Docstoc

Parking in The Netherlands

Document Sample
Parking in The Netherlands Powered By Docstoc
					Parking in The Netherlands
Scope, costs, profits, policy
The AVV Advisory body on Traffic and Transport
is one of the specialist departments of the Directorate-General
of Waterways and Public Works of the Dutch Ministry of Transport.
The department operates under the authority of the
aforementioned Ministry which may also direct them
to work for other governmental authorities.
The AVV Advisory body on Traffic and Transport ensures
that timely expertise is available for the development and
execution of government policy on the movement of people and goods.

Order from                               Reports can be loaned from
Advisory body on Traffic and Transport   Advisory body on Traffic and Transport
Service Desk                             Library
Telephone: 045-560 5200                  Telephone: 010-282 5608

Internet website: www.rws-avv.nl




2
Parking in The Netherlands
Scope, costs, profits, policy




                                3
……………………………………………………………………………………………
Colofon
      Published by
      Dutch Ministry of Transport
      Directorate-General of Public Works and Water Management
      Advisory body on Traffic and Transport (AVV)
      P.O. Box 1031
      3000 BA Rotterdam

     For Information contact
     Dr. J.H. Th. Kramer
     Telephone: 010-282 5656
     Fax:          010-282 5014
     E-mail:       j.h.t.kramer@avv.rws.minvenw.nl

     Executed by
     IOO Ltd.
     Italiëlaan 33
     P.O. Box 7001
     2701 AA Zoetermeer

     September 2002




4
Foreword




The research project was conceived and carried out by the Advisory body on
Traffic and Transport of the Dutch Ministry of Transport.

Principal and supervisory commission

The researchers benefited from the suggestions, insights and comments
provided on concept texts by the members of the supervisory commission
overseeing the research :
Drs. S. J. Zwartjes, Dutch Ministry of Transport, Advisory body on Traffic and
Transport (Chairman and Project Leader),
C. Harteveld B.Eng., Dutch Ministry of Transport, Advisory body on Traffic and
Transport,
Dr. J.H.T. Kramer, Dutch Ministry of Transport, Advisory body on Traffic and
Transport,
A. van Luipen M.Eng., Verdi Expertise Platform,
Drs. C.J. Brouwer B.Eng., Dutch Ministry of Transport, DG Passenger Transport
(up to 31 January 2001),
Drs. B. Sönmez, Dutch Ministry of Transport, DG Passenger Transport, on
Board of Management of Market Development and Decentralised Transport
(from 31 January 2002);
T. de Wit M.Eng., Dutch Ministry of Transport, Advisory body on Traffic and
Transport.
Naturally, the final responsibility for the research and for ‘remaining errors’ lies
with IOO Ltd.

With the input and contribution of many

IOO is very grateful to the many employees of local authorities for their
co-operation and help with telephonic and written surveys and in-depth
interviews. Without their contribution this study would not have been possible.

The research team

The study was carried out under the leadership of Koos van Dijken who is also
the author of the report. Those participating in the research team included: Zosja
Berdowski, Sabine Desczka, Maurice Dykstra, Marco Mosselman, Pim van der
Valk, and Sten Willemsen.




                                                                                  5
Contents



Summary                                                                8

1 Introduction                                                         16

      1.1 Reason for Study                                             16

      1.2 Development of Parking policy                                16

      1.3 Topical policy questions                                     16

      1.4 Organizational set-up of Study                               18

      1.5 Directions for use                                           18

2 Parking policy in The Netherlands                                    20

      2.1 Introduction                                                 20

      2.2 The Development of Parking Policy                            20

      2.3 Practical: objectives                                        23

      2.4 Practical: developments                                      26

      2.5 Practical: instruments                                       30

      2.6 Challenges                                                   32

3 Number of public parking places                                      37

      3.1 Introduction                                                 37

      3.2 Estimating number of parking places                          37

      3.3 Public parking places on the street                          39

      3.4 Public parking places on car-parking areas                   44

      3.5 Parking places in covered parking facilities                 46

      3.6 Summary of the number of public parking places               46

4 Functions and features of public parking places                      48

      4.1 Introduction                                                 48

      4.2 Housing-related parking places                               48

      4.3 Commercially-related parking places                          51

      4.4 Destination-related parking places                           54

      4.5 Regulated public parking places                              56

      4.6 Ownership and exploitation of regulated public parking places 59

      4.7 Summary of functions and features of public parking places   60




6
5 Cost of public parking places                                       63

      5.1 Introduction                                                63

      5.2 Many different definitions of costs                         63

      5.3 All financial costs: sum of three different types of cost   70

      5.4 Total financial costs: market prices                        82

      5.5 Estimation of total financial costs                         86

      5.6 Social costs: negative external effects                     87

      5.7 Summary of costs per public parking place (€)               90

      5.8 Summary costs of all parking places (million €)             91

6 Revenues from parking places                                        94

      6.1 Introduction                                                94

      6.2 Parking charges for public parking places                   94

      6.3 Permit charges for parking places                           97

      6.4 Gross revenues from public parking places                   100

      6.5 Net revenues from public parking places                     104

      6.6 Summary of revenues from public parking places              108

Appendix 1 Glossary of terms used                                     114

Appendix 2 Sources used for costs of parking places                   116

Appendix 3 Databank ‘Parking in The Netherlands’                      118

Appendix 4 Telephone survey IOO                                       120

Appendix 5 Written survey IOO                                         128

Appendix 6 Bibliography                                               133




                                                                            7
Summary


Background

In the coalition government accord of the second cabinet led by Prime Minister
Wim Kok it was laid down that studies would be undertaken to ascertain the
public costs of parking. This need was linked to the new direction that would
have to be taken in terms of parking policy as well as relating to the topical policy
questions of the time. The study in question attempted to redeem the charge of
the cabinet.

The study related to a number of topical policy issues:
- how to provide substance to a concerted parking policy,
- how to better harmonise and attune the issues of ‘quality of life’ and
‘accessibility’ to one another,
- what is a ‘more appropriate’ way of appraising public parking places,
- how can the interests of various different groups of parkers be compared
against one another in a fairer and more balanced manner.

The study addresses those topical policy issues mentioned above and provides
some insight into how to institute a rethink of parking policy. The study is an
exploratory listing of four great imponderables:
- the number of parking places with general public access according to type,
magnitude and usage,
- the (social) costs and revenues of these parking places,
- the way in which these parking places are financed (publicly or privately) and
the relationship between costs and revenues (including rates charged),
- a representative overview of municipal parking policy.
One of the peripheral objectives of the study is to gain some insight into those
parking details that are available, necessary and missing. In this way it is hoped
that the study could provide some measure of direction for further study.

Municipal parking policy

In a representative study undertaken among two hundred Dutch local municipal
authorities of varying sizes, it was found that there was a great diversity of
objectives, instruments, accentuated areas of policy, prices and discussion
points. Municipal policy is in constant flux in order to rethink and revaluate
objectives and instruments and to professionalise matters. The medium-sized
municipalities in particular can learn from the larger municipalities in this regard.
Larger municipalities deploy greater policy instruments and are generally quite
innovative in their policy objectives and their choice of instruments.

Over the next few years the challenge facing municipal parking policy is:
- to provide new shape and content to the concerted and controlled parking
policy and to transform this into an attractive parking policy within an integrated
mobility management policy;
- to induce a ‘more appropriate’(social) appraisal of parking;
- to reduce cross-subsidies and thereby the implied subsidising of parking;
- to harmonise and attune the various objectives of municipal parking policy
(accessibility, quality of life and amenity, influencing mobility);
- to opt for a good mix of available instruments: type of parking place, nature of
the regulation, rate of parking-related charges, method of determining different
levels of charging, norms and standards, prohibitive conditions and enforcement.




8
In addition it is also probable that - in spite of social opposition – a ‘more
appropriate’, social appraisal of parking provisions can make an important
contribution to:
- attuning and harmonising the objectives the local authorities hope to gain with
the parking policy: i.e. accessibility, spreading the load of parking pressure,
reducing parking pressure, inducing a good quality of life and amenity,
enhancing public safety, increasing the amount of parking provision, reducing
car use, getting more covered parking facilities such as multi-storey or
underground parking areas, promoting greater use of public transport facilities
and bicycles, realising greater revenues, and producing a positive overall result
between costs and benefits;
- instigating better utilisation of public and private parking areas and inducing
dual usage of private parking provisions;
- reducing those problems associated with parking which have a negative effect
on quality of life;
- gaining a better differentiation of charges and creating a more solid basis for
such variations in parking charges;
- reducing subsidies from the tax payer to users of public parking places.

Public parking places according to type

Public parking places are largely paid for from public funds through the
constructions of roads, parking lay-bys and public squares as well as via the
design configuration of built-up areas and by installing parking meters. Unlike
with private parking provisions – it may not be possible to expect the users
themselves to entirely cover the cost of these places and therefore it is prudent
to identify and itemise the (public) costs and revenues pertaining to such places.
It may be the case that society will implicitly or even explicitly be expected to
subsidise these public parking places or that the local municipal authority does
not really know exactly what ‘social’ costs are involved in such places and that
the social investment involved will not see a full ‘return’ on such in terms of
revenue. If this were indeed the case, then it must be feared that there could be
significant negative social effects involved (the priorities of the policy concerned
do not adequately correspond with social preferences, the ‘over-consumption’ of
parking and great negative external effects).

A portion of the public parking places concerns regulated public parking places.
The implementation of municipal parking policy is aimed at just such parking
places. With these places the parking pressure induces regulation and the most
pressing questions relating to such places are those of (local) accessibility and
amenity. These places should be specially designed, there should be prohibitive
conditions applying to them, there should be supervision and monitoring of such
places and they should be subject to payment and the issuance of parking
permits.

Another design and planning matter of public parking places and regulated
public parking places concerns the physical appearance and lay-out of such
parking places:
- on or along streets,
- on car-parks,
- in covered parking facilities.
As there is a variation in the costs and revenues of these parking places, it is
important that there is some quantitative insight into the number per type of
public (regulated) parking place.




                                                                                  9
The number of public parking places according to type within built-up
areas

Strangely enough, there is no quantitative insight available in The Netherlands
as to the number of public parking places and even the number of regulated
public parking places. Quantitative data on the number of parking places
according to type in the Netherlands is incomplete and is only available to a few
individual municipalities; there is no comprehensive survey of data available.

The study in question here has taken a first step towards filling this information
gap
(table S1) by means of providing:
- statistical details from the Central Office of Statistics and individual
municipalities;
- characteristic values or index numbers taken from a wide-ranging telephone
survey held in 200 small, medium-sized and large municipalities (37% of all the
local municipal authorities in The Netherlands as of 01-01-2000);
- characteristic values or index numbers calculated with the aid of figures taken
from a written survey carried out in 73 small, medium-sized and large
municipalities (about 30% of the total Dutch population live in these
municipalities);
- new empirical data on the number of parking places on and along streets;
- insights, standards and figures from secondary sources;
- variables per local municipal authority which are either directly or indirectly
related to the number of parking places: number of residents, number of housing
units according to type, number of privately owned cars, number of commercial
vehicles, number of jobs in the area and the amount of road length within the
built-up area.

The number of parking places in The Netherlands can be estimated at 12.5 to
15.6 million. The number of public parking places is estimated to be 8.9 million
parking places. Of the total number of public parking places 81% is on or along
the public highway, 17% on car parks and 2% in covered parking facilities (table
S1).


Table S1 Total number of public parking places in all Dutch municipalities
according to size in year 2000


Type of Municipality              <20,000      20,000 – 50,000     50,000-100,000     ≥ 100,000       Total
On or along street              1,813,000           2,467,000           1,048,000     1,838,000   7,166,000
On car parks                      232,500             415,500             249,800       638,200   1,536,000
In covered parking                    700               22,600             31,900       107,000     162,200
Total                           2,046,200            2,905,100          1,329,700     2,583,200   8,864,200




The estimation of IOO for the number of public parking places is based on a
rough empirical value and is subject to an amount of uncertainty. If all of the
public parking places existing both inside and outside of built-up areas in all the
municipalities in the country could actually be counted accurately, it is not
beyond the realms of possibility that the total number of public parking places
would amount to a maximum of 12 million places. Before better figures are made
available and before the estimation system adhered to by IOO has been further
modified and refined, it may be assumed that the estimated number of 8.9 million
parking places is taken as read.

A fifth of the public parking places is regulated by municipal authorities (table
S2). These places are configured, regulated, have limited parking time set, are



10
                                  monitored, fiscalised or have compulsory parking permits. The parking revenue
                                  of the municipal authorities is gained from 30% of the places (0.5 million fee
                                  parking places out of 1.7 million regulated public parking places). It may also be
                                  concluded from this that there is still a great ‘fee potential’ as yet untapped for
                                  parking: for 94% of public parking places no parking tax need be levied.


                                  Table S2 Number of public and number of regulated parking places per
                                  group of municipalities according to size : national total in 2000

Number of parking places                          <20 000   20 000 – 50 000   50 000-100 000      ≥ 100 000            Total
Number of public Parking places                 2,046,200        2,905,100         1,329,700      2,583,200        8,864,200

Average per 1000 residents                          565.1            583.5            561.5             527.6           558.8


of which regulated places:
- On or along street                              172,000          573,100          193,000           443,600      1,381,700
- on car parks                                     46,000          122,000           35,000            22,000        225,000
- in covered parking                                    0           19,400           21,300            60,700        101,400
- fee parking places                                   =0           43,800           88,100           360,800        492,700
- Reserved places                                      =0               =0           38,800           333,900        372,700
Total regulated places                            218,000          714,500          249,300           526,300      1,708,100



                                  Number of public parking places according to function

                                  Public parking places are used for three functions:
                                  Housing (housing-related), work (company-related) and visits (destination-
                                  related). The destination-related parking places are used for shopping,
                                  recreational purposes, visits to schools, hospitals etc. etc. (table S3).

                                  Table S3 Number of public parking places ( x 1,000) in The Netherlands
                                  according to destination in 2000

Number of public parking places according to destination                                      Total       In percentage terms
- Housing-related                                                                          6,960.0                       86.3
- Company-related                                                                            587.8                         7.3
- Destination-related                                                                        514.0                         6.4
Total                                                                                      8 061.8                      100.0


                                  The total number of estimated public parking places (8.9 million) is sufficient for
                                  the amount needed to satisfy all those functions that need to be fulfilled by public
                                  parking places (8.1 million) and the estimated surplus capacity is quite
                                  acceptable.

                                  The number of public parking places in public ownership

                                  All public parking places on and along the street are the property of the
                                  municipality and are therefore public property. The public parking places on car-
                                  parks and in covered parking facilities (multi-storey or underground car-parks)
                                  are not entirely public property. Of the public parking places on car-parks 19%
                                  are privately owned and 58% of the public parking places in covered parking
                                  facilities are privately owned. It is estimated that 98.5 % of public parking places
                                  are public property (see table S4). The ownership and day-to-day exploitation of
                                  public parking places is still mainly a matter for public authorities.




                                                                                                                           11
Table S4 Total number of public parking places in The Netherlands in
private and public ownership in 2000


Public parking places                                   Public ownership        Private ownership    Total
- On or along streets                                          7,166,000                        -   7,166,000
- On car-parks                                                 1,493,250                  42,750    1,536,000
- In covered parking facilities                                   68,124                  94,076      162,200
Total                                                          8,727,374                 136,826    8,864,200


Cost of public parking places

From the public accounts of municipal authorities it is possible to establish the
costs and benefits of municipal parking policy. According to the Central Office of
Statistics the costs accounted for by parking policy in the year 2000 (i.e. all costs
relating to parking provisions, enforcement and parking meters) amounted to €
327.6 million.

At the same time it became clear during the course of the study that not all costs
could be entirely attributed to parking policy (investment costs, capital costs,
overheads, basic costs etc.) There are also municipal authorities that ascribe the
input of the mobility fund to the costs of parking policy. This incompleteness of
the municipal costing means it is somewhat problematic to make a relative
comparison of the costs of regulated public parking places between different
municipalities. For these reasons the total financial costs of the public parking
places are calculated in two ways. The total financial costs (100%) consist of the
depreciation of the investment costs (18%), the operating costs (27%) and the
costs of land use (55%). The total financial costs calculated are at the same
order of magnitude as the market prices paid for the parking places. It must be
concluded that in the year 2000 the total financial costs of all public parking
places is put at € 4 billion per year.
Apart from the total financial costs of public parking places account should also
be taken of the social costs incurred due to the negative external effects of public
parking places such as: adverse effects on the overall quality of life in a
particular area, public safety and environmental pollution. A conservative
estimate of the annual social costs of all public parking places is put at € 1.6
million. In addition to this parking places also give rise to positive economic
benefits (accessibility, establishment factor, location factor etc.). Because it is
difficult to measure these positive economic effects, especially as they occur
locally, and apart from that because they are to a large extent discounted at the
high visitors rate, these “revenues” are not included under social benefits.
The total social costs of all public parking places can be estimated at € 5.6
billion, or € 630 per public parking place (table S5).

In the determination of the costs it is not just the regulated public parking places
that are taken as a basis (1.7 million places) but also the non-regulated public
parking places are included (7.2 million places). In the study account is also
taken of the costs of 81% of the public parking places which the municipal
authority does not calculate in or ascribe to their “parking policy”.




12
                                   Table S5 The annual costs of all (regulated) public parking places (in
                                   million €)

  Cost of all places (million €)                         All regulated public parking places      All public parking places
                                                                      (1,708,100)                        (8,864,200)
                                                               (million €)                in %    (million €)                  in %
  - Costs of municipal administration                                  328                  22           328                      6
  - Total financial costs                                           1,180                   78         4,000                     72
    of which:
    * depreciation of investment costs                               212                   14            720                     13
    * operating costs                                                319                   21          1,080                     19
    * interest loss on basic costs                                   649                   43          2,200                     40
  -Social costs                                                      330                   22          1,590                     28
  Total costs (financial & social)                                 1,510                  100          5,590                    100


                                   The costs associated with regulated public parking places in the municipal
                                   accounts make up 22% of the total financial and social costs. Even if no account
                                   is taken on the whole of social costs and the basic costs of the parking places
                                   make up the cost of parking policy as incurred in municipal accounting, they still
                                   only amount to 62% of the total financial costs (excluding basic costs) or the
                                   market value (excluding basic costs) of the regulated public parking places. This
                                   can be explained as being due to 71% of the regulated public parking places
                                   being non-fee parking places and because not all costs have been adequately
                                   discounted in the municipal costing.

                                   The public and private revenues of public parking places

                                   The benefits of municipal parking policy (revenues gained from parking taxes,
                                   surcharges of local municipal taxes, parking fees, permits and concessions)
                                   amounted to € 361.7 million in the year 2000 according to municipal accounts.
                                   Seventy eight percent of this consisted of the revenue raised from parking taxes,
                                   parking fees, permits and concessions. Twenty two percent of the municipal
                                   benefits of parking policy consisted of revenues from fines and penalties
                                   imposed against those violating municipal parking tax regulations. Similarly the
                                   Ministry of Justice will also realise a certain generation of ‘parking revenue’.
                                   When offences are committed against the Mulder Act the police will impose a
                                   fine. The total revenue gained by the Dutch State is estimated at € 38.7 million
                                   (see Table S6).

                                   With revenues from public parking places account must also be taken of
                                   revenues gained from public parking places in covered parking facilities (such as
                                   multi-storey or underground parking areas) and from car-parks which are
                                   privately owned and are operated by private companies or individuals (135 000-
                                   150 000 parking places). If it is assumed that the revenues raised are at least
                                   enough to cover the annual financial cost (including basic costs) then
                                   approximately € 545 million will be generated in gross revenues.

                                   Table S6 Public and private revenues from the parking policy of municipal
                                   authorities, Central government and private operators in 2000 (in million
                                   Euro)

Public and private revenues                                                                      million €               in %
Municipalities:
- Parking taxes, fees and permits                                                                  280.1                       29.7
- Fines and penalties due to offences against parking tax regulations                               81.6                        8.6
Total municipalities                                                                               361.7                       38.3

Government: fines (offences against Mulder Act)                                                      38.7                       4.1

Private ownership and operation of public parking places                                           545.0                       57.6
Total of Municipal authorities, Central government and private operators                           945.4                      100.0




                                                                                                                                 13
If account is taken of the revenues from private (€ 545 million) as well as of
public sources (€ 400 million) of public parking places then the gross annual
revenues will amount to about € 945 million.

The net revenues of the regulated public parking places

If those costs as incurred in the municipal administrations are taken as a basis
then a positive annual result of € 72 million (see Table S7) was realised for
regulated public parking places. The net income for regulated public parking
places may be somewhat overestimated in municipal accounts because the
municipal authorities do not entirely pass on all the costs incurred for regulated
public parking places to the parking places themselves (among other things
including investment costs, capital costs, basic costs and overhead costs). If this
underestimation is corrected the conclusion is that the net-revenues for
regulated public parking and privately run public parking places show a negative
result of € 235 million. The revenues from municipal authorities, central
government and private operators cover four fifths of the total financial costs. If in
addition to this account is also taken of the social costs of regulated public
parking places then the revenues show a deficit of € 565 million annually, or in
other words € 330 per regulated public parking place.

Table S7 Net revenues for all (regulated) public parking places (in million €)

Costs of all parking places (million €)                                     All regulated parking         All public parking
                                                                                    places                      places
                                                                                 (1,708,100)                 (8,864,200)
Gross revenues of municipalities and Central government                                         400                         400
Costs of municipal administration                                                               328                         N/a
Net public revenues                                                                               72                        N/a

Gross revenues of municipalities, Central government                                              945                        945
and private operators
Costs of municipal administration and costs                                                       873                         N/a
of private operators
Net public and private revenues                                                                     72                        N/a

Total financial costs                                                                            1180                      4,000
Of which
* depreciation of investments and operating costs                                           *       531              *       1,800
* loss of interest on basic costs                                                           *       649              *       2,200
Net public and private revenues (financial result)                                              -/- 565                  -/- 3,055

Total costs: financial & social                                                                  1,510                       5,590
Net public and private revenues (financial and social)                                          -/- 565                  -/- 4,645


If account is taken of the costs that are not applied and the public parking places
for which costs are not included by the municipalities (the unregulated public
parking places) then an entirely different picture emerges of the net revenues of
parking policy in The Netherlands. The net revenues of all public parking amount
to a negative result of € 3 billion annually if the total financial costs of public
parking are taken as read and € 4.6 billion if assumed on the basis of both the
financial and the social costs. The public and private revenues raised from public
parking places cover 24% and 17% of the costs respectively. In the case of the
latter each public parking place is “subsidised” to the tune of € 524 annually by
the tax-payer.

Even if it is assumed that all basic costs of the 8.9 million public parking places
are wholly applied to the tax-payer and are included in the basic costs of houses
and commercial properties then the total financial costs (excluding basic costs)
can be estimated at € 1.8 billion and the total financial costs (excluding basic
costs) at € 3.4 billion. The public and private revenues then respectively cover
53% and 28% of the costs and a considerable “subsidy” is still paid from general
taxation and applied to the car owner/ user of public parking places. In this



14
regard no account is taken of the positive economic effects and social benefits
(in terms of accessibility, economic dynamics, competitive position,
establishment factor, location factor etc.) of the public parking places. With
regard to public parking, a situation where the user of a parking place will cover
all the costs associated with such is far from being realised at present when one
considers the “implicit subsidy” involved.




                                                                               15
1 Introduction

1.1 Reason for Study

In the coalition government accord of the second cabinet led by Prime Minister
Wim Kok it was laid down that studies would be undertaken to ascertain the
public costs of parking. This need was linked to the new direction that would
have to be taken in terms of parking policy as well as relating to the topical policy
questions of the time.

1.2 Development of parking policy

Up until the end of the nineteen-seventies in the last century, parking policy
could be said to follow and react to trends and events whereby the needs of
parking demand were kept up with as much as possible. The demand for parking
places was autonomously determined and was not artificially influenced by the
prevailing parking policy measures. This development came to an end when the
increasing levels of car traffic started to have an adverse effect in threatening the
accessibility of town and city centres.

Since the end of the nineteen-seventies government policy has been aimed at
limiting car mobility and usage by means of applying a concerted and control-
orientated parking policy. The demand for parking is no longer paramount in
determining the nature of parking policy as it is increasingly the functioning of the
traffic system in urban areas that has assumed greater significance. Attention is
more especially focussed on reducing non-essential car traffic: i.e. commuter
traffic. The instruments that governments use in this regard are parking
standards (number of parking places per type of corporate location), parking fees
or charges and a regional approach to parking policy. The objectives of control-
orientated parking policy and setting standards for the number of parking places
is broadly emphasized. However the actual meaning of location policy remains
limited. Municipal authorities compete with one another by offering companies
generous parking provisions. Due to the fact that corporate parking on private
company property is subject to hardly any regulation at all, the influence of
parking policy remains limited. It is also quite striking that housing-related
parking is hardly given any attention in control-orientated parking policy. This is
quite remarkable when one considers that the parking situations in residential
areas are of relevance in determining the preferred mode of transport over short
trips and that the parking situation in an area will have a great effect on the
overall quality of life and amenity in residential areas.

Since the beginning of the nineteen-nineties parking policy has been given an
important boost at municipal level by the fiscalisation of parking fines. This
means that municipal authorities have gained a financial interest in enforcing
their parking policy, the number of regulated parking places increases and the
charges rise as a means of countering the parking pressure. In this regard the
municipal authorities mainly focus on the visitor parking.

About the time of the new millennium a new phase started. A number of
fundamental questions were posed and a need arose for new policy information
and for a further rethink of the instruments of parking policy.

1.3 Topical policy questions

In various municipalities the objective of ‘quality of life’ becomes more important
and an attempt is made to attune the objectives of ‘quality of life’ and ‘access’
towards one another by substituting parking places on the street with more
expensive parking places in covered parking provisions. As the parking places of



16
residents are often very cheap, this substitution has only proven successful to a
limited degree. Municipalities often also have insufficient arguments for
explaining to the general public the reasons why the parking charges have to be
increased. In actual execution of municipal parking policy a need often arises for
the right appraisal of the parking provisions and for a solid basis for justifying the
relevant prices. Up to the present time remarkably little attention has been
afforded to this practical policy requirement.

At the national level a new direction has been given by the National Traffic and
Transport plan 2001-2020. The freedom enjoyed by the private citizen in relation
to their mobility preference is respected if the social costs of their preferred
choice of transport mode are fully covered. In order to try and harmonise the
objectives of ‘accessibility’, ‘quality of life’ and ‘public safety’ it is necessary to
develop new effective instruments and new forms of co-operation (public-private,
centralised-decentralised). Important insights are still lacking which are
necessary for the social evaluation of parking places, for the development of new
instruments in the light of the new priorities of the NTTP, and for the new forms
of co-operation envisioned.

Furthermore there is an emerging need for policy attention to be afforded to the
competition between different groups of users of parking provisions, the
inequitable treatment of the various groups of users and the many users of
parking provisions that remain outside consideration. Visitors pay considerably
more than local residents, companies pay more than residents and residents and
visitors in those areas where parking permits are required pay considerably more
than residents and residents and visitors in those areas where parking permits
are not required. The vast majority of the public parking places are found along
and on streets in areas where parking is generally not regulated; this large group
of users do not pay directly for using the parking places concerned.
The current instruments for a control-orientated parking policy are insufficiently
flexible and the pricing instrument is (still) not applied with adequate
differentiation by municipal authorities. Large numbers of motorists are
impervious to the existence of parking charges and as a consequence they
cause the targets with regard to quality of life, CO2 reductions and energy
savings to be only partially attained or attained to quite a limited extent. This
problem analysis leads to the preliminary conclusion that an integral parking
policy as a component of a broad policy package should be aimed at all vehicles
and (public) living areas and perhaps even at vehicle systems (collective,
individual, public and private). This could lead to new instruments such as fiscal
residential levies for those cars entering an particular area and occupying the
scarce available space. New insights are needed in order to further develop this
policy option.

It was partly for the aforementioned reasons that it was laid down in the
government coalition accord of the second cabinet led by Prime Minister Wim
Kok that research would be carried out into “the public costs and revenues of
parking”. According to the terms described in the coalition government accord
the research would have to be aimed at examining the extent of the public costs
and revenues of parking, those parties that contribute to public costs and
revenues of parking, the roles played by the Central government and municipal
authorities, and the possible contribution of parking policy to the solution of the
problems associated with congestion and those affecting the overall quality of
life. In this way the revenues, costs, users, payers and financiers of parking
would be linked. The study in question attempts to vindicate and redeem the
pledge of the cabinet.




                                                                                   17
1.4 Organizational set-up of Study

Make-up of Study

The study has been organised in such a way that it is related to the topical policy
questions and that insights are provided so that parking policy can be reviewed
and reconsidered from a new angle. The study is an exploratory inventory of four
unknown quantities:
- the number of publicly accessible parking places according to type, size and
usage,
- the (social) costs and revenues of these parking places,
- the method of financing (public, private) of these parking places and the
relationship between costs and revenues (including setting charges),
- a representative overview of municipal parking policy.
One on the related objectives or bi-products of the study was to gain some
insight into the available, required and missing parking data. In this way it was
hoped that the study could also provide some direction as a base for further
research.

During the course of the study content was given in a pragmatic manner to the
various terms and definitions that were developed: public parking places,
regulated public parking places, social costs, public costs, etc. (see appendix 1).

Approach of study

In the study many fragmented secondary sources in the field of parking were
utilised. The number of publicly accessible parking places was estimated with
the aid of:
- a number of variables that are available at municipal level and that can, either
directly or indirectly, be linked to ‘parking’,
- characteristic values and insights from secondary sources,
- figures from the Parking monitor,
- figures from individual surveys from each separate municipality,
- measurements carried out in the course of the study.

By this approach the study also offers an up-to-date overview of that which is
either available and is known or that which can be estimated. The estimation
system may in future be further refined by means of detail studies.

The representative image of municipal parking policy in The Netherlands is
gained by means of a telephonic survey, with a series of interviews being carried
out in 200 small, medium-sized and large municipalities, a written survey carried
out in 73 municipalities, and in-depth interviews held in 18 municipalities.
The researchers are beholding to the many policy officials in the municipal
authorities that offered their co-operation to the study. We hope to be able to
provide the municipalities with further insights through the results of the study
which they will in turn be able to utilise in the further policy development of their
parking policy.

1.5 Directions for use

The municipal parking policy is covered in chapter 2. The main features and
characteristics of parking policy have been set out with the aid of a wide ranging
survey carried out among the Dutch municipal authorities and by means of desk
research.
In chapter 3 extensive coverage is given to the estimation of the number of
parking places which are accessible to the general public. In the estimation of
the number of parking places three separate angles of approach have been



18
opted for: the type of parking place: on and along streets, on car-parks and
within covered parking facilities such as multi-storey or underground car-parks.
The nature of the parking place (unregulated, regulated and fee parking) and the
function of the parking place (housing-related, company-related and destination-
related parking) are examined in chapter 4. The costs relating to parking places
which are accessible to the general public are covered in chapter 5. As an initial
preliminary exploration attention is also afforded in this regard to the possible
social costs of parking places which are accessible to the general public. In
chapter 6 an inventory is presented of the revenues from parking places which
are accessible to the general public. In this chapter the revenues are also
compared with the (social) costs. In this particular confrontation it appears that
the revenues from the parking policy do not necessarily exceed the costs as a
matter of course.




                                                                               19
2 Parking policy in The Netherlands

2.1 Introduction

This chapter looks into municipal parking policy. The chapter is based on
material from secondary publications, parking memorandums from municipal
authorities and the results of a telephone survey undertaken in 200
municipalities. Because the attention in comparative studies of municipal parking
policy is largely often only afforded to the larger municipalities, this study has
made a point of also explicitly affording attention to the small and medium-sized
municipalities. In this way a more representative picture is gained of the
municipal parking policy on the eve of the implementation of the National Traffic
and Transport plan or that which might succeed it. Many municipal authorities,
regional and provincial authorities will in due course translate that contained in
the National Traffic and Transport plan, or its’ successor, into provincial, regional
and municipal traffic and transport plans. They will be able to include the results
of this study in considering their options. With such the municipal authorities will
be hereby able to compare the costs and revenues per resident, per
municipality, per parking place and the like with that of their own parking policy.

Paragraph 2.2 describes the development of parking policy over the last two
decades. The following three paragraphs cover the situation in practice of
municipal parking policy: the objectives (par. 2.3), the developments (par. 2.4)
and the instruments (par. 2.5). In these paragraphs the data accumulated in the
survey are processed and collated. In the final paragraph (par. 2.6) the findings
from the previous chapters are summarised as future challenges.

2.2 The developments of parking policy

Reactive parking policy

Every car journey virtually always starts and ends at a parking place of some
kind. Up until the end of the nineteen-seventies one could describe parking
policy as a policy which followed trends and reacted to circumstances whereby
the main aim was almost inevitably to react to the need for parking provisions.
The demand for parking space was determined autonomously and was not
artificially influenced by parking policy measures. The growing volume of car
traffic however started to cause increasing gridlock and congestion in towns and
cities, thereby seriously impeding access to important urban centres. The large
scale expansion of road networks in town centres could not continue indefinitely
and at some point a halt had to be called to such. A decision was increasingly
made to preserve the quality of town centres while at the same time also
producing accessible town centres.

Control-orientated parking policy

The phenomenon known as control-orientated parking policy was introduced
within the framework of a government policy that is aimed at restricting the
growth of car-mobility. In the Structure Plan for Traffic and Transport (SVV)
dating from 1976 it was suggested that the need for parking places should no
longer be the decisive consideration in allowing for parking provisions, but rather
that the functioning of the traffic system in the urban environment should be
considered as a more determinant factor in this regard. Parking is used as an
instrument for influencing car mobility. Most attention is           focussed on
unnecessary car traffic. In the Second Structure Plan for Traffic and Transport
(SVV-II) parking policy was seen as an instrument for reducing commuter traffic
by car. The instruments employed in this regard include parking standards in
zoning plans, parking charges and a regional approach to parking policy. The



20
parking need is then externally standardised and maximised. The SVV-II formally
came into force from 2002 and will – as it is laid down by the Dutch Parliament -
be followed by the National Traffic and Transport plan.

Location policy is a component of control-orientated parking policy. This policy is
aimed at ensuring that the right company ends up being established in the right
location by attuning the access profiles of locations and the mobility profiles of
companies. In 1988 the Dutch Ministry of the Environment defined access
profiles as A, B, or C. Activities with large numbers of employees and/or visitors
(for example with business services) are considered as locations designated with
an access profile A. Activities with relatively few visitors and/or employees which
also depend on good access by (goods) vehicle (for example production or
distribution companies) may be considered as locations with a C profile. Good
access by car and public transport which is a feature of B-locations is also
important for hospitals and offices.

At a strategic level the effect of the location policy has proven to be a success.
The objectives are broadly underlined and the ABC-policy has been included in
many provincial, regional or municipal transport plans. At an operational level
however the policy has been less successful. In many cases the municipal
authorities attach greater importance to economic interests relating to the
establishment of a company within their municipal boundaries than to the
consequences of mobility of such an establishment. The municipalities also
appear to exert little energy in trying to attune the economic interests with the
mobility interests1. Other problems at municipal level are that the public transport
alternatives at potential A-locations are of insufficient quality, that there are no
congestion problems that induce a reduction in car mobility, that new locations
with limited parking standards compete with existing buildings that have a
relatively large number of parking places, and that the standards allow the
municipalities very little room for being able to tailor to precise needs2.

In spite of deep discussions between IPO/VNG(Inter-Provincial Consultation
Body/ Association of Dutch Municipal Authorities) and the Ministry of Transport
about the nature of the standardisation (quantitatively, qualitatively, nationally
uniform, orientated according to each local area) there are still enough reasons
for instituting a control-orientated parking policy3. Because cars are stationary for
an average of fifty-seven minutes out of every hour of the day, it is not all that
strange that the mobility policy should also be aimed at taking account of the
number of stationary cars4. In addition, according to a study undertaken by the
consultants’ firm of Ligtermoet & Louwerse, 35-40% of the single occupant cars
in commuter traffic travelling within the Amsterdam and Utrecht Agglomeration
have an adequately good alternative mode of transport available to them. If
these solo drivers were to opt for the alternative modes of transport due to a
demand-influencing policy (including a control-orientated policy) then the number
of hours lost due to congestion would drop by 40-70%5. Further development of
control-orientated policy would therefore – in spite of various efforts - not be
enhanced by weak development of the monitoring instruments6.

1
  Karel Martens, ABC-location policy in practice; the role of municipal authorities, provinces and Town
and Country Planning Inspections in the continuation of the ABC-location policy through into strategic
policy and operational decisions, expert Planning group of the Catholic University of Nijmegen, report
number 16, Nijmegen, 1996; C.B.F. Kuijpers, More space for parking? In : Vexpansie No. 4,
December 1999.
2
  Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM), Location policy in action; situation half-way through, The
Hague, 1994, page 18
3
4 Dutch parliament (lower house), Parking policy, parliamentary term 1996-1997, 22 383, No. 9.
  Elsevier, Parking policy: the last weapon against traffic chaos, 21 September 1996, N0. 38, page 38.
5
  Dirk Ligtermoet and Rob Sleurink, The effective space of demand-influencing mobility policy, Gouda,
1998.
6
  This conclusion is based on: Dutch Ministry of Transport, Policy effects report 1999; policy effect
measurement of Traffic and Transport, The Hague, 2000, page 88 (where a good indicator is lacking



                                                                                                   21
In addition more attention will have to be afforded in the future to the accessibility
of central locations. The aim will be to increase the attractiveness, particularly in
key locations, of travelling by public transport (including high-speed rail links) as
well as by car, and in the case of the latter this includes space for parking.
According to Kuijpers the pricing for such parking will have to be fairly stiff,
underground solutions will prove more the rule than the exception and the
objectives of the location policy will have to be upheld. Further expansion of the
policy with regard to parking may mean there is a risk that car access is likely to
be made worse rather than better. Such an expansion is only possible when it is
included within the context of a broader urban policy where equal attention is
afforded to access, nuisance, quality of life and the adaptation of urban planning
to take account of parking. In order to be able to afford enough attention to these
aspects and in order to stimulate innovative solutions which combine matters of
access and overall quality of life (underground parking and multiple land use
options) it is crucially important to have the right appraisal of the available
parking provisions7.

One of the starting points for a control-orientated policy is that parking must be
given its’ own socio-economic valuation or price. Scarcity and pricing are
important means for altering the competitiveness of alternative modes of
transport in relation to the car. Little attention has been afforded over the last few
decades to this component of control-orientated parking policy.


The fiscalisation of parking offences

Even more than location policy, since 1 January 1991 the possibility of being
able to bring parking fines within the taxation regime has probably led to the
greater promotion of control-orientated parking policy within municipal
authorities. Although fee parking was introduced as early as the nineteen-sixties,
according to the recent regauging of parking policy in Amsterdam, the instrument
of fee parking has only been applied on a wide scale due to its’ fiscalisation
since the beginning of the nineteen-nineties. In Amsterdam the number of
fiscalised parking places rose between 1993 and 1998 from 8,000 to 110,000;
an annual increase on average of 55%8. The increase in fee parking can be
explained from the fact that the municipalities were hereby given a financial
interest in ensuring the enforcement of parking measures. Anyone that parks at
a place regulated by a parking meter or automatic ticket vender and either
inserts insufficient money or none at all might then expect to be penalised with a
surcharge demand. This surcharge penalty can prove quite substantial: with a
maximum of 82 guilders plus one hour parking time. Due to greater efforts to
enforce parking regulations – and increases in parking charges- there has been
an increase in parking pressure in the surrounding areas where ‘free parking’ is
available. The nuisance caused to residents and businesses alike by this, has
compelled the authorities to consider introducing parking regulation9 in these
areas as well.


then one indicator of the effects of control-orientated policy is – the percentage of municipalities with a
population of over 30,000 that have fee parking); C.P. Hoogeveen, The dynamics of the parking
balance; a reaction to the Grontmij engineering consultants report ‘Parking balance, an instrument of
mobility policy’, Quatttro, s.l., 1996; the heterogeneity of monitoring details at municipal level (for this
see J.P. van t’Hoff and D.C. Zoutendijk, Monitoring System for traffic and transport, T00-21, Traffic
Test, Veendaal, 1999); the futile efforts over the last few years to reach a national policy for the urban
parking area; and finally the inadequate utilisation by municipal authorities of providing monitoring data
on the CROW research centre-parking disk.
7
  C.B.F. Kuijpers, More space for parking?, in: Vexpansion, No. 4, December 1999.
8
  The Department of Infrastructure, Traffic and Transport of the Municipality of Amsterdam, Parking is
Manoeuvring; Memorandum on the Regauging of Parking policy, Amsterdam, 17 November 2000,
pages 1, 16, 19.
9
  Domestic administration, from now on Rotterdam is fiscalising parking fines, 8 January 1993.



22
Apart from the imposition of surcharges, parking fines are also issued that come
within the penal code of the criminal justice system. When a car is parked in a
prohibited area or in an area where they do not hold a valid permit for such, then
an administrative sanction may be imposed where the resultant revenues will be
paid to the Ministry of Justice (The Mulder Act). With the latter category of
offence – which includes parking in an area reserved for special groups without a
valid permit – the municipal authorities have no financial interest in good
enforcement10.

Social charges?

The implied premise of control-orientated parking policy that parking must bring
with it its’ own social price, has not quite lived up to expectations. Over the last
fifteen years hardly any progress has been made in estimating the social price of
parking places with access to the general public11. The old image is still being
repeated: “For every car there is an average of three parking places available.
This means an area of about 190 km2 for the entire stock of vehicles in
circulation, with an estimated social value of 47 billion guilders of which only a
small proportion is covered by fee parking (…) When there are a projected eight
million cars on Dutch roads in 2010 the parking area will have attained a value of
about 75 billion guilders12.

It is not unthinkable that as a progression of the policy lines of the National traffic
and Transport Plan the next phase of municipal parking policy will be attention is
given to the social costs of parking. The right, social appraisal of parking
provisions could contribute towards attuning and harmonising the social
objectives of ‘accessibility’ and ‘quality of life’.

2.3 Practical: objectives

Introduction

In order to set out the features of municipal parking policy two hundred municipal
authorities were questioned in a telephone survey and of these 73 also took part
in a written survey. Before covering the objectives of municipal parking policy in
the year 2001 first of all the make-up of the sample survey is described.

Population and sample survey

In the telephone survey representatives from 200 municipal authorities were
interviewed. By interviewing more than a third of all the municipal authorities in
the largest category of municipalities, a representative picture of municipal
parking policy was gained for The Netherlands in 2001. Quite often little attention
is afforded to the smaller municipalities in parking research; this study has been
deliberately aimed to be an exception to this by providing an inventory of the
features of the (possible) parking policy in almost a hundred smaller
municipalities. The categorisation of the municipalities according to size was
determined afterwards; based on the answers of the survey it may be concluded
that for municipalities with a population of under
20 000 only very few municipal authorities are able to provide any answers
regarding their parking policy.



10
    Verdi Platform of Expertise: http://ww.kennisplatform-verdi.nl/nieuws/knowhowitem2.htm ‘parking
policy’.
11
    F.R. Bruinsma et al, Estimation of social costs of lack of space for traffic, efficient prices for traffic,
AVV, Rotterdam, 2000, pages 59, 69-70.
12
    Minister J.R.H. Maij-Weggen in Memorandum on Conducting parking policy, Minister of Transport,
Lower House parliamentary term 1991-1992, 22 383, No. 1. page 11.



                                                                                                            23
In order to make it possible to assess parking policy according to size of
municipality a sample survey fraction of those municipalities with populations of
over 50 000 was roughly twice as large as that of municipalities with populations
of less than 50 000 (see table 2.1) This choice also means that provinces with a
lot of small municipalities, such as the province of Gelderland for example, are
slightly under-represented in the survey.

Table 2.1 Sample survey according to size category of municipality
expressed in percentage of population for each size category

Municipality according to Size category                                          population as of 1/1/2000   sample survey in % (n=200)
Municipalities up to population 20 000                                                         311                       31
Municipalities population 20 000 – 50 000                                                      167                       33
Municipalities population 50 000 – 100 000                                                      34                       85
Municipalities with population over 100 000                                                     25                       76
Total                                                                                          537                       37


Source: IOO survey of 200 municipalities.

In the processing and presentation of data as much distinction as possible has
been made according to size category. There is a disproportionately large
representation of the large municipalities in the peripheral totals, as the figures
have not been corrected for stratification of the sample survey during processing.
In the interpretation of percentages some account must be taken of a reliability
margin of approximately 8%13.

The objectives of municipal parking policy

In the telephone survey questions were posed in various different ways about
the objectives and instruments of parking policy14. Those questions related to the
objectives of parking policy have been summarised in this paragraph.

Not all municipalities have made their policy regarding parking more explicit to
the extent that the municipal goals relating to parking have been formulated.
Thirty five percent of small municipalities (population < 20,000) and 15% of the
small medium-sized municipalities (population 20,000 – 50,000) could not list
any objective15. In some municipalities parking policy is an integral component
part of the policy aimed at managing public spaces. Representatives of these
municipalities could not name any objectives that the municipal authorities had in
mind in their planning and maintenance of parking options. The answers of those
respondents that that listed one or more objectives are shown in table 2.2. These
municipalities often operate a separate parking policy or their parking policy is a
separate section of the traffic and transport plan or of the mobility policy.




13
   When according to the survey a phenomenon occurs in 30% of municipalities, then the actual
percentage will lie somewhere between 22% and 38%.
14
   This concerns the questions 1,2,3,4,5,6,8 & 29a. These questions and the answers relating to them
are included in appendix 3.
15
   In municipal (parking) memoranda the goals are sometimes formulated very clearly. For example
the objectives of the Municipality of Rijswijk are formulated as follows: regulation (good distribution of
available parking capacity), generating revenue (at least budgetary neutral parking management) and
restricting mobility (influencing car usage).



24
                                  Table 2.2 Objectives of parking policy, expressed in percentage of size
                                  category (not all municipalities have named an objective)

Objectives                                                               size category                        Total
                                                    <20,000   20,000-50,000       50,000-100,000   ≥100,000
                                               n=        97          55                  29            19      200
Utilisation
Optimising utilisation of current parking places        26%         42%                41%            79%      38%
Supply
Expand or maintain current supply                       25%         16%                24%            32%      23%
Demand
Limit or reduce demand for parking                      7%          7%                 28%            37%      13%
Financial
Generate (sufficient) income                            7%          20%                38%            11%      16%
Total                                                   65%         85%                131%           159%     90%


                                  Source: Telephone IOO survey held in 200 municipalities.

                                  The most important objective – besides the implicit objective of ‘planning the
                                  layout of public spaces’- is to optimise the utilisation of the current area of
                                  parking space.

                                  Optimum utilisation of existing capacity

                                  The policy is aimed at attaining an optimum utilisation of already existing parking
                                  places. The existing supply should be used during as many time periods as
                                  possible, or by as many people as possible. Measures that fit into this objective
                                  include for example: making company parking places available to the general
                                  public during the evening hours or signposting (often vacant) parking options on
                                  the edge of town centre areas. Forty percent of medium-sized municipalities and
                                  79% of large municipalities stated this objective.

                                  Expand or maintain existing supply

                                  Policy is aimed at expanding or maintaining the existing supply of parking space.
                                  Municipalities that state this objective, often also have a standard value for the
                                  desired size of supply, for example 1½ or 2 parking places per household.

                                  Limiting the demand for parking places

                                  The policy is aimed at limiting or reducing the demand for parking places.
                                  Municipalities stating this objective often mean in this regard the night-life or
                                  entertainment centre of the municipality. People often regard the parking
                                  pressure in such areas as being too high. Efforts are often made to reduce car
                                  volumes in those areas of night-life and public entertainment and to keep the
                                  streets unobstructed and passable. The removal of parking options in town
                                  centres often goes along with promoting greater use of public transport. In small
                                  medium-sized municipalities (populations of 20,000-50,000) the problems of
                                  access and quality of life and amenity are relatively limited; only 7% of these
                                  municipalities indicted that either limiting or reducing the demand for parking was
                                  an actual objective of their municipal parking policy.

                                  Generation of revenues

                                  The policy is aimed at the generation of revenues. For a number of the
                                  municipalities that mention this as being an objective, there is not really any
                                  major parking problem. Such municipal authorities try to shift the parking
                                  element of the municipal administration task towards the users themselves.
                                  For 38% of the medium-sized municipalities (population 50,000 – 100,000)
                                  covering the costs is an objective of parking policy. This is understandable when
                                  it is considered that, particularly in this type of municipality, it is not always


                                                                                                                  25
feasible to maintain a parking policy that will be capable of covering costs, as the
number of fee parking places is not in the order of magnitude that would merit
the enforcement of such a policy or the operating of covered parking facilities
such as multi-storey or underground parking provisions.

Evaluation

Of all the objectives the one mentioned most is that of gaining optimum
utilisation of the existing supply. Both small and larger municipalities most often
give this the highest priority. In comparison to the smaller municipalities the
larger municipal authorities have more often made their parking policies more
explicit and more often try to achieve several different objectives therewith. Much
depends on the size and structure of those larger municipalities. Larger
municipalities more often have an urban centre with shopping and nightlife
functions as well as including residential and work centres which each require a
different parking policy.


2.4 Practical: developments

Continuation of existing practice

In many municipalities the policy of promoting greater access to town centres will
be continued by having fee parking or by imposing restrictions on the length of
time that a vehicle may be parked in a particular parking space. Another line of
policy is that lower tiers of governmental authority endeavour to allow less
parking on the street. This is often linked to instituting improvements to the
image of a town centre whereby more and more pedestrian areas are created. In
this way the town centres will be made more attractive to potential consumers. A
town centre or (main) shopping area with fewer cars on the street make it
possible to reconfigure street scenes, make such areas more pleasant for
pedestrians and cyclists and with a stable number of parking places it has the
result that there will be a greater demand for covered parking facilities such as
multi-storey or underground parking provisions. The majority of municipal
authorities are of the opinion that having a more attractive shopping area with
good covered parking provisions is of more benefit to the economic functioning
of an urban shopping centre than continuing to maintain the lucrative operation
of street parking.

The economic effects of parking regulation

With every form of parking regulation the business sector fears there will be a
detrimental effect on income. The business community will continue to question
the municipal authorities in the future about the economic effects of parking
regulation. Due to increases in parking charges this issue will probably become
even more pressing in the future both within a municipality and between different
municipalities16.

There are contradictory research results on the relationship between car access
and the functioning of town centres. In some studies car access is considered of
secondary importance in the choice of shopping centre while other studies

16
   An example of this impression was a report in the Algemeen Dagblad newspaper on 18 March 1997
entitled ‘Business owners: town centres are deteriorating due to parking policy’. At the behest of the
Dutch small businesses association the Dutch research organisation NIPO carried out a survey
among businesses in the cities of Amsterdam, Eindhoven and Zwolle. Fifty percent of the businesses
in Amsterdam and Zwolle and 21% of the business owners in Eindhoven were of the opinion that large
companies had moved away as a result of fee parking. The businesses surveyed reported a drop in
turnover of 22% due to the parking policy and as a result of fee parking a quarter of the businesses
have had to lay off staff.



26
conclude that shopping areas will lose custom to other regions when car access
is restricted. From a number of different studies conducted it is possible to distil
the following insights:
- The local situation is the most important factor for the effects of parking
regulatory measures; general pronouncements and conclusions at a macro-
economic level do not always apply at local level.
- The quality of a (shopping) centre (distance, attractiveness, size, range of
products and facilities, historical value, appearance of area), the number of
parking places and the availability of parking places are more important then the
rates of the parking fees.
- In The Netherlands there are not very attractive centres that often offer a good
quality of parking facilities and ‘good’ town centres are often below par as far as
their parking provisions are concerned; so the relationship between accessibility
and attractiveness should therefore not only be approached from the dimension
of access; there is something of an integral and multidimensional approach to
problems of access.
- Parking only plays a role in competitiveness if all other properties are
comparable; in such a case, due to parking measures the consumer is more
likely to opt for another shopping centre rather than change his mode of
transport.
- The local parking situation is often a dissatisfier: sufficient space and
availability do not lead in greater appreciation of the town centre, but rather the
public appreciation of the attractiveness of the centre sometimes drops very
dramatically as the local situation leaves much to be desired.
- Consumers judge the parking situation in terms of their own experiences with
occupancy rates, the parking fees charged and the time permitted for parking.
- It more often than not happens that, following the introduction of wide-scale
parking measures, the turnover suffers adverse effects almost immediately.
- Over time the positive (turnover)effects usually come to dominate (e.g.
increased availability of parking facilities, less time wasted searching for a
parking place, better distribution of parking places, the promotion of short-term
parking, counteracting long-term parking, making shopping areas more attractive
to consumers).
- Parking charge measures ensure there are changes in the modal split of traffic
commuting between the home and work (back-door parking), though there are
hardly any shifts noticeable in traffic travelling between the home and shopping
areas (front-door parking).
- The introduction of fee parking is often associated with an overspill effect
shifting parking pressure to areas where fee parking has not yet been
introduced; this is something that must be anticipated17.

Price elasticity of parking charges

The price sensitivity of parking charges strongly depends on the local situation,
the quality of the provisions, the availability of parking places and the quality of


17
   Goudappel Coffeng Consultants, Effects of access, CROW-working party on Effects of Parking
measures (summarised on the basis of 18 cases in various municipalities, four strategic parking
studies and a discussion meeting with expert), concept report, s.l., 2001; Traffic Engineering,
Consumers increasingly do their shopping in their own region, parking space is much more important
than parking charge, January 2000; R. Althuisius, Poor parking in order to have pleasant shopping;
the quest for a balance between quality and access, in Vexpansie, No. 1, March 2000; R. Althuisius
and R. Meilof, interchangeable quality and access, good town centres often have poor access by car,
in Traffic Engineering, May 1999; L. van Horen, P. van Geffen and R. van den Heuvel, Control-
orientated parking policy in KAN, teetering on the edge, in: Traffic Engineering July/August 1999;
Harman Oppewal, Theo Arentze, Harry Timmermans and Peter van der Waerden, Economic effects of
parking measures: shopping centre and preferred mode of transport of consumers in province of
Noord-Brabant, EIRASS, Eindhoven, 1997; P. van Beek, H. Meurs and F. Rosenberg, Quantitative
effects of parking policy: experiences in practice, in : Colloquium Traffic Planning Detection 1996,
pages 623-636; I.H.G. Huibers-Haneveld, Effects of restricted car access in town centres, Ministry of
Transport, The Hague, 1994.



                                                                                                 27
those parking places (in terms of supervision, distance from, parking time)18.
Increases in parking charges lead to shifts in the auto-mobility of commuter
traffic and almost no shift in traffic commuting between the home and shops. A
parking charge increase of ten percent may be expected to produce a reduction
in ‘back-door parking’ of about three percent, while a study of the Infrastructure
and Transport Department of the Municipality of Amsterdam showed that
doubling parking charges produced a reduction in car journeys within the city
centre of 10-15% and a reduction of about 5% in suburban areas19. From the
latter study in particular it appears that the price sensitivity of motorists to parking
charge increases is fairly limited.

Another insight was gained from a study undertaken by the Twijnstra Gudde
Management Consultants. Based on a survey of 58 municipalities (with
populations of 25,000 to 200,000) undertaken in 1995 it could be concluded that
the sensitivity of the hourly rate was split into three segments:
- to an average hourly rate of € 0.79 the occupancy rate drops quite drastically
and there is a sharp rise in revenues; it may be assumed that the duration of the
parking time decreases, the number of different parkers increases and access to
the town centres is improved;
- from € 0.79 to € 1.02 the financial occupancy rate decreases to a certain
degree and the rise in revenues is not as steep; there is a chance that motorists
will opt to shift to other centres; by improving the quality of a town centre it is
possible to counter such shifts in preference;
- an average hourly charge of more than € 1.02 can lead to a levelling out of
occupancy rates and a drop in revenues; a proportion of motorists will avoid the
town centre.

When adjusted for the effects of inflation and due to the increasing acceptance
of higher parking charges the three limits may by now have gone up
somewhat20.

Developments in two hundred municipalities

The IOO survey undertaken in two-hundred municipalities indicates that parking
policy is in a constant state of flux. Six out of ten respondents indicated that
parking policy in their municipal authority was continuing to evolve and change
with the times. As far as this is concerned there are no differences according to
the size category of a municipality. Those respondents that said that the parking
policy in their municipality was continuing to evolve were asked what the reasons
were for this fluid state and what discussion points play a role in this evolution. In
table 2.3 an overview has been made of what the respondents said.




18
   In a recent meeting of experts on parking with representatives of Municipal authorities, regional
authorities and the Ministry of Transport it emerged that for this reason there was a clear need for
know-how on this topic. B&A Group Policy Studies and Advice and Know-how questions on parking;
report from a meeting of experts on 27 September 2000, The Hague, 31 October 2000.
19
   P. van Beek, H. Meurs and F. Rosenberg Quantitative effects of parking policy: experiences in
practice, in : Colloquium Traffic Planning Detection 1996, pages 623-636; The Infrastructure and
Transport Department of the Municipality of Amsterdam, Parking is Manoeuvring; memorandum on
Regauging Parking policy, 17 November 2000, page 22 and appendix 1. The figures from studies of
charges at P&R provisions cannot be simply compared with the insights above; where there is free
parking the percentage of commuters is 31%, with a charge of €0 to €1.12 this drops to 13%, with a
charge of between €1.12 and € 2.25 the percentage rises to 25% only to drop again to 7-8% when
there is a charge of €2.25 – €4.50; AGV Advice group for traffic and transport, Quickscan Charging
Park + Ride Provisions, Municipality of Rotterdam, Department of Urban Development and Housing,
s.l. 25 January 2000.
20
   Twijnstra Gudde, Parking meter 1995; an inventory of the organisation and achievements of
municipal parking management, Amersfoort, 1997, page 23.



28
Table 2.3 Those discussion points mentioned by the municipal authorities,
expressed in percentage of the number of municipalities with an evolving
parking policy (more answers are possible)

Discussion points in a changing parking policy                                           n = 117
Availability of parking options for visitors to shops / town centres                          29
Evaluating or regauging parking policy                                                        26
Availability of parking provisions for local residents                                        21
Supply is too limited                                                                         21
Introducing or expanding fee parking                                                          17
Introducing or expanding a system of permits                                                  16
Better utilisation of existing supply or spreading the parking pressure more evenly           16
More covered parking facilities such as multi-storey or underground car-parks                 13
Improve access to town centre or nightlife and entertainment centres                          10
Introduce or (re)consider charge differentiation                                              10
Increase the supply of parking places                                                          9
Reduce the supply of parking places on the street                                              6
Quality of life and public safety                                                              5
Stimulate reduction in car use and increase in public transport use via parking policy         3
Effectuate positive balance of costs and benefits                                              3


Source: IOO Survey of 200 municipalities

The evaluation or regauging of existing policy, signalling excessive parking
pressure or a lack of parking places have always been the most important
reasons for initiating discussions on the policy adhered to.

Particular problems which have been much mooted and illustrated in various
forms include the shortage of parking options or excessive parking pressure in
areas where it is perceived as being undesirable. Deficiencies have been
created due to the increase in car ownership over the last few years (more cars
per household) and due to the reduction in parking options in certain areas as a
result of a policy which is aimed towards enhancing the amenity of such areas.
Excessive parking pressure has been mentioned as being the result of
previously taken decisions on policy. For example where a local municipal
authority starts introducing fee parking to the town centre area and as a result of
this many visitors to such town centres will opt to park in areas where there is
free parking on the periphery of the town centre, thereby causing nuisance from
parking to be created in said areas. Parking permits, covered parking facilities of
the expansion of the existing area of parking provisions are the obvious
remedies to this problem.

Future perspectives

The Dutch Ministry of the Environment(DOE)-Board has published an advisory
document ‘Mobility with policy’ within the framework of the preparations for the
national Traffic and Transport Plan and the Fifth Bill on Town and Country
Planning. The council recommends that a robust parking policy be adhered to
and is of the opinion that in urban parking policy more work should be carried out
on the following general starting points and the following aspects of design of
parking policy:
- it must be expressed in the parking policy that central government has the
responsibility for the expedient use of public land as well as the prudent use of
taxation levied in the design and designation of such land,
- in the supply of parking provisions more use should be made of innovative
concepts for among other things small scale underground parking,
- the social costs of land use, varying according to time and place, and therefore
taking account of the counter-productive environmental planning effects, should
be included in the fees charged for parking,
- parking provisions are needed in problem areas on the edge of towns with a
shuttle-link to the town centre,




                                                                                             29
- with concentrations of public amenities it is necessary to ensure that there is
adequate parking provision in the form of multi-storey car parks etc.,
- in the point of view of the DOE-Board the facility of free parking on public land
right outside the front door, will rightly be phased out in urban centres,
- in suburban residential areas more residential estates should be designed with
limited car access by reducing parking on open land or waste ground and by
looking for responsible parking solutions with regard to the quality of public open-
spaces whereby cars will be parked further away from the residents’ own front
doors,
- in suburban areas it should also be the user and not the tax-payer that is
charged with paying for the cost of parking facilities.

According to the DOE-Board, development should move in the direction of either
parking on privately owned land or paying for land acquisition and the lay-out
configuration of land21.

Based on existing developments and the perspective outlined for the future it is
reasonable to expect that in relation to parking the municipal parking policy will
largely be aimed at:
- attuning the number of parking places in town centres and around shopping
centres to meet the demands of the patrons of such centres,
- limiting long-stay parking by charging by the hour for parking,
- lowering barriers or removing obstacles to those wishing to operate parking
facilities such as multi-storey car-parks and making these more profitable by
introducing or raising the parking fees charged,
- a controlled and steered shift away from parking in the street and towards
covered parking provisions by operating a differentiated charging system and
imposing regulatory prohibition in certain areas,
- including an increasing number of public parking places within covered parking
facilities.


2.5 Practical: instruments

General

Municipal authorities have a large number of possible options available for
regulating parking. By using environmental planning instruments and general
municipal building codes, the municipal authorities are able to determine the
capacity and spatial distribution of the parking area as well as the character of
parking provisions on private property. As the Highways Authority they are able
to impose prohibitions on parking or reserve parking places for special target
groups. In addition, municipal authorities are able to counter long-stay parking by
designating particular areas as a parking disc zones (blue zones). They also
have the power to prohibit goods vehicles and caravans from a certain area by
including for example a parking excesses condition in the General Local
Ordinance. Another possibility for regulating parking is to institute fee parking
with the aid of parking apparatus and/or a system of permits. With the
aforementioned instruments, the mix of parking provisions and the relative price
differential between different parking provisions, the municipal authorities are
able to weald great influence over the demand and supply of parking provisions.

For town centres to be able to function well it is important to ensure that there
are sufficient fee-parking provisions for economically important traffic. The retail
sector is to a significant degree dependent on access by car. This means that

21
  The Public Housing Board, the Town and Country Planning and Environmental management (DOE-
Board), Mobility with policy, Advisory document 017, The Hague, 11 November 1999.



30
                                       there should be enough parking places available in town centres and around
                                       main shopping centres to satisfy the needs of the visitors to such centres.
                                       Furthermore it is generally accepted that the increasing number of cars in
                                       commuter traffic should be abated. One of the measures that promotes access
                                       to town centres as well as inducing a reduction in the amount of cars in
                                       commuter traffic is by imposing time limits on a stay in a parking place (by
                                       introducing parking disc zones) or imposing fee parking22.

                                       The instruments in two-hundred municipalities
                                       The respondents named a number of instruments that their municipality
                                       maintains to give substance to their parking policy. These instruments have been
                                       ordered according to approaches from four different angles: type of parking
                                       place, price, permit system and target group (table 2.4). At the bottom of the
                                       table an indication is included of just how far the municipalities apply each
                                       instrument.

                                       Table 2.4 Instruments of parking policy, expressed in percentage of size
                                       category (several answers are possible)

Instruments of parking policy                                                      size category
                                                               <20,000      20,000-50,000      50,000-100,000      ≥100,000          Total
                                                  n=                97                 55                  29            19           200
Type of parking place
- attention to parking on or along streets                           76                 71                   55           37              68
- attention to covered parking or car-parks                          40                 76                   72           84              59
Price
- free parking everywhere                                            12                 18                    3            0              12
- fee-parking with no price differential                             78                 51                   25            0              55
- fee-parking with price differential                                10                 31                   72          100              34
Permits
- means: issuance of parking permits                                 50                 67                   93          100              66
Target group
- residents                                                          21                 22                   24           33              25
- visitors                                                           23                 28                   31           43              31


                                       Source: IOO-survey of 200 Municipalities

                                       Type of parking place

                                       There are roughly speaking two types of parking places which can be
                                       distinguished: on or along the public highway (on-street parking) or parking away
                                       from the public highway (car-park or covered parking facility). In the execution of
                                       parking policy the smaller municipal authorities place the emphasis more on
                                       parking on or along the public highway. Larger municipalities place more
                                       emphasis on car-parks (populations of 20,000 – 50,000) or covered parking
                                       facilities (populations of more than 50,000).

                                       Price

                                       A small minority of respondents (12%) say that their municipality opts for offering
                                       the facility of free-parking everywhere. It is quite remarkable that this instrument
                                       also occurs to a limited extent in some large medium-sized municipalities
                                       (populations of 50,000 – 100,000). The remaining respondents (88%) represent
                                       municipalities where fee-parking is maintained as an instrument of policy.
                                       Smaller municipal authorities employ this instrument without any further price
                                       differentiation. The larger a municipality is the more often that price
                                       differentiation is applied. Large municipalities with populations of over 100,000
                                       all apply forms of price differentiation. This mostly involves differentiation
                                       according to parking location.

                                       22
                                         Ministry of Transport, Evaluation of Parking policy; The Cornerstone Tested, The Hague 11 July
                                       1994.



                                                                                                                                          31
Permits

Two-thirds of the municipalities maintain a permit system for parking. The
application of a permit system increases according to the size of the municipality.
Of the smallest size category 50% operate such a system and all the largest
municipalities operate such a system. In the list of questions in the survey it has
not been made clear whether the permit system is exclusively intended for the
less able-bodied or is also intended for all target groups.

Target groups

Six out of ten respondents said that the policy in their municipality was aimed at
special target groups. Sometimes the attention in this respect is particularly
focused on residents (in 25% of municipalities) and sometimes the focus of
attention is afforded to visitors (in 31% of municipalities). In this area there are
no noteworthy differences according to size category.

Mix of instruments for an optimal parking policy

It is quite probable that, in order to achieve their objectives, the municipalities will
increasingly have to apply a mix of instruments (such as type of parking place,
parking time allowed, differences in level of parking-fees charged, pay-first fee
parking and pay-later fee parking, enforcement of regulation). Such an optimum
mix of instruments has been applied in each individual district in The Hague in
order to achieve the parking objectives. The municipal authority of The Hague
makes a distinction between ten different residential environments that are
clustered into three parking environments23. Whether or not The Hague has
hailed the start of a new development in this is difficult to say at present.


2.6 Challenges

Pressure from the business sector and from local residents

Just as happened in the past – pressure will be put on municipal authorities to
preserve the accessibility of the town centre. This requires a delicate balancing
act to attune and harmonise the various objectives of the municipal parking
policy (to safeguard access, quality of life and amenity, and to exert influence on
mobility). All citizens have some (emotional) involvement in decisions on parking
policy and the various interests diverge considerably.

Differentiation and mix of policy measures

It will remain a continuous challenge in municipal parking policy to choose a
good mix of the available instruments (type of parking place, nature of the
regulation, charging, setting different levels of charges, standards, prohibitive
conditions and enforcement). Determining the most effective mix of regulations is
not just a simple and straightforward matter for many municipal authorities due to
the different interests that have to be considered, the emotional involvement and
a lack of insight into the extent and usage of the parking area. It is not
unthinkable that a good pricing system for parking provisions, where social costs
have been discounted from the charges, can provide a valuable contribution


23
  Urban Development Department, Parking and Housing; a framework for parking in the residential
areas of The Hague, The Hague, 1999. For reserved parking for special interest groups there is a very
detailed network of configuration of areas and a charge differentiation as well as the number of
corporate permits per 10 employees/per company.



32
towards achieving the optimum level of welfare24. In the mix of measures there
should be a considered balance of simplicity and precision. The choices that
municipal authorities make in this regard vary considerably.

Improved utilisation

By opening up private parking places to the general public (partial or dual use)
the limited amount of space available can be utilised in an efficient manner and
parking pressure may be reduced at certain times of week. This is what the
municipality of Zoetermeer did by obliging private companies operating within the
fee parking zone to open their own parking places to use by the general public
outside of normal office hours25.

In order to decide on dual-use, both companies and municipal authorities will
apply a cost-benefit analysis. Often it appears that the financial and perceived
costs are too high at the moment to allow a decision to initiate such action.
According to the Rotterdam Parking Corporation, private companies in the centre
of Rotterdam with their own parking provisions envision all manner of problems
(including those of safety and security, vandalism, legal liability) which would
negatively predispose dual usage. These bottlenecks so prominent that even the
willingness of the municipal authority to pay all the investment costs involved in
making dual usage possible cannot change the way that the companies
concerned view the cost-benefits analysis. It is for this reason that the possible
options for attaining a better utilisation of the parking capacity in the municipality
are under-exploited. A better social valuation of the parking places open to use
by the general public could prove to be a forceful incentive for achieving a better
utilisation of the privately owned parking area.

Transparency

Ensuring the involvement of all parties in the development of parking policy is
important in order to gain public support for the complex issue of designating the
use of the available land (which is in short supply). This involvement is improved
if the municipal parking policy is kept transparent: transparent in terms of
objectives, target groups, instruments, charges, charge differentiation, the effects
that might be expected and the cross-subsidising between the different types of
parking provisions, types of users and between municipal districts.

Charge differentiation

The variation in charges between and within the municipalities is very extensive.
Hourly rates for parking on or along the street vary from € 0.57 to € 2.60,
resident’s parking permits vary from € 12.43 per year to € 190.59 per year and
corporate permits vary from € 18.00 per year to € 626 per year (see tables 2.7
and 2.8). In addition to this there are still a plethora of municipal authorities that
have not introduced fee parking. Hardly any information on experience is
exchanged and systematically learned from one municipality to another with
regard to charge differentiation. The determination of municipal parking charges
is often a case of ‘trial and error’26. There is room for substantial improvement in

24
   Also see the plea of Secretary of State Ybema in a speech following the Bill on Spatial Economic
Policy. “In stead of imposing rules and regulations for the establishment of a business, we could opt
for a market approach (…) In stead of setting standards, one creative solution might be to put a
definite price on parking facilities for businesses, in combination with good alternatives for public and
corporate transport”. Press release of the Ministry of Economic Affaires Ýbema lobbies for the open
market to determine parking policy in towns and cities’, 13 October 1999.
25
   Also see http://ww.pgn.nl/parkeren/zoetermeer/informatie/garage.htm
26
   André de Vos, The future is in covered parking, in: Domestic Management, jrg. 13, 2 April 1999,
page 22.




                                                                                                       33
the development and exchange of know-how with regard to charge rates and
charge differentiation. There are often negative effects resulting from differences
in charge differentiation that are not well-anticipated27.

Optimisation of charge structure

The optimisation of the charging structure is a question of trial and error for many
municipal authorities and is undertaken within a complex administrative and
political power structure. The quest to find an optimum charge structure will
remain a challenge partly due to the lack of any tangible insight into the
behaviour of local residents and partly due to the lack of insight regarding just
how employees and visitors to a particular local area will behave over the short
or long term. The level of know-how regarding this may be increased by the
concrete monitoring of behavioural patterns, experiments on behaviour, pilot
projects and technological developments ( such as the on-line amendment of
charges when there are changes in parking pressure during different periods of
the day and week). In order to achieve an optimum charging structure it is also
important to have some insight into the actual (social) costs of the parking places
in a municipality.

Legitimacy of charge differentiation

A weak point in municipal parking policy lies in the basis and legitimacy of the
charge structure between the parking permits for local residents and those for
local businesses. If companies take their case to court and municipal authorities
are then forced to justify the actual cost price of the company parking permit,
then it is not always certain that many municipal authorities will be able to
produce convincing evidence of their price structure. With increases in charges
the municipal authorities can reasonably expect that just such (test) cases will
inevitably be taken to court in the near future.

Social valuation

It is a challenge for local municipal authorities to ensure that the social cost is
better expressed within their valuation of a public parking place. The decision
making process on amendments to municipal parking policy is probably
rendered somewhat easier by making clear what the implicit subsidy is that is not
currently included in the charge. If a step in this direction is initiated then the
following objectives (including: improvements in access, distributing the parking
pressure over a wider area, inducing a decrease in parking pressure, enhancing
the overall quality of life and amenity, affording attention to public safety,
increasing the parking area available, reducing car use, getting more covered
parking facilities, promoting the use of public transport and bicycles, realising
revenues and attaining a positive balance in costs and benefits), which municipal
authorities strive to achieve in their municipal parking policy, will probably also
be achieved more easily.

Public support

For (large-scale) amendments to the parking policy it is necessary to have the
public support of residents and local businesses. This support should be
organised according to each type of user, each residential area or ward and/or
per municipal district. The realisation of an integral approach with a clear vision

27
   See for instance as an illustrative example the deteriorated parking situation in the residential areas
around the Boogaard in Rijswijk resulting from the price difference between a subscription/season
ticket with one of the private operators and that of a parking permit from the Municipal Authority.
Memorandum of the Municipality of Rijswijk, Rijswijk 2001, section 4.2.4;
http://www.rijswijk.nl/parkeernota.



34
(in terms of town and country planning, economy, public transport, bicycle, type
of parking provision, distribution of parking provisions, fees charged) and timing
will pose a significant challenge to municipal authorities. All the available means
of communication and insights (cost-benefits analysis) will have to be deployed
to this end.

Competing policy

Parking policy is still viewed by many municipal authorities as being a means of
competing for visitors. For this reason many municipalities are circumspect about
implementing a strict parking policy, their charges are compared with those of
the surrounding municipalities and it is only reluctantly that such municipal
authorities co-operate28 together in this regard.

Benchmarking

The great degree of heterogeneity and the incompatibility of parking data
between different municipalities is quite remarkable. This thereby makes the
benchmarking of municipal parking policy almost impossible. Due to this the
learning processes in improving municipal parking policy are retarded. Past
initiatives to facilitate the exchange of information (by using the CROW Parking
disc and the round-robin comparison of parking policies of SGBO-VNG) were not
sufficiently taken up.

Enforcement and control

Enforcement and control are crucial to the execution of a well-regulated parking
policy. The degree of control and enforcement correlates with willingness of
parkers to pay the charges maintained. The method of organising the
enforcement (through municipal departments, putting this task out to tender,
police enforcement, performance agreements), the integration of the
enforcement to the benefit of municipal revenue (fiscal surcharges), and the
organisation of the enforcement activities for regulated parking provisions where
no income is earned (such as parking reserved for special interest groups, blue
zone parking) will remain as a challenge to municipal authorities in the future.
Considering the success of the fiscalisation of parking fines for the
implementation of control-orientated parking at municipal level, perhaps a similar
municipal incentive may be invented for use in Mulder cases. A reallocation of
the budgets of the Ministries of the Interior or Home Affaires (Municipal Fund)
and Justice (parking fines) could help overcome the budgetary problems of the
Ministry of Justice caused by loss of income.

Technological developments

In future municipal authorities will have to make use of and react to all kinds of
technological developments. These technological developments are related to
new methods of payment (mobile telephony) and valuation (flexible variation
throughout the day and week). In addition to that possible economic options may
develop for mechanical and hydraulic underground parking provisions. The


28
   In the regions of Arnhem and Nijmegen (KAN) and the region of Twente there are examples of a
regional parking policy being developed within the framework of a regional traffic and transport plan. L.
van Horen, P. van Geffen and R. van den Heuvel, Control-orientated parking policy in the KAN region,
balancing on the edge, in: Traffic Engineering, July/August 1999; Traffic Engineering, KAN develops
integrated public transport and parking policy, January 2000; L.P. Mosch, Regional parking policy of
Twente, in: Vexpansion, No. 1, March 2000. It emerged during interviews that further policy and
charge competition can be avoided by regular consultation between the municipalities of Roosendaal
and Bergen-op-Zoom, between the municipalities of Tilburg, Breda, Eindhoven and ‘s-Hertogenbosch
in the province of Noord-Brabant, and between the larger G4Municipalities.



                                                                                                     35
introduction of new technological options will probably be enhanced by the right
valuation being put on public parking places.




36
                                   3 Number of public parking places


                                   3.1 Introduction

                                   The total number of public parking places in either each individual municipality or
                                   for the whole of the country is unknown. Neither the Town and Country Planning
                                   Departments of the Highways Authorities keep a record of such information as
                                   there is no need for this policy information. The number of public parking places
                                   only comes up as a policy issue in the planning and building of new districts. The
                                   services, departments or companies that carry out the parking policies of
                                   municipal authorities, only concern themselves with the regulation of public
                                   parking places. Such regulated public parking places only make up a fraction of
                                   the total number of public parking places. There are figures available on these
                                   regulated parking places in many municipalities. Such municipal data on
                                   regulated public parking places cannot however be simply aggregated to
                                   national totals29.

                                   In the scientific and technical literature available there is no consistent clarity on
                                   the final definition of the terms ‘open to the public’ and ‘public parking’, public
                                   costs and revenues from parking. Therefore is has been decided in this report to
                                   adopt a practical approach which corresponds as much as possible with the
                                   policy objectives. The ‘public parking places’ have been chosen as a starting
                                   point in this report. This includes all types of parking places that are open to
                                   access (fee-parking, non-fee parking, parking where permits are required,
                                   parking where no permit is required) by the general public and that are not on
                                   private property (company premises, private estates, built-in garage, carport).
                                   Ownership and operation of these public parking places may reside within either
                                   the public sector (municipal authorities) or the private sector (private companies).
                                   Where data is lacking, the private parking places of companies and institutions
                                   that are (partly) open to public access (during certain periods during the day,
                                   throughout the evening hours and at weekends and for special events) have not
                                   been included under public parking places.

                                   In this chapter the IOO have combined various sources and data in order to be
                                   able to estimate the total number of public parking places in The Netherlands.
                                   The number of public parking places is divided into three types: parking places
                                   on and along the street (par. 3.3), the places in car-parks (par. 3.4) and the
                                   places in covered parking facilities (par. 3.5). This is a much-used division of
                                   types because the planning or traffic policy is aimed at these types of parking
                                   places and because the costs differ for these types of parking places. With the
                                   aid of characteristic values the total number of parking places in the whole of the
                                   Netherlands can be estimated.

                                   3.2 Estimating number of parking places

                                   Choosing the right volume measure

                                   In order to be able to determine the public costs and revenues relating to
                                   parking, it is necessary to have some insight into the number of parking places
                                   and the costs and revenues per parking place. This chapter covers the number
                                   of public parking places, while the subsequent chapters look more closely at the
                                   costs and revenues.
Public parking places are mainly   IOO has opted for the approach of parking place volume: the public parking
paid for by public funding         places. The greater part of those parking places open to use by the general

                                   29
                                     See F.R. Bruinsma, M. Koetse , P. Rietveld and R. Vreeker, Estimation of the social costs of land
                                   use by traffic; efficient prices for traffic, AVV, Rotterdam, 2000, page 15.



                                                                                                                                     37
public will be created by public means and resources through the construction of
roads, lay-bys and public squares, by the design configuration of urban districts
and by the positioning of parking meters. In addition to these there are also
public parking places constructed by private means; for these public parking
places a parking fee will usually be charged. There is a relatively large amount of
data available on these fee-parking places which is used in estimating the
number of public parking places. Privately financed parking places which are
accessible to the general public free of charge will only exist to a limited degree;
however there is no information available on such parking places.

No quantitative data is available on public parking places

It appears that there is little clear, comprehensive and readily accessible              Number of public parking places
information available on the total number of parking places either at municipal or       unknown
at national level.
This can be explained by the limited policy attention afforded to the total volume
of public parking places. One reason for this is that there are enough parking
places available outside the urban centres and that the publicly accessible non-
regulated parking place has come to be regarded by local residents as an
acquired right and so any active interference in this right by the municipal
                                                                                         Little or no policy attention
authority (with regulation, fee parking) is generally likely to face opposition from
both local residents and businesses. It emerged during discussions with policy
officials that no quantitative data had been collected on the total number of
public parking places and that the insights of the department of ‘parking
management’, ‘traffic and transport’ and ‘town and country planning’ are not
combined into a total overview on the number of public parking places.

In addition a telephone survey carried out among two hundred municipalities
together with a written survey of fifty-eight municipalities showed that figures are
only available for a small proportion of the public parking places, i.e. for the so-
called regulated parking places. It is these places at which the execution of the
municipal parking policy is aimed. For these places parking pressure impels the
need for regulation and it is with such places that questions pertaining to access
and quality of life and amenity are most readily posed. These parking places
require layout planning, they have as prohibitive conditions applying to them,
such places require supervision and monitoring, permits have to be issued, they
must have a fee charged for their use and concessionary parking must be
approved for such places.


Estimating the total number of public parking places via variables that are
either directly or indirectly related to parking places

IOO combined various statistical data (number of housing units, number of cars,          Estimation with the aid of
length of road, number of jobs) to make an estimate of the number of public              characteristic values
parking places. These variables are either directly or indirectly linked to parking
places. Because the number of public parking places, and particularly the
number of regulated parking places, will differ according to the size of
municipality it is for this reason that the statistical data has been sorted into four
categories of municipality: municipalities with a population of less than 20,000,
municipalities with a population of between 20,000 and 50,000, municipalities
with a population of between 50,000 and 100,000 and, municipalities with a
population of 100,000 or over (table 3.1).

Estimating the total number of public parking places with the aid of variables that      Estimates are more easily opted for
are either directly or indirectly related to parking places is more easily opted




38
                                               for30. With this approach the demand for parking places is implicitly assumed and
                                               it is furthermore assumed that supply is more or less attuned to demand. This
                                               assumption is reasonable as parking policy has largely been dictated by
                                               demand. It is only in the largest cities and town centre areas that the policy over
                                               the last few years has become more control-orientated by establishing maximum
                                               parking standards and the introduction of fee parking. In these areas demand is
                                               greater than supply. Parking standards have been established for all manner of
                                               functions in the central areas; but it is also these standards that more or less
…..and applied in a very simple
                                               determine the demand for parking places. This estimation technique is also
form
                                               characterised by the simple rule of thumb that, where nothing better was
                                               available, has been continuously applied for the past ten years: due to three
                                               overriding motives for transport behaviour by car owners (home, work and visits)
                                               there is an average of three parking places available for each car31.

                                               Table 3.1 Characteristics of municipalities per group of municipalities
                                               according to size category, 2000

     Characteristics per group of municipalities                   <20,000        20,000-50,000        50,000-100,000         ≥100,000      Total
     Number of municipalities                                          311                  167                    34               25          537
     Total population (x 1,000)                                      3,621                4,979                 2,368            4,896       15,864

     Characteristics of Municipality:
     - Number of housing units                                   1,389,800             1,974,900             1,019,900       2,203,500     6,588,100
     - Number of family homes                                    1,079,000             1,485,700               661,800       1,176,500     4,403,000
     - Number of private cars                                    1,504,400             2,030,600               954,600       1,853,600     6,343,200
     - Number of commercial vehicles                               243,500               286,400               123,300         230,500       883,700
     - Number of jobs                                              968,300             1,735,600             1,085,600       2,676,400     6,465,900
     - Road length within the built-up area                         14,700                20,000                 8,500          14,900        58,100


                                               Source: IOO Ltd. Processing of CBS-data from year 2000.
                                               Legend: number of municipalities, population, cars, housing stock: 1 January
                                               2000; number of jobs; 31 December 1999; road lengths: 1 January 1998.


                                               3.3 Public parking places on the street

                                               Number of parking places on and along the street unknown

  Parking places on and along the              The number of parking places on and along the street is not known. The places
  street unknown                               are not counted and the total surface area associated with this use of land, is
                                               therefore also unknown. What is counted however are the actual number of
                                               parked cars and the actual number of parking places at a certain point in time by
                                               incidental parking studies carried out by individual municipal authorities. These
                                               studies are carried out in districts where there is a certain parking pressure so
                                               that the occupancy rate and parking pressure can be determined and where if
                                               need be it may be decided in those districts concerned to introduce a (regulative)
                                               parking policy or to amend the existing policy32. By collating together an
                                               inventory of all the parking studies carried out in The Netherlands, it is
                                               theoretically possible to determine a certain part of the actual number of parking
                                               places which are accessible to the general public. However because these
                                               studies are only available for a limited number of individual districts in a limited
                                               number of municipalities this approach will only show a part of the whole picture.
                                               This approach has not been adopted however due to the incompleteness of the


                                               30
                                                  In the end the intended research to arrive at a national impression of the area of parking space was
                                               never carried out.
                                               31
                                                  This estimate is taken from the Memorandum on Execution notice of parking policy of the Ministry of
                                               Transport of 1991. See W. Drees, ‘Parking subsidy stifles distribution sector, in: Public Issues, 1994,
                                               No. 2, pages 54-61; F.R. Bruinsma, M. Koetse, P. Rietveld and R. Vreeker, Estimation of social costs
                                               of land use by traffic; efficient prices for traffic, AVV, Rotterdam, 2000, pages 15, 69.
                                               32
                                                  e.g.: Green light traffic advisories Ltd.: Parking study Leiden; inventory of situation in November
                                               2000, Tilburg 2001.



                                                                                                                                                  39
insight gained, the unknown nature of how representative such data actually is
and the extremely time-consuming undertaking of collating all the possible data
available.

Sample survey of the number of municipal highways and a count of the
number of parking places

As an alternative it is possible to establish the number of parking places open to Estimate made with the aid of road
use by the general public within a municipality by determining those road lengths and % of parking possibilities
sections where parking is possible or permitted on one side or two sides of the
road within the built-up area33. The length or road in an area is a feature of
infrastructure that is a given statistic34. In this way it is possible to estimate the
number of public parking places on and along the street.

If in the future the physical counts of the number of occupied parking places can
                                                                                   Field studies are easy to broaden
be noted in the municipal parking studies as well as including the lengths of road
in the count then it may be possible to broaden the observations (see table 3.2
and table 3.3). Unfortunately these figures are not available at the moment,
which means that individual field work must be carried out.


Characteristic values gained from sample surveys in particular districts

As it is unknown how many parking places are accessible for public parking per
                                                                                   Percentage determined by means of
kilometre of public highway, the IOO obtained characteristic values using a
                                                                                   random sample survey
limited, representative sample. IOO selected residential areas of varying age and
geographical district in widely varying town centres in order to gain a rough
characteristic value of the number of parking places with public access per
individual road. In each area a number of streets were selected for the purposes
of the study and these were then measured using a kilometre counter and it was
determined just what the percentage was on or along these lengths of road on
which it was possible to park. The districts chosen offer a representative picture
of other such districts as they exist in the Netherlands. The sample surveyed
towards the end of 2001 consisted of various types of pre-war residential district
(Table 3.2) and various types of post-war residential area (table 3.3) in various
different towns35.

The percentages of parking places on the roads in the sample districts or areas
(70-75%) give a cautious estimate of the number of publicly accessible parking
places existing on or along the street. The estimate is cautious because no
account is taken of two-sided parking in those streets studied (this is relatively
seldom the case), with double-sided parking on the pavement and street
(indication of the number of parking places required and of the parking
pressure), with parking spaces perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the road
(thereby having more parking places per metre of road length) and with car
parks in the residential districts (limited in number). On the other hand the
number of parking places may be somewhat overestimated because the town
centres and a number of new districts have some streets designated as car free

33
   Our thanks to Mr. J.T.C.M. van Roosmalen, head of Parking Corporation of the Municipality of
Eindhoven, for his suggestion of working in this manner.
34
   Central Office of Statistics (CBS)
35
   It is quite feasible to imagine that at sometime in the future this system of measurement will be
refined by distinguishing even more different types of district. The Municipality of the Hague
differentiates between ten different types of residential environment and the related variation in profile
of residents and types of housing. Partly based on this the Municipality of The Hague is divided into
three different parking environments. These parking environments are distinguished on the basis of
the housing density, the number of people in employment in an area, the rate of car ownership and the
rate of parking occupancy of public space. The Hague, Parking and Living; a framework for parking in
residential areas in The Hague, Department of Urban Development, management of Economy and
Traffic by the Working Party on Parking in Residential areas, December 1999, page 8.



40
                                        zones. These streets have not been included in the length of road or street
                                        measured for the purposes of counting the number of parking places and
                                        therefore they are not included in the percentage of road where it is possible and
                                        permitted to park. For this reason it may be assumed that the number of parking
                                        places that is accessible for use to the general public in these districts has been
                                        somewhat overestimated. On balance it is assumed that the number of public
                                        parking places has been underestimated to a certain degree by the approach
                                        opted for.

                                        Parking on and along the road in pre-war residential areas

                                        Those areas in the towns and cities included in the sample survey vary in terms
Characterisation of the selected pre-
                                        of type of construction, road infrastructure, parking pressure and number of
war areas or districts
                                        parking places. In the district of Soesterkwartier in Amersfoort it is possible to
                                        park on both sides of the street in various streets, parking is also allowed to a
                                        limited degree on the pavement and a number of houses have their own
                                        driveway where cars can be parked. In the city centre of Delft parking is
                                        prohibited over about 36% of the road length due to bridges, trees, bicycle
                                        parking and the presence of very narrow streets36. For as much as cars are able
                                        to gain access and where they are allowed to park in the narrow streets in the
                                        centre of Delft, the parking is only allowed on one side of the street. The
                                        Bezuidenhout district of The Hague has a wide variety of building types with
                                        housing and old as well as new office buildings and a high level of parking
                                        pressure. Various offices have their own private car-parks with entrance and exit
                                        driveways where public parking is not permitted. On the district of Old-Crooswijk
                                        in Rotterdam cars park on both sides of the street and sometimes even on three
                                        sides at hammerhead cul-de-sacs and junctions. Where there are new buildings
                                        in this old district several parking places have been included in the planning on
                                        car parks located at the back of the houses.

                                        Table 3.2 Percentage of the roads in given built-up areas where parking is
                                        possible on at least one side of the street, pre-war districts (2001)

                                        Municipality and District                                                              %
                                        Amersfoort, Soesterkwartier                                                            95
                                        Arnhem, Transvaalsbuurt                                                                71
                                        Assen, old residential areas (17% private property)                                    83
                                        Delft, Central district                                                                64
                                        Den Bosch, Wolfsdonken                                                                 77
                                        The Hague, Bezuidenhout                                                                64
                                        Gorichem, Harwijck                                                                     70
                                        Gouda                                                                                  50
                                        Haarlem, Zijlwijk/Leidsebuurt                                                          81
                                        Rotterdam, district of Old-Crooswijk                                                   57
                                        Tilburg, Hasselt/Goirke                                                                69
                                        Zaanstad                                                                               66
                                        Mathematical average                                                                   71


                                        Source: IOO sample survey in residential areas; Assen, Zaanstad and Gouda
                                        municipal statement




                                        36
                                          As of 1-1-2002 comprehensive fee parking and permit parking was introduced in the Central area of
                                        Delft. From that moment on the number of regulated public parking places was a given figure known to
                                        the Municipal Authority.



                                                                                                                                        41
According to measurements taken from various residential areas and districts
and statements from municipal authorities published in 2001 an average of
seventy one percent of the road length can be used for parking in the older pre-
war districts37.


Parking on and along the street in post-war districts

The post-war areas included in the sample survey vary according to the Characterisation of the post-war areas
character of the building types, the spatial planning structure and the number of selected
possible parking places. In the residential areas of Amersfoort/Kruiskamp,
Bergen-op-Zoom/Gageldonk-West and Bergen-op-Zoom/Meilust-Noord almost
the entire length of road can be used for parking. In the district of Kruiskamp (in
Amersfoort) with parking mostly on one side only, in the wide streets of the
Gageldonk-West district (of Bergen-op-Zoom) with a lot of tow-sided parking on
streets and with parking places perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the
street, and in the Meilust district (Bergen-op-Zoom) which has parking on both
sides on many streets, with parking transverse to the direction of traffic flow, with
car-parks in the district and a few homes having carports and garages. In the
Buitenhof area of Delft no parking is possible along 30% of the road length due
to the prevalence of through roads, entry and exit roads, rubbish containers and
trees. Parking places are transverse to the longitudinal axis of the street for
about 10% of the road length; this triples the parking capacity of this road
section. In addition the district includes a few streets where parking is allowed on
two sides and there are a lot of car-parks at apartment buildings. No account
was taken of the last three features in determining the parking capacity. In the
Lageland district of Rotterdam there are relatively few cars due to the relatively
aged population. The parking capacity, increased by two-sided and
perpendicular parking, is utilised by long-stay parkers from outside the area and
by market stall holders. In some places in the district there have even been
instances recorded of 1½ parking places per housing unit.
All measurements and statements have been included in 3.3 and these are used
to determine an average percentage of road which can be used for public
parking places.




37
   By adding measurements to table 3.2 in the future the reliability of the sample survey results may be
increased. Partly due to the underestimations (only those parking places on the longitudinal axis of the
street measured, and not taking account of car-parks) and the overestimation (not taking account of
car-free streets in residential districts) there in no clear pronouncement possible on the reliability
interval of the average percentage. It is probably best to take a percentage of between 61% and 81%
as a guide for the pre-war districts. By adding further observations to Table 3.2 in the future the
assumed reliability interval can be reduced.



42
                                       Table 3.3 Percentage of the roads in given built-up areas where parking is
                                       possible on at least one side of the street, post-war districts (2001)

                                       Municipality and District                                                               %
                                       Amersfoort, Kruiskamp                                                                   97
                                       Arnhem, Presikhaaf 1 and 2                                                              76
                                       Assen, new residential areas (42% private property)                                     58
                                       Bergen op Zoom, Gageldonk-West district                                                 91
                                       Bergen op Zoom, Meilust-Noord district                                                  94
                                       Delft, Buitenhof district                                                               70
                                       Den Bosch, De Vliert                                                                    75
                                       The Hague, Zuiderpark                                                                   75
                                       Gorinchem, Wijdschild                                                                   78
                                       Haarlem, Zuiderpolder                                                                   71
                                       Nieuwegein                                                                              75
                                       Rotterdam, Lage Land                                                                    60
                                       Rotterdam, Molenlaankwartier                                                            77
                                       Tilburg, Reeshof/Dalem                                                                  72
                                       Veenendaal                                                                              60
                                       Zwijndrecht                                                                             70
                                       Mathematical average percentage                                                         75


                                       Source: IOO sample survey in residential areas; Assen, Nieuwegein, Veendaal
                                       and Zwijndrecht municipal statement.

                                       In the post-war districts included inn the sample survey and for which statements
                                       are available, it is possible to park on 75% of the road length and not possible
                                       over 25% of the road length (table 3.3)39.

                                       Estimate of total number of publicly accessible parking places on and
                                       alongside the street in pre-war and post-war districts

7,2 million public parking places on   The road lengths within the built-up areas which may be used for public parking
and along the highway                  places (percentages of table 3.2 and 3.3) can be converted into the number of
                                       parking places via a standard length measurement. The length measurement for
                                       a parking place varies form between five and six metres. In districts with a high
                                       level of parking pressure no more than five metres will be taken while in areas
                                       with low parking pressure it is possible to allow more space to be utilised. For the
                                       purposes of calculating the number of publicly accessible parking places six
                                       metres per car has been applied and it was further assumed that out of all the
                                       road length within built-up areas in The Netherlands 74% have one-sided
                                       parking40.
7 – 10 million places: reliable        The number of parking places accessible for use by the general public on and
estimate                               along road in The Netherlands may be cautiously estimated at about 7 million.
                                       As the chance of underestimation is greater than that of overestimation it may be
                                       assumed that in 2001 the number of parking places accessible for use by the

                                       39
                                          By adding measurements to table 3.23 in the future the reliability of the sample survey results may
                                       be increased. Partly due to the underestimations (only those parking places on the longitudinal axis of
                                       the street measured, and not taking account of car-parks) and the overestimation (not taking account
                                       of car-free streets in residential districts) there in no clear pronouncement possible on the reliability
                                       interval of the sample survey results. It is probably best to take a percentage of between 65% and
                                       85% as a guide for the post-war districts.
                                       40
                                          The pre-war housing stock amounts to 22% of the total housing stock (see Table 4.1) The average
                                       percentage is 0.22*71% + 0.78*75% = 74%.
                                       43
                                          16 municipalities were covered in the size category with populations of 1,000 – 20,000, 13
                                       municipalities in the size category with populations of 20,000 – 50,000, 14 municipalities in the size
                                       category with populations of 50,000 – 100,000 and 11 municipalities with a population of greater than
                                       100,000.




                                                                                                                                             43
general public on and along public highway is probably actually lies somewhere
between 7 and 10 million.


Box 3.1 Estimate of the number of public parking places on and along the street

The total road length within the built-up area in metres (table 3.1) * 0.74)/6 = (58,100,000 * 0.74)/6 = 7,166,000. If it is assumed that 20% of
the roads within built-up areas allow parking on two-sides, then the number of parking places increases by 1.9 million. If it is assumed that
each parking place takes up 5 metres of road length instead of 6 metres, then the number of parking places increases by 1.4 million places.
If a reliability interval of 64-84% is assumed for the roads where public parking is possible, then the number of parking places varies
between 6.2 and 8.1 million. As the chance of overestimation is greater than that of underestimation it may be assumed that the number of
publicly accessible parking places on and along the public highway probably in actual fact lies somewhere between 7 and 10 million.




As the road lengths within built-up zones are known for each municipality (see
Table 3.1) it is possible to use the same method to estimate the number of public
parking places on and along the street for group of municipalities according to
size category (see table 3.4).

Table 3.4 Number of estimated public parking places on and along the
street per group of municipalities according to size category in 2000

Characteristics per group of municipalities              <20,000        20,000-50,000         50,000-100,000         ≥100,000             Total
Road lengths within built-up area (km)                    14 700                20 000                  8 500           14 900           58 100
Number of public parking places on and along           1 813 000             2 467 000              1 048 000       1 838 000        7 166 000
the street


Source: IOO sample survey taken in 21 districts plus 7 statements of the
Municipalities of Gouda, Zaanstad, Assen, Nieuwegein, Veenendaal and
Zwijndrecht.
Legend: on average it is possible to park on and along 74% of the roads within
built-up areas, the length of each parking place being 6 metres.


3.4 Public parking places on car-parking areas

Two complementary approaches

In the previous paragraph the number of public parking places on and along the
road was estimated for the whole of The Netherlands using road lengths within
built-up areas. The greater part of these parking places is not regulated by
municipal authorities. The public parking places on car-parks at apartment
blocks, on residential estates and housing courtyards was not estimated using
the road length method in the IOO system.
Therefore the number of public parking places on car-parks was estimated using
the number of housing units in apartment blocks. The other approach makes use
of the municipal statements and publications from the survey executed.

Regulated parking places on car-parks

In the survey undertaken among municipalities 56 municipal authorities stated 8.7 regulated parking places on car-
the number of regulated parking places on car parks (an average of 8.7 places parks per 1,000 residents = 225,000
per 1,000 residents) (table 3.5)43. It is assumed that these municipalities and this parking places on car-parks
characteristic value are sufficiently representative for estimating the number of
regulated parking places on car-parks per size category of municipality over the
whole of The Netherlands. This method puts the number of regulated parking
places on car-parks in the Netherlands at 225,000.




44
          Box 3.2 Estimate of the number of regulated public parking places on car-parks

          The considered average number of regulated parking places on car-parks in The Netherlands is put at 8.7 per 1,000 residents (see
          table 3.5). If this characteristic value is used to estimate the number of regulated parking places on car-parks in The Netherlands then
          there are 138,000 regulated parking places on car-parks (8.7/1,000) * population of 15,864,000) (see table 3.1). The relatively limited
          number of regulated places on car-parks in the larger municipalities, which are well-represented in the sample survey, force down the
          considered characteristic value. Therefore it was decided to estimate the total number via the characteristic values per size category
          (see table 3.5). This puts the number of regulated parking places on car-parks in The Netherlands at 225,000.



                                            Unregulated parking places on car-parks

                                            Apart from the regulated places there are also non-regulated parking places on
Unregulated parking places on               car-parks. Many of these public parking places are situated on car-parks
car-parks = 0.6 places standard
                                            provided for apartment blocks or areas of housing development. These public
per housing unit = 1.3 places
                                            parking places are not estimated using length of road (par. 3.3) or via the
                                            regulated public parking places. The number of public, non-regulated, parking
                                            places on car-parks located at apartment blocks is estimated using the number
                                            of housing units in each block and an average number of parking places per
                                            housing unit. This total is added to the number of regulated public parking places
                                            on car-parks in order to estimate the total number of public parking places on
                                            car-parks. Depending on the size, the location or the price of a housing unit - the
                                            municipal authorities often apply a parking standard of between 0.6 and 1.3
                                            parking places per housing unit44. As it is not the case that all the parking places
                                            used by the residents of apartment blocks are necessarily situated on adjacent
                                            car-parks or parking areas – some may park on or along adjacent streets or in
                                            residents’ garages – it is assumed that the average number of car-parking
                                            places per housing unit in The Netherlands is put at 0.6.
                                            From this calculation it can be deduced that there are 1.3 million public, non-
                                            regulated, parking places on car-parks (table 3.5).

                                            By adding together the regulated public parking places (225,000 parking places)
                                            and the non-regulated public parking places (1,311,000 parking places), it was
                                            possible to estimate that total number of public parking places on car-parks in
                                            the Netherlands in the year 2000 amounted to 1,536,000 places. (see table 3.5).

                                            Table 3.5 Estimated number of public parking places on car-parks per
                                            group of municipalities according to size category in 2000

          Characteristics per group of municipalities                 <20,000      20,000-50,000       50,000-100,000       ≥100,000          Total
          Number of public regulated parking places on car-              12.8               24.5                 14.8            4.5           8.7
          parks per 1,000 population
          Number of public regulated parking places on car-            46,000            122,000                 35,000       22,000       225,000
          parks in all municipalities
          Number of apartment units etc.                              310,800            489,200               358,100     1,027,000     2,185,100
          Number of publicly accessible parking places on             186,500            293,500               214,800       616,200     1,311,000
          car-parks and courtyards adjacent to apartment
          blocks
          Total number of places on car-parks                        232,500             415,500               249,800       638,200     1,536,000


                                            Source: IOO Ltd., number of apartments/flats CBS, number of regulated places
                                            on car-parks per 1,000 residents survey by IOO.
                                            Legend: average number of regulated parking places on car-parks based on
                                            statements from 56 municipal authorities; number of parking places on car-parks
                                            at apartment buildings; 0.6 per housing unit.


                                            44
                                               Taken from the parking standards of Eindhoven, Bergen op Zoom, Nieuwegein, Zoetermeer, Gouda
                                            and Assen. Lower standards than 0.6 parking places per housing unit apply in the case of housing for
                                            the elderly, service flats and student accommodation.
                                            46
                                               The number of residents (table 3.1) * 10.1 = 15,864 * 10.1 = 160,226 public parking places in
                                            covered parking facilities.



                                                                                                                                                 45
3.5 Parking places in covered parking facilities

Parking monitor

The most extensive (empirical) information on the publicly accessible parking 162.000 parking places counted in
places in covered parking facilities in The Netherlands is published in the covered parking facilities
Parking Monitor of Goudappel Coffeng consultants. The parking places in
residents’ garages and in company garages which are not open to use by the
general public have not been included. All those municipalities in the country
with populations of over 50,000 have been included in the Parking Monitor plus
111 smaller municipalities (23% of the municipalities with populations of less
than 50,000). The Parking monitor does not underestimate the number of
parking places in covered parking facilities by any significant amount when one
considers the fact that there are very rarely any public parking facilities of this
type present in smaller municipalities. It may therefore be safely assumed that
the number of public parking places given in the Parking Monitor for covered
parking facilities is more or less a comprehensive enough picture to be used as a
source covering the entire country. According to data in the Parking monitor
there is a total of 162,000 parking places in covered parking facilities in The
Netherlands (see table 3.6).

Table 3.6 Number of parking places in Parking monitor per group of
municipalities according to size category in 1999

                                               <20,000   20,000-50,000    50,000-100,000       ≥100,000          Total
Number of municipal statements                      27              84                34             25           170
In Parking Monitor

Parking places in covered parking                  730          22 603           31 914         107 000       162 247
Facilities in shopping areas



Source: Goudappel Coffeng, Parking Monitor, 1999.

IOO-survey

Based on the statements of 66 municipal authorities included in the survey it was          162,000 parking places in covered
estimated that there were 10.1 regulated public parking places per 1,000                   parking facilities estimated from
population in covered parking facilities in 2000. If this considered average               characteristic value from survey
characteristic value is applied to the Dutch population, then this results in almost
the same amount as that given in the Parking monitor: 160,200 public parking
places in covered parking facilities46. As the number given in the Parking monitor
was actually counted, this number is used for further reference.


3.6 Summary of the number of public parking places

Total overview

Using an estimate of the public parking places on and along the public highway,
on car-parks and in covered parking facilities it is possible to gain a total
estimate of the number of public parking places in The Netherlands (Table 3.7).
Out of the total number of public parking places (8.9 million) 81% can be found
on and along public highways or streets, 17% are to be found on car-parks and
2% in covered parking facilities.




46
                                    Table 3.7 Total number of public parking places in The Netherlands, 2000

                                                        <20,000       20,000-50,000      50,000-100,000         ≥100, 000            Total
    On and along the street                           1,813,000           2,467,000           1,048,000         1,838,000       7,166,000
    On car parks                                        232,500             415,500             249,800           638,200       1,536,000
    In covered parking facilities                           700              22,600              31,900           107,000         162,200
    Total                                             2,046,200           2,905,100           1,329,700         2,583,200       8,864,200


                                    Source: IOO Ltd.

                                    Quality of the estimate of the number of public parking places

Estimate total of 8.9 million       At 8.9 million, the estimate of the total number of public parking places in the
places with unknown static          year 2000 is probably somewhat conservative (see table 3.7). With the parking
range                               places on and along the street no account was taken of two-sided parking and
                                    with parking places perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the road.
                                    Considering the assumed reliability interval for parking places on and along the
                                    road the actual number of public parking places on and along the road is
                                    probably somewhere between 7 and 10 million.
Probable actual number is           When added to the number of estimated parking places on car-parks and in
between 8.5 and 11.5 million        covered parking facilities, and the assumed reliability interval, it may be assumed
parking places                      that the number of public parking places lies somewhere between 8.5 and 11.5
                                    million.
                                    In addition where there is a lack of quantitative data available no estimate is
                                    made of the number of public parking places outside of built-up areas, such as
                                    those located at recreational facilities and at companies which also (partly) allow
                                    their parking areas to be used by the general public. It is assumed that the
                                    number of public parking places outside of built-up areas, such as those located
                                    at recreational facilities and those made available by companies allowing their
Estimated maximum of 12             parking areas to be used by the general public is not greater than ½ million.
million parking places              This then puts the maximum number of public parking places at 12 million.

                                    The estimate of the number of public parking places of between 8.5 and 12
                                    million is not contrary to the estimate of ten million public parking places of
                                    Vossestein47.

Earlier estimate of 10 million      All parking places that are accessible for use by the general public have one or
parking places was not falsified    more functions. In the following chapter a study is carried out of whether the
                                    calculated capacity with a range of 8½ - 12 million parking places is sufficient to
                                    meet the demand from housing-, commercial- and destination-related public
                                    parking places.




                                    47
                                      Marcel Vossestein, If we value mobility, in: Combining the contributions of Colloquium Traffic
                                    Planning Detection, 1999, page 1046.



                                                                                                                                       47
4. Functions and features of public parking places

4.1 Introduction

The public parking places are utilised for three purposes or functions: housing-                   Three functions: housing-related,
related, commercially-related or destination related. In addition over the course                  commercially-related and
of the day a public parking place may be consecutively used for several different                  destination-related
functions. The total number of public parking places of between 8½ and 12
million must be enough to meet the needs of the functions, and through the
required number of places for the purposes it is possible to further break down
the estimated number of public parking places in greater detail.

By looking at the number of housing units in The Netherlands according to type it
is possible to estimate the number of housing-related publicly accessible parking
places (par. 4.2). The number of commercially-related publicly accessible
parking places is less easy to determine because many company-related parking
places are situated on private property. No figures are available for these places.
Only a rough estimate can be made of the number of public parking places for
company employees and visitors (par. 4.3). There is no set way of determining
the number of destination-related parking places. Municipal authorities apply
standards top cover all manner of provisions that attract visitors. Apart from that
the destination and shopping-related parking places are often fee-parking
places, and it is for those numbers of places where fees are charged that figures
are most readily available.

From the survey carried out by IOO in 73 municipalities, it is possible to
determine the number of regulated public parking places (par. 4.5). The
regulated public parking places are the public parking places which municipal
parking policy is mainly aimed at; for this group of parking places the costs are
incurred by municipal parking policy. The regulated parking places make up 19%
of public parking places (19%). Another special feature of public parking places
concerns the private or public ownership of the parking places (par. 4.6). This
chapter summarises the functions and features of public parking places in
paragraph 4.7.

4.2 Housing-related parking places

Number of parking places per housing unit in zoning plans

The number of public and private parking places is partly determined by those                      1.2 – 2.0 parking places per
standards set out in zoning plans. Such standards vary according to the                            housing unit in newly built areas
individual type of housing concerned. The parking standards maintained by
municipal authorities depend on the type of housing, the price of the housing and
the location concerned. These standards have been used in conjunction with
building since the beginning of the seventies in the last century. The standards
vary from between 1.2 to 2.0 parking places per housing unit48.
The municipalities of Bergen op Zoom, Utrecht, Zaanstad, Tilburg and Nijmegen
for example apply a standard of 1.5 parking places per housing unit while the
municipality of Zoetermeer takes a standard of 1.2 to 1.7 parking places per low-
rise housing unit. The municipality of Nieuwegein adheres to a standard of 1.25
parking places per housing unit where there is no space for parking on private
property and 1.65 places for housing with parking places on private property(this
assumes one place on their own property per housing unit and 0.65 places on or
along the public highway). In Lelystad the standard applied is two parking places
per housing unit: 0.8 places on private property and 1.2 places on or along the

48
  44 Parking standards from various municipalities and information obtained from interviews with
parking experts at the municipal authorities.



48
                                       public highway. The newly built district of IJburg in Amsterdam has been planned
                                       with a total of 1¼ parking places per housing unit, where each housing unit has
                                       an internally built-in garage incorporated within it and so a total of ¼ of a parking
                                       place has been provided for each housing unit on public space49.
                                       There are clear signs of increasing pressure to push up the parking standard per
Increasing number of parking           housing unit. According to an expert working for the Department of
places per housing unit                Infrastructure, Traffic and Transport in Amsterdam it would have been better if
                                       the parking standard had been set at 1,5 parking places per housing unit in the
                                       new district of IJburg (1 internal place within the property of each housing unit
                                       and 0,5 places per unit on or along the public highway). According to the expert
                                       mentioned, it is to be feared that the parking pressure will prove to be the same
                                       as on the Eastern islands; where the town Planning was clearly inadequate on
                                       this point at a mere 1,1 parking places per housing unit(of which 50% is allowed
                                       for in internally incorporated parking space and 50% on or along the public
                                       highway). According to a similar expert from the municipal authority of Utrecht
                                       there should now be at least two full parking places per housing unit in order to
                                       meet the current demand for parking space.

                                       IOO expects that an average number of parking places of 1.5 per housing unit
                                       can be taken as the amount adhered to in 2000 for housing built since 197050.
                                       The number of housing-related parking places can be determined with the aid of
                                       this average number of parking places per housing unit.

                                       The housing-related parking places partly on private property and partly on
                                       public land

                                       Not all parking places at housing units are however located on public land or are
Characteristic values for parking
                                       accessible to the public. It is assumed that 50% of the housing built since 1970
places on private property and on
                                       has a parking place included with its property (box 4.1). This percentage is not
public land for newly built housing
                                       an empirically given value and can only be approached. Of the entire housing
                                       stock 34% of the housing units have either their own garage and/or carport,
                                       whereas a major proportion of the detached and semi-detached housing (making
                                       up 26% of the total housing stock) will have their own private parking place51. At
                                       the same time it appears from studies carried out in a few municipalities that in
                                       spite of the parking places situated on private property, many cars are still
                                       parked on public land. It appears that it is not unusual that 50% of the garages
                                       and carports are not used for parking. Various municipal authorities maintain the
                                       following premises: a garage with driveway counts as 1 parking place, a garage
                                       with no drive counts as 0.5 places, a carport counts as 0.7 places and a garden
                                       parking places counts as 0.5 parking places.

                                       For the 3.3 million houses built since 1970 (half the entire housing stock) the
Characteristic value of housing
                                       following premises will therefore be maintained:
built after 1970: 1.2 public parking
places per housing unit                - average of 1.5 parking places per housing unit,
                                       - 50% of the housing units make use of 0.7 parking places situated on their own
                                       property and 0.8 parking places on or along the public highway52,
                                       - 50% of the housing units make use of 1,5 public parking places.



                                       49
                                          According to recent insights into Town Planning in Amsterdam, it would have been better if apart
                                       from the garage place per housing unit there could have been ½ parking place per unit on public land.
                                       During the decision making process the parking places per unit on public land was halved from ½ to ¼
                                       parking place on public land.
                                       50
                                          This average is also maintained in :F.R. Bruinsma, M Koetse, P. Rietwerk and R. Vreeker, Estimate
                                       of social cost of land use by traffic; efficient prices for traffic, AVV, Rotterdam, 2000 page 70.
                                       51
                                          CBS, Statistical Yearbook 2001, Voorburg/Heerlen, 2001, page 190.
                                       52
                                          48 The mathematical average of the premises maintained by various municipal authorities on the
                                       use of garages with or without driveways, carports and garden parking places:
                                       (1 + 0.5 + 0.7 + 0.5): 4 = 0.7 parking places on private property




                                                                                                                                        49
For the newer areas it is possible to calculate in this way, where it is assumed
that there are 1.2 parking places per housing unit on public land (box 4.1).


Box 4.1 calculation of the number of public parking places per housing unit built after 1970

It is assumed that 50% of the 3.3 million housing units have a parking place at their disposal on their own property (1.7 million parking places
on private property). This is also expected to include a significant portion of the 2.2 million housing units with a garage and/or carport (34% of
6.6 million housing units), of the 979,400 detached houses, of the 755,800 semi-detached houses and a less significant part of the 2,689,900
corner or mid-terrace houses (CBS, Statistical Yearbook 2001, page 190). The 1.7 million housing units with parking on their own property
make use of 1.4 million public parking places (1.7 * 0.8 public places). The 1.6 housing units (3.3 – 1.7) built after 1970 with no parking
provision on their own property use an average of 1.5 public parking places. The number of housing-related parking places situated on public
land for these housing units amount to 2.4 million parking places (1.6 * 1.5). It is expected that 1.2 public parking places will be needed for
each housing unit built since 1970: (1.4 + 2.4):3.3.



For the older areas of housing built before 1970 the standards for housing built Characteristic value for older
after 1970 cannot be applied. Based on the estimates of a few municipal housing: 0.8 – 1.0 public parking
authorities it is assumed that for housing built between 1945 and 1970 a place per housing unit
standard of one parking place on or along the public highway per housing unit
may be assumed and for houses built prior to 1945 a standard of 0,8 per
housing unit may be applied. These standards take account of the relatively
limited number of parking places present on their own property with such
houses.

Using the figures and assumptions given above it is possible to estimate the 7.0 million housing-related places
number of housing-related parking places at 7.0 million public parking places.
This is rounded off to an average of 1.1 public parking places per housing unit
(table 4.1).

Table 4.1 Housing stock as of 1 January 2000 and estimated number of
housing-related public parking places

Housing stock according                Number of housing units            Number of public parking places            Number of public parking
period of construction                       (x 1000)                            per housing unit                            places
                                                                                                                            (x 1,000)
Prior to 1945                                   1,447.3                                  0.8                                  1,160
1945 – 1970                                     1,822.1                                  1.0                                  1,820
1970 – 1999                                     3,318.7                                  1.2                                  3,980
Total /average                                  6,588.1                                  1.1                                  6,960


Source: Number of housing units per building period: CBS, Statistical Yearbook
2001, Voorburg/Heerlen, 2001, page 191; other calculations from IOO Ltd.

Using the number of housing units per group of municipalities as a guide it is
possible to divide the total number of housing-related public parking places in
The Netherlands among the municipalities according to size category (table 4.2).

Table 4.2 Number of housing-related parking places per group of
municipalities 2000

Characteristics per group of municipalities      <20,000             20,000-50,000         50,000-100,000            ≥100,000           Total
Number of housing units                          1,389,800           1,974,900             1,019,900                 2,203,500          6,588,100
Number of housing-related public parking         1,468,200           2,086,400             1,077,500                 2,327,900          6,960,000
places


Source: IOO Ltd.




50
                                             4.3 Commercially-related parking places

                                             Approach via the standards of the ABC-location policy

                                             In 1988 the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (encompassing the portfolios of
Standards for estimating the                 Housing, Town and Country Planning and Environmental Management)
number of commercially-related               introduced the ABC-location policy for businesses and public provisions. The aim
parking places
                                             of this policy was to establish the right commercial business enterprise in the
                                             right place and to reduce car use by applying maximum parking standards
                                             (Table 4.3)53.

                                             Table 4.3 The SVV-parking standards

        Standard per location                                                     Number of parking places per            One parking place per m2
                                                                                               100 employees                       gross floor area
        A-locations Randstad, urban bottlenecks and other urban boroughs                                    10                                  250
        A-locations elsewhere                                                                               20                                  125
        B- locations Randstad, urban bottlenecks and other urban boroughs                                   20                                  125
        B-locations elsewhere                                                                               40                                   65


                                             Source: Dutch House of Commons, Parking policy, parliamentary year 1996-
                                             1997, 22 383, No. 9, page 6.

                                             At a strategic planning level the effects of this policy have proven successful as
                                             the ABC-location policy has been included in many provincial, regional or
                                             municipal transport plans. The execution of the policy has been somewhat less
                                             successful however. In many cases municipal authorities attach greater
                                             importance to the economic interests linked to the establishment of a company
                                             within their municipality than to the consequences for mobility on the highways
                                             as a result of such establishments54. The execution is also impeded because the
  Standards are not a precise                public transport provisions at potential A-locations are of inadequate quality. This
  codification of the actual                 forces municipal authorities to (temporarily) suspend the strictest standards,
  situation                                  which in turn leads to inter-municipal competition. There are also municipalities
                                             that have no need for strict location standards as they have no congestion
                                             problems which might prompt a reduction in car-mobility. Finally the execution of
                                             the policy is impeded in daily (property) practice as new locations with restrictive
                                             parking standards are competition to existing building developments with a
                                             relatively large amount of parking places55.

                                             Approach using combination of data

                                             The parking standards of the ABC-location policy are used to arrive at an initial
                                             approach as there are no nationwide figures available on the number of public
  Cautiously apply standards as              parking places used by employees. In this regard it should be realised that the
  an initial approach to the number          greater part of the commercial locations came about prior to 1990 when there
  of commercially-related parking            were no maximum standards in force and that the ABC-policy was only recently
  places                                     introduced and that the standards are not strictly applied. For this reason the
                                             ABC-standards are not just applied without further consideration such as those
                                             given in the SVV-II policy (table 4.3), but (summary) empirical figures of the
                                             National Planning Service are used for each individual type of location (table
                                             4.4).



                                             53
                                                Ministry of Housing, Town and Country Planning and Environmental Management, Location policy
                                             in progress; an intermediate report, The Hague, 1994
                                             54
                                                Karel Martens, ABC-location policy in practice; the role of municipalities, provinces and Inspections
                                             of Town and Country Planning in the incorporation of the ABC-location policy in strategic policy and
                                             operational decision making, Expert working party of the Catholic University of Nijmegen, report
                                             number 16, Nijmegen, 1996.
                                             55
                                                51Ministry of Housing, Town and Country Planning and Environmental Management, Location
                                             Policy in Progress; an intermediate report, The Hague, 1994, page 18.



                                                                                                                                                  51
Number of commercially-related parking places

By combining these figures it is possible to calculate that there are about 2.9                              Approximately 2.9 million
million commercially-related parking places (see table 4.4)56.                                               commercially-related parking
                                                                                                             places
In the Monitor ABC-locations of the National Planning Service the number of
commercial locations in 1996 was divided according to type (column 1 table 4.3)
and a very limited statement was included of the average number of people
employed per parking place for office locations in 1997. The average parking
standards are only known for 37 office locations (24 A-locations, 5 B-locations
and 8 C-locations). Where there is nothing better available, these empirical data
(column 5) are used to estimate the total number of commercially-related places
at all commercial and office locations. Use of this standard probably produces
more reliable results than the target standards of the location-policy. For the
remaining locations and those locations that are not classified it is assumed that
there is one parking place per two employees57.

Table 4.4 Number of ABC-locations in 1996, parking standards per
location, number of employees per type of location and number of
commercially-related parking places

Type of location                Number of Locations           In %               Number of        In %       Number of jobs        Number of
                                                                                 employees                 per parking place   parking places
A                                                154             4                  258 636          4                   8,1          31 930
B                                                245             6                  387 954          6                   3,6         107 770
C                                                258             7                  452 613          7                   3,9         116 050
Remaining locs.                                2 828            72                 4655 448         72                   2,0       2 327 720
Not classified                                   417            11                  711 249         11                   2,0         355 620
Total                                          3 902           100                6 465 900        100                             2 939 090


Source: National Planning Service, Monitor ABC-locations, basic report, The
Hague, 1998, page 8, B16; calculations IOO Ltd.
Legend: the total number of jobs (6 465 900) in divided in percentage terms
among the locations according to the percentage distribution of column 2.


Commercially-related parking places on private property and on public
land

The commercially-related parking places are situated partly on private property
and partly on public car-parks. The vast majority of the commercially-related
parking places will be situated on private property as many municipal authorities
adhere to a policy which dictates that the commercially-related parking places
must be situated on the property of those commercial enterprises concerned.
With the aid of five detailed studies undertaken by the B&A Group it is possible
to estimate that an average of 80% of the commercially-related parking places
can be found on private property belonging to the enterprises concerned and
20% of the commercially-related parking places are situated on public car-parks
(table 4.5). The low percentage of commercially-related public parking places is
not so improbable considering that the municipalities – besides the formal

56
   Various municipalities also maintain parking standards per square metre of surface area of the
commercial locations. Further study may show whether a calculation of the number of commercially-
related parking places via the surface area standard deviates to any significant extent from the
calculation of the number of jobs.
57
   An average standard based on the standard from the SVV-II of 40 parking places per 100 jobs
(public transport location) and 60 parking places per 100 jobs (car transport location). From the Policy
Memorandum on parking of 1998 of the municipality of Nieuwegein it appears that in residential areas
the municipality assumes that there is 1 parking place for every 2½ employees; Goudappel Coffeng,
the Policy Memorandum on parking of 1998 of the municipality of Nieuwegein, 2nd concept, Deventer,
1998, page 15. It may be assumed that in non-residential areas a more expansive standard may be
adhered to. For this reason it has also been decided to take an average standard of 2 employees per
parking place.



52
                                        obligations – also employ financial motivators for ensuring that as many
                                        commercially-related parking places as possible are realised on private
                                        (company) property. In certain municipalities it is possible for companies that do
                                        not have any room on their premises for their own parking area, to pay to be
                                        released from this obligation; they then pay the costs of the publicly accessible
                                        parking places. Furthermore, the costs of company-rate parking permits are
                                        usually higher than those incurred by residents (see table 2.9).

                                        Table 4.5 Number of commercially-related parking places situated on
                                        corporate property and use of public parking places based on a survey of
                                        businesses carried out in 1999

   Locations                                       On company premises and rented spaces                 Public parking places
                                                                      number               in %               number           in %
   Rijswijk Plaspoelpolder                                              9,216               66                  4,810           34
   Amsterdam South-East                                                13,250               87                  2,005           13
   Rotterdam Brainpark                                                    970               93                     71            7
   Utrecht City Centre                                                  2,015               98                     44            2
   Leiden Station area                                                  4,481               89                    536           11
   Total and considered average                                        29,932               80                  7,466           20


                                        Source: Five studies of B&A Group.

                                        The insights gained from Table 4.5 are used to make an estimate of the number
                                        of commercially-related public parking places. It is assumed that twenty percent
                                        of the 2.9 million commercially-related parking places are to be found on public
587 800 commercially-related            land. In this way it is possible to estimate that 587,800 commercially-related
public parking places                   public parking places are required.

                                        The commercially-related public parking places are subsequently divided among
                                        the group of municipalities according to size category (Table 4.6) using the
                                        number of jobs per group of municipalities (Table 3.1).

                                        Table 4.6 Estimated number of commercially-related public parking places
                                        per group of municipalities in 2000

   Characteristics per group of municipalities                  <20,000   20,000-50,000     50,000-100,000      ≥100,000             Total
   Number of jobs                                               968,300       1,735,600          1,085,600     2,676,400        6,465,900
   Number of commercially-related parking places                 88,030         157,780             98,690       234,300          587,800


                                        Source: IOO Ltd.

                                        Number of commercially-related parking places via permits issuance

                                        By means of counting the number of permits issued for companies it is possible
                                        to check whether or not the estimate of the number of commercially-related
                                        public parking places is acceptable. The number of company parking permits
                                        should be less than the number of commercially-related public parking places.
                                        Depending on the area concerned, municipal authorities maintain standards for
                                        the number of permits per employee that a company may be granted.
                                        Furthermore there are figures available for a number of municipalities so that it is
                                        known just how many permits have been granted to companies or businesses
                                        and to residents and/or visitors. From this data it may be concluded that 23% of
                                        the permits are commercial permits issued to businesses and 77% are issued to
                                        local residents (Table 4.7).




                                                                                                                                      53
Table 4.7 Number of permits for residents and companies in various
municipalities (excluding visitors, incidental and temporary permits)

Municipality                                              Residents permits                            Company permits
                                                          number                 in %                  number            in%
Amsterdam                                                 86,107                 82                    18,440            18
Rotterdam                                                 15,603                 60                    10,418            40
The Hague                                                 17,000                 72                    6,500             28
Utrecht                                                   9,727                  83                    1,934             17
Nijmegen                                                  3,425                  64                    1,900             36
Dordrecht                                                 4,260                  77                    1,250             23
Gouda                                                     3,843                  85                    652               15
Eindhoven                                                 868                    74                    304               26
Veenendaal                                                945                    84                    174               15
Total/average                                             141,778                77                    41,572            23


Source: Information from Municipal Authorities

From the survey carried out among Dutch municipalities it may further be
concluded that there were about 47.2 permit places for local residents and 86,000 commercially-related
companies per 1,000 population in the year 2000. With the aid of the permit places
characteristic values of ‘number of permits per 1,000 population’ per group of
municipalities it is possible to estimate that there are some 373,000 permit
places in The Netherlands for residents and companies58. If 23% of these permit
places are commercially-related, this will result in 86,000 commercially-related
permit parking places. This amounts to 15% of the number of public
commercially-related parking places.

4.4 Destination-related parking places

Parking places are realised for a large number of provisions (destination-                                 Planning standards for the number of
related). This includes shops, post-offices, town-halls, police stations, social-                          parking places per type of provision
cultural provisions, social-medical provisions, cafes, hotels, restaurants and                             Number of destination-related
entertainment centres. In the planning of such urban provisions the municipal                              parking places cannot be estimated
authorities apply various standards (Table 4.8). The standards for the number of                           using municipal standards and
destination-related parking places at shops may vary between two and four                                  guidelines per type of destination
places per 100 square metres of gross surface area, for hospitals this may vary
between 0.8 and 1.2 parking places per bed and for institutions of higher
education it may vary by 1 and 1½ parking places per classroom plus 1 parking
place per 12 students. The great distribution of the standards (in spite of the
CROW guidelines applied by many municipal authorities) and the great degree
of variety make it impossible to determine the number of destination-related
parking places for the whole of The Netherlands by using standards and
guidelines59. Furthermore the standards are not representative for the actual
situation regarding the number of destination-related parking places because the
standards have only been applied with those provisions most recently realised.




58
   The number of permit parking places in The Netherlands estimated using the characteristic values
per group of municipalities (16.4 per 1,000 population in the municipalities with populations of between
50,000 and 100,000 and 68.2 per 1,000 population in the municipalities with populations of over
100,000): 2,368 * 16.4 + 4,896 * 68.2 = 373,000 permit parking places. Twenty three percent of these
permit places give a total of 86,000 commercially-related permit places.
59
   There may be various different parking standards applied within the category ‘social-cultural
provisions’ for churches, theatres, cinemas, convention centres, museums, community centres,
crèches, libraries, funeral undertakers or crematoria. Furthermore it appears that the measurement
unit per destination can vary between different municipalities. Estimating the destination-related
parking places in The Netherlands using municipal standards requires an extremely extensive
collection of data (number of provisions and standards per provision per municipality).



54
                                             Table 4.8 Parking standards per traffic destination provision in 2001

                                                                                Minimum                            Maximum
          Supermarket                                                           4 pp/100 m2 g.f.a.                 8 pp/100 m2 g.f.a.
          Shops                                                                 2 pp/100 m2                        4 pp/100 m2
          Town Hall                                                             1.4 pp/100 m2                      1.8 pp/100 m2
          Police Station                                                        1 pp/100 m2                        3 pp/100 m2
          Post Office                                                           1.3 pp/100 m2                      1.7 pp/100 m2
          Library                                                               0.5 pp/100 m2                      1.7 pp/100 m2
          Social-Cultural                                                       1.7 pp/100 m2 or                   4 pp/100 m2
                                                                                0,2 pp/seat
          Church                                                                0.05 pp/seat or                    0.3 pp/seat or
                                                                                5 pp/100 m2                        10 pp/100 m2
          Social-medical                                                        1.4 pp/100 m2                      2.7 pp/100 m2
          Hospitals                                                             0.8 pp/bed                         1.2 pp/bed
          Sports facilities                                                     7 pp/sports hall or field          36 pp/sports hall or field
          Swimming pool                                                         8 pp/100 m2 pool                   12 pp/100 m2 pool
          Institutions of Higher Education                                      1 pp/classroom                     1.5 pp/classroom or
                                                                                                                   1 pp/classroom + 1 pp per 12
                                                                                                                   students
          Hotels-restaurants-cafes and entertainment centres                    2 pp/100 m2                        13½ pp/100 m2


                                             Source: IOO Ltd. Based on the statements of a few municipalities (Zoetermeer,
                                             Niewegein, Gouda, Bergen op Zoom, Zaanstad); not all municipalities adhere to
                                             the CROW-standards, the standards vary around the CROW-standards.
                                             Legend: pp = parking place, g.f.a. = gross floor area.

                                             Estimate of the number of destination-related parking places

                                             Despite the great variation in the standards, by making a few observations it is
                                             possible to investigate whether for some important provisions (shops, schools,
                                             hospitals etc.) the number of destination-related parking places is adequate per
                                             group of municipalities. The estimated number of destination-related parking
                                             places for such provisions makes up a part of the total number of public parking
                                             places.

A minimum of 514,000                         For the hospitals and schools per municipality IOO assumed that there was one
destination-related public                   parking place per bed and one parking place per classroom in schools for
parking places                               secondary, further and higher education60. The destination-related parking
                                             places for shopping areas are taken directly from the Parking Monitor of
                                             Goudappel Coffeng Consultants (see Table 4.9). It is possible to estimate that
                                             there are a minimum of 514,000 destination-related parking places. According to
                                             the nature of the function it is assumed that these destination-related parking
                                             places are entirely open to use by the general public.




                                             60
                                               The calculation is based on the number of students per municipality. It is assumed that there are an
                                             average of thirty students per classroom.



                                                                                                                                                55
Table 4.9 Estimated number of public parking places per group of
municipalities for a few destinations

Destination-related parking places                        <20,000      20,000-50,000     50,000-100,000           >100,000               Total
For the convenience of:
* shops in covered parking                                    730              22,603            31,914            107,000            162,247
* shops on street/centres                                  18,514              75,098            43,008             80,878            217,498
* schools                                                      76            1,759                3,339             17,285             22,459
* hospitals                                                 1,143              10,015            14,440             27,553             53,151
* theme parks61                                                 -              26,500               650             31,270             58,420
* …….                                                      ………                 ………               ………                ………                ………
* …….                                                      ………                 ………               ………                ………                ………
Total (rounded off)                                        20,500            136,000             93,400            264,100            514,000


Source: IOO Ltd. and shopping-related from Parking Monitor.

The destination-related public parking places from table 4.9 do not cover all the Probably as many as 600,000 –
provisions. Not all publicly accessible parking places at recreational facilities, 700,000 public parking places
football stadiums and at theme park type attractions have been included and on
the whole no estimates were made of the public parking places for destination
traffic at social-cultural provisions and hotel-restaurants and cafes/pubs etc.
where there were no figures available for such. A conservative estimate of the
requirement in this case may be put at 600,000 – 700,000 parking places.


4.5 Regulated public parking places

4.5.1 Total number of regulated public parking places

In the survey the municipal authorities often stated how many public parking
places were regulated by a special department of parking management. This
mainly concerns parking places for which a fee has to be paid for use, for which
permits are issued or for which in town centres or in district centres special
parking places have been specifically incorporated within environmental
planning. In general – with a few notable exceptions(given in box 4.2) - the
municipal authorities did not have data on the total number of public parking
places (both regulated and unregulated).


Box 4.2 The number of public parking places versus the number of
regulated public parking places: examples

- Municipality of Hoogeveen: there are an estimated 20,000 public parking places in the municipality: ±8,000 on the street, ±9,500 along the
street, ±500 P+R parking places and ± 2,000 on car parks; of the public parking places 2,247 are fee-parking places.
- Municipality of Velsen: approximately 40,000 public parking places for approximately 25,000 housing units: ±29,000 on the street, ±10,000 in
lay-bys along the street, 100 P+R places and ±places on car-parks; of the 40,000 parking places 220 are fee parking places.
- Municipality of Veenendaal: 30,000 – 40,000 marked parking places, of which 3,591 are regulated parking places in the town centre.
- Municipality of Dordrecht: 40,000 – 100,000 public parking places, out of which about 10,000 are regulated.
- Municipality of The Hague: about 175,000 public parking places, of which 34,798 are fee parking place



Table 4.10 summarises the figures from the IOO survey of 66 municipalities.
Using the resident population per municipality as a guideline it is possible to
calculate characteristic values for the number of regulated public parking places
per 1,000 population. In the smaller municipalities there is an average of 60
regulated parking places per 1,000 population, while in the municipalities with
populations of over 50,000 there are just over 100 regulated parking places per
1000 population (Table 4.10).

61
   Estimates of the parking places (in brackets) for passenger cars at a few theme parks: Burgers’
Zoo, Arnhem (25,000), Six Flags Holland, Biddinghuizen (5,000), Six Flags, Biddinghuizen (including
fields) (20,000), Efteling, Kaatsheuvel (5,000), Autotron, Rosmalen (3,000), Theme Park Duinen
Zathe, Appelscha (1,500), Rotterdam Zoo (1,400), Duinrell, The Hague (935), Archeon, Alphen a.d.
Rijn (650), Artis, Amsterdam (500), Madurodam, The Hague (350), Omniversum, The Hague (85).



56
                                              Table 4.10 Number of regulated public parking places in sample survey per
                                              group of municipalities according to size category (given in brackets are
                                              the number of municipalities from which the information was obtained)

Number of parking places                                   1,000 –20,000 20,000-50,000    50,000-100,000      100,000       Total
                                                                (28)          (13)             (14)            (11)         (66)
Number of public regulated parking places                          19,501        61,396            98,560     326,721     502,178
Average per 1,000 population                                         60.2         143.5             105.3        107.5      107.2


                                              Source: IOO survey.
                                              Legend: in 73 municipalities information was obtained on the number of
                                              regulated parking places per type, out of 66 information was obtained on: the
                                              average characteristic values per 1,000 population were calculated using the
                                              population figures for the municipalities from which information was obtained.

                                              By applying the calculated characteristic values per 1,000 population from the
                                              sample survey to all Dutch municipalities, it is possible to estimate that in 2000
                                              there were 1.7 million regulated public parking places in The Netherlands (table
                                              4.11).

                                              Table 4.11 Number of regulated public parking places per group of
                                              municipalities according to size category in year 2000: national total

Characteristics per group of municipalities                < 20,000      20,000-50,000 50,000-100,000       100,000        Total
                                                                (311)        (167)           (34)             (25)         (537)
Population (x1,000)                                             3,621             4,979           2,368       4,896        15,864
Number of regulated public parking places per 1,000               60.2            143.5           105.3       107.5         107.2
population (sample survey)
Number of regulated public parking places                     218,000          714,500           249,300    526,300      1,708,100


                                              Source: The characteristic value for the number of regulated public parking
                                              places per 1000 population was calculated from the results of the IOO-survey;
                                              population:CBS.

                                              4.5.2 Number of regulated public parking places according to type

                                              Characteristic values per 1,000 population

                                              Information was obtained from 66 municipalities in The Netherlands by means of
                                              interviews and surveys on those features which characterise the number of
                                              regulated parking places: ‘on and along the street’, ‘on car-parks’, ‘in covered
                                              parking facilities’, ‘fee-parking’ and/or ‘permit parking places’. For these
                                              particular municipalities the figures gained per group of municipalities according
                                              to size category were converted into characteristic values per 1,000 population
                                              (Table 4.12). These characteristic values were regarded as sufficiently
                                              representative to be used for estimating the total number of public parking places
                                              in The Netherlands.




                                                                                                                               57
Table 4.12 Characteristic values per 1,000 population of the regulated
public parking places in the sample survey per group of municipalities
according to size category (given in brackets are the number of
municipalities from which the information was obtained), 2000

Number of regulated public Parking places per 1,000    1,000 –20,000   20,000-50,000    50,000-100,000                 >100,000     Total
pop.                                                         (28)            (13)             (14)                       (11)       (66)
Total number of regulated public parking places of                60.2            143.5            105.3                   107.5      107.2
which:
- on or along the street                                            47.5             115.1                81.5              90.6        88.1
- on car-parks                                                      12.8              24.5                14.8               4.5         8.9
- in covered parking facilities                                        0               3.9                 9.0              12.4        10.1
- fee parking places                                                 ≈0                8.8                37.2              73.7        55.4
- parking for special interest groups                                ≈0                ≈0                 16.4              68.2        47.2


Source: IOO-sample survey.
Legend: in 73 municipalities information was obtained on the characteristics of
the regulated parking places , out of 66 information was obtained on: the
average characteristic values per 1,000 population were calculated using the
population figures for the municipalities from which information was obtained.

Number of regulated public parking places in The Netherlands

In estimating the number of regulated public parking places account should be Review of sample survey results
taken of the composition of the sample survey in relation to population. Out of against totals nationally
the sample survey of 66 municipalities those municipalities with a population of
over 100,000 make up 65% of the total population of all the municipalities
surveyed and these municipalities make up some 31% of the total Dutch
population. Due to the large municipalities being over-represented in the survey
the considered average characteristic value per 1,000 population over all the
municipalities cannot be used to estimate national totals (column ‘total’ in table
4.12). In order to calculate the national totals, the characteristic values per 1,000
population per group of municipalities are taken. In this way the over-
representation of the larger municipalities has no effect on the calculated
national totals (table 4.13). The 1.4 million regulated public parking places form
81% of the total number of regulated public parking places on car-parks
(225,000 parking places) and in covered parking facilities such as multi-storey
and underground car-parks (101,400 parking places)62. A fee is charged for
parking at 492,700 regulated public parking places (29% of the total number of
regulated public parking places) and a permit is needed to park at 372,700
regulated public parking places (22% of the total number of regulated public
parking places).

Table 4.13 Characteristic features of the regulated public parking places
per group of municipalities according to size category: total number of
places in The Netherlands in 2000

Number of regulated public parking places                             < 20,000      20,000-50,000 50,000-100,000        100,000      Total
                                                                        311)            (167)          (34)               (25)       (537)
Total                                                                   218,000            714,500       249,300        526,300    1,708,100
of which:
- on or along the street                                                172,000            573,100           193,000    443,600    1,381,700
- on car-parks                                                           46,000            122,000            35,000     22,000      225,000
- in covered parking facilities                                               0             19,400            21,300     60,700      101,400
- fee parking places                                                         ≈0             43,800            88,100    360,800      492,700
- parking for special interest groups                                        ≈0                 ≈0            38,800    333,900      372,700




62
  If the considered average characteristic value per 1,000 population (10.1 parking places) is
assumed with the regulated public parking places in covered parking facilities such as multi-storey and
underground car-parks this will give a resultant total
of 160,200 parking places (15,864 * 10.1). This figure largely corresponds with the number of places in
covered parking facilities stated in the Parking Monitor.



58
                                            Source: IOO Ltd.
                                            Legend: population figure see table 3.1, characteristic values per group of
                                            municipalities according to size category table 4.12.

                                            4.6 Ownership and exploitation of regulated public parking places

                                            With the aid of the survey results of 66 municipalities it is possible to determine
                                            that all regulated public parking places on and along the public highway or street
                                            are the property of the municipality, while 81% of the regulated parking places on
                                            car-parks (incl. P+R car-parks) and 42% of the parking places in covered parking
                                            facilities (multi-storey, internal and underground car-parks) are owned by the
                                            municipality. Due to the large volume of parking places on and along the street
                                            an average of 93% of the regulated public parking places is owned by the
                                            municipality. Information is obtained in much the same way on the municipal
                                            operation of such regulated public parking places: 100% of the places on and
                                            along the street are operated by the municipality, 74% of the places on car-parks
                                            and 45% of the places in covered parking facilities. On average 93% of the
                                            operation of the regulated public parking places is carried out by the municipality.
                                            It sometimes occurs that regulated parking places are owned by the municipality
                                            but are operated by a private company as does the reverse of this situation
                                            (table 4.14)63.

                                            Table 4.14 Percentage of regulated public parking places owned and
                                            operated by the municipality per group of municipalities according to size
                                            category (given in brackets is the number of municipalities from which
                                            information was obtained), in 2000

   Percentage of regulated public parking places              1,000-20,000     20,000-50,000     50,000-100,000          100,000         Total
                                                                  (28)              (13)              (14)                 (11)          (66)
   Owned by municipality:
   - On and along the street                                           100%             100%                100%           100%              100%
   - on car-parks                                                       63%              80%                 77%            91%               81%
   - in covered parking facilities                                         -             41%                 52%            40%               42%
   Total                                                                94%              95%                 93%            93%               93%
   Operated by municipality:
   - On and along the street                                           100%             100%                100%           100%              100%
   - on car-parks                                                       30%              65%                 79%            91%               74%
   - in covered parking facilities                                         -             55%                 52%            43%               45%
   Total                                                                85%              93%                 93%            93%               93%


                                            Source: IOO Survey.

93% of the public parking places            In quantitative terms the private ownership and private operation of publicly
are publicly owned and operated             accessible parking places are still of quite limited significance. Of all the
                                            regulated public parking places 93% is owned by the municipal authority and is
                                            operated by them too. Ownership and operation of parking places is still largely a
                                            public matter.
                                            It is estimated that 98.5% of all public parking places are publicly owned
                                            The limited significance of the private sector for ownership and operation of
                                            public parking places, and consequently the importance of the public sector in
                                            this regard, is also apparent from the quantitative ratio. It is assumed that all
                                            public parking places on and along the street are both publicly owned and
                                            operated. Furthermore it is also assumed that all parking places on car-parks are
                                            public property, with the exception of the 19% of the regulated public parking
                                            places that are privately owned, while 58% of the public parking places are in
                                            private hands. With this assumption it is possible to estimate that 98.5 of public


                                            63
                                              The first is the case with regulated public parking places on car-parks: 81% of the places are the
                                            property of the municipality and 74% of the places are operated by the municipality. The second
                                            occurs with regulated public parking places in covered parking facilities: 42% of the places are owned
                                            by the municipality and 45% of the places are operated by the municipality.



                                                                                                                                                 59
parking places are public property (8.7 million parking places) and 1.5 is privately
owned (137,000 parking places) (table 4.15).

Table 4.15 Total number of public parking places in The Netherlands in
private and public ownership, 2000

                                                                       Publicly owned                  Privately owned                 Total
On and along the street                                                      7,166,000                                -              7,166,000
On car-parks                                                                 1,493,250                           42,750              1,536,000
In covered parking facilities                                                    68,124                          94,076                162,200
Total                                                                        8,727,374                          136,826              8,864,200


Source: IOO Ltd.
Legend: public parking places on car-parks in private ownership: 19% of 225 000
regulated public parking places (see table 3.13); public parking places in covered
parking facilities under private ownership: 48% of 162 200 public parking places.

4.7 Summary of functions and features of public parking places

The functions of public parking places are summarised in table 4.16. It may be                                 8.9 million public parking places is
concluded that the number of public parking places in the year 2000 (8.9 million)                              adequate capacity
was sufficient for the places needed to fulfil the function (8.1 million). Even if one
reckons on 0.6 to 0.7 million destination-related parking places the capacity is
still adequate. The capacity is certainly adequate if the public parking places that
fulfil multiple functions are also taken into account. The commercially-related,
shopping and school-related parking places on public land can partly be used in
the evening hours for parking cars outside the home64. If account is taken of
partial double usage of public parking places during the day, then it may be
assumed that 10-15% of the capacity consists of over-capacity during the
daytime.

Table 4.16 Estimate of the number of public parking places in 2000 per
group of municipalities according to destination

Number of public parking places                            <20,000         20,000-          50,000-100,000       >100,000    Total
                                                                           50,000
Number of public parking places                            2,046,200       2,905,100        1,329,100            2,583,200   8,864,200
According to function:
- Housing-related                                          1,468,200       2,086,400        1,077,500            2,327,900   6,960,000
- Commercially-related                                     88,030          157,780          98,690               243,300     587,800
- Destination-related                                      20,500          136,000          93,400               264,100     514,000
Total number of places by function                         1,576,730       2,380,180        1,269,590            2,835,300   8,061,800


Source: IOO Ltd.

It may further be concluded from table 4.16 that the total number of publicly                                 National total is more robust than
accessible parking places are not ‘divided’ in any satisfactory way among the                                 the totals per type of municipality
municipalities according to size category by the background variables and
characteristic values. In municipalities with populations of over 100,000 the
number of publicly accessible parking places is underestimated or the number of
function-related public parking places is overestimated.

There is only any sort of regulation at all with 19% of the public parking places                             The costs of the public parking
(Table 4.17). These are parking places for which permits are issued, fees must                                places are only absorbed by the user
be paid or where a limited parking duration is applied. A parking tax or permit                               in 6% of cases.
charge is only required to be paid for a mere 6% of public parking places. From

64
  The double use will not assume any great proportions. With many commercially-related and
destination-related parking places there will be no housing in the immediate vicinity, while in many
areas the capacity will be of such a magnitude that double use is not needed. It is only in the city
centres of the larger municipalities where the capacity may be insufficient to provide for all the
functions that are required throughout the course of the day.



60
                                            the analysis it appears that the municipal parking policy is only aimed at a small
                                            minority of public parking places and that the cost of all parking places and the
                                            parking policy are applied to just 6% of the public parking places.

                                            Table 4.17 Estimated number of public parking places per group of
                                            municipalities in year 2000: regulated and unregulated

 Number of public parking places                                <20,000        20,000-50,000    50,000-100,000        >100,000          Total
 Number of public parking places                                 2,046,200         2,905,100          1,329,100        2,583,200        8,864,200
 Of which regulated places:
 - on or along the street                                           172,000          573,100             193,000        443,600         1,381,700
 - on car-parks                                                       46,000         122,000              35,000         22,000           225,000
 - in covered parking facilities                                    0                 19,400              21,300         60,700           101,400
 - fee parking places                                               ≈0                43,800              88,100        360,800           492,700
 - parking for special interest groups                              ≈0               ≈0                   38,800        333,900           372,700
 Total number of regulated parking places                           218,000          714,500             249,300        526,300         1,708,100


                                            The function and characteristic features of the public parking places as covered
                                            in this chapter are summarised again in Table 4.18. This overview should be
                                            tempered with the knowledge that all the figures are based on estimates and
                                            approaches tinged by a degree of uncertainty. Only the figure for the number of
                                            public parking places in covered parking facilities was obtained by an actual
                                            count (162,200 parking places); this concerns 1.9 percent of the total number of
                                            publicly accessible parking places. It may furthermore be concluded that the
Plausible estimation of the
                                            figures are of logical proportions to one another and have also been confirmed
number of parking places
                                            by incidental municipal statements. The estimated number of public parking
                                            places is sufficient for all the functions which the public parking places will have
                                            to fulfil, and the estimated over-capacity is quite substantial. In this way a
                                            reasonable, sturdy and reliable picture is produced of the number of publicly
                                            accessible parking places.

                                            Table 4.18 Total number of public parking places in The Netherlands
                                            according to functions and characteristic features

 Number of public parking places                             Functions            In%       Property            In%      Regulated             In %
 (8,864.2 places)
 of which:
 - Housing-related                                              6,960.0           78.5
 - Commercially-related                                           587.8            6.6
 - Destination-related                                            514.0            5.8
 - In public ownership                                                                       8,727.4           98.5
 - In private ownership                                                                        136.8            1.5
 - Regulated places                                                                                                        1,708.1             19.2
 - Fee-parking places                                                                                                        492.7              5.6
 Total                                                          8,061.8           100        8,864.2            100        2,200.8             24.8


                                            Source: IOO Ltd.

                                            From the estimate of the number of destination-related parking places there is no
                                            evidence for applying the old rule of thumb that there are three parking places for
                                            every car, or in other words 21 million parking places65. Assuming there are 8.9
                                            million public parking places it can be estimated that, when the parking places on
                                            private property are included, there are 12½ million parking places in
                                            The Netherlands. If a maximum estimate of the number of public parking places
                                            is assumed (12 million places) then the maximum number of public and non-
                                            public parking places is 15.6 million (table 4.19). This comprises 25% less than
                                            the estimate of the department of Traffic and Transport made at the beginning of
                                            the nineteen-nineties.




                                            65
                                              61 Ministry of Transport, Execution notice of parking policy, Dutch Lower House of Parliament,
                                            1991-1992, 22,383, No. 1.



                                                                                                                                               61
Table 4.19 Estimate of the total number of public parking places in The
Netherlands (in millions)

Public and private parking places                                         Estimated number   Maximum number
Public parking places                                                     8.9                12.0
Estimated number of parking places on private property at housing units   1.2                1.2
Estimated number of parking places at commercial enterprises              2.4                2.4
Total                                                                     12.5               15.6


Source: IOO Ltd.; see paragraph 2.6, box 4.1 and table 4.5




62
5 The cost of public parking places


5.1 Introduction

The costs of all public parking places in The Netherlands cannot just be
determined without any further ado. There are no characteristic values available
on the costs and benefits of the various types of public parking places. The costs
and benefits vary greatly from one municipality to another due to local
circumstances, the method of calculation of costs and benefits and the various
different types of parking places and the differences in the make up of the
municipal budgets and accounting66. Every municipal authority has its’ own
system in the degree to which capital costs, staffing costs, overheads and basic
costs are calculated. So not all costs are calculated into the parking places.
Therefore none of the sources that can be used give a comprehensive insight
into the total financial costs and into the social costs involved in public parking
places. It is for this reason that IOO attempts to gain the most comprehensive
possible insight into the cost of public parking places (par. 5.2) by means of
various approaches and by applying various definitions of cost. In each
paragraph the costs are estimated for each individual type of public parking
place: on and along the street’, ‘on car-parks’ and ‘in covered parking facilities’.

In order to determine the total financial costs of the public parking places, all the
cost items must be recorded in the cost price at the right price. The investment
costs must be included in the annual operating costs under depreciation, all
types of cost must be applied (basic costs, labour costs, capital costs,
maintenance costs, overhead costs etc.) and the right cost levels must be
maintained so that there is no risk of an implicit subsidy. These conditions are
generally not complied with in municipal operational summaries for their parking
policies.
Therefore a gradual step by step comprehensive costing of public parking places
is mimicked (with depreciation of the investment costs, operating costs and basic
costs)(par. 5.3). As various undertakings have to be assumed in the composition
of the costs incurred by the comprehensive financial costs, the results are
compared with an approach to the total financial costs via open market prices
(par. 5.4). Conclusions are then drawn from this comparison of both estimates of
the total financial costs of public parking places. This conclusion contains the
most reliable estimate of the total financial costs of the parking places (par. 5.5).
Besides an analysis of the total financial costs of the public parking places
account should also be taken of the social costs caused by the negative external
effects of the public parking places. In paragraph 5.6 an exploratory analysis is
carried out of these social costs.
The conclusions are then summarised and presented in paragraph 5.7.

5.2 Many different definitions of costs

5.2.1 Introduction

There are all kinds of partial insights and definitions of the costs of parking
places. In their accounting systems the municipalities include the costs of
regulated public parking places (par. 5.2.2). An estimate is made of the total
financial costs of all public parking places by estimating and totting up the
investment costs (par.5.2.3), operating costs (par. 5.2.4) and the basic costs
(par. 5.2.5). This is also expedited because not all of the costs are always fully
applied and because costs are also incurred by the unregulated public parking

66
  F.J.M. Opbergen, Synopsis of finances in parking funds make it possible to produce a concerted
parking policy, in CROW, Parking and Mobility, No. 6, January 1993, page 18.



                                                                                            63
places. Due to the various assumptions made and the nature of the figures used
it is difficult to say with any degree of certainty that the full financial costs of the
parking places have been estimated. For this reason the analysis results are
compared with the open market values of the parking places (par. 5.2.6). By
considering both approaches to the fully comprehensive financial costs
conclusions can be drawn about the total financial costs of the public parking
places. Apart from the total financial costs the public parking places also result in
social costs (par. 5.2.7). These costs can be added up with the total financial
costs.

By combining together various figures from municipalities, secondary sources
and from the IOO-survey, an approximate insight is gradually gained into the
total costs involved in public parking places. The approach adopted in the study
and the combination of data is at the cutting edge and may be added to and
refined in the future by further research.

5.2.2 Costs in municipal accounting and budgeting

The costs and benefits related to the regulated parking provisions (such as
staffing costs, traffic wardens, parking meters, maintenance costs, depreciation,
parking tax etc.) (Table 5.1) are established and set out in the municipal
accounts and budgets.

Table 5.1 Municipal costs of parking taxes 2000, 2001, 2002 (in million
Euro)

Municipalities        2000                  2001                   2002
Population < 5,000    0.1                   0.1                    0.1
5,000-10,000          1.1                   1.0                    0.9
10,000-20,000         5.6                   5.3                    6.0
20,000-50,000         31.5                  34.4                   39.8
50,000-100,000        43.5                  49.7                   55.5
100,000-150,000       38.1                  41.7                   44.7
150,000-250,000       42.2                  30.4                   42.8
≥ 250,000             165.5                 200.4                  253.8
Total                 327.6                 363.0                  443.6


Source: Functional specification of municipal levies (function 214)
Legend: all costs incurred that are related to parking provisions, including those
traffic wardens and parking meters

In some municipalities contributions made to a mobility fund are also attributed to          No comparable cost allocations
the costs of parking provisions. This makes the mutual comparability of the costs
of regulated parking places between municipalities quite problematic. It further
appears from the IOO-survey of municipalities that the basic costs are generally
not allocated to parking provisions. The other cost items (staffing costs, capital
costs, material costs, maintenance costs, housing costs, automation costs,
collection charges, costs of tendering out work tasks and the overhead costs of
the service/department) are generally (at least in part) allocated to parking
provisions, even though conclusions may be drawn from the survey about the
quality of the allocations and passing on of accounts.

The costs in the municipal accounts and budgets are only concerned with                    Only the costs of a limited number
parking policy and those regulated parking provisions in or close to the town              of parking places
centres. As was covered in chapter 3, this only concerns a limited part of all
public parking places. As not all costs are included in municipal accounts the
definitions of cost differ and the costs are only known for a limited number of
public parking places (only the regulated parking places), so for this reason IOO
used a different method of determining the total financial costs of all public
parking places.



64
                                         5.2.3 Investment costs

                                         The investment costs of the public parking places should be included by means
                                         of annual depreciation in the operating costs. By estimating the investment costs
                                         for each individual type of parking place (street, car-park, covered parking
                                         facility) and by estimating the annual depreciation it is possible to investigate
                                         whether the depreciation of the investment costs has been fully included in the
                                         operating costs.


                                         5.2.4 Operating costs

Operating costs only give a partial      The annual operating costs of the parking places consist of the cost of staff
insight into the total financial costs   (enforcement, maintenance, administration), maintenance, tendering, housing,
                                         automation, overheads, capital and basic costs. The available data are used to
                                         gain an initial insight into the operating costs of parking places. Because all the
                                         costs (basic, capital, investment) are not always fully applied or known, this
                                         creates a mere partial insight into the operating costs that will have to be
                                         supplemented.

                                         5.2.5 Basic costs

                                         The basic costs are usually not included in the cost of parking places.
Determining costs without the
                                         Municipalities take the view that these costs make up part of the costs of public
basic costs is incomprehensive
                                         space, that these costs have already been discounted in the initial construction
                                         and maintenance of the road, that there is no alternative use for the remaining
                                         space on the road that is used for parking or that the residents of an area of new
                                         housing developments bear these costs via the costs incurred in the issuance
                                         and acquisition of the land. Although this view held by municipal authorities is not
                                         in itself incorrect, it does mean that the actual costs of the parking places are
                                         hereby underestimated.
                                         By underestimating these actual costs too much is invested from the social point
Objective: less squandering of the
                                         of view in public parking places, these parking places are too cheap, the
limited space available
                                         valuable short supply of space is squandered and in the scale of priorities of the
                                         general public at large the public space is utilised below the optimum. If there is
                                         any desire to reduce these social effects then municipal authorities can opt to
                                         reduce the cost of land issuance and acquisition and of the cost of leaseholds
                                         together with the basic costs of public parking places by passing these costs
                                         directly on to the public parking places. By substituting a part of the basic costs
                                         of housing and commercial buildings for the basic costs of public parking places
                                         this ensures that the users themselves will pay for the actual costs of public
                                         parking places and not the home owner/ general tax payer/ person that is now a
                                         car owner.

Basic costs at market value              Various viewpoints may be taken with regard to basic costs. It may be assumed
                                         that the land on and along the road used for parking has no possible alternative
                                         use; so the cost of the land concerned is nil. It may be argued that the actual
                                         scarcity of land is translated in terms of the market value of the land or an
                                         intermediate position may be adopted67. According to municipal statements, in
                                         the approach taken by IOO the market value of the land has been discounted in
                                         the price of a public parking place.




                                         67
                                           Patrick Snijders, The economic balance of parking; preliminary study in three municipalities, AVV
                                         Roterdam, 1995, page 12.



                                                                                                                                           65
5.2.6 All financial costs: the sum of three types of cost

By adding together the annual depreciation of the investment costs, the
operating costs and the loss of interest on land use, a first approach to the total
financial costs of parking places is produced. Due to the nature of the figures
used and the assumptions that must be made, there is no real certainty that the
estimate of the total financial costs will get close to the true figure. Costs can be
underestimated or overestimated and in the investment and operating costs
used there may be particular types of cost that have been included at lower
prices which are not real open-market values. Therefore an approach is adopted
where all financial costs, according to the sum of investment costs, operating
costs and basic costs, are compared with the approach of all financial costs via
the market price of parking places.

5.2.7 All financial costs: market prices

Certain types of costs (such as capital, staffing, housing, automation, overheads       In market prices of all costs are
etc.) are not always entirely applied through the investment and operating costs        included at the right prices
which in turn can cause the total financial costs to be underestimated. By not
assuming the “right” prices with certain costs an implicit subsidy may be provided
to the public parking places which mask the actual costs incurred.

It is expected that all costs are included at the right price in the market price of
public parking places. In this regard it is the market prices of places in covered
parking facilities that are the most reliable as there is a real market in existence
for such prices. The ‘market price’ for places on the street can only be
approximated; as for these places there is no real free market. The market for
parking places on car-parks is somewhere in between these first two types of
place mentioned. That is why the analysis of the market prices per type of
parking place (street, car-park and covered parking facility) is supplemented with      Comparison and assessment of
an analysis of the market prices of public parking places according to the              two approaches: conclusion of
purchasing arrangement applied by municipal authorities. With the last analysis         total financial costs
which is considered to be the most reliable and is the one which gets closest to
the real market value of public parking places, the particular type of parking
place is unknown.

In the market prices used for the analysis, sometimes the basic costs may or            Combination of sources needed to
may not be included. Therefore the analysis of the total financial costs according      identify market prices
to market prices is also not entirely reliable. The most reliable view of the total
financial costs of public parking places is gained from the comparison and
assessment of the total financial costs according to the sum of the different types
of cost (investment, operating and basic costs) on the one hand and then the
market prices on the other hand.

5.2.8 Social costs

Introduction

The financial costs included in the operating accounts plus the basic costs and
the market cost of a public parking place do not reflect the social costs of a
public parking place. In order to determine the social costs of a public parking
place it is not only necessary that all the production factors employed are
included (staffing costs, capital costs, basic costs) nor just that the production      Social costs also        reflect    all
factors are priced in accordance with the legal premium level (open market              extreme effects
price), but also that all the external effects are expressed in the costs. Such a
demanding cost allocation was not taken on board up to now in determining the
cost of parking places. This is also hindered by the lack of necessary data for
estimating the external effects of parking places.



66
                                       Social benefits: positive external effects

Positive external effects are mainly   Parking places have positive external effects: access is increased, the local
local                                  economy is stimulated, production and consumption possibilities increase,
                                       wealth is maximised and companies are able to elect to establish at the best
                                       locations.

                                       The extent of these positive external effects of public parking places is probably
The positive external effects are
                                       quite negligible to society in its entirety. The positive external effects in question
already partly included in the
                                       are mainly local effects and consist of substitution effects. The positive external
parking charges
                                       effects occurring in one municipality due to increased spending options and
                                       improved conditions for establishing at a particular location may not be found in
                                       all other municipalities. It is for this reason that municipal authorities keep close
                                       track of the traffic policies adhered to in their neighbouring municipalities. There
                                       is hardly any improvement in the national well-being. Furthermore these positive
                                       external effects are probably also largely included in the price of the parking
                                       places68. Due to the positive external effects resulting from better access the
                                       price for a covered parking facility in town centres can be quite considerable, and
                                       this in turn reflects the positive external effects. It is conceivable that the
                                       internalisation of the positive effects (the benefits of access) mainly apply to the
                                       parking charges for businesses and visitors and does not (yet) apply to the
                                       parking charges for residents.

                                       Social costs: negative external effects

                                       Together with public parking places there are also a number of negative external
                                       effects that are linked to land use. This concerns the damage to the living
                                       environment, the negative quality of the residential surroundings, the
Various negative external effects      ‘contamination’ due to air pollution, the nuisance from excessive noise, “a
on: quality of life, environmental     metallic dominated street scene”, the lack of space for children to play, the
pollution, public safety, crime        damage to greenery in an area, the adverse effect on road safety, vandalism and
                                       crime. If the parking pressure is too great and cars end up being parked on the
                                       footpaths then the nuisance is further compounded, the safety of pedestrians is
                                       decreased even further and the space for children to play is more restricted. Due
                                       to these negative external effects a large number of municipal authorities is
                                       trying to reduce parking on the street by increasing the number of internally
                                       located parking places off the street69.
                                       This policy can only be successful if public parking on the limited amount of
Objectives for quality of life and
                                       available public space is well-priced. If the parking places on the street do not
amenity are made easier to
                                       bear any of the social costs and the covered parking facilities do have to pay for
achieve by taking account of the
                                       this, then the places on the street will be priced too low. The shifting away of
price of the negative external
                                       parking on the street towards substitute parking in covered parking facilities may
effects
                                       face strong opposition from local residents, visitors and the business sector. If
                                       the policy is forced through however then it will be necessary to explicitly
                                       subsidise local residents’ use of parking places in covered parking facilities in
                                       order to ensure that the price-gap with other residents who are already in

                                       68
                                          These conclusions apply to the car and have not been specifically analysed for public parking
                                       places. E.T. Verhoef, Economic Efficiency and Social Feasibility in the Regulation of Road Transport
                                       Externalities, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam, 1996; W. Rothengatter, Externalities of transport, in:
                                       J.B. Polak and A Heertje (eds.), European Transport Economics, Oxford, 1993; CE, Efficient pricing
                                       for traffic, estimate of the social costs of using various modes of transport, Delft 1999. An example of
                                       incorporating the positive external effects in the parking charges is where a retailer pays the parking
                                       charges in order to keep customers. “The costs of such parking fees are not a lot to a business. In the
                                       first six months of the year I reimbursed customers for parking charges to the tune of between
                                       fourteen and eighteen hundred guilders. For that amount you gain a lot of satisfied customers and
                                       apart from that it is a tax-deductible expense, according to a perfume store proprietor.” Cosmetic
                                       journal; Creative parking offers are designed to entice back customers, September 1998.
                                       69
                                          See among others, Department of Urban Development, Parking and Housing; a framework for
                                       parking in the residential areas of The Hague, The Hague, 1999.



                                                                                                                                            67
possession of a permit for a parking place on the street does not become too
great.
If there are too few parking places, then the negative external (environmental)
effects will increase as due to the lack of parking space cars are forced to cruise
around for relatively longer in order to look for a vacant parking place. It is for
this reason that various municipalities aim to ensure that the occupancy rate of
parking places is not higher than 90% at peak times70.

Another negative external effect is that the availability of parking places will
                                                                                                           Parking places are a precondition
induce an increase in car traffic. The degree to which the number of parking
                                                                                                           for mobility and the associated
places will influence the total mileage of cars is unknown. It is probable that the
                                                                                                           negative external effects
number of places and the cost of a parking place will influence car usage71.
In this way an increase in the number of parking places would lead to an
increase in the negative effects associated with more car traffic. The external
effects of car traffic are extensive and varied. In reference publications on the
subject the external costs of traffic accidents, external environmental costs and
external congestion costs are named as the most important external costs of
traffic72. In the past parking policy was used as a means to regulated car traffic73.
The thinking was that parking policy could be a means of compensating for the
external costs of car traffic. The demand for parking can - as a positive side
effect – be regulated to reduce the negative external effects of traffic.

The negative external effects are higher the more people that are exposed to
these external effects. That is the reason that at first sight it may be concluded                       Negative external effects do not just
that car parks in urban areas involve higher external costs than car-parks in rural                      occur in urban areas
areas. This need not necessarily always be the case however. Noise pollution
can cause nuisance in wilderness areas and a poorer local air quality will have
an adverse effect on the health on the surrounding ecosystems.
As the (immediate) surroundings of parking places determine the level of the                             The extent of negative external
external costs specific to a particular location, the external costs vary from one                       effects specific to location
parking place to another. This means that ideally the negative external costs will
have to be determined for each individual parking place. This is an impossible
task. Thanks to reference material on the subject the negative effects of air
pollution, noise nuisance and traffic accident victims are already known. The
negative external effects of the quality of the living environment are not known.

The negative external effects of parking places can be determined via four
methods:
- damage value (the damage caused by air pollution, the damage to human Negative external effects:                                         four
health and adverse effect on the quality of life);                               empirical approaches
- willingness to pay to prevent damage or the amount which people are willing to
accept damage (willingness to accept);


70
  The average overcapacity in The Netherlands is estimated at 10-15%; see paragraph 4.7. In the
benchmark municipal business climate the occupancy rate of fee parking places varies between 30
and 80% (with the exception of Amsterdam at night and on Sundays); Marnix de Bruin c.s.,
benchmark municipal business climate, thematic report, Research for Policy, Leiden , 1999, page 92.
71
   W. Drees, Parking subsidy stifling distribution sector, in: Public Issue , 1994 No. 2, page 54-61.
According to a Finnish study car use in Helsinki would drop by 8-14 percent if parking charges were to
be increased by 30% and this drop in car use would decrease by 21-38% if parking charges were to
be doubled; Jari Kurri, Parking policy measures and their effects on shopping and work trips – a case
study in the Helsinki metropolitan area, NECTAR conference No. 6, Transport Innovations,
Competitiveness and Sustainability in the Information Age, 16-18 May, 2001, Espoo, Finland.
72
   E.T. Verhoef, Economic effects and social costs of road transport, in: Transportation Research,
volume 28a, No. 4 pages 273-287; Verhoef, E.T., Economic Efficiency and Social Feasibility in the
Regulation of Road Transport Externalities, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam, 1996; K.J. Button,
Overview of Internalising the Social Costs of Transport, in: ECMT, Internalising the Social Costs of
Transport, OECD, Paris, 1994; CE, Efficient pricing for traffic, estimating the social costs of using
various modes of transport, Delft, 1999; J. de Wit and H. van Gent, Economics and Transport, Utrecht,
1996;ECN, External Costs of Transport and Internalisation, Pettem, 1996.
73
   E.T. Verhoef, Economic Efficiency and Social Feasibility in the Regulation of Road Transport
Externalities, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam, 1996



68
                                        - willingness to pay as apparent from market prices (for example the influence of
                                        noise pollution and air pollution on the purchase prices or rental rates of
                                        housing);
                                        - saved prevention costs74.

                                        Using the aforementioned methods IOO will list the extent of the negative
                                        external effects of parking places, in as much as the available figures allow for
                                        such.

                                        Using various studies the Centre for Energy savings and Clean Technology (CE)
Negative external effects of traffic:   have summarised the negative external effects of road traffic. The mean variant
95% from parking and 5% from            is based on hard study results and hereby makes up an estimate of the probable
driving
                                        least of the external costs of traffic that will occur. Table 5.2 shows that the
                                        external costs of road traffic in the mean variant amount to about 11 billion Dutch
                                        guilders (€ 5.1 billion). Per litre of fuel this corresponded with an average of Dfl
                                        1.12 (€ 0.51) in 1990. IOO applied the reasoning that ‘driving’ and ‘parking’ are
                                        inseparably linked; the one form of car use (driving) is impossible without the
                                        other form (parking) and vice-versa. From the inseparability of both types of car
                                        use it is possible to opt for proportionately dividing the negative effects of driving
                                        a car between ‘parking’ and ‘driving’. Considering that a car is stationary 95% of
                                        the time it is possible to attribute 95% of the external costs to ‘parking’. Therefore
                                        the external effects amount to 95% of 66% of 11.32 billion guilders = 7.1 billion
                                        guilders (€ 3.2 billion). These costs can be proportionately divided among the
                                        number of public parking places according to type.

                                        Table 5.2 external costs of road traffic in three valuation variants (1990,
                                        figures); billions of guilders and guilders per litre of fuel

                                                                                              Low             Medium             High
                                        NOx-emissions                                         0.49            2.57               3.28
                                        VOS-emissions                                         0.23            1.80               2.64
                                        SO2- emissions                                        0.01            0.03               0.09
                                        CO2- emissions                                        0.95            2.62               11.66
                                        Noise nuisance                                        0.20            0.64               1.09
                                        Traffic fatalities                                    0.73            1.80               2.02
                                        Injured                                               0.48            1.87               4.33
                                        Total (in billions of Guilders)                       3.09            11.32              25.09

                                        Average external costs of traffic per litre of fuel   0.31            1.12               2.49

                                        In percentage of the fuel price                       18%             66%                147%


                                        Source: CE, Social cost of traffic; overview of reference literature, Delft, 1994,
                                        page 35.

                                        Various methods are very suitable for determining the negative external effects
                                        of parking places, these include the damage determination method, the
                                        willingness to pay method apparent from the market prices, the willingness to
                                        pay method based on surveys and the prevention method. It is possible to
                                        determine which investments in covered parking facilities are needed in order to
Extent of negative external effects     bring the living environment up to scratch without parked cars (prevention
according to two exploratory            method) or which investments are needed for play areas and greenery which are
analyses:                               now sacrificed for cars (damage determination). In addition the rents of housing
- all places in covered parking         units without parked cars on and along the street which also have play areas and
facilities,                             greenery may be compared with comparable housing where there are parked
- all places comprehensively            cars on and along the street and where there is no greenery or play provisions
compensated for through provision       for children. The public’s willingness to pay for car-free areas and streets – and
of greenery
                                        74
                                          CE, Social costs of traffic; overview of reference literature; Delft, 1994.
                                        For as much as the figures allow, IOO will make an inventory of the negative external effects of
                                        parking places via the aforementioned methods.



                                                                                                                                           69
thereby the extent of the external effects of parked cars – can also be
established by means of a carefully designed questionnaire. Remarkably enough
such analyses have not as yet been carried out to determine the negative
external effects of public parking places. This is an unexploited area ripe for
further research. In paragraph 5.6 IOO will execute an exploratory quantitative
approach by estimating the negative external effects using the prevention
method (parking places in covered parking facilities instead of places being
outside in the open air) and the damage determination method (compensatory
investment in greenery for the area of land taken up by public parking places).

With the negative external effects of parking places account is only taken of the
                                                                                     Social costs excluding the cost of
negative external effects of the public parking places. The negative external
                                                                                     parking places on private property
effects of parking places on private property and the social costs caused by such
parking places were not considered.


5.3 All financial costs: sum of three types of costs

5.3.1 Introduction

The total financial costs of parking places include the depreciation of the
investment costs, the operating costs and the basic costs. In this paragraph the
total financial costs are estimated using these cost types.

5.3.1 Investment costs

Introduction

In this paragraph a summary of the insights is given for the investment costs of
                                                                                     Investment costs as a component of
public parking places on and along the street, of parking places on car-parks and
                                                                                     operating costs, no separate cost
of parking places in covered parking facilities. Investment figures are set out in
                                                                                     item
an inventory in order to be able to carry out certain calculations (negative
external effects according to the prevention method) and in order to be able to
gauge whether the depreciation of the investment costs has been included in the
operating costs. In this way the investment costs are not part of the costs of the
public parking places. To finish the paragraph the estimated average investment
amounts per public parking place are multiplied by the number of (regulated)
public parking places. The estimated investment amount is necessarily fictitious
as all public or all regulated public parking places would have to be newly
constructed again.

Public parking places on and along the street

The investment costs incurred for public parking places on and along the street
are mainly determined by special apparatus and equipment that is needed for
fee-parking places. The investment cost of the purchase, installation and
connection of parking meters and automatic parking ticket vending machines
varies between € 6,800 and € 11,350. The equipment accounts for about two-
thirds of the investment costs. The other investment costs are incurred for the
paving of a parking place. No general characteristic values can be used for these
investment costs. These costs depend greatly on the subgrade, the plant and
machinery used, the time taken for construction (including allowing time for
settlement and subsidence where the subgrade is weak) and for the other
characteristics of the location (sand movement, drainage of rain water, removal
of trees, temporary traffic provisions etc.). With a sandy sub-soil, without much
sand compaction and demolition work, a pavement with a life expectancy of
thirty years will cost approximately € 30.00 per m2. The cost may also be many
times this amount where there is a weak sub-foundation layer, laying a



70
                                             temporary capping layer to account for settlement, the application of foam or
                                             foam concrete as a sub-base, and where earthworks have to be regulated during
                                             construction75.

                                             Using nine different municipal statements as a reference and/or other sources it
                                             is assumed that the construction of a parking place on or along the road costs an
Investment costs of place on                 average of € 1,350 (see table 5.3). Considering the nature of the sources used it
street: € 1,350                              may be assumed that this is somewhat of an overestimation of the investment
                                             cost of an unregulated parking place and is an underestimate of the investment
                                             cost of a regulated fee-parking place on or along the street.

                                             Table 5.3 Investment costs per parking place on and along the street

   Parking places/sources                                                         Euro                              Euro (average)
   Utrecht (excl. basic costs)                                                    318                               318
   Leiden                                                                         454 - 681                         568
   Designing taxi ranks                                                           690 –2,041                        1,366
   The Hague, parking places on wide central reserve and quays                    1,089                             1,089
   Lelystad (excl. basic costs)                                                   1,134                             1,134
   Rotterdam (excl. parking meter)                                                1,134                             1,134
   Veenendaal (incl. land, no fee-parking)                                        1,361 – 1,815                     1,588
   Rotterdam (incl. Parking meter)                                                2, 269                            2,269
   Dordrecht (incl. Basic costs)                                                  2,723                             2,723
   (Mathematical) Average                                                         1,241- 1,467                      1,354


                                             Source: see appendix 2.

                                             Parking places on car-parks

                                             The investment costs of parking places on car-parks are mainly determined by
                                             the apparatus required (automatic ticket vending machine, entry/exit barrier) as
  Investment costs of regulated              far as fee-parking is concerned. The basic costs are often not included in the
  place on car-park: € 1,720                 public parking places on car-parks. On average the investment costs per
                                             regulated public parking place on a car-park are rounded off at € 1,720 (table
                                             5.4).

                                             Table 5.4 Investment costs per parking place on car-parks

        Parking places/sources                                                                            Euro                  Euro (average)
        Eindhoven (paved, automatic ticket machine, 50 places)                                            726- 1,021            874
        Lelystad                                                                                          1,134                 1,134
        Storage parking areas in municipality of Rotterdam                                                1,137                 1,137
        Government building department parking place on car-park                                          1,621                 1,621
        Rotterdam Zoo (excl. Land)                                                                        2,178                 2,178
        P+R places at ground level                                                                        2,269                 2,269
        NS (Dutch Railways) Property                                                                      2,269                 2,269
        Central Management Rotterdam                                                                      2,269                 2,269
        (Mathematical) average                                                                            1,700- 1,737          1,719


                                             Source: see appendix 2.

                                             It is assumed that the investment costs of an unregulated parking place are
  Investment costs of unregulated            approximately one-third of the average investment amount of a regulated parking
  parking place: € 570                       place (€ 570 per parking place). The apparatus and equipment needed at a
                                             regulated fee-parking place make up about two-thirds of the investment costs.

                                             Parking places in covered parking facilities

                                             The average investment and operating costs of parking places in covered
  Investment costs are 60% of                parking facilities (such as multi-storey and underground car-parks) are very
  operating costs                            difficult to determine. The ratio between the capital expenses and other costs

                                             75
                                                  According to the statements of various municipalities in 2001.



                                                                                                                                                 71
(administration, management, maintenance, energy, insurance, taxation) is
roughly 60:40. According to Van Loon the capital expenses, administration costs,
revenues and profit depend on eight location factors (factors of environmental
surroundings of covered parking facility), eight factors of covered facility
(characteristic features of the building), eight users’ factors (those factors which
have an influence on use), four policy factors (laws, rules, standards and
requirements) and two competitive factors (other modes of transport and parking
provisions)76. Therefore there is no such thing as a representative covered
parking facility. Further questioning of experts on the subject indicates that there
are no averages available. The costs depend on too many factors and apart from
that these costs are not easily allocated or applied. Comparisons are hampered
because the costs have not been applied in any great detail and there are                          No rule of thumb
various sources which deviate from one another. Basic costs are sometimes
applied and sometimes they are not applied with covered parking facilities (even
within a municipal authority this differentiation may occur). The reason that the
basic costs are not always applied is largely due to the idea of having money in
several pockets: costs would only be applied that could be paid for without
further ado. The land on which a covered parking facility stands is often also
used to site a building. In such cases the building in question will bear the
burden of the basic costs.




76
  72 Pim van Loon, Operating public covered parking facilities, Vexpansie, September 2000, pages
16-25.



72
                                                Table 5.5 Foundation costs per parking place in covered parking facilities
                                                (1995-2001)

     Covered Parking Facilities/sources                                                          Euro                 Euro (average)
     Amsterdam (two recent underground car-parks)                                                          47,647                47,647
     Leiden (underground car-park)                                                                           34,034              34,034
     Government building department parking in basement car-park                                             26,693              26,693
     Breda Chasse Theatre Parking                                                                            22,689              22,689
     Lelystad                                                                                                22,689              22,689
     Spijkenisse                                                                                    22,689 –27,227               24,958
     CROW design guide (three-storey or two-storey, excl. basic costs)                              22,462 –33,353               27,908
     Rotterdam (outside city centre)                                                                18,151 –20,420               19,286
     NS Property (basement)                                                                         18,151 –22,689               20,420
     Bergen op Zoom (underground)                                                                            18,151              18,151
     Rotterdam (four storage facilities, three and a half tiers underground)                                 16,224              16,224
     Amsterdam (Zuid-Oost)                                                                                   15,882              15,882
     Leiden (covered parking facility above ground level)                                                    15,882              15,882
     Veenendaal                                                                                     15,882 –26,319               21,101
     Park consult (basement)                                                                        13,613 –18,151               15,882
     Rotterdam (two mixed garage facilities one and half tiers below ground)                                 13,471              13,471
     Bergen op Zoom (above ground parking facility)                                                          12,706              12,706
     Government building department (parking at ground level)                                                11,440              11,440
     Amsterdam (Sloterdijk)                                                                                  11,345              11,345
     NS Property (half tier below ground)                                                           11,345- 13,613               12,479
     Rotterdam (two public covered parking facilities, one tier and half tier down)                          10,917              10,917
     The Hague tiered (9 covered facilities of 40 – 200 places)                                    10,284 – 13,501               11,893
     CROW design guide (two storeys high or one deep, excl, basic costs)                             9,756 –15,202               12,479
     The Hague half tier(9 covered facilities of 40 – 200 places)                                    9,543 –11,423               10,483
     CROW design guide (above ground 383 places)                                                              9,462               9,462
     Parkconsult (half-tier underground)                                                             9,076 –12,252               10,664
     Parkconsult (ground level)                                                                      7,941 –11,345                9,643
     The Hague above ground (9 covered facilities of 40 – 200 places)                                7,512 –10,700                9,106
     P+R places on one deck level (Rotterdam)                                                                 6,807               6,807
     Arnhem (two covered parking facilities)                                                          4,224 – 7,361               5,793
     CROW design guide (single-storey, excl. basic costs)                                            3,403 – 5,218                4,311
     CROW design guide (ground level, excl. basic costs)                                          1,134 – 1,588                   1,361
     (Mathematical) average                                                                        25,397 – 30,425               27,924


                                                Source: see appendix 2.


