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					Merekayasa Masa Depan


  Pengenalan pada Rekayasa
        (Enjinyiring):
   Pendekatan Komprihensif
                             1
Bab 1

 Sejarah Rekayasa (Enjinyiring)



                                  2
1.1 Pendahuluan
   Definisi Enjinyiring
       The profession in which knowledge of the
        mathematical and natural sciences, gained
        by study, experience, and practice, is
        applied with judgment to develop ways to
        use, economically, the materials and forces
        of nature for the benefit of mankind.


                                                  3
1.2 Getting Started
   Kebudayaan Prasejarah
   Zaman Komputer
   Kecepatan Perubahan Sejarah
   Quick Overview




                                  4
1.3 Awal Mula Rekayasa
   Masa prasejarah
   Mesir dan
    Mesopotamia




                         5
1.3 Gambar Piramida




                      6
1.4 The Overview Approach
   Perekayasaan Kuil
    Yunani
   Jalan Roma dan
    Aqueducts
   Tembok Besar Cina




                            7
1.5 Bergerak Melalui Zaman
   1200 SM – 1M
       Quality of wrought iron is improved
       Swords are mass produced
       Siege towers are perfected
       Greeks develop manufacturing
       Archimedes memperkenalkan matematika
        di Yunani
       Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads
        and aqueducts in Rome.
                                                     8
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: A.D. 1-1000
   Chinese further develop the study of
    mathematics
   Gunpowder is perfected
   Cotton and silk manufactured




                                           9
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1000-1400
   Silk and glass industries continue to
    grow
   Leonardo Fibinacci, a medieval
    mathematician, writes the first Western
    text on algebra




                                          10
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1400-1700
   First toilet is invented in England
   Galileo constructs a series of telescopes, with
    which he observes the rotation about the sun
   Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the
    existence of a vacuum
   Issac Newton constructs first reflecting
    telescopes
   Boyle‘s Gas Law, stating pressure varies
    inversely with volume, is first introduced.

                                                  11
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1700-1800
   Industrial Revolution begins in Europe
   James Watt patents his first steam
    engine
   Society of Engineers, a professional
    engineering society, is formed in
    London
   First building made completely of cast
    iron built in England
                                             12
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1800-1825
   Machine automation is first introduced
    in France
   First railroad locomotive is designed and
    manufactured
   Chemical symbols are developed, the
    same symbols used today (Au, He)
   Single wire telegraph line is developed

                                           13
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1825-1875
   Reinforced concrete is first used
   First synthetic plastic material is created
   Bessemer develops his process to
    create stronger steel in mass quantities
   First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania
   Typewriter is perfected


                                              14
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1875-1900
   Telephone is patented in the US by
    Alexander Graham Bell
   Thomas Edison invents the light bulb
    and the phonograph
   Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb
    Daimler
   Automobile introduced by Karl Benz

                                            15
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1900-1925
   Wright brothers complete first sustained
    flight
   Ford develops first diesel engines in
    tractors
   First commercial flight between Paris
    and London begins
   Detroit becomes center of auto
    production industry
                                           16
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1925-1950
   John Logie Baird invents a primitive
    form of television
   The VW Beetle goes into production
   First atomic bomb is used
   The transistor is invented



                                           17
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1950-1975
   Computers first introduced into the
    market, and are common by 1960
   Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite, put
    into space by USSR
   First communication satellite—Telstar—
    is put into space
   The U.S. completes the first ever moon
    landing

                                                 18
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1975-1990
   The Concord is first used for supersonic
    flight between Europe and the U.S.
   Columbia space shuttle is reused for
    space travel
   First artificial heart is successfully
    implanted


                                           19
1.5 Traveling Through the
Ages: 1990-Present
   Robots travel on Mars
   The ―Chunnel‖ between England and
    France is finished
   GPS is used to predict and report
    weather conditions, as well as many
    other consumer applications


                                          20
1.6 Case Study of Two Historic
Engineers
   Leonardo Da Vinci
   Gutenberg and His
    Printing Press




                             21
1.7 The History of the
Disciplines
   Aerospace Eng.         Computer Eng.

   Agricultural Eng.      Electrical Eng.

   Chemical Eng.          Industrial Eng.

   Civil Eng.             Mechanical Eng.


                                              22
1.7 History: Aerospace
Engineering
   ―Aerospace engineering is concerned
    with engineering applications in the
    areas of aeronautics (the science of air
    flight) and astronautics (the science of
    space flight).




                                               23
1.7 History: Agricultural
Engineering
   Agricultural engineering focuses on:
       Soil and water
       Structures and environment
       Electrical power and processing
       Food engineering
       Power and machinery



                                           24
1.7 History: Chemical
Engineering
   Chemical engineering applies chemistry
    to industrial processes, such as the
    manufacture of drugs, cements, paints,
    lubricants, and the like.




                                         25
1.7 History: Civil Engineering
   Civil engineering focuses on structural
    issues, such as:
       Bridges and Highways
       Skyscrapers
       Industrial Plants and Power Plants
       Shipping Facilities and Railroad Lines
       Pipelines, Gas Facilities, Canals


                                                 26
1.7 History: Computer and
Electrical Engineering
    The world‘s business is centered
     around computers, and their uses
     are only increasing
    Electrical is the largest branch of
     engineering
    Involved in:
        Communication Systems
        Computers and Automatic Controls
        Power Generation and Transmission
        Industrial Applications             27
1.7 History: Industrial
Engineering
   Industrial engineers design, install, and
    improve systems that integrate people,
    materials, and machines to improve
    efficiency.




                                            28
1.7 History: Mechanical
Engineering

   Deals with power, the generation of
    power, and the application of power to
    a variety of machines, ranging from
    HVAC to space vehicles.




                                             29
Bab 2

        Engineering Majors



                             30
2.1 Introduction
   Several characteristics of students that
    might have an interest in engineering
    are:
       Proficient skills in math and physical science
       An urging from a high school counselor
       Knows someone who is an engineer
       Knows that engineering offers literally dozens, if
        not hundreds of job opportunities
       Is aware that a degree in engineering is quite
        lucrative

                                                             31
2.1 Engineers and Scientists
   Scientists seek technical answers to
    understand natural phenomenon
   Engineers study technical problems with
    a practical application always in mind
   For example
       ―Scientists study atomic structure to
        understand the nature of matter; engineers
        study atomic structure to make smaller and
        faster microchips‖
                                                32
2.1 The Engineer and the
Engineering Technologist
   Main difference between the two is:
       Engineers design and manufacture
        machines and systems, while engineering
        technologists have the technical know-how
        to use and install the machines properly
   An example:
       ―The technologist identifies the equipment
        necessary to assemble a new CD player;
        the engineer designs said CD player‖

                                                     33
2.1 What Do Engineers Do?
   Ways to get information about careers:
       Visit job fairs
       Attend seminars on campus by various
        employers
       Contact faculty with knowledge of
        engineering fields
       Get an intern or co-op position
       Enroll in an engineering elective course

                                                   34
2.1 What Engineers Do




                        35
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Research
   Research engineers are knowledgeable
    in principles of chemistry, biology,
    physics, and mathematics
   Computer know-how is also
    recommended
   A Masters Degree is almost always
    required, and a Ph. D is often strongly
    recommended
                                              36
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Development
   Development engineers bridge the gap
    between the laboratory and the
    production facility
   They also identify problems in a
    potential product
   An example is the development of
    concept cars for companies like Ford
    and GM
                                           37
    2.2 Engineering Functions:
    Testing
   Testing engineers are responsible for
    testing the durability and reliability of a
    product, making sure that it performs
    how it is supposed to, every time. T.E.s
    simulate instances and environments in
    which a product would be used
   Crash testing of a vehicle to observe
    effects of an air bag and crumple zone
    are examples of a testing engineer‘s
    duties                                        38
    2.2 Engineering Functions:
    Design
   Design aspect is where largest number
    of engineers are employed
   Design engineers often work on
    components of a product, providing all
    the necessary specifics needed to
    successfully manufacture the product
   Design engineers regularly use
    computer design software as well as
    computer aided drafting software in
    their jobs                               39
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Design
   Design engineers must also verify that
    the part meets reliability and safety
    standards required for the product
   A concern always on the mind of design
    engineers is how to keep the
    development of a part cost effective,
    which is taken into account during a
    design process
                                         40
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Analysis
   Analysis engineers use computational
    tools and mathematic models to enrich
    the work of design and research
    engineers
   Analysis engineers typically have a
    mastery of: heat transfer, fluid flow,
    vibrations, dynamics, acoustics, and
    many other system characteristics
                                             41
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Systems
   Responsible on a larger scale for
    bringing together components of parts
    from design engineers to make a
    complete product
   Responsible for making sure all
    components of a product work together
    as was intended by design engineers

