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1 Name:_________________________ Date:__________________________ Axial Skeleton Lab Part B Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage Prelab: The vertebral column, which is made up of 26 bones, extends from the skull to the pelvis and forms the vertical axis of the human skeleton. The column is composed of many vertebrae, which are separated from one another by cartilaginous intervertebral discs and are held together by ligaments. The thoracic cage surrounds the thoracic and upper abdominal cavities. It includes the ribs, the thoracic vertebrae, the sternum, and the costal cartilages. Purpose: To examine the vertebral column and the thoracic cage of the human skeleton and to identify the bones and major features of these parts. Materials: textbook, human skeleton articulated, cervical vertebra, thoracic vertebra, lumbar vertebra Procedure: 1. Review the section entitled “Vertebral Column” in chapter 7 of “Hole’s” and “Vertebral Column (Spine)” in chapter 5 of Marieb. 2. As a review activity, label figures 1-5. 3. Examine the vertebral column of the human skeleton and locate the following bones and features. At the same time, locate as many of the corresponding bones and features in your own skeleton as possible. Atlas Axis Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae Intervertebral discs Vertebral canal Sacrum coccyx 4. Compare the samples of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae by noting differences in size and shape, and by locating the following features: Body Vertebral foramen Spinous process Transverse processes Dens of axis (odontoid process) 5. Examine the sacrum and coccyx. Locate the following features: Sacrum Coccyx Sacral hiatus Sacral canal 6. Complete parts A and B of the conclusion. 7. Review the section entitled “Thoracic Cage” in chapter 7 of “Hole’s” or “Bony Thorax” in chapter 5 of Marieb. 2 Figure 1 Spinal column A. ________________________________ D. ________________________________ B. ________________________________ E. ________________________________ C. ________________________________ F. ________________________________ 3 Figure 2 Atlas and Axis A. ________________________________ E. ________________________________ B. ________________________________ F. ________________________________ C. ________________________________ G. ________________________________ D. ________________________________ H. ________________________________ I.__________________________________ 4 Figure 3 Vertebrae types A.__________________________________ B.__________________________________ C.__________________________________ D.__________________________________ E._____________________________ Bone F._____________________________ Bone G.__________________________________ H.__________________________________ I.__________________________________ J.__________________________________ K._____________________________ Bone L.__________________________________ M.__________________________________ N.__________________________________ O.__________________________________ 5 Figure 4 Sacrum and coccyx A. ________________________________bone B. ________________________________bone 6 Figure 5 Thoracic cage A. ________________________________ E.___________________________________ B. _____________________________bone F.______________________________bones C. __________________________________ G.___________________________________ D.__________________________________ H.___________________________________ I.____________________________________ 8. Examine the thoracic cage of the human skeleton and locate the following bones and features. Ribs Sternum True Ribs manubrium False Ribs body Floating Ribs Xiphoid process Costal Cartilages 9. Complete part C of the conclusion. 7 Conclusion: Part A : Complete the following statements. 1.The _________________________________________ is enclosed and protected by the vertebral column. 2. There are ______________ separate bones in the vertebral column of an adult. 3. The ______________________________________ of a vertebrae support the weight of the head and trunk. 4. The ______________________________________________ separate adjacent vertebrae, and they soften the forces created by walking. 5. The _____________________________________ is the special name given to the first cervical vertebra. 6. The _____________________________________ is the special name given to the second cervical vertebra. 7. When the head is moved from side to side, the first vertebra pivots around the _____________________________________________ of the second vertebra. 8. The _________________________________vertebrae have the largest and strongest bones. 9. ________________(#) of vertebrae fuse to form the sacrum. 10. An opening called the ____________________________________ exists at the top of the sacral canal. Part B : Based on your observations, compare typical cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae in relation to the characteristics indicated in the table. Consider characteristics such as size, shape, presence or absence, and unique features for your responses. Spinous Transverse Vertebra # Size Body Process Process Cervical Thoracic Lumbar 8 Part C: Complete the following statements 1. The adult skeleton of most men and women contains a total of _____________________________(#)bones. 2. The last two pairs of ribs that have no cartilageous attachments to the sternum are sometimes called ______________________________________ribs. 3. Costal cartilages are composed of _________________________________tissue. 4. The manubrium articulated the _______________________________ on the superior border. 5. List 2 general functions of the thoracic cage. a._________________________________________________________________________ b._________________________________________________________________________
"Axial Skeleton Lab Part Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage"