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					9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                    FUTURE ROAD VEHICLE
                                         RESEARCH
                                - A Roadmap for the Future -

                                                    Josef Affenzeller, AVL
                                                    Nick J. Owen, Ricardo
                                                  Jean-François Gruson, IFP
                                                   Gerhard Lepperhoff, FEV
                                                    Michael Blaich, Idiada
                                                   Wolfgang Kriegler, AVL


         Network initiated by                                          Network co-funded by




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                      Introduction:
                                                         • Thematic Network in FP5
                                                           (GROWTH)
                                                         • Start: June 1st, 2002
                                                         • Duration: 15 Months
                                                         • 14 EARPA-partners from 9
                                                           countries: AVL, FEV, Idiada, IFP,
                                                           Ricardo, TNO, LMM, VTT, IKA,
                                                           CNR/IM, Univ.Sheffield, TRL, LMS,
                                                           FhG/LBF
                                                         • Including contributions
                                                           by members of EUCAR, CONCAWE
                                                           and additional EARPA members.


     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                               1
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Objectives:

      • Platform of independent
        automotive R&D companies
        and institutes
      • Definition of breakthrough




                                                                                             e
                                                                                          ag
        technologies for 2020 and




                                                                                       Im
        beyond

      • Finding of research demand
      • Guidance for future
        research planning



     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Scenario:




                2002                        2010                                2020             2030

     R&D of breakthrough technologies:
                                       Technology A


                                                      Technology B


                                                                     Technology C




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                        2
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                         WP2 (Ricardo):
                                                  Analysis of existing scenarios
     Structure:
                                      WP3 (IFP):                           WP4 (Idiada):
                                 Technology evaluation                 Technology evaluation
                                      powertrain                         complete vehicle


                                                WP5 (FEV): Technology synergies



                                                 WP6 (AVL): Technology roadmap


                                                          WP7 (TNO):
                                                     Dissemination activities



     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Targets:

       • Energy
       (20% alternative fuels in 2020)
       • Fuel consumption reduction
                                                                                      e




       • Environment
                                                                                   ag
                                                                                Im




       (zero-impact emission, noise)
       • Safety



              Roadmap of
              Breakthrough Technologies


     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                               3
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                          Accelerated Evolution
                                             of Powertrains




                   Generic                          Specific Powertrain           Development
                 Technologies                         Technologies                  Tools &
                                                                                   Platforms
    200021-14




                9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                Presentation of preliminary results and
                                 conclusions on behalf of the FURORE
                                             consortium:

                > Methodology; EU Scenarios & Policies, Nick J. Owen, Ricardo

                > Energy and Fuels, Jean-François Gruson, IFP

                > Future Powertrain Technologies, Gerhard Lepperhoff, FEV

                > The Vehicle of the Future, Michael Blaich, Idiada

                > Research Demand & Technology Vision, Wolfgang Kriegler, AVL




                9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                4
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                             FURORE Methodology

                            EU Scenarios & Policies
                                                    presented by
                                                    Nick J. Owen
                                        on behalf of the FURORE consortium




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                FURORE Methodology
                                                 Workshops with
         •    Methodology                        Automotive R&D            Literature       Voting
              embraced                           and Engineering           Analysis        Exercise
              literature review,                     experts

              member opinion
                                                                                         Discussions
              and extensive                                              FURORE
                                                                                          with Basic
              industry                           Discussions           Automotive R&D     Research
              discussion                         with OEMs               Technology       Scientists
                                                                          Roadmap
         •    Results edited by
              FURORE expert                       Discussions                            Discussions
              team for                           with Suppliers         Discussions       with other
                                                                         with Fuel
              presentation in a                                                              R&D
                                                                          Industry      organisations
              final report this
              year

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                        5
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                       Literature Analysis
                                                                          Workshops with
                                                                          Automotive R&D   Literature
    •       There is already a large quantity of
                                                                                                        Voting
                                                        and Engi neering       Analysis    Exercise
                                                             experts
            literature on the future of road                                              Discussions
            transport
                                                                           FURORE
                                                                                           with Basic
                                                        Discussions      Automotive R&D    Research
                                                                           Technology
               –Government policy documents
                                                        with OEMs                          Scientists
                                                                            Roadmap