                                        42
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Manufacturing & Construction
   Work individually or in teams
   Responsible for ―molding‖ raw materials
    into finished product
   Maintain and keep records on
    equipment in plant
   Help with design process to keep costs
    low

                                          43
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Operations & Maintenance
   Responsible for maintaining production
    line
   Must have technical know-how to deal
    w/ problems
   Responsible for inspecting facility and
    equipment, must be certified in various
    inspection methods

                                              44
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Technical Support
   Works between consumers and
    producers
   Not necessarily have in depth
    knowledge of technical aspects of
    product
   Must have good interpersonal skills


                                          45
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Customer Support
   Often have more of a technical
    knowledge than Tech. Support, because
    they must be able to work with basic
    customers
   Evaluate whether or not a current
    practice is cost effective via feedback
    from customers

                                          46
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Sales
   Sales engineers have technical
    background, but are also able to
    communicate effectively w/ customers
   Job market for sales engineers is
    growing, due to the fact that products
    are becoming more and more
    technically complex

                                             47
2.2 Engineering Functions:
Consulting
   Are either self-employed, or work for a
    firm that does not directly manufacture
    products
   Consulting engineers might be involved
    in design, installation, and upkeep of a
    product
   Sometimes required to be a registered
    professional engineer in the state where
    he/she works                             48
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Aerospace Engineering
   Previously known as aeronautical and
    astronautical engineering
   First space flight Oct. 4, 1957 (Sputnik
    I)
   KEY WORDS:
       Aerodynamics: The study of the flow of air over
        a streamlined surface or body.
       Propulsion engineers: develop quieter, more
        efficient, and cleaner burning engines.
                                                     49
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Aerospace Engineering
   KEY WORDS:
       Structural engineers: use of new alloys,
        composites, and other new materials to
        meet design requirements of new
        spacecraft
       Control systems: systems used to
        operate crafts
       Orbital mechanics: calculation of where
        to place satellites using GPS
                                               50
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Agricultural Engineering
   Concerned with finding ways to produce
    food more efficiently
   KEY WORDS
       Harvesting Equip. - removes crops from
        field, and begins processing of food
       Structures: used to hold crops, feed, and
        livestock; Agricultural engineers develop
        and design the structures that hold crops

                                                51
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Agricultural Engineering
   Food process engineers: concerned
    with making healthier processed food
    products
   Soil/Water Resources: working to
    develop efficient ways to use limited
    resources


                                        52
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Architectural Engineering
   Structural: primarily concerned with
    the integrity of the building structure.
    Evaluates loads placed on buildings,
    and makes sure the building is
    structurally sound
   Mechanical systems: control climate
    of building, as well as humidity and air
    quality
    (HVAC)                                   53
2.3 Engineering Majors:
Biomedical
   First recognized in 1940‘s
   Three basic categories: Bioengineering,
    Medical, and Clinical
   Bioengineering is application of engineering
    principles to biological systems
   Medical engineers develop instrumentation
    for medical uses
   Clinical engineers develop systems that help
    serve the needs of hospitals and clinics

                                                   54
    2.3 Engineering Majors:
    Chemical
   Emphasizes the use of chemistry and
    chemical processes in engineering
   Chemical engineers develop processes
    to extract and refine crude oil and gas
    resources
   Chemical engineers also develop circuit
    boards, and work in the pharmaceutical
    industry, where processes are designed
    to create new, affordable drugs
                                              55
2.3 Engineering Majors
Civil Engineering
   First seen in pyramids of Egypt
   Structural engineers most common type
    of civil engineer
   Transportation engineers concerned
    w/ design and construction of
    highways, railroads, and mass transit
    systems
   Surveyors start construction process by
    locating property lines and property
    areas                                  56
2.3 Engineering Majors
Computer Engineering
   Focuses primarily on computer
    hardware, not software
   Work w/ electrical engineers to develop
    faster ways to transfer information, and
    to run the computer
   Responsible for the ―architecture‖ of the
    computer system

                                           57
2.3 Engineering Majors
Electrical Engineering
   More engineers are electrical than any
    other discipline
   With an ever growing technological
    society, electrical engineers will
    ALWAYS have a job
   Work in communications,
    microelectronics, signal processing,
    bioengineering, etc
                                             58
2.3 Engineering Majors
Environmental Engineering
   Often coupled with Civil Engineering
   3 aspects of environmental engineering:
       Disposal: disposing of industrial/residential
        waste products
       Remediation: clean up of a contaminated
        site
       Prevention: working with corporations to
        reduce and/or prevent emissions and work
        to find ways to ―recycle‖ products to be
        used again to reduce waste
                                                   59
2.3 Engineering Majors
Industrial Engineering
   “Design, improvement, and installation
    of integrated systems of people,
    material, and energy”
   Emphasis placed on: Production,
    Manufacturing, Human Factors Area, and
    Operations Research
   Production focuses on plant layout,
    scheduling, and quality control
   Human Factors focuses on the efficient
    placement of human resources within a
    plant/facility                         60
2.3 Engineering Majors
Marine and Ocean Engineering
   Concerned with the design, development, and
    operation of ships and boats
   Marine engineer designs and maintains the
    systems that operate ships, I.e. propulsion,
    communication, steering and navigation
   Ocean engineer design and operates marine
    equipment other than ships, such as
    submersibles. O.E.s might also work on
    submarine pipelines and/or cables and drilling
    platforms
                                                61
2.3 Engineering Majors
Materials Engineering
   Study the structure, as well as other
    important properties of materials, I.e.
    strength, hardness, and durability
   Run tests to ensure the quality of the
    performance of the material
   Material Engineers also study
    metallurgy, and the development of
    composites and alloys

                                              62
2.3 Engineering Majors
Mechanical Engineering
   Concerned with machines and
    mechanical devices
   Work in design, development,
    production, control, and operation of
    machines/devices
   Requires a strong math and physics
    background. Often 4 or more math
    classes required for graduation
                                            63
2.3 Engineering Majors
Mining Engineering
   Work to maintain constant levels of raw
    minerals used every day in industrial
    and commercial settings
   Must discover, remove, process, and
    refine such minerals




                                          64
    2.3 Engineering Minerals
    Nuclear Engineering
   Most concerned with producing and
    harnessing energy from nuclear sources
   Propulsion and electricity are the main
    uses of nuclear power
   Engineers also responsible for disposal
    of the nuclear waste byproduct, and
    how to keep people safe from harmful
    nuclear products
                                              65
2.3 Engineering Majors
Petroleum Engineering
   Discover, remove, refine, and transport
    crude and refined oil around the world
   PE‘s design and operate the machinery
    used to refine crude oil into its many
    forms




                                          66
Bab 3

        Profiles of Engineers



                                67
3.1 Introduction
   Diversity of the engineering work force
   Wide range of engineering careers that
    are possible




                                              68
3.1 Profile of a Biomedical
Engineer
   Sue H. Abreu, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
   Occupation:
       Lieutenant Colonel, Medical Corps, United States
        Army
       Medical Director, Quality Assurance, Womack
        Army Medical Center
   Education:
       IDE (BSE, Biomedical Engineering), 1978
       MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health
        Sciences, 1982

