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Bones bones and more bones

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					                     How many                 Osteology is the science that deals with
                     bones are                the study of bones. Each bone is an
                      there?                  organ that plays a part in how the
                                              skeletal system functions. The skeletal
                                              system of an adult human is made up of
                                              206 bones. This number of bones can
                                              very depending on a person’s age. For
                                              example, at birth, our bodies consist of
                                              about 270 bones. Over the first three to
                                              five years of our life the number of
                                              bones actually increases to around 300.
                                              At your age, the number of bones
                                              actually decreases because some of
                                              them fuse (connect) together.

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                     What function do bones have?

                                    Support

                                  Protection

                               Body Movement

                           Production of Blood Cells

                               Mineral Storage
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                                     Support
                       One function of the skeletal system is to
                       provide support for your body.           The
                       skeleton forms the base to which muscles
                       and other soft tissues attach. Without the
                       support of bones, like your vertebral column
                       (backbone), you would not be able to stand
                       up. You would simply be like a puddle on
                       the floor.


      Did you know that humans and giraffes have the same number of bones in their necks?

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                                          Protection
        A second function of the skeletal
        system is to provide protection
        for the soft, delicate parts of your
        body. For example, your cranium
        (skull) and spine protect your
        central nervous system while
        your rib cage protects your heart,
        lungs, and other internal organs.
        The skeletal system protects all
        the systems of the body.



                     Did you know that your jawbone is the hardest bone in your body.

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                                   Body Movement
        The third function of the skeletal system deals with body
        movement. In order to move, muscles need to pull on
        bones. When muscles contract, the bones to which they are
        attached act as levers and cause different body parts to move.
        The movement takes place at the connection between bones
        which is called a joint. There are different kinds of joints in
        the body. A hinged joint, like the one in your knee, allows
        you to move your leg back and forth just like a door hinge.
        A fixed joint, such as in the skull, has very little movement
        at all. Finally, the ball-and-socket joint, like the one in your
        shoulder or leg, enable you to move your arm or leg 360
        degrees like a shower head.

            Did you know that the longest bone in our body is the femur (thigh bone).
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                      Production of Blood Cells

          Bones are also important in
          the production of blood
          cells. It is in the hollow
          center of many bones that
          bone marrow makes new
          red and white blood cells.
          The red blood cells ensure
          that oxygen is distributed to
          all parts of your body. The
          white blood cells are
          responsible for fighting off
          germs and disease.

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                            Mineral Storage
     Bones are storage sites for many
     minerals. These minerals give bone
     its rigidity (hardness) and much of
     its weight. Bones contain a lot of
     calcium (an element found in milk,
     broccoli, and other foods). Calcium
     is important for bone growth and
     development. It is also important
     for muscle contractions.



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        As you review the bones     Cranium
         listed on this diagram,    Mandible
        point them out on your
             body to a friend.      Clavicle
                                    Scapula
                       Sternum
                       Humerus      Ribs
                         Spine
                                    Radius
                           Ulna     Pelvis
                                    Carpals
                     Metacarpals
                                     Phalanges
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                                     Femur
                          Patella
                                     Tibia
Back to beginning.        Fibula               Back to previous page.

                      Metatarsals
                                     Tarsals
                       Phalanges
                                                                 Manubrium

                     Sternum                                     Body

                                                                 Xiphoid Process




          The "sternum" is the medical name for the breastbone. This is a long,
          narrow, flat plate that forms the center of the front of the chest. It develops
          in three parts: an upper portion (manubrium), a middle portion (body), and
          a lower portion (xiphoid process) that projects down. The sternum assists
          the ribs in protecting the chest cavity.

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                                                                        Scapula
                         Humerus


                             Ulna
                                                                         Radius




    The humerus is the bone of the upper arm. The smooth, dome-shaped head of the bone
    socket of the scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint. It joins with the bones of
    the lower arm (the ulna and radius) to make up the elbow. Some people say the "funny
    bone" is named because it is next to the humerus. It really isn't a bone at all, but is a nerve,
    which passes under a of the humerus, where it is vulnerable.