                                                The inventory costs are largely determined by the nature of the covered parking
                                                facility (multi-storey, underground or garage type car-park). A covered parking
                                                facility at ground level is much cheaper than a basement car-park or a car-park
                                                consisting of several levels.
                                                If basic costs are applied and the natural ground is of very poor quality, then the
                                                investment costs of an underground parking place may reach € 50,000
                                                (Amsterdam). In other places the investment costs may only prove to be a
                                                fraction of this amount. In Table 5.5 the establishment costs of a parking place in
                                                a covered parking facility taken from many sources are listed.
Investment costs for place in                   The figures concern the establishment costs for covered parking facilities
covered parking facility:                       realised in the period 1995 – 2001. The average investment costs amount to €
€ 28 000 average; great variety                 28,000 per parking place.

                                                Summary of investment costs

                                                With the aid of the average estimated investment costs per type of parking place
                                                and the number of (regulated) public parking places it is possible to estimate the
                                                total investment costs for public parking places in The Netherlands. If all the
                                                public parking places in the country had to be rebuilt then the investment amount
                                                given in table 5.6 would be needed: € 5 billion for the regulated public parking
                                                places, €10 billion for the unregulated public parking places and € 15 billion for
                                                all public parking places.




                                                                                                                                    73
                Table 5.6 Total investment costs of all public parking places (x million €)

                                               Regulated                                           Unregulated                                      Total
                                                  IK/pp (€)        Number pp          IK/∑pp        IK/pp (€)     Number pp           IK/∑pp         IK/∑pp
                                                                    (x 1000)         (x mln. €)                    (x 1000)          (x mln. €)     (x mln. €)
                On/along street                          1,350           1,382             1,865          1,350         5,784              7,809        9,674
                Car-parks                                1,720             225               387            570         1,311                747        1,134
                Covered facility                        28,000             101             2,839         28,000            61              1,702        4,542
                Total                                                    1,708             5,091                        7,156            10,258        15,350


                Source: IOO Ltd.
                Legend: IK = investment costs, pp = parking place, ∑ pp = all parking places

                The total investment costs should be converted into annual depreciation. In this
                regard it is assumed that all investments in the year 2000 have been carried out
                                                                                                                         Investment costs are written-off in
                and in 20 years these will have been written off. This assumption must be
                                                                                                                         20 years; fiction all investments in
                applied because the actual economic lifespan of all the public parking places in                         year 2000
                The Netherlands is unknown. The estimated depreciation of the investment costs
                has been overestimated because no account has been taken of the historical
                investment costs of the parking places and these may be over- or under-
                estimated if the economic lifespan of the public parking places is longer or
                shorter. The annual depreciation of the investment costs is estimated to be 770
                million Euro (see Table 5.7).

                Table 5.7 Estimate of the annual depreciation of the investment costs of all
                public parking places in The Netherlands (x million €)

                                                                        Regulated                   Unregulated                 Total all public parking places
                On or along the street                                         90                          390                                              480
                Car-parks                                                      20                            40                                              60
                Covered parking facilities                                   140                             90                                             230
                Total                                                        250                           520                                              770


                Source: IOO Ltd.
                Legend: The investment costs from Table 5.6 have been divided by twenty to get
                close to the annual depreciation of the investment costs; the estimated annual
                depreciations have been rounded off to tens of millions of Euro.

                In the following paragraph a study will be executed into whether the annual
                depreciation of the investment costs has been included in the annual operating
                costs of all sorts of parking places from many different sources. Apart from the
                other operating expenses the annual operating costs will amount to a minimum
                of 770 million Euro in order to be able to recover the investment costs77.

                5.3.4 Operating costs

                Introduction

                If all costs have been applied – the operating costs are mainly determined by the
                depreciation of the investment costs and the cost of parking monitoring (wage
                costs, cost of processing information, communication costs, housing, vehicles,
                equipment and the cost of bailiffs). In addition the operating costs are taken up
                by installing parking meters and automatic ticket machines, the maintenance
                costs, the costs incurred due to vandalism, the administration and overhead
                costs.

                The operating costs of a parking place for which it is not necessary to pay, are
sive of basic   much lower than for a fee-parking or regulated parking place. The investment,

                77
                  With the fiction of new building of all public parking places in the year 2000 and an assumed
                economic lifespan of 20 years.



                74
                                       the installing and maintaining of automatic parking ticket machines or parking
                                       meters and the supervision and monitoring required are extensive cost items
                                       which do not exist with a non-fee parking place. In none of the cases is there any
                                       further absorption of basic costs to parking places on and along the street. Many
                                       municipal authorities take the view that these costs make up part of the costs for
                                       public space and/or have already been passed on to residents through the land
                                       issuance.

                                       Parking places on and along the street

Operating costs of a regulated         Based on the statements of a few municipal authorities and/or secondary
parking place on the street: € 400.-   sources an average cost of 400 Euro per parking place per year may be
                                       assumed for the regulated parking places on and along the street (see Table
                                       5.8).

                                       Table 5.8 Operating costs per parking place on and along the street per
                                       annum as of 2000

                                       Parking places/sources                                                       Euro
                                       Storage parking places on the street (Rotterdam)                               82
                                       Amersfoort                                                                    259
                                       Bergen op Zoom                                                                325
                                       Apeldoorn (fee parking places)                                                331
                                       Apeldoorn                                                                     444
                                       Municipality of The Hague (concentrated parking at ground level)              489
                                       ‘s-Hertogenbosch                                                              492
                                       Breda                                                                         544
                                       Rotterdam (storage and parking on the street: 27,166 places)                  610
                                       (Mathematical) average                                                        397


                                       Source: see appendix 2.

                                       For the unregulated parking places (no monitoring and enforcement, no
Operating costs of unregulated         apparatus needed, no administration) IOO will assume an operating cost of €
street place: € 50.-                   50.- per parking place per annum. The basic costs have not been included in
                                       these operating costs (see paragraph 5.3.5).

                                       The annual operating costs of publicly accessible parking places on and along
Operating costs of all street          the public street or highway amount to 842 million Euro per year (Table 5.9).
parking places: € 842 million per      One third of the operating costs of the parking places on and along the street are
annum                                  incurred by unregulated parking places (81% of the total number of public
                                       parking places on and along the street) and two-thirds of the operating costs
                                       incurred by regulated parking places (19% of the total number of public parking
                                       places on and along the street).




                                                                                                                      75
Table 5.9 Number of public parking places in The Netherlands on and along the
street in year 2000 and their annual operating costs per size category of
municipality (x 1,000 and x 1,000 Euro, prices in 2000)

Number and costs (x 1.000)                           < 20.000         20.000-50.000   50.000-100.000      > 100.000     Total
On and along the street (number)                     1,813.0          2,467.0         1,048.0            1,838.0        7,166.0
- unregulated (number)                               1,641.0          1,893.9         855.0              1,394.4        5,784.3
€ 50 pp/annum
x €1000                                              82,050           94,695          42,750             69,720         289,215
- regulated (number)                                 172.0            573.1           193.0              443.6          1,381.7
€ 400 pp/annum
x €1000                                              68,800           229,240         77,200             177,440        552,680
Total (x € 1000)                                     150,850          323,935         119,950            247,160        841,895

Average costs pp (€)                                 83               131             114                134            117


Source: IOO Ltd., tables 3.7 and 4.13 for the numbers given.


Parking places on car-parks

The operating costs of a free parking place on a car-park or a P+R parking area
are negligible. The costs associated with a fee-parking place are many times
greater due to the depreciation of the parking apparatus and equipment, the Operating costs of regulated parking
maintenance costs of the parking apparatus and equipment, and the place on car-park: € 280.- per annum
enforcement of regulations. The costs per parking place are largely determined
by the size of the car-park. The switch from the relatively extensive investment
and enforcement costs over a small number of parking places means that the
operating costs per parking place are quite expensive. To determine the
operating cost per regulated parking place it will be assumed that the cost is
approximately 280 Euro per parking place per annum (table 5.10). The operating
cost of an unregulated public parking place on a car-park is estimated to be € 35
per annum. The basic costs have not been included in these operating costs.


Table 5.10 Operating costs per parking place on car-parks

Parking places / sources                                                                               Euro           Euro (average)
P+R places at ground level (free parking) (excl. finance costs)                                                 23                23
P+R places on deck (free parking) (excl. finance costs)                                                         68                68
P+R places at ground level (fee-parking) (excl. finance costs)                                                  82                82
Car-pool parking areas                                                                                    159-295                227
P+R places on deck (fee-parking) (excl. finance costs)                                                         163               163
NS (Dutch Railways) Property (15 – 20 car-parks, incl. Basic costs)                                       197-590                394
Rotterdam Zoo (excl. land)                                                                                     273               273
P+R places in Rottedam                                                                                         285               285
(Mathematical) Average                                                                                   265 – 324               283


Source: see appendix 2

Operating costs of all car-park parking places: € 109 million per annum
With the aid of the average operating costs per annum for a regulated car-park
place (€ 280) and for an unregulated place (€ 35) it can be estimated that the
operating costs of the public parking places on car-parks amounted to 109
million Euro per year in the year 2000 (Table 5.11).




76
                                        Table 5.11 Number of public parking places in The Netherlands on car-
                                        parks in 2000 and their annual operating costs according to size category
                                        of municipality (x 1,000 and x €1,000, prices 2000)

      Number and costs (x 1,000)                      < 20,000       20,000-       50,000-        > 100,000      Total
                                                                     50,000        100,000
      On car-parks (number)                           232.5          415.5         249.8          638.2          1,536.0
      - unregulated (number)                          186,5          293.5         214.8          616.2          1,311.0
      € 35 pp/annum
               x €1000                                6,528          10,273        7,518          21,567         45,885
      - regulated (number)                            46.0           122.0         35.0           22.0           225.0
      € 280 pp/annum
               x €1000                                12,880         34,160        9,800          6,160          63,000
      Total (x 1000 Euro)                             19,408         44,433        17,318         27,727         108,885

      Average costs pp (€)                            83             107           69             43             71


                                        Source: IOO Ltd., tables 3.7 and 4.13 for the numbers given.


                                        Parking places in covered parking facilities

                                        The operating costs consist of the cost of staffing, large-scale maintenance,
Operating costs per place in            energy, taxes, insurance, capital expenses, depreciation, overheads, leasing or
covered parking facility (e.g. multi-   allocated basic costs. The basic costs are not allocated to the covered parking
storey car-park):                       facility in all cases; sometimes the building in which the covered parking facility is
€ 1,310 per annum                       incorporated will account for the basic costs. Furthermore the costs will also vary
                                        according to the aspect of the location, the quality and the dimensions of the
                                        parking places. In this regard the dimensions of the parking places in covered
                                        parking facilities for visitors are made larger than the places in covered parking
                                        facilities for residents. On average the operating costs of a parking place in a
                                        covered parking facility are approximately 1,310 Euro per annum (Table 5.12).




                                                                                                                           77
Table 5.12 Operating costs per parking place in covered parking facilities

Covered parking facilities/sources                                                                             Euro   Euro (average)
CROW design guide (three-storey high or two-deep, excl. basic costs)                                  2,904 – 4,492            3,698
Municipality of ‘s-Hertogenbosch (four covered facilities: average)                                           2,773            2,773
Municipality of Amersfoort                                                                                    2,269            2,269
Rotterdam (2 861 places)                                                                                      2,265            2,265
The Hague (above ground, underground)                                                                  1,502 -1,790            1,646
CROW design guide (two-storeys high or one-deep, excl. basic costs)                                   1,271 –2,087             1,679
Rotterdam 7 covered facilities (outside city centre, visitors and residents)                                  1,172            1,172
Rotterdam (nine public covered parking facilities, excl. capital costs)                                       1,115            1,115
Tilburg (five covered parking facilities: average)                                                            1,099            1,099
Arnhem (two covered parking facilities: average)                                                              1,050            1,050
‘s-Hertogenbosch           (excl. Basic costs)                                                                1,014            1,014
Rotterdam 4 covered facilities of highest quality (centre, location, dimensions)                                896              896
Appeldoorn (excl. basic costs)                                                                                  836              836
Parkconsult (ground level, half a level underground and basement)                                  762 – 1,611                 1,169
Breda (excl. basic costs)                                                                                       655              655
Rotterdam covered facility (outside city centre residents and employees only)                                   476              476
CROW design guide (single-storey, excl. basic costs)                                                      454 –726               590
Amersfoort                                                                                                      336              336
CROW design guide (ground level, excl. basic costs)                                                       136 – 227              182
(Mathematical) average                                                                                 1,208–1,415             1,312


Source: see appendix 2.
                                                                                                 Operating costs of all places in
Cumulated over all publicly accessible parking places in covered parking
                                                                                                 covered parking facilities: € 212
facilities the operating costs amount to 212 million Euro (Table 5.13).                          million per annum


Table 5.13 Number of public parking places in The Netherlands in covered
parking facilities in 2000 and their annual operating costs according to size
category of municipality (x 1,000 and x € 1,000, prices 2000)

Number and costs (x 1,000)                          < 20,000           20,000-50,000   50,000-       > 100,000        Total
                                                                                       100,000
Covered parking (number x 1,000)                    0.7                22.6            31.9          107.0            162.2
- 1 310 Euro pp/annum
Total (x 1,000 Euro)                                917                29,606          41,789          140,170        212,428


Source: IOO Ltd., tables 3.7 and 4.13 for the numbers given.

As the basic costs are not allocated to the parking place in all cases, IOO will                     In half of the parking
                                                                                                     places in covered parking
assume that in half the cases all costs are included under the operating costs
                                                                                                     facilities the basic costs
and that in the other half of the cases the basic costs have not been discounted                     are not applied
(see paragraph 5.3.5).

Summary of operating costs

By using the average estimated operating costs per type of parking place and
the number of (regulated) public parking places, it is possible to estimate the
total operating costs of public parking places in The Netherlands. The total
operating costs of the regulated public parking places are estimated at € 749
million (Table 5.14). This is easily double the operating expenses as registered
in the municipal accounts (see Table 5.1). If the unregulated public parking
places are not added to the total operating expenses then the operating
expenses increase to €1.2 billion.




78
                                      Table 5.14 Total operating costs of all public parking places (x million €)

                          Regulated                                         Unregulated                                          Total
                          OC/pp (€)    Number pp           OC/∑pp           OC/pp (€)        Number pp          OC/∑pp           OC/∑pp
                                       (x 1,000)           (x mln. €)                        (x 1,000)          (x mln. €)       (x mln. €)
    On/along street       400          1,382               553              50               5,784              289              842
    Car-parks             280          225                 63               35               1,311              46               109
    Covered facility      1,310        101                 133              1,310            61                 80               212
    Total                 440          1,708               749              60               7,156              415              1,163


                                      Source: IOO Ltd.
                                      Legend: OC = operating costs, pp = parking place, ∑ pp = all parking places

Not all costs are included in         If a depreciation period of twenty years is applied for the investment costs of the
operating costs                       public parking places then the annual operating costs should be a minimum of
                                      €770 million just to cover investment costs by operation of the parking places
                                      (see Table 5.7)78. For all other operating costs (staffing, maintenance, overheads
                                      etc.) this leaves € 393 million annually for 8,9 million parking places. This might
                                      seem somewhat low and may be an indication that not all costs have been
                                      included in the operating costs.

                                      5.3.5 Basic costs

                                      The basic costs are only rarely included in the operating or investment costs of
                                      public parking places. The basic costs are only absorbed or applied in the
                                      investment or operating costs of covered parking facilities in a few cases. By not
                                      taking any account of basic costs the actual financial costs of public parking
                                      places are underestimated. In this paragraph an inventory is given of the ways in
                                      which this omission could be corrected in order to be able to estimate the total
                                      financial costs.

                                      Parking places on and along the street

                                      The social costs- basic costs of all parking places on the street: €1.7billion per
                                      annum
                                      For the purposes of calculation each parking place is assumed to be 17.5 m2
                                      (length of parking place = 7.0 m, width of parking place = 2.5m), while the basic
                                      costs are obtained by means of a survey undertaken among municipal
                                      authorities79. The annual costs of the public parking places on and along the
                                      street increase by 1.7 billion Euro by including the basic costs within the overall
                                      cost of public parking places (Table 5.15)80.




                                      78
                                         Because the economic lifespan of the public parking places is unknown, it is assumed that all
                                      investments were made in the year 2000
                                      79
                                         For the surface area standards see AVV, Taxi ranks: queue or ride?, Rotterdam, 1999, page 52 and
                                      AVV, Estimated social cost of land use by traffic; efficient prices for traffic, Rotterdam, 2000, page 70.
                                      80
                                         It is also possible to take 24.5 m2 per parking way: length of parking place = 7 m and width of
                                      parking place = 3.5 m, in the latter case the costs of the loss of interest rise for land use by 40% in
                                      relation to the calculation based on the parking place of 17.5 m2.



                                                                                                                                              79
Table 5.15 Basic costs of public parking places on and along the street in
The Netherlands

Number and costs (x 1,000)                      < 20,000        20,000-50,000     50,000-100,000    > 100,000      Total
On and along the street                               1,813             2,467               1,048       1,838         7,166
(number x 1,000)
- A: land use (x 1000 m2)                            31,728             43,172             18,340       32,165      125,405
- B: costs per m2 (in Euro)                             198                264                297          363   34,802,427
- C = (A+B): costs of ‘purchase’                  6,282,144         11,397,408          5,446,980   11,675,895
of land for parking places
(x 1,000 Euro)
- D: loss of interest on land use:                 314,107            569,870             272,349     583,795     1,740,121
5% (x 1,8000 Euro)
Basic costs per parking place (€)                      173                231                 260         318          243


Source: IOO Ltd.

If the basic costs are applied in the cost of public parking places on and along              Basic costs: € 243 pp/annum
the street then the annual costs per place will rise by an average of 243 Euro.

Parking places on car-parks
                                                                                              Basic costs of all parking places
For the purposes of calculation each parking place is assumed to be 24,5 m2
                                                                                              on car-parks: € 566 million per
(length of parking place = 7,0 m, width of parking place = 3,5m), while the basic             annum
costs are obtained by means of a survey undertaken among municipal
authorities. The social costs-basic costs of the public parking places on car-
parks amount to 566 million Euro; this is an average of € 368,- per parking place             Basic costs: € 368 million
(Table 5.16).                                                                                 pp/annum

Table 5.16 Basic costs of public parking places on car-parks in The
Netherlands

Number and costs (x 1,000)                   < 20,000         20,000-50,000      50,000-100,000     > 100,000      Total
On car-parks (number x 1,000)                        233                 416                 250           638        1,536
- land use (x 1,000 m2)                            5,709              10,192             6,125          15,631       37,675
- costs per m2 (Euro)                                198                 246                 297           363
- ‘purchase’ costs of land for                 1,130,382           2,690,688           1,819,125     5,674,053   11,314,248
parking places (x 1,000 Euro)
- interest loss on land use: 5%                   56,519            134,534              90,956       283,703      565,712
(x 1,000 Euro)
Basic costs per parking place (€)                    243                324                 364           445          368


Source: IOO Ltd. per parking place is calculated using 24.5 m2 (length of parking
space = 7.0 metres, width of parking space = 3.5 metres, including entry and exit
ramps).

Parking places in covered parking facilities
On average the operating costs of a parking place in a covered parking facility
amount to 1.310 Euro per year. (see Table 5.12 and 5.14). As the basic costs
are not allocated to the parking places in covered parking facilities in all cases,
IOO will assume that in half the cases all costs are included under the operating
costs and that in the other half of the cases the basic costs have not been
discounted. In this way the social costs of parking places in covered parking
facilities will be neared. The annual costs of the parking places in covered
parking facilities will hereby increase by 42 million Euro (see Table 5.17).
Basic costs: €261 pp/annum
By including the basic costs in the annual costs the costs per public parking
place in covered parking facilities will increase by an average of € 261 per place
per year.




80
                                       Table 5.17 Social costs of basic costs of public parking places in The
                                       Netherlands in covered parking facilities per size category of
                                       municipalities, in 2000

   Number and costs (x 1,000)                            < 20,000      20,000-50,000        50,000-100,000    > 100,000           Total
   In covered parking (No. x 1,000)                            0.7                 23                   32           107                   162
   - 50% good pricing                                         0.35                11.3                  16          53.5                  81.1
   - 50% without good pricing                                 0.35                11.3                  16          53.5                  81.1
   - land use (x 1,000 m2)                                      11                362                  512         1,712                 2,597
   - costs per m2 (in Euro)                                    198                264                  297           363
   - costs of purchasing land for                            2,178             69,696              152,064       621,456           845,394
   parking places (x 1,000 Euro)
   - interest loss on land use: 5%                            109                3,485               7,603        31,073             42,270
    (x 1,000 Euro)
   Basic costs per parking place (€)                          156                  154                238            290                  261


                                       Source: IOO Ltd., the parking unit contains about 26 – 38 m2; CROW,
                                       Constructed parking provisions, design guide, publication 99, Ede, 1996, page
                                       24; IOO calculates an average 32 m2 per parking provision.

                                       Summary of basic costs

                                       The basic costs of a regulated public parking place do not differ from the basic
                                       costs of an unregulated public parking place. All the public parking places
                                       together have basic costs of € 2.3 billion (Table 5.18). The basic costs of the
                                       regulated public parking places account for € 445 million of this81.

                                       Table 5.18 Total basic costs of all public parking places (x million €)

 All public parking places                                 BC/pp (€)            BC/pp (€)           Number pp            BC/ ∑pp
                                                                                Average              (x 1000)            (x million €)
 On and along the street                                   154 – 318            243                 7,166                1,740
 Car-parks                                                 243 – 445            368                 1,536                566
 Covered parking facilities                                154 – 290            261                 162                  42
 Total                                                                          260                 8,864                2,348


                                       Source: IOO Ltd.
                                       Legend: BC = Basic costs, pp = parking place, ∑pp = all parking places

                                       5.3.6 Total financial costs: sum of three types of cost


                                       By adding up the estimated annual depreciation of the investment costs, the
Total financial costs of all
public parking places per year:        operating costs and the annual loss of interest on the basic costs, an approach
≈ < € 4.3 billion                      to the total financial costs of all public parking places is produced. The total
                                       financial costs of the public parking places are estimated at 4.3 billion euro
                                       annually (see Table 5.19) By supposing that the investment costs of all public
                                       parking places were incurred in 2002, the total financial costs will more than
                                       probably be overestimated. In spite of the fact that the costs were also
                                       underestimated because there is no certainty that all costs were included in the
                                       investment and operating costs at the correct (market) prices.




                                       81
                                         The number of regulated parking places * the average basic costs per parking place: 1,381,700 * €
                                       243 (street) +
                                       225,000 * € 368 (car-park) + 101,400 * € 261 = € 445 million; see Table 4.13 for the amounts and
                                       Table 5.18 for the basic costs per parking place



                                                                                                                                           81
Table 5.19 Total financial costs of public parking places: approach sum of
three types of cost (x million €)

                                                    Estimated annual      Estimated annual     Estimated annual    All financial
                                                     depreciation of       operating costs        basic costs          costs
                                                    investment costs
On or along street                                              ≈ 480                    842               1,740           ≈ 3,062
Car-parks                                                          ≈ 60            109                       566            ≈ 735
Covered parking facilities                                      ≈ 230                   212             42                  ≈ 484
Total (x million €)                                             ≈ 770              1,163                2,348              ≈ 4,281
Total (in %)                                                        18%                27%                  55%              100%


Source: IOO Ltd.
Legend: estimated investment costs written-off in twenty years (see Table 5.8),
Table 5.15 and Table 5.19

As it is unknown as to what extent the investment costs and all other costs Supplementary analysis and testing
(labour costs, overheads etc.) have been included in the operating costs, the via estimate of market prices
estimate of the total financial costs annually of all public parking places (€ 4.3
billion) is a first approach. The quality of the estimate is controlled by also
estimating the total financial annual costs of all public parking places via market
prices.

5.4 Total financial costs: market prices

Because not all costs are always included in municipal accounts and the market The actual relative scarcities are
prices are not always applied in the cost application it cannot therefore just be expressed in the market prices
assumed that the investment costs and the operating costs contain the correct
cost prices. For this reason an investigation is made of just which market prices
are encountered with public parking places. This cost estimate is supplementary
to the estimate of the total financial costs according to the sum of the various
types of cost (investment costs, operating costs and basic costs). The most
reliable impression of the actual real financial costs of public parking places is
formed by comparing both estimates of the total financial costs.
The costs at market prices of the public parking places are estimated according
to various different angles of approach. In this regard there is insufficient
information available to offer a clear distinction for each type of parking place
between the costs at market prices of on the one hand the regulated parking
places and on the other hand the unregulated parking places.

5.4.1 Parking places on and along the street

There are no figures available on the market prices of parking places situated on
and along the street. The prices charged by municipal authorities for the permits
for parking on and along the street do not reflect the true situation regarding the
degree of scarcity . The only clue – without any information on the type of
parking place – may be offered by the rate of the compulsory purchase order
maintained by some municipal authorities for Article 258 of the Dutch Building
Ordinance. The market prices may also be approached from the point of view of
the investment costs.
From table 5.4 it appears that the average investment costs per parking place Market price of parking place on the
are rounded off at 1,350 Euro. If the capital expenses are calculated at eight street: € 110 per annum
percent then the annual costs per parking place at market prices amount to
approximately 110 Euro. This is in the same order of magnitude as the average
operating costs of public parking places on and along the street (Table 5.9).

The total cost of public parking places on and along the street at market prices Market prices of all parking places
amount to 788 million Euro annually82.                                           on the street: €788 million per
                                                                                 annum
82
     Amounts (7,166,000) * € 110 = € 788,260,000.



82
                                    5.4.2 Parking places on car-parks

                                    If the market prices of parking places in a number of municipalities are assumed,
                                    it may then be concluded that the average market price for a parking place is
                                    more than 32,000 Euro (Table 5.20).
                                    If a return of 8% is expected, inclusive of maintenance costs, then the annual
Market price of place on car-       expenses at market prices for a parking place are about 2,500 Euro. This is
park; € 2,500 per annum             almost ten times as much as the annual operating costs of a regulated parking
                                    place according to the sources quoted in Table 5.10. This expresses that not all
                                    costs (basic costs, investment costs, financing costs) are included in the
                                    operating costs at the right prices.

                                    Table 5.20 Market prices of parking places on car-parks in Euros

                                    Supply                                                           Purchase
                                    Amsterdam                                                        90,756
                                    Amsterdam                                                        45,378
                                    The Hague                                                        26,092
                                    Leiden                                                           23,823
                                    Amsterdam                                                        22,689
                                    Gouda                                                            22,689
                                    Leiden                                                           22,008
                                    Capelle a.d. IJssel                                              7,941
                                    (mathematical) average                                           32,672


                                    Source: www.parkeermakelaar.nl; converted into Euros by IOO.

Operating costs of all places on    The total costs of the public parking places on car-parks at market prices amount
car-parks: €3,840 million per       to 3,840 million Euro annually83.
annum
                                    5.4.3 Parking places in covered parking facilities

The market value of a garage        Parking places in covered parking facilities, garages and parking spaces are also
place: €4,500 per annum             traded openly. The real degree of scarcity is expressed in the market prices and
                                    in the waiting lists for parking permits. On average the price of a place in a
                                    covered parking facility lies at about 56,000 Euro and the price of an individual
                                    garage space is 23,000 Euro (Table 5.21). If a return is needed of 8%, including
                                    maintenance costs, then the annual operating costs should be 4,500 euro for a
                                    place in a parking garage and 1,800 Euro for a garage space or parking box
                                    space. The annual cost of a place in a covered parking facility at market price is
                                    240% higher than the annual operating costs as given in Table 5.11. This is yet
                                    another indication that in an economic sense the annual cost of parking places in
                                    covered parking facilities is somewhat low and that certain cost items are either
                                    not fully or even not at all applied.

Operating costs of all covered      The total costs of the public parking places in covered parking facilities at market
parking facilities : €730 million   prices amount to 730 million Euro annually84.
per annum




                                    83
                                         Amount (1,536,000) * € 2,500 = € 3,840
                                    84
                                         Amount (162,000) * € 4,500 = € 729,900,000



                                                                                                                     83
Table 5.21 Market prices of parking places in covered parking facilities in
Euros

Supply                                    Covered Parking Facility        Garage space/Parking box
Amsterdam                                                    90,756                23,823 – 102,101
Utrecht                                                      79,412
Breda                                                        44,470                            11,345
The Hague                                                                             23,823 – 30,630
Amersfooort                                                                           13,613 – 15,655
Eindhoven                                                      11,345                  8,622 - 15,655
‘s-Hertogenbosch                                                                               19,286
Maastricht                                                                                     15,882
(Mathematical) average                                         56,496                          23,354



Source: www.parkeermakelaar.nl; converted into Euros by IOO. Also refer to
Carlijne Vos, Parking place for Dfl. 200,000 (€ 90,756) is not exceptional, in: De
Volkskrant newspaper, 14 December 2000.

5.4.4 Average market price per public parking place

As an addition to the previous analysis of the market prices per type of parking Investment costs all at market
place another source may also be used which probably gives a more reliable price:€ 5,000 per place
impression of the market prices of the public parking places in various
municipalities.
Based on a ruling in accordance with Article 258 of the Model-Building
Ordinance an applicant for a building permit may be obliged by the municipal
authority concerned to include provisions in order to satisfy the parking
requirement. The municipalities may exempt businesses, shops or new housing
developments from this obligation and charge a certain amount to buy-out said
obligation. In such cases the municipal authority is obliged to realise the
provision of alternative substitute parking in the proximity of the exempted
property lot within a reasonable time period. There are no details available on
the amounts of the redemption money charged by some municipal authorities. It
may be assumed that the municipalities charge the market price for such
exemptions and the alternative parking places. The municipal authority of
Rotterdam for example applies the issuance price of the land, the construction
costs of the alternative parking places and the annual maintenance costs when
establishing the amount of redemption money to be charged. The average
investment costs of a public parking place amount to about 5,000 euro (Table
5.22)85. Using these figures the costs of public parking places can be put at a
value close to market price. The nature of the alternative parking is not specified
(on or along the street, on car-parks or in covered parking facilities), but it may
be assumed that it will usually involve public parking places on or along the
street and on car-parks.