                                                           69
3.1 Profile of an Aerospace
Engineer
   Patrick Rivera Anthony
   Occupation:
       Project Manager, Boeing Space Beach
   Education:
       BS, Aerospace Engineering




                                              70
3.1 Profile of a Civil Engineer
   Sandra Begay-Campbell, Boulder,
    Colorado
   Occupation:
       AISES Executive Director
   Education:
       BSCE, 1987; MS, Structural Engineering,
        1991

                                                  71
3.1 Profile of an Electrical
Engineer
   Ryan Maibach, Farmington, Michigan
   Occupation:
       Project Engineer at Barton Malow Company
   Education:
       BS-CEM (Construction Engineering and
        Management), 1996



                                               72
3.1 Profile of an Agricultural
Engineer
   Mary E. Maley, Battle Creek, Michigan
   Occupation:
       Project Manager, Kellogg Company
   Education:
       BS, Agricultural Engineering (food
        engineering)



                                             73
Bab 4

   A Statistical Profile of the
    Engineering Profession


                                  74
4.1 Statistical Overview
   How many people study engineering?
   What are the most common majors?
   What kind of job market is there for
    engineers?
   How much do engineers earn?
   How many women and minorities study
    engineering?

                                       75
4.2 College Enrollment Trends
of Engineering Students
   1950s-1960s: 60,000-80,000
    engineering students
   1970s marked the lowest number of
    students, at 43,000
   Engineering peaked in 1980s, with
    around 118,000 students


                                        76
4.3 College Majors of Recent
Engineering Students
   Of approximately 350,000 full-time
    undergrad engineering students, just
    less than 1/3 (124,000) were majoring
    in computer and electrical engineering
   Just over 32,000 were ―undecided‖




                                             77
    4.4 Degrees in Engineering
   Steady decline in Engineering degrees
    awarded between 1986 and 1995.
    Since then, there have been many
    fluctuations, but as of data of 2000,
    there were 63,300 engineering degrees
    awarded
   For a long time, electrical awarded the
    highest number of degrees, but that
    was eventually replaced by mechanical
    engineering                               78
4.5 Job Placement Trends
   1999-2000 was the hottest year for
    engineering majors to find jobs
   As the number of engineering students
    declines, employers must ―fight‖ harder
    to get whatever students they can get
    their hands on to fill vacant positions.
    This has led to a very promising job
    placement ratio
                                           79
4.6 Salaries of Engineers
   On the whole, engineers make more money
    than any other graduate with another degree
   Electrical, computer, and computer science
    recently have led the way, with average
    salaries from a Bachelor degree starting at
    around $52,000
   A Ph.D. in computer science will earn a
    starting average of around $84,000

                                              80
4.7 Diversity in the Profession
   For a long time, white males dominated
    engineering
   Recently, women, foreign nationals, and
    various minority students have entered
    colleges and universities with an
    engineering diploma in mind


                                         81
4.8 Distribution of Engineers
by Field of Study
   Electrical engineering employs the
    highest number of engineers, nearly
    25%, numbering close to 375,000
   Mechanical employs almost 250,000
   Civil is the next highest ―populated‖,
    with 200,000 workers


                                             82
4.11 Words of Advice from
Employers
   Looking for graduates who possess:
       Excellent communication skills
       Teamwork
       Leadership
       Computer/Technical proficiency
       Hard working attitude



                                         83
Bab 5

   Global and International
         Engineering


                              84
5.1 Introduction
   After WWII, engineering became a
    more ―global‖ business.
   Taking a few foreign language classes
    in college cannot hurt, but only help
    your chances at getting a job after
    college.


                                            85
5.2 The Evolving Global
Market: Changing World Maps &
Alliances
   Breakup of former USSR
   New laws, regulations, policies have
    affected the spread of international
    engineering




                                           86
5.2 NAFTA
   1994 North American Free Trade
    Agreement (US, Mexico, Canada)
   Designed to reduce tariffs, and increase
    international competition
   Manufacturing trade has increased by
    128% between Canada, US, and Mexico
    since 1994

                                           87
5.3 International Opportunities
For Engineers
   Engineers are employed internationally in:
       Automobile Industry
       Manufacturing
       Construction
       Pharmaceuticals
       Food Industry
       Petroleum and Chemical Industry
       Computer and Electronics Industry
       Telecommunications

                                                 88
5.4 Preparing for a Global
Career
   Students who look to work
    internationally should:
       Be language and culturally proficient
       Should participate in study abroad
        programs
       Look into work international work
        experience
        and Co-Op opportunities

                                                89
Bab 6

        Future Challenges



                            90
6.1 Expanding World
Population
   1900-2000, world population climbs
    from 1.6 billion to 6 billion people
   Places new stress on conservation of
    resources, and gives engineers new
    challenges to compensate for high population




                                               91
6.2 Pollution
   Engineers concerned with management
    and the control of pollution, especially:
       Air pollution
       Water pollution and the depletion of
        freshwater resources
       Management of solid waste



                                               92
6.3 Energy
   It is predicted that energy usage in the
    Developing Countries will more than
    double in the next 30 years
   Engineers must find new ways to
    generate power in an effort to conserve
    natural resources (fossil fuels)


                                           93
6.5 Infrastructure
   With mass transportation an ever-
    present problem, engineers will be
    responsible in the future for designing
    and maintaining a system by which the
    transportation of raw materials, as well
    as the human capital that process them,
    can easily and efficiently move from
    place to place
                                          94
Bab 7

  Succeeding in the Classroom



                                95
7.2 Attitude
   Success in an engineering curriculum
    depends largely on a student‘s attitude
    and work ethic
   If the student‘s attitude is one of
    failure, the student will most likely fail
   Keep an open mind, and be willing to
    ―work‖ with the professor in order to
    best understand the material

                                                 96
7.3 Goals
   Set goals that will be difficult to attain,
    but not impossible
   This will motivate the student to work
    hard, not just hard enough to do the
    minimum, but to reach their higher
    standard/goal
   Set short, intermediate, and long term
    goals
       GPA for a semester, grade on an upcoming
        exam, GPA for a year/college career    97
7.4 Keys to effectiveness
   GO TO CLASS
   Allow 2 hrs. of study time outside of class for
    every hour in class
   Re-read sections of book covered in class
   Keep up with class and reading
   Take good notes
   Work lots of problems, not just the minimum
    amount for homework
   Study in groups
                                                  98
7.5 Test Taking
   Obtain past exams
   Ask professor for practice exams
   Work problems in book
   Start with problems you know how to
    do, then work on the harder problems
   Skim test first, to see what will basically
    be covered

                                              99
    7.6 Making the Most of Your
    Professor
   Don‘t wait until the end of the semester
    to go for help
   If you make yourself visible in class and
    during office hours, the professor may
    remember you while grading
   Teaching is not professors only
    responsibility, often the are researchers
    and advisors as well, so give them the
    benefit of the doubt
                                                100
7.7 Learning Styles
   Baca lagi STRATEGI SUKSES DI KAMPUS!
   Each person‘s brain is unique to him or her
   Proper nutrition, stress, drugs and alcohol are
    some of the factors that can affect a
    developing brain
   Each person is born with all the brain cells, or
    neurons, they will ever have (estimated at
    180 billion neurons)

                                                  101
7.7 Learning Styles
   None of us is ever too old or too dumb
    to learn something new!
   People think and memorize in several
    different ways




                                         102
7.7 Learning Styles
   Memorizing:
       Refers to how people assimilate new
        material to existing knowledge and
        experience
       How we accommodate, or change our
        previous way of organizing material




                                              103
7.7 Learning Styles
   Thinking:
       Refers to how we see the world, approach
        problems and use the different parts of our
        brain.




