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Axial Skeleton Lab Part Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage

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                                                     Name:_________________________
                                                     Date:__________________________
Axial Skeleton Lab Part B Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage
Prelab: The vertebral column, which is made up of 26 bones, extends from the skull to
the pelvis and forms the vertical axis of the human skeleton. The column is
composed of many vertebrae, which are separated from one another by
cartilaginous intervertebral discs and are held together by ligaments.
       The thoracic cage surrounds the thoracic and upper abdominal cavities. It
includes the ribs, the thoracic vertebrae, the sternum, and the costal cartilages.

Purpose: To examine the vertebral column and the thoracic cage of the human
skeleton and to identify the bones and major features of these parts.

Materials: textbook, human skeleton articulated, cervical vertebra, thoracic vertebra,
lumbar vertebra

Procedure:
   1. Review the section entitled “Vertebral Column” in chapter 7 of “Hole’s” and
      “Vertebral Column (Spine)” in chapter 5 of Marieb.
   2. As a review activity, label figures 1-5.
   3. Examine the vertebral column of the human skeleton and locate the following
      bones and features. At the same time, locate as many of the corresponding
      bones and features in your own skeleton as possible.
                       Atlas                             Axis
                Cervical vertebrae               Thoracic vertebrae
                Lumbar vertebrae                 Intervertebral discs
                 Vertebral canal                       Sacrum
                     coccyx

   4. Compare the samples of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae by noting
      differences in size and shape, and by locating the following features:
                        Body                      Vertebral foramen
                  Spinous process               Transverse processes
                    Dens of axis
                (odontoid process)
   5. Examine the sacrum and coccyx. Locate the following features:
             Sacrum                          Coccyx
                   Sacral hiatus
                   Sacral canal
   6. Complete parts A and B of the conclusion.
   7. Review the section entitled “Thoracic Cage” in chapter 7 of “Hole’s” or “Bony
      Thorax” in chapter 5 of Marieb.
                                                                            2

Figure 1 Spinal column




A. ________________________________   D. ________________________________

B. ________________________________   E. ________________________________

C. ________________________________   F. ________________________________
                                                                            3
Figure 2 Atlas and Axis




A. ________________________________   E. ________________________________

B. ________________________________   F. ________________________________

C. ________________________________   G. ________________________________

D. ________________________________   H. ________________________________

                                      I.__________________________________
                                                                  4
Figure 3 Vertebrae types


                           A.__________________________________

                           B.__________________________________

                           C.__________________________________

                           D.__________________________________

                           E._____________________________ Bone

                           F._____________________________ Bone

                           G.__________________________________

                           H.__________________________________

                           I.__________________________________

                           J.__________________________________

                           K._____________________________ Bone

                           L.__________________________________


                           M.__________________________________


                           N.__________________________________

                           O.__________________________________
                                                                                5
Figure 4 Sacrum and coccyx




A. ________________________________bone   B. ________________________________bone
                                                                                 6
Figure 5 Thoracic cage




A. ________________________________         E.___________________________________

B. _____________________________bone        F.______________________________bones

C. __________________________________       G.___________________________________

D.__________________________________        H.___________________________________

                                            I.____________________________________
   8. Examine the thoracic cage of the human skeleton and locate the following
      bones and features.
   Ribs                                    Sternum
          True Ribs                               manubrium
          False Ribs                             body
          Floating Ribs                          Xiphoid process
   Costal Cartilages
   9. Complete part C of the conclusion.
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Conclusion:
Part A : Complete the following statements.
1.The _________________________________________ is enclosed and protected by the
vertebral column.
2. There are ______________ separate bones in the vertebral column of an adult.
3. The ______________________________________ of a vertebrae support the weight of
   the head and trunk.
4. The ______________________________________________ separate adjacent vertebrae,
   and they soften the forces created by walking.
5. The _____________________________________ is the special name given to the first
   cervical vertebra.
6. The _____________________________________ is the special name given to the
   second cervical vertebra.
7. When the head is moved from side to side, the first vertebra pivots around the
   _____________________________________________ of the second vertebra.
8. The _________________________________vertebrae have the largest and strongest
   bones.
9. ________________(#) of vertebrae fuse to form the sacrum.
10. An opening called the ____________________________________ exists at the top of
   the sacral canal.
Part B : Based on your observations, compare typical cervical, thoracic, and lumbar
vertebrae in relation to the characteristics indicated in the table. Consider
characteristics such as size, shape, presence or absence, and unique features for
your responses.
                                                         Spinous         Transverse
 Vertebra       #        Size           Body
                                                         Process           Process

  Cervical


  Thoracic


  Lumbar
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Part C: Complete the following statements
  1. The adult skeleton of most men and women contains a total of
     _____________________________(#)bones.
  2. The last two pairs of ribs that have no cartilageous attachments to the sternum
     are sometimes called ______________________________________ribs.
  3. Costal cartilages are composed of _________________________________tissue.
  4. The manubrium articulated the _______________________________ on the superior
     border.
  5. List 2 general functions of the thoracic cage.
     a._________________________________________________________________________
     b._________________________________________________________________________

								
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