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                       Spine


                                                              Individual
                                                              Vertebrae




    The spine is a column of bone and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull
    to the pelvis. It encloses and protects the spinal cord and supports the trunk of the
    body and the head. The spinal cord is a column of nerve tracts running from every
    area of the body to the brain. The spine is made up of approximately thirty-three
    bones called "vertebrae.“

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                                                             Humerus


                         Ulna
                                                            Radius
                       Carpals




 The ulna is the longer of the two bones of the forearm; the other being the radius.
 When the palm faces forward, the ulna is the inner bone (the one nearest the body –
 pinky finger side). The upper end of the ulna joins with the radius and fits around the
 lower end of the humerus (the upper arm bone). This forms the elbow joint. The lower
 end of the ulna is rounded and forms a joint with the wrist bones (carpals).
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                         Carpals


                                                           Metacarpals
                     Metacarpals




                       Phalanges




   The metacarpal is one of five, long cylinder shaped bones in the body of the hand.
   The bones run from the carpal bones of the wrist to the base of each digit
   (phalange) of the hand. On the palm of the hand, these are padded by a thick layer
   of fibrous, connective tissue; on the back of the hand, they can be seen and felt
   through the skin. The heads of the metacarpal bones form the knuckles.
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                                                                 Femur


                        Patella
                                                                 Tibia
                         Fibula
                                                                 Tarsals


        Patella is the technical name for the kneecap, the triangular-shaped bone at
        the front of the knee joint. The patella is held in place by muscles and is
        located between the femur and the lower leg bones (tibia and fibula). The
        patella helps to protect the knee joint.

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                                                                     Femur


                        Patella
                                                                     Tibia
                         Fibula
                                                                     Tarsals


   The fibula is the outer and thinner of the two long bones of the lower leg. It is much
   narrower than the other bone (tibia or shin), to which it runs parallel to. The upper end
   of the fibula does not reach the knee, but the lower end descends below the shin and
   forms part of the ankle. Its main function is to provide attachment for muscles. It
   doesn't give much support or strength to the leg.
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                                     Fibula
                                                             Tibia



                           Tarsals


                     Metatarsals
                                                                Metatarsals

                       Phalanges


    The metatarsal is one of five long, cylinder shaped bones in the foot. The bones
    make up the central skeleton of the foot and are held in an arch formation by
    surrounding ligaments. The metatarsal bones are joined to the toe bones
    (phalanges) and the ankle bones (tarsals).

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                                                                    Distal Phalange
                                   Fibula
                                                       Tibia
                                                                   Middle Phalange


                                                                  Proximal Phalange
                         Tarsals


                                                               Metatarsals

                     Phalanges

    The phalanges are the small bones that make up the skeleton of the toes. Each
    toe has three phalanges except for the big toe. It has two. The phalange nearest
    the body of the foot is call the "proximal" phalange; the one at the end of each digit
    is the "distal" phalange; and, of course, when there are three, the middle one is
    called the "middle" phalange.
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                      Cranium




                                                                Mandible


     The cranium or skull is the bony section of the head. The skull encases and
     protects the brain, houses the brain senses, provides attachments for muscles of
     the head and neck, and helps to form the first portions of the respiratory and
     digestive tracts. The skull rests on the first vertebra.

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                                                                       Cranium




                          Mandible




                     The mandible is also known as the jaw bone. It is the
                     hardest bone in the human body. It also assists in chewing
                     and laughing.

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                                                                              Scapula
                        Clavicle


                                                                              Humerus

                       Sternum
                                                                               Ribs


               The clavicle is the collarbone. There are two of these bones, each curved a
               little like an "f," that join the top of the breastbone (sternum) to the
               shoulder blade (scapula). The clavicles support the arms and transmit
               force from the arms into the central skeleton.