                                                 104
7.7 Learning Styles
   We all have different learning styles
   Memory Languages:
       Auditory
       Visual
       Kinesthetic




                                            105
7.7 Learning Styles
   Auditory Learner:
       Buy a small tape recorder and record
        lectures
       Sit where you can hear the professor well
       Focus on what is said in class, take notes
        from the tape recorder later
       Ask the professor questions
       Read out loud to yourself
       Keep visual distractions to a minimum

                                                     106
7.7 Learning Styles
   Visual Learner:
      Sit where you can see the professor and
       board or screen clearly
      Write notes during lecture with lots of
       pictures and meaningful doodles
      Rewrite notes later in a more organized
       fashion and highlight main ideas
      Write out questions to ask the professor

      Highlight and take notes in your book


                                                  107
7.7 Learning Styles
   Kinesthetic Learners:
       TAKE Labs!
       Make connections between what is being
        said and what you‘ve done in the past
       Talk to professor about ways to gain more
        hands-on experience, such as volunteering
        in his/her lab
       Use models or experiments at home

                                               108
7.7 Learning Styles
   Thinking Skills:
       Refers to how we see the world, approach
        problems and use the different parts of our
        brain
       Different people think differently
       Two hemispheres in our brain, and four
        quadrants generally categorize how we
        think

                                                 109
7.7 Learning Styles




                      110
7.8 Well Rounded Equals
Effective
   Make sure to balance social, intellectual,
    and physical activities in your schedule
   Well rounded students are generally
    more effective than students with a
    ―one-track‖ mind




                                            111
7.9 Your Effective Use of Time
   Decide in advance what to study and when
   Make schedules
   Use calendars effectively
   Organize tasks by priority level
   Stay focused on task
   **Remember, everyone will ―fail‖ at some
    point, it‘s how you respond to a failure that
    determines your future success or failure


                                                    112
Bab 8

        Problem Solving



                          113
8.1 Introduction
   Problem solving requires many ―tools‖
    and skills. Make sure that you have
    them, or at least know where to find
    them and how to use them




                                            114
8.2 Analytic and Creative
Problem Solving
   Two basic types of problem solving
    involved in design process: creative
    and analytic
   More students familiar with analytic,
    where there is one right answer
   Creative problem solving has no right
    answers

                                            115
8.2 Analytic and Creative
Problem Solving
   Steps that typically help w/ problem
    solving
       Make a model/figure
       Identify necessary, desired and given info
       Work backwards from answers
       Restate problem in one‘s own words
       Check the solution and validate it


                                                 116
8.3 Analytic Problem Solving
   Six steps to analytic problem solving:
       Define the problem and create a problem
        statement
       Diagram and describe the problem
       Apply theory and any known equations
       Simplify assumptions
       Solve necessary problems
       Verify accuracy of answer to desired level
                                                     117
8.4 Creative Problem Solving
   Use divergence and convergence to gather
    and analyze ideas. Divergence is
    brainstorming. Convergence is analyzing and
    evaluating the ideas, seeking out the best
    possible solutions
   What is wrong?
   What do we know?
   What is the real problem?
   What is the best solution?
   How do we implement the solution?

                                             118
Bab 9

   Visualization and Graphics



                                119
9.1-9.2 Visualization
   Visualization is often used as a mode of
    communication between engineers
   Sketches, tables, graphs, computer
    generated drawings, blueprints are
    various ways in which engineers
    communicate via visual mediums


                                           120
    9.3 Sketching
   Although most final drawings are computer
    generated, initial and freehand sketches are
    vital to the design process
   Freehand does not mean messy. Sketches
    should display an adequate amount of detail,
    and any pertinent notes/comments pertaining
    to the drawing
       For instance, if a line is supposed to be straight,
        make it as straight as possible. A square will not
        pass for a circle.

                                                              121
    9.7 Graphical Communication
   Oblique and isometric drawings are 3D
    and general
   Orthographic drawings are 2D, more
    detailed, and often have dimensions for
    the part
   Object, Hidden, Centerline, and
    Construction are 4 common types of
    lines used in engineering graphics
                                              122
Bab 10

         Computer Tools



                          123
10.1-10.6 Computer Tools for
Engineers
   There are many aspects to the design
    process of a product
   Engineers must be competent in basic
    computer tools such as the internet, word
    processing, and basic spreadsheets
   Engineers will most likely be required to have
    some knowledge of mathematical software,
    such as MatLab
   Engineers also make computer presentations
    using most commonly, Microsoft PowerPoint
                                                124
    10.7-10.8 Operating Systems
    and Programming Language
   Engineers may be required to have
    experience or be expected to be able to
    work in UNIX, MS-DOS, or a Microsoft
    Windows System
   Computers work on series of 1‘s and
    0‘s, called binary code
   FORTRAN, BASIC, C, and C++ are all
    programming languages used by
    engineers to communicate with the
    computer                                  125
Bab 11

         Teamwork Skills



                           126
11.1 Teamwork
   Corporations develop teams for many
    reasons
       Projects are becoming increasingly
        complex
       Projects often span international borders,
        and require workers all over
       Projects are requiring more speed, which
        require more workers

                                                     127
11.2 What Makes a Successful
Team?
   A common goal
   Leadership
   Each member makes unique
    contributions
   Effective communication
   Creativity
   Good planning and use of resources
                                         128
    11.4 Team Leadership
    Structures
   Traditional: One leader, who directs
    subordinates. Leader typically is the
    only one who ―speaks‖.
   Participative: Leader is closer to
    individual workers.
   Flat: There is no ―leader‖. All members
    are equal. The leadership ―moves‖ with
    the situation to the worker with the
    most expertise in a given subject
                                              129
11.5 Decisions within a Team
   Consensus: All team members agree
    on a decision
   Majority Rule
   Minority/Committee decision
   Expert input



                                        130
11.7 Grading a Team Effort
   Did the team accomplish its goal?
   Were results of a high quality? If not, why?
   Did the team grow throughout the process?
   Evaluate the team leader
   Evaluate the other members of the team
   Evaluate your own contribution to the project



                                               131
Bab 12

    Project Management



                         132
12.1 Introduction
   ―Failure to plan is planning to fail.‖
   A good plan is one of the most
    important attributes of successful teams
    and projects.
   Projects should be organized
    systematically.


                                          133
12.1 Eight Questions that can
be Addressed with a Plan
   What to do first?
   Next?
   How many people?
   What resources?
   How long?
   Time table?
   Deadlines?
   Objectives?
                                134
12.2 Creating a Project
Charter
   A project summary
   Defining what your project is and when
    you will know when it is done
   Elements include
       Deliverables
       Duration
       Stakeholders
       Team members

                                         135
12.3 Task Definitions
   Identify the completion tasks to achieve
    the objectives and outcomes
       Plan
       Design
       Build
       Deliver



                                          136
12.3 Plans
   Plans should include:
       Who to hold accountable for progress
       Needed materials, resources, etc.
       How to determine if the project is on
        schedule
       Manage people and resources
       Determine the end!


                                                137
12.4 Milestones
   Monitoring of your plans progress
   Deadlines for deliverables
   Completion of subcomponents




                                        138
12.5 Defining Times
   Include the full time needed for tasks
   As a student, you don‘t have a full
    eight-hour work day every day
       Break tasks into week segments
            Weekday and/or weekend
       Class periods
   Break tasks into short time periods
       No more than a week or two

                                             139
12.6 Organizing the Tasks
   Determine task relationships and
    sequencing
   Relate the task groups from your
    outline




                                       140
12.7 PERT Charts




                   141
12.7 PERT Charts
   Each task is represented by a box
    containing a brief description of and
    duration for the task
   The boxes can be laid out just as the
    project plan is laid out
   Useful as a ―what if‖ tool during
    planning stages

                                            142
12.8 Critical Paths
   The longest string of dependant project
    tasks
       Ex. – prerequisites such as the math
        curriculum for engineering
   Some tasks can be accelerated by using
    more people, others cannot
       Ex. – nine people cannot have the same
        baby in one month
                                                 143
12.9 Gantt Charts
   Popular project management charting
    method
   Horizontal bar chart
   Tasks vs. dates




                                          144
12.9 Gantt Charts




                    145
12.10 Details, Details
   Remember Murphy‘s Law - ―Anything
    that can go wrong, will.‖
   Leave time to fix debug or fix errors




                                            146
12.10 Details, Details
   Don‘t assume things will fit together the
    first time
   Order parts well in advance to leave
    time for shipping, errors, or backorders
   Leave time for parts malfunction
   Push delivery times back to a week
    before they‘re actually due – this will
    help to avoid panic if things go badly

                                           147
12.11 Personnel Distribution
   Get the right people on the right tasks
   Assign people after developing a draft
    of the plan
   Balance the work between everyone
   Weekly updates – does everyone
    understand what they‘re doing and is
    everyone still on task?