               –Studies by research institutions and     Discussions
                                                        with Suppliers     Discussions
                                                                                        Discussions
                                                                                          with other

               industry bodies
                                                                            with Fuel        R&D
                                                                             Industry   organisations


               –Technical papers and journals
    •       Over 100 documents were studied by the FURORE team
               –Key documents abstracted onto a standard data template
               –Key targets and trends collated by spreadsheet
    •       This study enabled the starting point, Targets and Objectives for
            the FURORE roadmap to be created

        9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                  Workshops
                                                                          Workshops with

        • At each Workshop, FURORE
                                                                          Automotive R&D   Literature
                                                                                          Voting
                                                     and Engi neering       Analysis    Exercise
                                                          experts
          members and industry
          experts identified
                                                                                       Discussions
                                                                        FURORE
                                                                                        with Basic
                                                     Discussions      Automotive R&D    Research

             –State of the Art
                                                     with OEMs          Technology      Scientists
                                                                         Roadmap


             –Future Objectives                       Discussions
                                                     with Suppliers     Discussions
                                                                                     Discussions
                                                                                       with other
                                                                         with Fuel
             –Future Technologies
                                                                                          R&D
                                                                          Industry   organisations


             –Hurdles & Barriers
        Workshop topics were:
        • Powertrain - Gasoline & Diesel Engines, Transmissions, Alternative
          Powertrains, Energy & Fuels
        • Vehicle - Body Structure & Chassis, Passive and Active Safety,
          Interior & Exterior Noise, Materials & Recycling

        9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                 6
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                    Industry Expertise
                                                                       Workshops with
                                                                       Automotive R&D         Literature       Voting

     •   Industry was involved via
                                                                       and Engi neering       Analysis        Exercise
                                                                           experts

         workshops and individual                                                           FURORE          Discussions

         networking discussions
                                                                                                             with Basic
                                                                       Discussions        Automotive R&D     Research
                                                                       with OEMs            Technology       Scientists

           –EUCAR, CONCAWE
                                                                                             Roadmap

                                                                        Discussions                        Discussions
           –Universities                                               with Suppliers      Discussions
                                                                                            with Fuel
                                                                                                             with other
                                                                                                                R&D

           –EU & Member State governments
                                                                                             Industry      organisations



     •   FURORE members are all committed to their own R&D
         investment
           –Future and alternative powertrain and energy technology
           –Advanced vehicle chassis, safety, refinement
           –Electronics and control systems
           –Advanced CAE tools, experimental techniques and processes
     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                         Voting exercise
                                                                       Workshops with
                                                                       Automotive R&D         Literature       Voting
   • Voting exercises were used at                                     and Engi neering
                                                                           experts
                                                                                              Analysis        Exercise


     Workshops to collate opinion on                                                        FURORE          Discussions

     these future issues for 2015-20:                                  Discussions        Automotive R&D
                                                                                            Technology
                                                                                                             with Basic
                                                                                                             Research
                                                                       with OEMs                             Scientists
       – Transport scenarios, car usage, traffic                                             Roadmap


         growth etc                                                     Discussions
                                                                       with Suppliers      Discussions
                                                                                                           Discussions
                                                                                                             with other
                                                                                            with Fuel           R&D
       – Legislation & voluntary achievements                                                Industry      organisations


         in terms of CO2, Safety etc
       – Technologies in use and their likely                           •      Results used to
         penetration                                                           reinforce
                                                                               quantitative
       – Infrastructure changes
                                                                               observations on the
       – Technology hurdles overcome by                                        Roadmap
         research but not yet in use

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                           7
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                EU Scenarios & Policies
    • EU & Member state policy focus                                                                                                                        Traffic Growth
       – Shifting the balance of transport
                                                                 70%


          to address traffic growth
                                                                 60%

                                                                 50%
       – Reducing CO2 / GHG via                                  40%
          alternative fuels and vehicle                          30%
          efficiency improvements                                20%

       – Dramatic improvements in safety                         10%

          via infrastructure, vehicle                              0%

          technologies and better driving                            2005                                                         2010                                       2015                                          2020                                        2025                                            2030                                       2035


       – Better local air quality and lower                                                                               Traffic growth projections
          traffic noise via vehicle                                                                                       from the literature all
          technology and infrastructure                                                                                   indicate significant increase


     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                          Exhaust Emissions and CO2
                                                                                                                                                                                      T he A ut o -O il II P ro g ra m m e ( W o r k in g G ro u p 7 )
                                                                                                                                                                                             R o a d T r a n s po r t B a s e C a s e ( E U 9 )
                                                                                                                                                                                                               E m is s i o n s



    • Emphasis will shift to CO2 and                                                                       12 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N ox




      sustainability issues
                                                                                                           10 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            VO C
                                                                       E m i ssi o n I n d ic es ( 1 990




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N M V OC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C 6H 6
                                                                                                            80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PM




        – The diminishing return from
                                                                                                            60



                                                                                                            40




          further emission control, and                                                                     20



                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                                           19 9 3




                                                                                                                                                                             19 9 7




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 20 0 1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20 0 5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20 0 9




          its efficiency penalty, is
                                                                                                                  19 90

                                                                                                                          199 1

                                                                                                                                  19 9 2




                                                                                                                                                    19 94

                                                                                                                                                            199 5

                                                                                                                                                                    19 9 6



                                                                                                                                                                                        19 98

                                                                                                                                                                                                199 9

                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 0 0



                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 02

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  200 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 0 4



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    200 7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 0 8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20 10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      201 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20 1 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       20 1 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 14

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        201 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 1 6

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         20 1 7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 18

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          201 9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 2 0




                                                                       Fleet Average CO2 g/km
          recognised
        – Future focus likely to be                        180
                                                           160
                                                                    2001 fleet [3.53]

          local air quality, health                        140                                                                                                 ACEA [3.53]

          effects of specific emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ACEA [3.53]
                                                           120
                                                                                                                                  D [3.16]                                                                                                                          UBA [3.11]
                                                           100

    • Voluntary and legislative CO2
                                                                                                                                                                                                  FURORE
                                                           80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            GB [3.3]                                                   FURORE
                                                           60
      reduction gaining global                             40

      momentum                                             20
                                                            0

        – Cost issues well recognised                       1995    2000                                                  2005                                2010                                      2015                                   2020                                  2025                                       2030                              2035




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           8
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                     Safety
                      2010                Road deaths 50% today’s level, all classes of road user
                                          to enjoy equal improvement, similar reduction in non-
                                          fatal injuries and accidents
                                          Warning systems reduce collisions and insurance
                                          costs, and are accepted by customers
                      2020                Road deaths 25% today’s level
                                          Lane control, vehicle-vehicle warning systems and
                                          truck road trains further reduce collisions and
                                          insurance costs
                      2030                Autonomous driving enabled in selected conditions
                      2050                Zero road deaths
                                          Autonomous driving enabled in all conditions
      • Increasing traffic volumes will bring sharper focus on Safety
      • Ambitious Safety targets likely to be maintained
         – Initial focus on passive safety, road design and education
         – Longterm vision acknowledges the increasing role of Active
            systems, towards accident-free self-driving vehicles
     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                           Traffic Noise
                                        Noise Reduction dB(A)
                             0
                             -1
                                                           All Traff ic [3.18]
                             -2
                             -3
                                     All Traf f ic [3.3]
                             -4
                                                      All Traf f ic [3.3]            Car [3.3]
                             -5
                             -6
                                                                                   All Traf f ic [3.3]
                             -7
                             -8
                                                                                     Truck [3.3]
                             -9
                              2000           2005            2010           2015       2020              2025



            • Noise control policy likely to focus on combination of
              measures including road and infrastructure