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                     Scapula
                                                               Humerus


                        Ulna
                                                               Radius




  "Scapula" is the technical name for the shoulder blade. It is a flat, triangular bone
  that lies over the back of the upper ribs. The rear surface can be felt under the skin.
  It serves as an attachment for some of the muscles and tendons of the arm, neck,
  chest and back and aids in the movements of the arm and shoulder. It is well
  padded with muscle so that great force is required to fracture it.
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                                                                     Sternum
                            Ribs




                                                                        Cartilage
    Ribs are flat, curved bones that form the framework of the chest and make up a cage to
    protect the heart, lungs and other upper organs. There are twelve pairs of ribs, each joined at
    the back of the cage to a vertebra in the spine. Between the ribs, and attached to them, are
    thin sheets of muscle that help to expand and relax the chest during breathing. There are
    seven true ribs attached to the sternum directly by their costal cartilages. The remaining five
    pairs are called "false ribs," because their cartilages do not reach the sternum directly.

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                     Radius

                                                              Humerus


                          Ulna
                                                              Radius
                        Carpals




     The radius is the shorter of the two long bones of the forearm. The other is the
     ulna. The radius is the bone on the thumb side of the arm. The radius has a
     broad base that joins the lower end of the ulna and the upper bones of the wrist.
     The upper end of the radius, which is smaller than the base, joins the lower end
     of the humerus (bone in the upper arm) to form the elbow joint.
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                      Pelvis                                         Hip Bone




                                                                     Coccyx (Tail Bone)




         The pelvis is a ring of bones in the lower trunk of the body, which is
         bounded by the coccyx (tail bone) and the hip bones. The pelvis protects
         abdominal organs such as the bladder and reproductive organs. The
         pelvis also helps to support the weight of the body.

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                         Carpals


                                                              Metacarpals




                       Phalanges




   The skeleton of the wrist consists of eight small "carpal bones" that are firmly bound
   in two rows of four bones each. The resulting mass is called the "carpus.“ The
   carpal bones are often referred to as the wrist bones because they make the
   connection between the forearm bones (radius and ulna) and the metacarpals or
   the first joint of the fingers.
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                        Carpals


                                                            Metacarpals



                                                            Proximal Phalange
                      Phalanges                             Middle Phalange

                                                            Distal Phalange

 The phalanges are the small bones that make up the skeleton of the fingers and
 thumb. Each finger has three phalanges; the thumb has two. The phalange nearest
 the body of the hand or foot is call the "proximal" phalange; the one at the end of
 each digit is the "distal" phalange; and, of course, when there are three, the middle
 one is called the "middle" phalange.
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                        Femur


                        Patella
                                                                    Tibia
                         Fibula
                                                                    Tarsals



    The "femur" is the thigh bone, the longest bone in the body. The lower end joins
    the tibia (shin) to form the knee joint. The upper end is rounded into a ball that fits
    into a socket in the pelvis. This makes up the hip joint. The top or ball of the
    femur gives the hip joint a wide range of movement.

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                                                                        Femur


                         Patella
                                                                        Fibula
                          Tibia

                                                                        Tarsals



  The tibia or shin bone is the inner and thicker of the two long bones in the lower leg. The
  tibia is the supporting bone of the lower leg and runs parallel to the other, smaller bone
  (the fibula). The front of the tibia lies just below the skin and can easily be felt. The upper
  end joins the femur to form the knee joint, and the lower end forms part of the ankle joint.

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                                   Fibula
                                                                  Tibia



                         Tarsals


                                                                     Metatarsals

                     Phalanges


 The foot consists of an ankle, an instep, and five toes. The ankle is composed of seven
 "tarsal bones," forming a group called the tarsus. These bones are arranged so that one of
 them, the "talus," can move freely where it joins the tibia and fibula (lower leg bones). The
 remaining tarsal bones are bound firmly together, forming a mass on which the talus rests.

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