                                              148
12.12 Money and Resources
   Develop a budget
       Estimate with high, middle, and lower quality
        products – offer a range of solutions
   Extra costs
       Shipping
       Travel
       Extra parts such as nails, screws, resistors
       Material costs and labor
   Have someone be responsible for managing
    the budgets and financial aspects

                                                        149
12.13 Document As You Go
   Document milestones as they occur
   Leave time at the end for reviewing, not
    writing




                                          150
12.14 Team Roles
   Roles
       Project Leader or Monitor
       Procurement
       Financial Officer
       Liaison
   Project Management Software


                                    151
12.14 – Project Leader or
Monitor
   Designate a leader, or rotate leaders
   Monitor and track progress of
    milestones
   Maintains timelines
   Increases likelihood of meeting goals



                                            152
12.14 – Procurement
   Learns purchasing system
   Tracks team orders




                               153
12.14 – Financial Officer
   Manages teams expenses
   Creates original budget
   Makes identifying budgetary problems
    easier




                                           154
12.14 – Liaison
   Responsible for keeping everyone
    informed about the progress of the plan
    and any changes
   This includes outside customers,
    management, professors, etc.




                                         155
Bab 13

     Engineering Design



                          156
13.1 Engineering Design
   Engineering design is the process of devising
    a system, component, or process to meet
    desired needs. It is a decision making
    process in which the basic sciences and
    mathematics and engineering sciences are
    applied to convert resources optimally to
    meet a stated objective. Among the
    fundamental elements of the design process
    are the establishment of objectives and
    criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction, and
    testing….

                                                  157
13.2 The Design Process
1.    Identify the problem
2.    Define the working criteria/goals
3.    Research and gather data
4.    Brainstorm ideas
5.    Analyze potential solutions
6.    Develop and test models
7.    Make decision
8.    Communicate decision
9.    Implement and commercialize decision
10.   Perform post-implementation review

                                             158
Bab 14

    Communication Skills



                           159
14.1 Why do we
Communicate?
    Transfers important information
    Provides basis for judging one‘s knowledge
    Conveys interest and competence
    Identifies gaps in your own knowledge




                                             160
14.2-14.3 Oral and Written
Communication Skills
   Present communication on a level that
    you believe will be easily understood by
    whomever is to be receiving your
    communication
       Don‘t use big words if a smaller, easier-to-
        understand word will suffice.



                                                   161
14.5 Power of Language
   Be as clear as possible
   Avoid clichés
   Avoid redundancy
   Avoid using jargon specific to a certain
    group of people
   Don‘t make sexual generalizations, I.e.
    his, hers, he, she

                                           162
14.6 Technical Writing
   Identify thesis early
   Follows a specific format
   Follows a problem solving approach
   Uses specialized vocabulary
   Often incorporates visual aids
   Complete set of references
   Be objective, not biased either way
                                          163
14.9 Formal Reports
   Should include:
       Title; short and       Analysis
        concise                Procedure and
       Summary of what         Results
        will be discussed      Discussion of results
       Table of Contents      Conclusions
        (not including         References
        abstract)
                               Appendices
       Introduction


                                                   164
14.10 Other forms of
Communication
   E-mail
   Progress reports
   Problem statements
   Cover letters
   Resumes



                         165
Bab 15

         Ethics



                  166
15. The Nature of Ethics
   Ethics is generally concerned with rules
    or guidelines for morals and/or socially
    approved conduct
   Ethical standards generally apply to
    conduct that can or does have a
    substantial effect on people‘s lives


                                           167
Bab 16

         Units



                 168
16.1 History of Units
   A common denomination of units is essential
    for the development of trade and economics
    around the world
   National Bureau of Standards, established by
    Congress, adopted the English system of
    measurement (12 inches, etc)
   Majority of nations in the world today operate
    on the metric system because of its simplicity
    (multiples of 10)
                                                169
16.1 History of Units - SI Units
   Le Systeme International d‘Unites,
    French for the International System of
    Units
   Improvements in the definitions of the
    base units continue to be made by the
    General Conference of Weights and
    Measures as science dictates

                                             170
16.2 The SI System of Units
   Modernized metric system adopted by
    the General Conference, a multi-
    national organization which includes the
    United States
   Built on a foundation of seven base
    units, plus two supplementary ones
   All other SI units are derived from these
    nine units

                                           171
16.2 The SI System of Units
   Multiples and sub-multiples are
    expressed using a decimal system
   Generally, the first letter of a symbol is
    capitalized if the name of the symbol is
    derived from a person‘s name,
    otherwise it is lowercase


                                             172
16.2 The SI System of Units
   Base Units in the SI system
       Meter = m
       Kilogram = kg
       Seconds = s
       Ampere = A
       Kelvin = K
       Mole = mol
       Candela = cd

                                  173
16.3 Derived Units
   Expressed algebraically in terms of base
    and supplementary units
   Several derived units have been given
    special names and symbols, such as the
    newton (N).




                                          174
16.3 Derived Units
   Quantities whose units are expressed in
    terms of base and supplementary units
       Quantity   SI Unit     SI Symbol
         Area     Square         m2
                   meter
       Speed,    Meter per      m/s
       velocity   second
       Density Kilogram per    Kg/m3
                cubic meter
                                          175
16.3 Derived Units
   Quantities whose units have special
    names
    Quantity   SI Name   SI Symbol   Other SI
                                       Units
Frequency       hertz       Hz        cycle/s
     Force     newton       N        kg*m/s2
 Electrical     ohm         W          V/A
Resistance
                                             176
16.3 Derived Units
   Units used with the SI System
Name             Symbol Value in SI Units

Minute           min      1 min = 60 s

Hour             h        1 h = 3600 s

Degree           °        1° = p/180 rad

                                            177
16.4 Prefixes
   Defined for the SI system
   Used instead of writing extremely large
    or very small numbers
   All items in a given context should use
    the same prefix, for example in a table
   Notation in powers of 10 is often used
    in place of a prefix

                                          178
16.4 Prefixes
 Multiplication Prefix Symbol    Term (USA)
    Factor
1000000 = 106 mega       M        One million

 1000 = 103     kilo    k       One thousand

 .001 = 10-3    milli   m       One thousandth

.000001 = 10-6 micro    m        One millionth

                                                179
16.5 Numerals
   A space is always left between the numeral
    and the unit name or symbol, except when
    we write a degree symbol
       3 m = 3 meters; 8 ms = 8 milliseconds
   SI units a space is used to separate groups of
    three in a long number
       3,000,000 = 3 000 000
       .000005 = .000 005
   This is optional when there are four digits in a
    number (3456 = 3 456; .3867 = .386 7)

                                                  180
16.5 Numerals
   A zero is used for numbers between -1
    and 1 to prevent a faint decimal point
    from being missed
   Rounding
   Significant Digits



                                         181
16.6 Conversions
To convert   To:           Multiply by:
from:
Degrees      Radians       0.017 453

Inches       Centimeters   2.54

Newtons      Pounds        0.224 81


                                          182
Bab 17

     Mathematics Review



                          183
17.1 Algebra
   Three basic laws
       Commutative: a + b = b + a
       Distributive: a ( b + c ) = a b + a c
       Associative: a + ( b + c ) = ( a + b ) + c