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                9
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                          Influence of Political Climate
                                                                             High                     Passive &          Technology
     High                           Environmental     Environmental
                                       gains via      gains via clean,                                “invisible”       trend towards
                                     powertrain &      low-carbon or                                 Active safety       autonomous
                                        vehicle         carbon-free                                   dominate             vehicles
      Environmental Concern




                                      technology           fuels




                                                                             Safety Concern
                                                                             Primary Factor:
                                                                                                           Middle Ground
      Primary Factor:




                                          Middle Ground

                                    Low focus on        Alternative fuels                            Low focus on         Convenience-
                                    environmental        introduced for                                  safety              driven
                                      technology,       energy security                               technology,         autonomous
                                     slow pace of       or if economics                              slow pace of            driving
                                        change             favourable                                   change
     Low                                                                     Low


                              Low         Secondary Factor:           High                     Low     Secondary Factor:                High
                                          Alternative Fuel Use                                         Acceptance of Intervention

                              • Political climate can have a strong and unpredictable effect on the
                                future Technology Roadmap
                              • The FURORE roadmaps are based on a Middle Ground scenario

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                               10
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                    Energy and Fuels
                                                    presented by
                                               Jean-François Gruson
                                        on behalf of the FURORE consortium




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                          Energy & Fuels
                 • Future Energy Issues
                    – Mobility Fuel demand/supply
                    – Environmental:a short term driver?
                    – GHG reduction:a long term driver
                 • Outlook:
                    – Conventional Fuels
                    – Advanced Fuels
                    – Alternative Fuels: EU directive (8/10/5)
     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                             11
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                          Energy & Fuels
               • Conventional fuels: gasoline and diesel
                  – 10 ppm Sulphur achieved in 2009
                  – other characteristic review before 2005 in
                    relation with air quality standards but no
                    clear requirements at time…
                                                  but to be considered as a
                                                  part of a global system :
                                                  engine/fuel/aftertreatment

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                          Energy & Fuels

                • Advanced fuels: gasoline and diesel
                   – Directly linked with future engine
                     requirements or optimisation constraints:
                     blend or pure to be considered
                   – Liquids (high grade) from natural gas or
                     coal: cost and CO2 to be tracked



     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                               12
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                         Energy & Fuels
     • Alternative fuels:
        – ST: biofuels       cost and supply
        – MT: natural gas           infrastructure
          (refuelling station development)
        – LT: electricity    cost, storage (battery) and
                             CO2 balance WtT
              hydrogen       cost production, infrastructure
                             and CO2 balance WtW

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                         Energy & Fuels
                                         Price versus CO2 WtW emissions for selected pathways
                                                   2
                                                  1,8                                                             H2 Elec.EU
                 Euro / litre equivalent diesel




                                                            H2 Elec.France
                                                  1,6
                                                                   H2 ex biomass
                                                  1,4                                                              Tax in Europe
                                                  1,2
                                                                                                 H2 ex NG
                                                   1
                                                                             EtOH France
                                                  0,8
                                                                 EV UE    FAME France
                                                  0,6
                                                                                                            DME
                                                  0,4                                       CNG EU LPG            Diesel Ft ex NG
                                                        EtOH Brazil
                                                  0,2                                       Diesel EU        Gasoline EU
                                                   0
                                                       50                100               150              200                250
                                                                                                                  WTW CO2 (g/km)
     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                     13
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                 Energy & Fuels
                                             Roadmap Principle
               Research Demand:
                  Basic research
                  Applied research
                  Techn. development


    Conventional
                                       Refinery optimisation HP CIDI NEW engines
     Diesel fuel


     Advanced
                                                  New bases,new characteristics from NEW combustion mode
     Diesel Fuel


                                                        General Cost issues
     Electricity                                 Well-to-Tank CO2 emissions from power generation, on-board storage

     Hydrogen      Production (on-board or centralized) and Well-to-Wheel CO2, availibility, infrastructure (from storage to distribution)




        Time       2005               2010               2015                2020               2025               2030




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                             14
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                         Future Powertrain
                                                           Technologies
                                                                            presented by
                                                                        Gerhard Lepperhoff
                                                                on behalf of the FURORE consortium




