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Valley of the Kings

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									Valley of the
   Kings
 By: Julia Rainwater
 December 8, 2009
         Valley Location
 The Valley of the Kings is
  located across from what was
  Thebes, Egypt (modern-day
  Luxor) on the west bank of
  the Nile River. The area is
  surrounded by steep cliffs and
  a towering mountain which
  may have reminded the
  Egyptians of pyramids.
 Tombs were built into the
  valley for the pharaohs and
  powerful nobles of the New
  Kingdom.
        Name meaning
 The Valley, known as Biban el-Muluk, which
  means "doorway or gateway of the kings," or,
  the Wadyein, meaning "the two valleys," is
  actually composed of two separate branches.
 The main eastern branch, called ta set aat, or
  "The Great Place," is where most of the royal
  tombs are located.
 The larger, western valley is where only a few
  tombs were located.
           Deir el-Medina
 The cliffs in this area form a     A large proportion of the
  natural shield since they hide      community, including women,
  the valley from sight.              could read and write. It was a
 The cliffs also created a safe      big deal to have a job as a
  place for the Deir el-Medina -      tomb worker and when a
  the village of people who           worker died, his/her position
  worked on the tombs.                would be inherited by one of
 The villagers walked                his/her children.
  approximately 30 minutes to the
  tombs to work. The workmen of
  the village would, in modern
  terms, be considered middle
  class.
 The work week was 8 days
  followed by 2 days off.
         Tomb period
 The period of tomb burial in Egypt was during
  the New Kingdom from the 16th to the 11th
  century B.C. The Egyptians moved from the
  Pyramid Age where burial places of their royals
  were well known to the secret tombs in the
  Valley of the Kings. It began with Thutmose I
  and ended with Ramesses X or XI (10-11).
 Some accounts say there are 62 tombs while
  others say there are 63 in the Valley.
      Royal Necropolis
 The official name for the Valley of the Kings in ancient
  times was The Great and Majestic Necropolis of the
  Millions of Years of the Pharaoh, Life, Strength, Health
  in The West of Thebes.
 In the Pyramid Age the tomb of the king had a
  mortuary temple which was close to the pyramid. With
  the tombs being hidden, though, the mortuary temple
  was considered the tomb owner’s safe passage
  through the night.
 The earliest tombs were barely decorated, compared to
  the later ones which were magnificently decorated.
  Who’s buried there?
 Beginning with the 18th Dynasty only kings
  were buried within the valley in large tombs
  and when a non-royal was buried, it was in a
  small rock-cut chamber close to the tomb of
  their master.
 Despite the name, the Valley of the Kings also
  contains the tombs of honored nobles as well
  as the wives and children of pharaohs and
  nobles. This means that only about 20 of the
  tombs actually contain kings.
             Tomb writings
   The majority of the royal tombs       The ceilings of the burial
    were decorated with religious          chambers were decorated with
    writing and drawings.                  text from the Book of Caverns.
   The writings were from the Book
    of the Dead, Book of the Gates,
    and Book of the Underworld. The
    writings were supposed to help
    the royal person in his passages
    in the netherworld.
        Burial Equipment
   Each burial was also provided
    with equipment that would enable
    the continued existence in the
    afterlife of the king.
   This included treasure which was
    supposed to add to the comfort
    of the king. There would also be
    ritual “magical” items such as the
    shabtis. The shabti was believed
    to magically come to life after the
    dead king had been judged, and
    work for the dead king as a
    substitute laborer in the fields
    of Osiris.
   Other equipment in the burial
    would be items that the king
    might have actually used in their
    lifetime, such as sandals.
   Tomb Exploration

 The Valley of the Kings has been a major
  area of exploration for the last 200
  years. The area shows the changes in
  the study of ancient Egypt. Records show
  that only eleven of the tombs have
  actually been completely recorded.
  Tombs have been numbered in the order
  that they were discovered
 King Tut and further
     exploration
 In November 1922, Howard Carter discovered
  the tomb of King Tutankhamun which was
  found mostly intact.
 Several expeditions have continued in the 21st
  Century to explore the Valley of the Kings.
 Who knows, maybe any day now we’ll hear
  that the Egyptian team that is looking for the
  tomb of Ramesses VIII (8th) has found it!
Ghorayebah
(Melt-in-Mouth cookies)
    Ingredients
    100 g powdered sugar
    200 g clarified butter
    400 g all-purpose flour
    1 pinch salt
    Directions
    Beat butter till white.
    Add Sugar and beat for 3 more minutes.
    Add A.P. flour, salt and beat for 2 minutes.
    Garnish with ½ Almond or a pine (as per photo).
    Roll it into small balls and slightly press it down by your thumb (with the almond to
     stick on it).
    The dough consistency should be like the moist sand but when you squeeze it in
     your hand-plum it should hold it self.
    leave it to rest in the Fridge for 15min.
    Bake in medium-low pre-heated oven (color should be like ivory) don't let it blush!

								
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