                                                     184
17.1 Algebra
   Exponents
       Used for many manipulations
       Examples
            xa xb=xa+b
            xab=(xa)b
   Logarithms
       Related to exponents
             bx = y then x = logby
            Table 17.1.5

                                      185
17.1 Algebra
   Quadratic Formula
       Solves ax2 + bx + c = 0
       Formula 17.1.6
   Binomial Theorem
       Used to expand (a+x)n
       Formula 17.1.7
   Partial Fractions
       Used for simplifying rational fractions
       Formulas 17.1.8, 17.1.9, 17.1.10, 17.1.11
   Examples

                                                    186
17.2 Trigonometry
   Involves the ratios between sides of a right triangle
   sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and
    cosecant are the primary functions
   Trigonometry identities are often used
       17.2.3, 17.2.4, 17.2.5, 17.2.6, 17.2.7
   For all triangle we can also use the laws of sines and
    cosines
   Some other equations that can be found in your book
    are
       Pythagorean Theorem 17.2.10
       Hyperbolic Trig Functions 17.2.11
   Examples

                                                            187
17.3 Geometry
   Used to analyze a variety of shapes and lines
   The equation for a straight line
       Ax + By + C = 0
            This equation can also be written in Pint-slope, Slope-
             intercept, and Two-intercept forms
   Distance between a line and a point is given
    in Formula 17.3.5
   The general equation of the second degree is
             Ax 2  2 Bxy  Cy 2  2 Dx  2 Ey  F  0
                                                                       188
17.3 Geometry
   This equation is used to represent conic
    sections
       Classified on page 473
       Ellipse, Parabola, Hyperbola
            More information on pages 474-475
   Examples


                                                 189
17.4 Complex Numbers
   Complex numbers consist of a real (x) and imaginary
    (y) part
        x+iy where i=
       In electrical engineering j is used instead of i because i is
        used for current
   Useful to express in polar form           x  iy  rei
   Euler‘s equation is also commonly used
                    ei  cos   i sin 
   Other useful equations can be found on page 477
   Examples

                                                                        190
  17.5 Linear Algebra
     Used to solve n linear equations for n unknowns
             Uses m x n matrices
             Many manipulations of this basic equation are shown on page
              479
     Determinants of matrices are often used in
      calculations
             Illustrated on page 480
     Eigenvalues are used to solve first-order differential
      equations
     Examples
                                    n
c    a b             aij   aij Aij      ( A  I ) x  0
        n

 ij            ik   kj
       k 1                         j 1
                                                                      191
17.6 Calculus
   We first write derivatives using limits
       Some basic derivatives are shown on
        pages 484-485
       Used to indicate points of inflection,
        maxima, and minima
       L‘Hospial‘s rule when f(x)/g(x) is 0 or
        infinity 17.6.6


                                                  192
17.6 Calculus
   Inversely we have integration
       Used for finding the area under a curve
       Equation 17.6.7
       Can be used to find the length of a curve
       Used to find volumes
       Definite when there are limits
       When indefinite a constant is added to the
        solution
       Basic Integrals on page 486
   Examples
                                                     193
17.7 Probability and Statistics
   The probability of one events‘ occurrence
    effects the probability of another event
   Probabilities
                n!                    (n  1)!                      n!
P(n, r )                P(n, r )                C (n, r ) 
             (n  r )!                (n  r )!                 r!(n  r )!
   Many combinations can occur
       P(A or B) = P(A)+P(B)
       P(A and B)=P(A)P(B)
       P(not A) = 1-P(A)
       P(either A or B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(A)P(B)

                                                                              194
17.7 Probability and Statistics
   Probability ranges from 0 to 1
   Additional equations on page 490
       Arithmetic Mean
       Median
       Mode
       Standard Deviation
       Variance
   Examples
                                       195
Bab 18

  Engineering Fundamentals



                             196
18.1 Statics
   Concerned with equilibrium of bodies
    subjected to force systems
   The two entities that are of the most
    interest in statics are forces and
    moments.




                                            197
18.1 Statics
   Force:
       The manifestation of the action of one
        body upon another.
       Arise from the direct action of two bodies
        in contact with one another, or from the
        ―action at a distance‖ of one body upon
        another.
       Represented by vectors

                                                     198
18.1 Statics
   Moment:
       Can be thought of as a tendency to rotate
        the body upon which it acts about a certain
        axis.
   Equilibrium:
       The system of forces acting on a body is
        one whose resultant is absolutely zero


                                                   199
18.1 Statics
   Free Body Diagrams
    (FBD):
       Neat sketch of the
        body showing all
        forces and moments
        acting on the body,
        together with all
        important linear and
        angular dimensions.


                               200
18.2 Dynamics
   Separated into two sections:
       Kinematics
            Study of motion without reference to the forces
             causing the motion
       Kinetics
            Relates the forces on bodies to their resulting
             motions



                                                               201
18.2 Dynamics
   Newton‘s laws of motion:
       1st Law – The Law of Inertia
       2nd Law – F=ma
       3rd Law – Fab=-Fba
       Law of Gravitation




                                       202
18.3 Thermodynamics
   Involves the storage, transformation
    and transfer of energy.
       Stored as internal energy, kinetic energy,
        and potential energy
       Transformed between these various forms
       Transferred as work or heat transfer



                                                 203
18.3 Thermodynamics
   There are many definitions, laws, and
    other terms that are useful to know
    when studying thermodynamics.




                                            204
18.3 Thermodynamics
   A few useful definitions:
       System
            A fixed quantity of matter
       Control Volume (open system)
            A volume into which and/or from which a
             substance flows
       Universe
            A system and its surrounding

                                                       205
18.3 Thermodynamics
   Some Laws of ideal gases:
       Boyle‘s Law
            Volume varies inversely with pressure
       Charles‘ Law
            Volume varies directly with temperature
       Avagadro‘s Law
            Equal volumes of different ideal gasses with the
             same temperature and pressure contain an
             equal number of molecules

                                                          206
18.4 Electrical Circuits
   Interconnection of electrical
    components for the purpose of:
       Generating and distributing electrical
        power
       Converting electrical power to some other
        useful form
       Processing information contained in an
        electrical form

                                                207
18.4 Electrical Circuits
   Direct Current (DC)
   Alternating Current (AC)
   Steady State
   Transient circuit




                               208
18.4 Electrical Circuits
  Quantity   Symbol    Unit
   Charge      Q      coulomb
  Current      I      ampere
   Voltage     V        volt
   Energy      W       joule
   Power       P       watt

                                209
18.4 Electrical Circuits
   Circuit Components:
       Resistors
       Inductors
       Capacitors
   Sources of Electrical Energy
       Voltage
       Current

                                   210
18.4 Electrical Circuits
   Kirchhoff‘s Laws
       Kirchhoff‘s Voltage Law (KVL)
       Kirchhoff‘s Current Law (KCL)
   Ohm‘s Law
       V=IR




                                        211
18.4 Electrical Circuits
   Reference Voltage Polarity and Current
    Direction
   Circuit Equations
       Using Branch Currents
       Using Mesh Currents
   Circuit Simplification
   DC Circuits

                                         212
18.5 Economics
   Value and Interest
       The value of a dollar given to you today is
        of greater value than that of a dollar given
        to you one year from today
   Cash Flow Diagrams
   Cash Flow Patterns
   Equivalence of Cash Flow Patterns

                                                   213
Bab 19

   The Campus Experience



                           214
19.1 Orienting Yourself to
Your Campus
   Introduction to Campus Life
   Tools to assist students to adjusting to
    the college lifestyle




                                               215
19.2 Exploring
   Begin by becoming familiar with some
    different locations on campus
       Offices
       Dorms
       Classroom Buildings
            Engineering Building
   Sample map of Michigan State
    University Campus
                                           216
19.3 Determining and
planning your Major
   Narrow down to a few different majors
   Ask questions of insightful people
   Look for any opportunity to learn more
    about each field




                                         217
19.4 Get into the Habit of
Asking Questions
   Active questioners learn the most
   Questions help students understand
    and complete tasks
   Communication skills are vital to
    engineers
       Understanding information given
       Giving information that is understandable