                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                            Powertrain Technology Roadmap
                                                                                                         Research Demand:
                                                                                                            Basic research
                                                                                                            Applied research
                                                                                                            Techn. development
                                            SI Engines: Technology Vision (Variable Engine, Combined Combustion)
    Breakthrough Technologies




                                            CI Engines
                                  Prime
                                  Mover     Hybrid (ISG, Series and Parallel Hybrid)

                                            Electric (Advanced Batteries, Electric Engines)
                                            Fuel Cell


                                   APU,
                                           APU (Fuel Cell Technology, Linear Engine)
                                  Trans-
                                 mission,  Transmission
                                Propulsion
                                 System    Friction Losses, Oil Free Engine, Materials, ECU: Advanced Control Strategy

                                  Time    2005           2010          2015            2020       2025            2030



                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                 15
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                               Powertrain Technology Roadmap
                                                                                                                Research Demand:
                                                                                                                   Basic research
                                                                                                                   Applied research
                                                                                                                   Techn. development
                                               SI Engines: Technology Vision (Variable Engine, Combined Combustion)
    Breakthrough Technologies




                                               CI Engines
                                  Prime
                                  Mover        Hybrid (ISG, Series and Parallel Hybrid)

                                               Electric (Advanced Batteries, Electric Engines)
                                               Fuel Cell


                                  APU,
                                               APU (Fuel Cell Technology, Linear Engine)
                                  Trans-
                                 mission,      Transmission
                                Propulsion
                                 System        Friction Losses, Oil Free Engine, Materials, ECU: Advanced Control Strategy

                                  Time       2005             2010          2015            2020         2025            2030



                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                               Variable IC Engine
                                             Fully variable           Variable
                                              valve train                                                 Variable compression
                                                                      displacement
                                                                                                                   ratio




                                                                      The variable
                                    Variable fuel /                    IC Engine
                                  combustion system
                                                                                                       Variable injection system



                                                                                          Variable
                                                                                          charging system


                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                        16
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                   Controlled Auto Ignition                              110
                                                                                                                                    Spec. Fuel-
                                                                                                         100                        Consum ption              Throttled
                                                                                                                                                              Engine




                                                                                                   [%]
                                                                                                          90
                                                                                                                                                              EMVT
                                                                                                          80
                                                                                                                                                              EMVT CAI

                                                                                                          70
                                8
                                                                                                         NOx: 1550             550          14 ppm
                                                                             E xten sio n b y D ire ct Inje ctio n




                                                                                                                       BMEP [bar]
                                6
             BM EP [bar]




                                4                                                                                                                CAI SI
                                                   Port F uel Injection
                                                   Ex haust Port E GR


                                2


                                                                                          E xten sio n b y                             30   40     50   60   70   80
                                                                               C o m b u stio n C ha m b e r E G R                               Cycle
                                0
                                        10 00       20 0 0          3 00 0             4 00 0            5 0 00
                                                        E ngin e Sp ee d [rp m ]


                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                   Powertrain Technology Roadmap
                                                                                                                                                   Research Demand:
                                                                                                                                                      Basic research
                                                                                                                                                      Applied research
                                                                                                                                                      Techn. development
                                                   SI Engines: Technology Vision (Variable Engine, Combined Combustion)
    Breakthrough Technologies




                                                   CI Engines
                                      Prime
                                      Mover        Hybrid (ISG, Series and Parallel Hybrid)

                                                   Electric (Advanced Batteries, Electric Engines)
                                                   Fuel Cell


                                      APU,
                                                   APU (Fuel Cell Technology, Linear Engine)
                                      Trans-
                                     mission,      Transmission
                                    Propulsion
                                     System        Friction Losses, Oil Free Engine, Materials, ECU: Advanced Control Strategy

                                      Time       2005                   2010                      2015               2020                   2025              2030



                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                                                           17
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                             Potential of Downsizing:
                                             DI-Diesel engine (passenger cars)




