily from our less-than-perfect mates.

___ 29. If estradiol appears inside a cell, it will interact with certain genes, leading to

           a.   production of H-Y antigen.
           b.   development of feminine traits.
           c.   development of feminine traits.
           d.   synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein.

___ 30. Males of a certain bird species put an extreme effort into protecting their
        territories and mates from invasion by other males. A probable explanation for
        this behavior is that it prevents

           a.   reproductive variance.
           b.   lek behavior.
           c.   polygyny.
           d.   cuckoldry.

___ 31. A study on an American population found that women breast-fed their
        daughters to a later age than they did their sons. Assuming that food supplies
        are adequate and that no birth control is used, what is most likely to be true in
        this population?

           a.   The sex ratio at birth will have females outnumbering males.
           b.   Females will be taller or heavier than males at adolescence.
           c.   The rate of having twins will gradually increase.
           d.   The average time between the birth of a daughter and the next birth will be
                greater than the average time between the birth of a son and the next birth.

___ 32. Imagine a species in which monogamy is the rule; however, some monogamous
        relationships do not last, and one or both members may acquire a new mate. If
        males are more likely than females to produce offspring with a second mate (in
        addition to their first one), then this species’ mating system is __________
        according to a reproductive resource definition.

           a. promiscuous
           b. polyandrous
           c. polygynous
Progress Test 3-continued                    9                                      Form A
Biopsychology                                                                Psychology 373
                                                                            (PSYC 373 001)

           d. monogamous



___ 33. An endocrinologist injects a hormone into female cats. The females show an
        interest in males but males show no sexual interest in the females; however,
        females actively avoid males who may try to mount them. Thus, the hormone
        only increases female

           a. attractivity.
           b. proceptivity.
           c. receptivity.

___ 34. Humans are known to practice a wide variety of mating systems. The one
        practiced by Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is the rarest (assuming that the
        dwarfs had something to whistle about other than their work; well, maybe not
        Sleepy and Bashful). Which mating system is it?

           a.   serial monogamy
           b.   polygyny
           c.   polyandry
           d.   promiscuity

___ 35. In which of the following situations would you expect infanticide of the
        individual’s own offspring to be least common? Assume in each case that the
        animal is breeding for the first time.

           a.   in a 4-year lifespan species that breeds every year
           b.   in a 2-year lifespan species that breeds every six months
           c.   in a 2-year lifespan species that breeds once per year
           d.   in a 3-year lifespan species that breeds once per year
           e.   in an 8-year lifespan species that breeds once per year

___ 36. Two college students are working on major term papers, and both are having
        difficulty finding sources. Thus, both anticipate a poor grade. One of them,
        Mary, decided to abandon the topic and start again on another that she thought
        would produce a better grade. The other, Susan, decided to stick with her topic
        because she felt she had already spent so much time on the project, to switch
        would be a waste. Which of the following is true of these decisions?

           a.   Susan’s decision is guided by the expected benefits hypothesis.
           b.   Mary’s decision is guided by the previous expenditures hypothesis.
           c.   Mary has committed the Concorde fallacy.
           d.   Susan has committed the Concorde fallacy.
Progress Test 3-continued                     10                                 Form A
Biopsychology                                                             Psychology 373
                                                                         (PSYC 373 001)

___ 37. It is much more common for people to state that a baby resembles its father
        more than its mother. Such statements tend to

           a.   increase the father’s confidence of paternity.
           b.   increase the probability of cuckoldry.
           c.   increase positive assortative mating.
           d.   Increase the likelihood of cryptic sexual selection.




___ 38. Which one of the following would be an example of cryptic sexual selection?

           a. A female uses one male’s sperm to fertilize her eggs, but not another
              male’s sperm, even though she has copulated with both of them.
           b. A socially monogamous female engages in sexual intercourse with a male
              other than her mate.
           c. In some fish species, young males resemble females and sneak in close to
              spawning females and older males, release sperm, and thereby achieve
              some fertilizations.
           d. Young adults of some primate species move out of view of the older and
              more dominant individuals in order to copulate without interference.

___ 39. Because female mammals lack a Y-chromosome, they

           a.   have more H-Y antigen than males.
           b.   produce more alpha feto-protein than males.
           c.   fail to produce Mullerian-inhibiting substance.
           d.   lack testosterone receptors.

___ 40. When H-Y antigen is produced,

           a.   the primordial gonad develops into testes.
           b.   the genital tubercle develops into ovaries.
           c.   chromosomal female embryos develop feminine characteristics.
           d.   the Wolffian system degenerates or fails to develop.

___ 41. Which of the following is true of the distribution of gonadal hormones within
        the developing brain?

           a. These hormones are evenly distributed throughout the brain.
           b. Only the brains of males have appreciable quantities of gonadal hormones.
           c. Several brain nuclei contain large amounts of these hormones; most nuclei
              have little or none.
Progress Test 3-continued                     11                                       Form A
Biopsychology                                                                   Psychology 373
                                                                               (PSYC 373 001)

           d. Gonadal hormones are almost non-existent in the developing brain; they
              increase only after birth, especially during puberty.

___ 42. Parent-offspring conflict is expected to be greatest when

           a.   the offspring are still completely dependent on parental care.
           b.   the offspring are fully independent of parental care.
           c.   the offspring are in transition from dependence to independence.
           d.   the parents are older and are at the end of their reproductive phase.

___ 43. Anthropologists have noted that human populations that subsist without
        agriculture (hunter-gatherers) typically kill or abandon one infant when a set of
        twins is born. From the mother’s perspective this practice would

           a.   probably increase her lifetime reproductive success.
           b.   probably lower her lifetime reproductive success.
           c.   be adaptive only if polygyny is the mating system.
           d.   be maladaptive if negative assortative mating is practiced.

___ 44. Suppose you go fishing for bluegills and catch quite a few. Later, while
        cleaning them, you notice three categories: those that look like males and have
        testes, those that look like females and have ovaries, and a few that look like
        females but have testes. The latter individuals are

           a.   immature males.
           b.   adult males who “mimic” females and achieve fertilizations deceptively
           c.   females in the process of changing sex to male
           d.   subordinate males whose testosterone has been suppressed by the presence
                of dominant males.

___ 45. Which of the following traits would you expect to find in an animal population
        in which parental investment by males is extensive?

           a.   lek breeding
           b.   males much larger than females
           c.   promiscuity
           d.   few extra-pairbond copulations

___ 46. Anovulatory estrous is a phenomenon that

           a. is used by pregnant females of some species to reduce infanticidal
              behavior by adult males.
           b. occurs most often in older females whose estrogen-producing abilities are
              beginning to decline.
           c. occurs in young females who are not quite sexually mature but who
              nonetheless produce enough estradiol to be sexually motivated.
Progress Test 3-continued               12                                   Form A
Biopsychology                                                         Psychology 373
                                                                     (PSYC 373 001)

           d. makes it difficult for males to know when ovulation is occurring; it
              therefore promotes monogamy.

				
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