                                                    218
19.5 The ‗People Issue‘
   Meeting People
       Make friends of other engineers
            Helpful as study partners
            Offer perspective on engineering
   Academic Advisor
       Advisors are an excellent resource
            Discuss problems
            Information about the school, classes, and instructors
       Offer guidance for graduating and careers

                                                                      219
19.5 The ‗People Issue‘
   Instructors
       Ask other students about an Instructor
        before signing up for the class
       Sit in on a class to see their teaching style
   Networking
       Keep in contact with friends and
        acquaintances
       Useful for assistance and support in and
        out of the classroom
                                                    220
19.6 Searching for Campus
Resources
   Every school has a document or website that
    lists activities and opportunities
   Examples
       Things to Do, Places to Go
            Planetarium, Gardens, Museum, Union
       What‘s Happening
            Academic calendar, calendar of events
       Library locations and hours
       Services
            Legal aid, counseling, financial aid
       Extracurricular Activities

                                                     221
19.7 Other Important Issues
   Managing Time
       Control time to achieve success
       Recommended Reading
   The Usefulness of Reading
       Engineering requires the extensive use of
        technical and non-technical materials
            Read each paragraph for its central point
            Create outlines for each reading assignment

                                                           222
19.7 Other Important Issues
   Fulfilling Duties
       Engineers have a responsibility to society
       Contributing to Society brings its own reward
   Using the Web
       Use the internet to look up more information on
        topics of interest outside the classroom
   Sending e-mail
       Most contacts use email for some part of their
        interaction

                                                          223
19.7 Other Important Issues
   Test-taking Skills
       Preparing outlines as subject matter is
        presented will make studying easier
       Form study groups
       Ask questions
   Taking Notes
       Organize information
       Highlight essential information

                                                  224
19.7 Other Important Issues
   Study Skills
       Should be calm, structured, and routine
       Remember to get up and move a few times in an
        hour
       Reward yourself for studying
   Teaching Styles
       Variety of Instructors including graduate students
       Fully engage professors and ask questions
   Learning Styles
       Discover your Learning Style and use it to your
        advantage

                                                          225
19.7 Other Important Issues
   Perspectives of others
       Learn to listen to others respectfully
       Be open to discussion of a variety of topics
   Listening Skills
       Dialogue does not need to be
        confrontational
       Allow others to express their opinions
       Listen carefully to what other people say

                                                    226
19.7 Other Important Issues
   Handling Stress
       Include time to relax in your schedule
       Take classes for the right reason
       Do not resent required classes
       Approach weak points with a positive attitude
       Focus on learning instead of grades
       Be patient for results of increased studying
       Stress can not be avoided
       Talking out problems can help

                                                        227
19.8 Final Thoughts
   Use the concepts from this Bab to make
    the college experience all it can be.
   Don‘t forget to ask questions!!!




                                        228
Bab 20

         Financial Aid



                         229
20.1 Intro
   What costs are involved in going to
    college?
       Tuition
       Other college or university fees
       Cost-of-living expenses
       Other ―extras‖



                                           230
20.2 Parental Assistance
   Some parents are able and willing to
    cover all of your college expenses
   On average, nine million students must
    find ways to fund their college
    education every fall




                                         231
20.3 Is Financial Assistance
for You?
   Applying for Financial Aid
       Three areas:
            Grants and scholarships
            Loans
            Work
       Need vs. Non-need
       Academic qualifications
   Why apply?
                                       232
20.3 Is Financial Assistance
for You?
   Budgeting
       Advisors available to assist with personal
        budgeting
       Help estimate costs and income and
        develop a plan
   How to apply
       Free Application for Federal Student Aid
        (FAFSA)

                                                     233
20.3 Is Financial Assistance
for You?
   FAFSA
       http://www.fafsa.gov
       First thing to complete to become eligible
        for aid
       Can apply as early as January for the
        following fall semester
       Look up the information required before
        starting to fill out the form

                                                     234
20.4 Scholarships
   Educational funds that do not need to
    be repaid
   Public, private, or university sources
       Local high school, professional groups,
        corporations, service organizations,
        government, college, etc.
   It is your responsibility to seek out
    private scholarships/grants
                                                  235
20.5 Loans
   May be secured from lending institutions and
    state and federal loan programs
   Students who apply for financial aid will be
    notified of their eligibility for both student and
    parent federal loans
   Loans can be obtained from parents or
    relative who feel that you should repay the
    money that is required to put you through
    school
                                                    236
20.6 Work-Study
   ―Earning money the old-fashioned way‖
       On- or off-campus employment during
        school
       Summer jobs
       Internships
       Co-ops
   Requires careful management of time

                                              237
20.6 Work-Study
   Work-Study:
       Employment subsidized by the federal or
        state government
       Will be listed on your financial aid award
        letter is you are eligible
   ―Just Plain Work‖
   Volunteering
   Full Semester Off-Campus Employment

                                                     238
20.6 Work-Study
   Cooperative Education
       Academic program in which college
        students are employed in positions directly
        related to their major field of study
       Alternating, Parallel, and Back-to-back
        semesters




                                                 239
20.7 Scams to Beware
   Do your own homework to avoid
    scholarship service rip-offs
   Check with the Federal Trade
    Commission (FTC)
   http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-jobs.htm



                                       240
20.8 The Road Ahead Awaits
   Examine the many different sources
    available to you for obtaining the funds
    needed for your college expenses
   How much do you actually need?
   Correct forms and deadlines



                                           241
Bab 21

 Engineering Work Experience



                               242
21.1 A Job and Experience
   ―How do you get experience without a job, and how do you get
    a job without experience?‖
   Graduate schools and employers look for experiences outside
    the classroom
   Incorporating career experience is a worthwhile consideration
       May extend college to 6 years
   Many Economic shifts have happened in a college students
    lifetime
       1980-1983:   Major Recession
       1983-1986:   Revival of U.S. Economy
       1988-1994:   Restructuring of Corporate America
       1994-2001:   Vigorous Rebound of Economy
       2001-2003:   Recession
       2004-    :   Signs of improvement in the labor market for engineers


                                                                        243
21.1 A Job and Experience
   In good and bad times employers look
    for Engineers with job-related
    experience
       Engineers require less training
       Faster results
   Many different Experiences are
    available

                                           244
21.2 Summer Jobs
   Even jobs such as baby-sitting and mowing
    lawns is a place to start
   All jobs help develop basic employable skills
       Provide stepping stone to better, more career
        related jobs
       Skills include teamwork, communication, and
        problem solving
   Help you discover what working
    environments you like

                                                        245
21.3 Volunteer
   Especially useful to freshmen and
    sophomores to gain experience
   Generally volunteer positions are with
    non-profit organizations
   Not a paid experience
   Useful in developing skills
   Able to experiment with different career
    related fields
                                          246
21.4 Supervised Independent
Study
   Designed for the advanced undergraduate
       Preparatory for grad school or a career in
        Research
   Some are paid and others award credit
   Provides a unique experience
   Challenging in many different areas
   To learn more
       Talk to professors that share similar interests

                                                          247
21.5 Internships
   Paid or unpaid experience for a set period of time
       Usually during the summer
       No obligations for future employment
   Sometimes they support other engineers
   Other times they are given individual projects
   No official evaluation or credit given
   Short term projects
       Obtain a description of these projects prior to employment
        to assure it is of interest
   Great for students with time, curriculum, and location
    constraints

                                                                 248
21.6 Co-operative Education
   Cooperative Education is often the preferred form of
    experimental Learning
   Co-ops are considered to be academic and are
    administered by the college
   Assignments are directly related to field of study
       Detailed job descriptions are used to create the best possible
        matches
   School and work are closely integrated
       Alternating terms of school with work at the same company
            Projects become more extensive throughout the experience
            Term in school followed by a term at work followed by a term
             at school and so on