                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                             Powertrain Technology Roadmap
                                                                                                           Research Demand:
                                                                                                              Basic research
                                                                                                              Applied research
                                                                                                              Techn. development
                                             SI Engines: Technology Vision (Variable Engine, Combined Combustion)
    Breakthrough Technologies




                                             CI Engines
                                   Prime
                                   Mover     Hybrid (ISG, Series and Parallel Hybrid)

                                             Electric (Advanced Batteries, Electric Engines)
                                             Fuel Cell


                                   APU,
                                           APU (Fuel Cell Technology, Linear Engine)
                                  Trans-
                                 mission,  Transmission
                                Propulsion
                                 System    Friction Losses, Oil Free Engine, Materials, ECU: Advanced Control Strategy

                                  Time     2005           2010            2015           2020       2025            2030



                  9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                   18
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                               Friction Reduction
    Reduction of Fuel Consumption [NEDC]




                                                20 %
                                                                                                          Engine Friction              Total:
                                                         Base SI-Engine, VH =2,0l                         Engine Mass
                                                16 %     fmep = 0.7 bar; 2.000 rpm, 90 °C
                                                                                                                                15 %            New
                                                12 %                                                                                            Technologies


                                                8%
                                                                                                                                10 %            Conventional
                                                                                                                                                Measures
                                                4%


                                                0%
                                                       0%           10 %      20 %     30 %     40 %              50 %          60 %
                                                                            Reduction of Mass/Friction

                                           9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                               Powertrain Technology Roadmap
                                                                                                                                Research Demand:
                                                                                                                                   Basic research
                                                                                                                                   Applied research
                                                                                                                                   Techn. development
                                                               SI Engines: Technology Vision (Variable Engine, Combined Combustion)
                    Breakthrough Technologies




                                                               CI Engines
                                                     Prime
                                                     Mover     Hybrid (ISG, Series and Parallel Hybrid)

                                                               Electric (Advanced Batteries, Electric Engines)
                                                               Fuel Cell


                                                   APU,
                                                           APU (Fuel Cell Technology, Linear Engine)
                                                  Trans-
                                                 mission,  Transmission
                                                Propulsion
                                                 System    Friction Losses, Oil Free Engine, Materials, ECU: Advanced Control Strategy

                                                  Time       2005            2010           2015           2020          2025              2030



                                           9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                                               19
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                   Fuel Cell System: From APU to Vehicle




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                   Fuel Cell System Efficiency
                                  1 ,0



                                                   Fuel Cell (theoretical)
                                  0 ,8

                                                                      FC-tier
                     Efficiency




                                  0 ,6                                                FC-stack

                                             fuel processing
                                  0 ,4       air supply
                                                                  other auxiliaries

                                             converter
                                  0 ,2                                   FC-system


                                  0 ,0
                                         0   20           40        60           80          100
                                                          P ow er [% ]

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                   20
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                               Summary: Future Powertrain
                                 Visions 2020 and beyond

      • Diesel HCCI and gasoline CAI engines merge into
        ‚Combined Combustion System‘

      • Downsizing with combined combustion process and
        designer fuels

      • Extended market share for Hybrid vehicles with APU

      • Spread of fuel cell powered vehicle (hydrogen)
        mainly depending on infrastructure

     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                       21
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                        The Vehicle of the Future
                                                    presented by
                                                   Michael Blaich
                                        on behalf of the FURORE consortium




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Vehicle of the Future
                 • Structure:
                             – Lightweight vehicle concepts (incl.
                               advanced materials)
                             – Simulation and Testing
                 • Safety:
                             – Energy absorbing materials
                             – biomechanical & antroprometry database
                             – „Autonomous“ driving roadmap
                 • Noise:
                             – Surface/wheel interaction
                             – active noise control
                             – Link to CALM
     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                             22
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Fuel Economy Change
                       Fuel economy change for reduced weight with compounding of benefits
                                                  accounted for

                   Compared to a current mid-size sedan
                   (City/Highway combined miles per gallon change from VEHSIME model)
                                                                                  Fuel economy
                                                     Weight reduction        improvement at constant
                                                                                   performance