                                                                        249
21.6 Co-operative Education
    Parallel co-ops is an alternative
         Students are partially enrolled in classes and spend 20 to
          25 hours at work
         Difficulties arise in allowing ample time for both areas
    Sometimes a longer alternating approach is used
         Students work two consecutive semesters then attend
          class for a semester or two
         Allows for longer projects
    Some schools use all three methods
    Co-ops are rarely summer only
         Break between work assignments is too long
    Requires a three or four semester commitment

                                                                 250
21.6 Co-operative Education
   Advantages for Students
       Consideration for employment and grad school
       Improved technical skills
       Helps determine career path
       Excellent pay
   Advantages for Employers
       Recruiting Co-op students is more cost efficient
       Many students accept full time positions with their employer
       More diverse and dedicated students
       Students free up other engineers and bring in fresh
        approaches


                                                                  251
21.6 Co-operative Education
   Advantages for Schools
       Integrates theory and practice
       Keeps faculty informed of trends in industry
       Creates relationships between schools and businesses
       Improves a schools reputation
   Other Benefits
       Communication Skills
       Networking
       Self-discipline
       Management Experience
       Interactions with a variety of people


                                                               252
21.7 Which is Best for You?
   Some Questions to help determine which is
    best for you
       Am I willing to sacrifice convenience for the best
        experience?
       How flexible can I be?
       How committed do I want to be?
   Seek out advice from professors, academic
    advisors, and campus placement officers


                                                             253
Bab 22

 Connections: Liberal Arts and
         Engineering


                                 254
22.1 What are Connections?
   Connections exist between engineering
    and liberal arts
       Literature
       History
       Music
       Art
       Social studies
       Philosophy

                                        255
22.1 What are Connections?
   Look closely at what engineers really are and
    what they really do
   ―liberal‖ comes from liberty, so that liberal
    arts means ―works befitting a free man‖
   Need for a general education
       Developed because people have a need for a
        strong, open mind in addition to a specialty in
        order to be well-rounded
       Not trapped by cultural blind-spots

                                                          256
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?
   Liberal arts help improve your
    broadness
       Look in many directions at once
       Questions about areas that do not have
        pre-set answers
       Expected to be a leader



                                                 257
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?
   The Arts Improve:
       Your Perspective
            See the ―big picture‖
       Your Balance
            Practice dealing with a variety of diverse ideas
       Your People Skills
            Be aware of things that modern tendencies
             avoid or neglect

                                                            258
22.2 Why Study Liberal Arts?
   The Arts Improve:
       Your Sense of Duty and Responsibility
            Elevate, integrate, and unify the standards of
             the profession
            Fulfill your duty in life, so society respects you
             more




                                                              259
Appendix A:

   The Basics of Power Point



                               260
A.1 Introduction
   The purpose of this section is to
    introduce a user to PowerPoint
       Learn 20 key procedures
       Be able to do 80% of everything you will
        ever need to do
   To learn more experiment with the
    software

                                                   261
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint
   To begin open a blank presentation
       Activate the standard, formatting, drawing,
        picture, and WordArt toolbars
   Select a slide type for the first slide
   Select a background
   Enter text into given text blocks
       Edit the text and box sizes and shapes
       Add additional text boxes selecting Insert-TextBox
       Insert WordArt as necessary

                                                        262
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint
   Insert any pictures
       Click Insert-Picture-From File
       Format the picture using the Picture toolbar
   Insert Clip Art
       Click Insert-Picture-Clip Art
       Picture Toolbar is used for formatting
   Change visibility of an object by right clicking on an
    object and then selecting Order from the menu
   To Delete objects click on it and press backspace or
    delete


                                                         263
A.2 The Basics of PowerPoint
   To begin a new slide click the new slide button
       Repeat from the beginning to format
   View slides by thumbnails in the Slide Sorter View
       Useful for arranging or hiding slides for presentations
       Can be used when copying or deleting whole slides
   Save your work when finished
   Change slide transitions and animations
   View the entire Show




                                                                  264
Appendix B:

   Introduction to MATLAB



                            265
B.1 Introduction
   MATRIX LABORATORY
   Powerful tool in performing engineering
    computations
   Many engineering curricula have moved to
    making MATLAB the primary computing tool
    in its undergraduate program
   Can be run on many different platforms,
    including UNIX, PC, and Macintosh.

                                               266
B.2 MATLAB Environment
   Command window
       Use to run your programs and see the results
   Command History window
       Shows a history of the commands that have been
        entered into the command window
   Launch Pad window
       Allows you to start applications and
        demonstrations by clicking the icons in the
        window

                                                       267
B.2 MATLAB Environment
   Demonstration Programs
       >>demo
   Help Files
       >>help <command name>
       >>lookfor topic
       >>helpwin
   MATLAB is case sensitive
       Apple ≠ apple ≠ APPLE ≠ aPPle

                                        268
B.2 MATLAB Environment
   Helpful commands
       >>who
           Allows the user to see the variables currently in
            memory
       >>clear
           Erase the memory
       >>clear <variable>
           Clears just that variable

                                                           269
B.2 MATLAB Environment
   MATLAB has some predefined functions that
    should not be used to name variables
   A few variable names to avoid:
       ans
       Inf
       NaN
       i
       j
       realmin

                                            270
B.3 Symbolic Manipulations
   To declare variables as a symbol
       >> syms x y
   Algebraic expressions
       >>solve (x^2-4)
   Symbolic derivatives
       >>diff (y^3)
   Symbolic integrals
       >>int (sin(x))
                                       271
B.4 Saving and Loading Files
   To find out the identity of your working
    directory, type pwd (print working
    directory)
   Use cd to change the working directory
       >>cd c:\matlab\mystuff
   The file can be saved using save at the
    MATLAB prompt

                                           272
B.4 Saving and Loading Files
   Use the command load followed by the
    file name to retrieve your file.
       >>load my_workspace
   path lists the directories that MATLA
    will search for files
   addpath <pathname> will add the
    location to the path listing

                                            273
B.5 Vectors
   A vector is simply a row or column of
    numbers
   Vectors are enclosed in square brackets
       >>row_vector = [1 2 6 9 12]
       >>col_vector = [2;4;6;8;10]
   To change a column vector into a row
    vector and vice versa, use transpose

                                           274
B.5 Vectors
   For vectors to be added and subtracted,
    they must be of the same type and size
   To multiply or divide vectors, special
    MATLAB symbols must be used
       ―.*‖ is used for multiplication
       ―./‖ is used for division



                                          275
B.6 Matrices
   A matrix is a group of numbers
    arranged in columns and rows
   Each element in a matrix is identified by
    the use of two numbers or indices
       The first index is the row number
       The second index is the column number
   MATLAB can extract an entire row or
    column, or specific elements

                                                276
B.7 Simultaneous Equations
   Put the equations to be solved into
    standard form
   To solve for matrix x from Ax=b
       X=A\b




                                          277
B.9 Plotting
   To generate linear xy plots use plot
       >>plot(x axis values, y axis values,
        ‗symbol or line type‘)
   Use hold on to plot multiple data sets
   The axes can be labeled using the
    commands xlabel, ylabel, and title
   To generate multiple plots on a single
    figure use subplot

                                               278
B.9 Plotting
   Semi-log and log plots
       semilogx
       semilogy
       loglog




                             279
B.9 Plotting




               280
B.10 Programming
   Programs, called scripts, consist of a
    series of MATLAB commands that can
    be saved to run later
   Select new, M-file to open the
    programming editor
   Enter MATLAB commands just like you
    would type them into the workspace
   Add comments by using the % symbol

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B.10 Programming
   Save the file with a .m extension
   Remember to avoid file names that
    MATLAB already uses
   The file can then be executed by typing
    the file name at the MATLAB prompt



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B.10 Programming
   Input commands
       To ask the user to input a number
            >>W=input(‗Enter a number to be used by the
             program‘)
       To ask the user to enter a string
            >>my_word=input(‗Enter a word:‘,‘s‘)
   The function disp can be used to
    display data
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Description: Sukses Account Manager document sample