                   Packaging improvements                  2.1%                       +1.5%
                   High-strength steel bodies              4.4%                       +3.1%
                   Lightweight interior                    1.8%                       +1.2%
                   Lightweight chassis                     5.6%                       +4.0%
                   Aluminum body closures                  3.8%                       +2.7%
                   All-aluminum body                      11.3%                       +8.6%
                   Aluminum cylinder heads                 1.0%                       +0.7%
                   Aluminum engine block                   1.8%                       +1.2%




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                    Multi material body structures


                                                                        1.    The outer skin consists of hot-
                                                                              worked aluminium sheet.
                                                                        2.    The body platform is made of
                                                                              bonded aluminium sections.
                                                                        3.    Centre tunnel, A-pillar and roof
                                                                              frame consist of carbon fibre
                                                                              reinforced plastic.
                                                                        4.    Fibreglass reinforced plastic is
                                                                              used for producing the side
                                                                              sections, the luggage-compart-
                                                                              ment floor and the energy-
                                                                              absorbing crash structures.




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                 23
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Conflict of goals
                    100

                                     3 liter cars
           recovery rate
            (in weight%)                     -
                     and
           recycling -
         energy recovery                                                              vehicles of the 60’s




                            extremely
                            fuel-efficient
                            prototype
                            (usage of
                            innovative
                            lightweight                   increasing lightweight design
                            Materials)
                                                          decreasing COemissions
                                                         CO

                                                                                                    15
                                                                                          fuel consumption (l/100 km)
                                                                           fuel consumption (l/100 km)
                           Recycling quota versus reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions


     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Space Frame Structure concepts




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                        24
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                    Aspects of Active Safety

                                   Human                             Vehicle                        Environment
       Pre-Crash         Alertness & Health Monitoring     Smart driving – distance to       Transmission to vehicle or
                         Warnings & information on         vehicle ahead, lane following,    warning signs of information on
                         road & traffic                    object recognition, automatic     road condition, traffic, weather,
                                                           avoidance                         hazards ahead
                                                           Chassis control – brakes,
                                                           steering, suspension – dynamic
                                                           stability
       Crash             Passive safety
                         Smart restraints & airbags
                         Automated monitoring &            Automated transmission of         Alerting other vehicles to
       Post-Crash        reporting of casualty condition   requests for assistance           presence of accident




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                               Current and future road
                                   traffic volumes
                         160
                                      Passenger
                         140                                                                      → +1.5 dBA
                         120          Goods

                         100
                     %




                         80

                         60

                         40

                         20

                          0
                                              1998                           2010
                                                                                            Com White Paper 2001,
                                                            Year                            European Transport
                                                                                            Policy Option C




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                 25
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                    Noise source distribution of a 74 dB vehicle in pass-by test


                                                                                                                                            Emission on
                                                                                                                                            people
                              Νο.1
                                    Tire s

                        Rolling noise
                                                     Exhaus t syste m
                                                                        Intake syste m                                       Eng ine
                                         Tail pipe
                                                                  Inta ke pipe
                                                                                                                                                   Re maining Noise :
                                                                                                                                                           air noise ,
                                                                                                     Powe rtra in                                    e xhaust sys te m
                             Load influe nc e                                                                                                                 e ng ine ,
                                            Surfac e Radiation    Surfac e radiation Trans miss ion                                                              tire s,
                                                                                                                                                                 e tc ...
                                                             Air-c le ane r box                               Oil pan         Exhaus t Alte rnator
                                                                                                                              manifold
                                                                                          Drive train
                                                                                                               Intake
                                                                               Hose c onne c tions                        Ac c e s sorie s Cylinde r Va lve Engine
                                                                                                              manifo ld
                                                                                                                                            he ad c ove r bloc k
                          Front pipe s                           Re ar muffle r
                                         Catalyst Mid muffle r                                  Cardan s haft




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                                                                            26
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                               Technology Vision &
                                Research Demand
                                                    presented by
                                                 Wolfgang Kriegler
                                        on behalf of the FURORE consortium




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                    Technology Vision &
                    Research Demand


                     • Roadmap Principles & Overview

                     • Technology Visions 2020 & beyond

                     • Research Demand

                     • Summary & Message


     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                             27
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                              Roadmap Principle

        Example: Hybrid vehicle introduction:
    Prime Mover




                            ISG
                  Hybrid
                            parallel/series hybrids


                             Research Demand:
                                Basic research
                                Applied research
                                Techn. development


                   Time      2005           2010          2015            2020   2025   2030




            9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                             Available Roadmaps

            • Energy & Fuels
            • Powertrain
                      –    Prime Mover (ic-engine, hybrid, fc)
                      –    Emission & Aftertreatment
                      –    Auxiliary power unit (fc)
                      –    Transmission
                      –    Drivetrain
            • Complete Vehicle
                      – Vehicle Structure & Recycling
                      – Passive & Active Safety
            • Noise
                      – Exterior & Interior Noise

            9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                               28
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                               increased specific torque/power+boosting+VCR
                               direct injection (stratified)
                               fully variable valvetrain
                  SI engines
                               Controlled Auto Ignition CAI
                               variable engine w. combined combustion systems
                               alternative gaseous fuels



                               increased specific torque/power+boosting+intercooling
                               advanced fuel injection systems
                  CI engines
    Prime Mover




                               HCCI w. combined combustion systems
                               variable engine (valvetrain)
                               high speed concepts



                               ISG
                   Hybrid                                                                     Research Demand:
                               parallel/series hybrids
                                                                                                 Basic research
                                                                                                 Applied research
                                                                                                 Techn. development
                               advanced batteries
                   Electric
                               electric motors


                               H2-storage systems

                  Fuell Cell   H2-infrastructure
                               stack technology


             9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris2020
                 Time     2005             2010            2015                        2025             2030




                                     Visions
                                     2020 & beyond

             • Efficient powertrains (CO2                                         )
             • Zero impact gaseous
               emissions
             • Maximum safety vehicles
             • Adequate noise level to the
               ambient
             • Acceptance and attractivity
             • Competitive costs


             9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                                                                      29
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Energy & Fuel

     • Higher variety of fuels
       expected on market
     • Designed fuels for new
       combustion process
     • Hydrogen first in niche
       markets
     • Electricity only with cost
       effective advanced batteries
       / energy storage


     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Powertrain

     • Ic-engines will be the
       powertrain backbone for the
       time beyond 2020
     • Ic-engines with one combined
       combustion system
     • Fully variable engine concepts
       and their control
     • Hybrid (ic-electric) vehicles,
       advanced control and system
       integration
     • FC automotive applications
       from APU to prime mover
     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                       30
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Vehicle Structure

     • Lightweight vehicle
       concepts
     • Advanced multi-material
       vehicle structures
     • New improved recycling
       methods




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Safety

     • Adaptive passive safety
       systems
     • Active safety and intelligent
       vehicle systems - sensing,
       processing, networking
     • Road-vehicle interactions
     • Advanced driver assistance
     • X-by wire technology
       allowing autonomous driving


     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                       31
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Noise & Vibration

     • Silent tyres, road surface/
       tyre interaction
     • New damping materials
     • Active noise control
     • Holistic approaches to
       traffic noise control




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Summary & Message I



            Research investment in the evolution of
            powertrain technology based on IC engines and
            conventional-based fuels guarantees global
            competitiveness of European Automotive
            industry together with reduced energy
            dependency and improved environment.



     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                       32
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Summary & Message II




            Research in completely new technologies is
            an additional must to promote sustainable
            advances in environment and energy security.




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Summary & Message III




            Importance of energy consumption reduction
            independent from future scenarios on propulsion
            systems or fuels




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                       33
9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                     Summary & Message IV




            A holistic system approach integrating specific
            and generic technologies as well as
            development tools & platforms will lead to
            better, faster and cheaper research results.




     9th EAEC International Congress - FURORE - 18 June 2003 - Paris




                                                                       34

				
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