85
  This is more than twice as much as the premise applied by Vossestein that a parking place costs €
5,000. Marcel Vossestein, “If we value mobility”, in: Colloquium Transport Planning Research, 1999,
page 1046.



84
                                      Table 5.22 The investment costs per parking place based on the buy-out
                                      arrangement of Article 258 of the Model-Building Ordinance

                                      Parking places/sources                                                        Euro
                                      Rotterdam (A-zone: city centre, Zuidplein, Kop van Zuid)                          15,882
                                      The Hague (proposed increase for city centre and periphery)                       12,479
                                      Rotterdam (city centre and periphery)                                              7,941
                                      Rotterdam (B-zone, outside A-zone in residential areas)                            6,807
                                      The Hague                                                                          6,807
                                      Rotterdam (C-zone)                                                                 4,538
                                      Apeldoorn                                                                          4,538
                                      Den Bosch                                                                          3,403
                                      Gouda                                                                              3,403
                                      Rotterdam (remaining metropolitan area)                                            3,403
                                      Maastricht                                                                         2,723
                                      Zeist                                                                              2,723
                                      Groningen                                                                          2,269
                                      Rotterdam (port and industrial area)                                               2,269
                                      Baarn (centre)                                                                     2,269
                                      Baarn (outside centre)                                                             1,134
                                      (Mathematical) average                                                             5,162


                                      Source: CROW, Parking and mobility, brochure No. 6, January 1993; Gouda:
                                      municipal information (December 2001); Rotterdam: attuning the rate of the
                                      redemption sums with regard to the parking trip at or around buildings, SOB
                                      99/2631, 26 August 1999.

                                      These investment costs may be translated into annual capital expenses of
Market price of all places p/annum:   approximately 410 euro per annum per parking place86. These are also the
€ 410 (unregulated) or € 570          annual costs at market price of the unregulated parking places. In the case of the
(regulated)                           regulated parking places and the fee parking places there will be another 40% in
                                      addition to the aforementioned for management and maintenance. The annual
                                      costs at market price amount to € 570 per place. The total costs of the public
                                      parking places according to the aforementioned market prices add up to € 974
                                      million for the regulated parking places plus € 2,9 billion for the unregulated
                                      parking places (Table 5.23).

                                      5.4.5 Summary of total financial costs: market prices

                                      By using the average costs at market price for the regulated and the unregulated
Costs at market price 3 x higher      public parking places it is possible to estimate the total costs of the public
than operating costs                  parking places. IOO considers the most reliable estimate to be the average costs
                                      at market prices of all regulated and unregulated parking places (bottom line of
                                      Table 5.23).
                                      In total the costs at market prices of all public parking places amount to € 3.9
                                      billion. This is about three times more than the estimated operating costs of all
                                      public parking places (see Table 5.14). This is an indication that in the estimated
                                      operating costs, not all the costs (investment costs, capital costs, basic costs)
                                      have been included at the right (market) price which reflects the true degree of
                                      scarcity.




                                      86
                                           A return of 8% is assumed, inclusive of large-scale maintenance costs.



                                                                                                                           85
Table 5.23 Total costs at market prices of all public parking places (x
million €)

                                Regulated                               Unregulated                                      Total
                                M/pp (€)    Number pp   M/∑pp            M/pp (€)        Number pp       M/∑pp           M/∑pp
                                            (x 1000)    (x mln. €)                       (x 1000)        (x mln. €)      (x mln. €)
On/along street                 110         1,382       152             110              5,784           636             788
Car-parks                       2,500       225         563             2,500            1.311           3,278           3,840
Covered facility                4,500       101         456             4,500            61              274             730
Total                                       1,708       1,171                            7,156           4,187           5,358

Average of all pp               570         1,708       974             410              7,156           2,934           3,908


Source: IOO Ltd.
Legend: M = at market prices, pp = parking place, ∑ pp = all parking places

If the costs of a public parking place include all costs (basic, capital, staffing,
maintenance, etc.) at the right (market) prices then the costs will reflect the
actual financial costs in an adequate manner of that parking place at market
price. The basic costs per parking place and the total financial costs estimated
by adding up the types of costs (including basic costs), were also analysed
separately, because it is not entirely certain that the basic costs were included in
the market prices in all cases.

5.5 Estimate of total financial costs

The estimate of the total financial costs according to the sum of the types of
costs (investment costs, capital costs, basic costs) possibly overestimates the
costs. The overestimate may occur because the investments have been
depreciated based on the idea that the investments in all public parking places in
the year 2000 were realised in the operating costs and the investment costs
have sometimes been previously included, and the basic costs – quite apart from
the quality of the land – were applied at the full market value/price. The costs
may also on the other hand have been partially underestimated as not all costs
(labour costs, capital costs, housing, overhead costs) were included in all
statements at the right prices in the investment and operating costs.

Table 5.24 Total financial costs of all public parking places: two
approaches and conclusion (x million €)

Total financial costs                                      Regulated places           unregulated places          All public places
                                                             (x million €)               (x million €)               (x million €)
Total financial costs: ∑ costs                                             1,451                       2,831                       4,282
Total financial costs: market prices                                         974                       2,934                       3,908
Total financial costs: conclusion                                      1,180                           2,820                       4,000


Source: IOO Ltd.
Legend: Total financial costs: ∑ costs consist of the annual depreciation of the
investment costs (see Table 5.7), the operating costs (Table 5.14) and the
annual basic costs (Table 5.18); for total see Table 5.19. The total financial
costs: market prices see table 5.23. The total costs: conclusion (€ 4 billion)
divided among regulated (30%) and unregulated (70%) according to the
mathematical average of the costs according to both types of parking place in
the first two lines.

The total financial costs of the regulated public parking places (€ 1,180 million) Costs of the regulated public
are 260% higher than the expenditure for parking policy recorded in the parking places two and a half
municipal accounts (€327,6 million). If the total financial cost of all public parking
places (€ 4 billion) is taken into account then the municipal accounts only show
8% of the total costs.




86
                                            5.6 Social costs: negative external effects

                                            There is yet another step which could be added to the analysis. The negative
                                            external costs caused by parking places (with regard to quality of life,
                                            environmental pollution, public safety) could also be included in the costs. In this
                                            way an overall total impression can be formed of the social cost of public parking
                                            places. The social costs of these negative external effects can be estimated by
                                            three approaches. In the calculation no account is taken of the negative external
                                            effects caused by parking places on private property.

Positive external effects are               No account is taken of positive external effects. It is assumed that these social
usually mainly expressed in terms           profits are usually to a large extent incorporated within the market prices or that
of profits                                  these effects only occur at a local level and not at a nation level.

                                            5.6.1 On and along the street

                                            On the basis of the damage determination method of the negative external
Negative external effects of
                                            effects of traffic 2.6 billion euro worth of negative external costs can be added to
parking places on the street:
                                            the costs of parking places87. If it was desired that it would be better if the 7.2
€ 2.6 billion (traffic), - € 16.0 billion
                                            million parking places on and along the street were to be situated in covered
(covered parking facilities),
                                            parking facilities, then this would require an investment of 200 billion euro
- € 1.2 billion (greenery)
                                            (prevention method)88.
                                            The annual loss of interest on this investment means that there are annual
                                            operating expenses of 16 billion euro (excl. staffing costs, maintenance costs,
                                            depreciation of the covered parking facility and special equipment and apparatus
                                            etc.)
                                            For the 7.2 million public parking places on and along the street it would take
                                            12,540 ha of space. It may also be decided to transfer this area of 12,540
                                            hectares into greenery and playground provisions (damage method). The extent
                                            of this investment to compensate for the damage of the negative external effects
                                            comes to about 1.2 billion euro (12,540 hectares * 9.78 euro per square metre
                                            average cost of specialist professional planting)89. The shadowprice of this
                                            investment in greenery approaches the social costs.
                                            One method only should be opted for in order to estimate the cost of the
                                            negative external effects; the calculated or imputed costs according to the three
                                            methods cannot be added together90. These estimated negative external effects
                                            may be divided according to the proportionate number of public parking places
                                            on and along the street per group of municipalities according to size category
                                            (Table 5.25).




                                            87
                                               The number of public parking places on and along the street amounts to 81% of the total number of
                                            public parking places. According to the damage determination method, the negative external costs for
                                            these parking places are 81% of 3.2 billion euro.
                                            88
                                               The investment costs for a parking place in a covered parking facility amount to 28,000 euro (see
                                            Table 5.5). The prevention costs are calculated using this figure.
                                            89
                                               The cost of construction are immediately written off and no account is taken of annual maintenance
                                            costs.
                                            90
                                               With the annual costs of parking places in covered facilities instead of places outside in the open air
                                            (prevention method) or the complementary investments in greenery for the area covered by the public
                                            parking places (damage method) it is possible that the negative external effects of traffic attributable to
                                            parking (damage method) may be added.



                                                                                                                                                   87
Table 5.25 Social cost of negative external effects of the public parking
places on and along the street in The Netherlands (x 1,000 euro)

Number and cost (x 1,000)                         < 20,000        20,000-50,000       50,000-100,000     > 100,000        Total
On and along the street                                 1,813             2,467                 1,048         1,838           7,166
(Amount x 1,000)

According to three approaches:
- damage method quality of life                        303,600           413,118               175,495       307,787      1,200,000
- damage method traffic                                657,801           895,088               380,240       666,871      2,600,000
- prevention method                                  4,048,004         5,508,233             2,339,939     4,103,824     16,000,000


Source: IOO Ltd.

From the rough examination of the social costs due to the negative external                              Negative external effects per
effects of public parking places on and along the street it appears that these                           parking place 170 – 2,200 euro
effects can be quite considerable. Depending on the method chosen these social
costs amount to between € 1.2 billion and € 16.0 billion. The social costs of each
individual parking place on and along the street increase by 170 euro due to the
negative external effect of ‘quality of life’. If it is decided to search for an
alternative to improve quality of life by replacing all parking places in the open air
with places in covered parking facilities then the negative external effects may be
estimated at € 2.200 per parking place. If one takes into account the negative
mobility effects of traffic, which can occur partly as a result of public parking
places, then the social costs per parking place will increase by € 360 (negative
external effect of ‘traffic’)

5.6.2 Parking places on car-parks

Based on the damage determination method of the negative external effects of
traffic 544 million euro in negative external costs may be added to the costs of
the parking places91. If the 1,5 million parking places on car-parks were to be
turned into parking places in covered parking facilities this would require an
investment of 43 billion euro (prevention method)92. The annual loss of interest
on this investment would mean annual operating costs of 3.4 billion euro
(excluding staffing costs, maintenance costs, depreciation of the covered facility                       Negative external effects of
and the special apparatus needed etc.). The 1.5 million public parking places on                         parking places on car-parks:
car-parks cover an area of 3,763 hectares. If it was decided to convert this 3,763                       € 544 million(traffic)
hectares into an area of greenery and playground provisions (damage method)                               - € 3.4 billion (covered parking
this would require a social investment, to compensate for the damage caused by                           facilities)
the negative external effects, of roughly 368 million euro (3,763 hectares * an                          - € 368 million (greenery)
average cost of 9.78 euro per square metre for the specialist professional
planting of the greenery). These estimated negative external effects may be
divided according to the proportionate number of public parking places on and
along the street per group of municipalities according to size category (Table
5.26).




91
   The number of public parking places on car-parks amounts to 17% of the total number of public
parking places in The Netherlands. According to the damage determination method for these parking
places the negative external costs of such is therefore 17% of 3.2 billion Euro.
92
   The investment costs for a parking place in a covered parking facility amount to 28,000 euro (see
Table 5.5). The prevention costs are calculated using this figure.



88
                                     Table 5.26 Social cost of negative external effects of the public parking
                                     places on car-parks in The Netherlands (x 1,000 euro)

   Number and cost (x 1,000)                           < 20,000       20,000-50,000       50,000-100,000       > 100,000          Total
   On and along the street                                   232                 416                 250              638             1,536
   (Amount x 1,000)


   According to three approaches:
   - damage method quality of life                        55,583               99,667              59,896         152,854          368,000
   - damage method traffic                                82 167              147,333              88,542         225,958          544,000
   - prevention method                                   513,542              920,833             553,385       1,412,240        3,400,000


                                     Source: IOO Ltd.

                                     From investigation of the social costs due to the negative external effects of
                                     public parking places on car-parks it appears that per parking place these effects
                                     can be quite considerable: € 240 (quality of life and amenity), € 350 (traffic) or €
                                     2,200 (prevention method).

                                     5.6.3 Parking places in covered parking facilities

                                     Based on the damage determination method of the negative external effects of
Negative external effects of         traffic 65 million euro in negative external costs may be added to the costs of the
places in covered parking            parking places or € 400 per parking place (see Table 5.27)93. The two other
facilities:                          methods of determining the negative external effects are not relevant to the
€ 65 million (traffic)               public covered parking facilities. The quality of life has already been improved
                                     because cars have been removed from the street and it was possible to use the
                                     space created for greenery. The social costs for which the shadow price of
                                     investments in greenery and in covered parking facilities can be an approach,
                                     also make up part of the total financial costs of the covered parking facilities.

                                     Table 5.27 Social cost of negative external effects of the public parking
                                     places in covered parking facilities in The Netherlands (x 1,000 euro)

   Number and cost (x 1,000)                           < 20,000       20,000-50,000       50,000-100,000       > 100,000          Total
   On and along the street                                   0.7                  22                  32              107                 162
   (Amount x 1,000)

   According to three approaches:
   - damage method quality of life                           N/a                   N/a                 N/a            N/a               N/a
   - damage method traffic                                   280                 9,040              12,760         42,800            64,880
   - prevention method                                       N/a                   N/a                 N/a            N/a               N/a


                                     Source: IOO Ltd.

                                     The damage method of ‘traffic’ is applied because the assumption is that ‘driving
                                     cars’ and ‘parking’ are inseparably linked. It is impossible to drive without parking
                                     and vice versa. According to the proportion of time spent ‘driving’ and ’parking’
                                     the social costs incurred due to traffic are attributed to parking places. This
                                     approach fits in with the concept that parking places and covered parking
                                     facilities attract and induce traffic and mobility. The social costs of covered
                                     parking facilities for use by residents and local companies were not included in
                                     the equation.




                                     93
                                        The number of public parking places in covered parking facilities amounts to 2% of the overall total
                                     of public parking places in The Netherlands. The negative external costs are 2% of 3.2 billion Euro
                                     according to the damage determination method for these parking places



                                                                                                                                           89
5.6.4 Summary of the social costs of negative external effects

In Table 5.28 the estimated social costs incurred due to negative external effects
per public parking place are summarised. In this there is no difference between
the social costs for regulated and unregulated public parking places. The
negative external effects per parking place due to the damage method for
“quality of life” (M1) vary between 170 and 240 Euro per parking place. The
negative external effects per parking place due to the damage method for ‘traffic’
(Mv) vary between 350 and 400 Euro per place.
Whereas if the prevention method (Mp) is assumed the negative external effects
cost € 2,200 per place (Table 5.25). For the estimate of the total social costs
incurred due to the negative external effects the method of approach with the
lowest social costs per type of parking place is taken. The total social costs
incurred due to the negative external effects of parking places is estimated at €
1.7 billion.

Table 5.28 Total social costs of the negative external effects of all public
parking places ( x million €)

                                                      All public places                                              Minimum estimate
                                                            M1/pp (€)     Mv/pp (€)      Mp/pp (€)     Number pp         M1or Mv/∑ pp
                                                                                                        (x 1,000)          (x million €)
On and along street                                               170             360       2,200        7,166                    1,218
On car-parks                                                      240             350       2,200        1,536                      369
In covered parking facilities                                     N/a             400         N/a        162                         65
Total                                                                                                       8,864                 1,652


Source: IOO Ltd.
Legend: M1 = social costs of negative external effects of ‘quality of life’, Mv =
social costs of negative external effects of ‘traffic’, Mp = social costs of negative
external effects of ‘prevention method, pp = parking place,
∑ pp = all parking places. In italics are the social costs per parking place with
which the total social costs have been determined.


5.7 Summary of costs per public parking place (€)

Costs per regulated public parking place per year

The annual costs per regulated public parking place according to type are
summarised in Table 5.29.

Table 5.29 Annual costs per regulated parking place (prices in year 2000 in
€)

Cost per place (x€)                                     On the street     On car-parks       In covered facilities   Average
Costs per place in municipal administration             N/a               N/a                N/a                     190

Total financial costs: conclusion per parking place     110               2,520              4,540                   690
Social costs to quality of life (MC1)                   170               240
Social costs of traffic (MKv)                                                                400                     190
Total costs (financial and social)                      280               2,760              4,940                   880


Source: IOO Ltd.
Legend: The costs per place for the total financial costs have been modified for
the conclusion on the total financial costs.

The costs per parking place included in the municipal administration make up
                                                                                                     Municipality directs only one fifth of
only 21% of the total financial and social costs.
                                                                                                     all the costs of a parking place




90
                                              Costs per public parking place per annum

                                              The annual costs per public parking place (regulated and unregulated) according
                                              to type are summarised in Table 5.30.

                                              Table 5.30 Annual costs per public parking place (prices in year 2000 in €)

    Cost per place (x€)                                          On the street     On car-parks     In covered facilities   Average
    Costs per place in municipal                                         N/a               N/a                   N/a                  40
    administration

    Total financial costs: conclusion per parking place                      80            1,810                   3,970             450
    Social costs to quality of life (MC1)                                   170              240
    Social costs of traffic (MKv)                                                                                    400             190
    Total costs (financial and social)                                      250            2,050                   4,370             630


                                              Source: IOO Ltd.
                                              Legend: The costs per place for the total financial costs have been modified for
                                              the conclusion on the total financial costs.

                                              The costs per parking place included in the municipal administration make up
                                              only 6% of the total financial and social costs.

                                              5.8 Summary of costs of all parking places (in millions of €)

                                              The annual costs of all public parking places can be presented in a variety of
                                              ways: according to type of costs (all financial costs, social costs and total costs),
                                              per type of parking place (on and along the street, on car-parks, in covered
                                              parking facilities) or per group of municipalities according to size category. The
                                              aforementioned lines of approach are covered in the summary. Detailed
                                              information on the investment costs, operating costs, basic costs and market
                                              prices of all public parking places can be found in previous paragraphs.

                                              Total costs of all regulated public parking places

                                              Using the costs of regulated public parking places for each individual place and
                                              number of regulated public parking places from the previous paragraphs it is
                                              possible to estimate the total annual costs. In this the estimated costs are set
                                              against the costs as included in the municipal accounts (Table 5.31).

                                              The total costs, taking account of all the production factors employed at the right
Total social costs: € 1.5 billion             (market) prices (‘total financial costs: conclusion’) are three times greater than
                                              the costs given in the municipal accounts for these places. If a cautious estimate
                                              of the social costs is taken then the total costs are € 1.5 billion.

                                              Table 5.31 Summary of annual costs (in millions of € prices as of year
                                              2000) of all regulated public parking places in 2000

    Costs of all places (x mil. Euro)                            On the street     On car-parks     In covered facilities    Total
    Costs in municipal administration                                        N/a              N/a                    N/a           328
    Total financial costs: conclusion                                       150               570                    460         1,180
    Social costs to quality of life (MC1)                                   240                50                                  290
    Social costs of traffic (MKv)                                                                                     40            40
    Total costs (financial & social)                                        390              620                     500         1,510


                                              Source: IOO Ltd.




                                                                                                                                      91
                                                                                            Social costs of regulated parking
The total costs of the regulated public parking places are therefore more than
                                                                                            places are 4½ times more
four and a half times more than the costs according to the municipal
                                                                                            expensive than according to the
administrations.
                                                                                            municipal administrations
Total costs of all regulated public parking places according to size
category of municipality

Depending on the number of regulated public parking places per group of
municipalities according to the type of parking place (street, car-park or covered
parking facility) the total financial costs and the total costs (including social costs)
may be divided over the municipalities according to size category. The small
municipalities (< 20,000 population) with 23% of the total population of the whole
country account for 13% of the cost of all regulated public parking places in The
Netherlands, the small intermediate municipalities (with populations of between
20,000 and 50,000) with 31% of the total population account for 41% of the
costs, the medium-sized municipalities (populations of 50,000 – 100,000) make
up 15% of the total population and account for 15% of the total costs and then
the large municipalities with 31% of the total population and accounting for 31%
of the costs (Table 5.32)

Table 5.32 Total costs of all regulated public parking places in 2000
(€ million) in municipalities according to size category

Costs of regulated parking places          < 20,000        20,000-50,000   50,000-100,000      > 100,000    Total
Costs in municipal administration          7               31              44               246             328
Total financial costs: conclusion          150             495             170              365             1,180
Social costs                               40              130             50               110             330
Total costs (financial and social)         190             625             220              475             1,510
Total costs in percentage terms            13              41              15               31              100


Source: IOO Ltd.


Total costs of all public parking places

The municipal authorities not only incur costs for the regulated public parking
places in their authority but also for the unregulated public parking places. The
number of unregulated public parking places is four times greater than the
                                                                                            Total financial costs of all public
number of regulated public parking places. The sum of the regulated and
                                                                                            parking places 4.0 billion Euro
unregulated public parking places adds up to the total number of public parking
places. With a comparison of costs one should take into account that the
municipal accounts and administrations have not legislated for all public parking
places.

The total annual financial costs (all costs at the right prices) of the 8.9 million
public parking places in The Netherlands may be estimated at 4.0 billion Euro
(Table 5.33). This is more than twice as much as the costs as they appear in the
municipal accounts. The cost differential between the total financial costs of all
public parking places (€ 4.0 billion) and the costs appearing in the municipal
administration for regulated public parking places (€ 328 million) of almost €3.7
billion can be explained for 23% by the underestimating of the total financial
costs (as not all costs have been included in the operating costs in the correct
manner) and for 77% by the costs of the unregulated public parking places.




92
                                            Table 5.33 Summary of annual costs (in millions of € prices as of year
                                            2000) of all public parking places in 2000

    Costs of all places (x mil. Euro)                          On the street       On car-parks     In covered facilities    Total
    Costs in municipal administration                                      N/a                N/a                    N/a           328
    Total financial costs of all places                                    580              2,270                    650         4,000
    Social costs to quality of life (MC1)                                1,220                310                                1,530
    Social costs of traffic (MCv)                                                                                     60            60
    Total costs (financial & social)                                   1,800               3,080               710               5,590


                                            Source: IOO Ltd.

                                            If on top of that mentioned consideration is also given to the social costs of the
Total social costs of all public            public parking places incurred due to the negative external effects then the total
parking places is 5.6 billion Euro          (social) cost of all public parking places will amount to 5.6 billion Euro annually.
                                            The costs of the regulated public parking places in the municipal bookkeeping
                                            only register 6% of the total (social) costs of all public parking places.

                                            Total costs of all public parking places according to size category of
                                            municipality

                                            The total financial costs per annum of all public parking places and the total
                                            costs (including social costs) may also be divided among the municipalities
                                            according to size category (Table 5.34).

                                            Table 5.34 Total costs of all public parking places in 2000 (€ million) in
                                            municipalities according to size category

    Costs of regulated parking places                       < 20,000       20,000-50,000    50,000-100,000      > 100,000     Total

    Costs in municipal administration                                7                31                  44           246         328
    Total financial costs of all places                            870             1,360                 600         1,170       4,000
    Social costs                                                   350               500                 240           500       1,590
    Total costs (financial and social)                           1,220             1,860                 840         1,670       5,590


                                            Source: IOO Ltd.




                                                                                                                                      93
6 Revenues from parking places

6.1 Introduction

In this chapter the revenues generated by public parking places are estimated
using various different sources and angles of approach. In paragraph 6.2 and
6.3 the (development of) parking charges and fees for parking permits in the
Netherlands is covered. Paragraph 6.4 covers the gross incomes of the
municipal parking policy: in terms of extent, magnitude per capita, per public
parking place, per municipality according to size category, nature of the
revenues gained and the appropriation of such revenues. The revenues are
obtained from fee-parking places, permit parking places, non-compliance with
the parking taxes (municipal authorities) and from fines imposed on violation of
traffic regulations (central government).

The costs are brought about by parking policy, regulated public parking places (>
fee-parking places) and by unregulated public parking places (see Chapter 5). In
paragraph 6.5 the revenues are successively compared with the costs of the
parking policy (par. 6.5.1), the costs of regulated public parking places (par.
6.5.2) and the costs of all public parking places (par. 6.5.3). In this way it is
possible to determine the actual net revenues of the (regulated) public parking
places. The chapter closes with a summary in paragraph 6.6.

6.2 Parking charges for public parking places

Rate of parking charges

The pricing of municipalities varies greatly from one authority to another                                  Great differentiation in parking
according to type of parking place, time of day and type of usage. In table 6.1                             charges within and between
the highest charges are included for each municipality (mostly for fee-parking in                           municipalities
town centre areas) in order to be able to compare the charges between the
different municipalities. Within the boundaries of one municipality the charges for
fee-parking on the street may differ by as much as a factor of five94. Out of
nineteen medium-sized municipalities (50,000 – 100,000) the highest charges
vary between 0.57 Euro per hour (Veenendaal) and 2 Euro per hour (Delft and
Leeuwarden). On average the charge is 1.17 Euro per hour with a substantial
measure of distribution95. The charges are known for all twenty-five large
municipalities (> 100,000 population).
The cheapest charge is maintained by Emmen (0.79 euro per hour) and the
highest charge is in Amsterdam (2.60 euro per hour). On average the charge is
1.57 euro per hour. An approach may be adopted whereby the charges increase
by between 27 and 91% in five years, or in other words an average of 5-14%
percent per year96.



94
    The municipality of Rotterdam goes one step further. A parking tax can be levied for all parking
places located within the Rotterdam ring road. With this a zero charge may be levied. This offers the
possibility of varying the parking charges between zero and five guilders (€ 2.25) according to the time
of day or for each individual event. In this way the municipal authority would like to instigate an
optimum response to the actual parking pressure at any time or place. In the future the local authority
of Rotterdam would even like to instigate an online facility whereby they could adjust the parking
charges for each street, or part of a street or per period of the day to respond to the actual parking
pressure on the ground. Traffic Engineering, Rotterdam : parking charges per street, November 1999
and interview with Mrs. Van Buitenen of the Rotterdam Parking corporation.
95
   Information from the Municipality of Hoorn tells of a blue zone applying in the town centre and in the
Municipality of Nieuwegein parking is free of charge. This latter municipality was not included in the
number of municipalities for which a charge is known and so it was not included in calculating the
average charge.
96
   In 1995 an inventory was made of the parking charges in 58 municipalities. The maximum charge
varied between 0.45 and 1,35 Euro. Twijnstra Gudde, Parking meter 1995; Inventory of the
organisation and performance of municipal parking policy, Amersfoort, March 1997, page 6.



94
                                      Table 6.1 Charges for parking on the street in Euro (highest charges per
                                      municipality) in 2000/2001 in municipalities according to size category

                                      Charges for street parking in municipalities           50,000 – 100, 000                 100,000
                                      according to size                                      (34)                              (25)
                                      Number of municipalities with statement of             19                         25
                                      - lowest charge per hour                               0.57                       0,79
                                      - highest charge per hour                              2.00                       2.60
                                      - average                                              1.17                       1.57
                                      - standard deviation                                   0.41                       0.47


                                      Source: www.volkskrant.nl/gemeenten; supplemented by data from websites and
                                      from interviews with municipalities that were not included in the Volkskrant study
                                      “Municipalities Measured”; for details of Volkskrant study see Michael Kruijt,
                                      Amsterdam gets far and away the most from automatic parking machines, 19
                                      February 2002.

                                      Advertising the distinctiveness with free parking

                                      Between the different municipalities there are not just differences in the fees
Charge differentiation with           charged, but also in the situation with respect to the number of free parking
various views                         places available in and around town centres, and in shopping areas. For
                                      example the municipality of Hoogeveen which does have fee parking in the town
                                      centre (at 0.68 euro per hour), at the same time advertises itself as quite
                                      distinctive with the slogan “the most accessible town centre in the North of The
                                      Netherlands” and draws attention to the fact that “Hoogeveen has almost one
                                      thousand free parking places within walking distance of its’ main shopping
                                      area”97. Hoogeveen is not unique in this regard, other municipalities such as
                                      Nieuwegein and Zoetermeer try to distinguish themselves by having free parking
                                      for shoppers.

                                      The municipalities apply various pricing strategies per type of parking place. By
Charge differentiation according to   differentiating in the charge for different types of parking place certain policy
type of parking place                 objectives are aimed at or the various different cost prices are expressed in the
                                      charge differentiation.

                                      There are many municipalities (including Amsterdam, Rotterdam, ‘s-
Among other things, improvement
                                      Hertogenbosch, Haarlem, Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Maastricht) that deliberately
in the overall quality of life
                                      make parking on the street more expensive than parking in a covered parking
                                      facility. The aim is to improve the quality of life and amenity of the streets in
                                      question. In Rotterdam the maximum charge in covered parking facilities such as
                                      multi-storey car-parks in the year 2001 was 25% less than the maximum charge
                                      for street parking, while the maximum staying time in covered parking facilities
                                      was increased. In Nijmegen the charge for parking in a covered parking facility is
                                      a third cheaper than for parking on the street. The municipalities of ‘s-
                                      Hertogenbosch maintains various charges for various different places in order to
Cross-subsidising between             be able to have a certain amount of control over parking. The highest hourly
different types of parking places     rates apply in three locations in the town centre, whereas in places some
                                      distance from the town centre a daily rate is charged. In this way the municipality
                                      hopes to make it clear that long-stay parking is allowed at these locations on
                                      weekdays, while a fee has to be paid 24 hours a day for parking on the street. In
                                      order to reduce the number of cars on the street the municipal covered parking
                                      facilities are free of charge in the evenings98. This charge differentiation does not
                                      reflect the cost ratios. The cost of a parking place in a covered parking facility

                                      97
                                         see website of the municipality: http://www.hoogeveen.nl/gemeente/bowo/park-fol.htm.
                                      98
                                         S. Stienstra, ‘s-Hertogenbosch: fee parking on the street in the evenings as well, but covered
                                      parking facilities are free, in Vexpansie, No. 1 March 2000; traffic Engineering, Rotterdam, parking
                                      charges per street, November 1999; Rotterdam Parking Corporation, Year plan for 2001 of the
                                      Rotterdam Parking Corporation, 21 June 2000, page 61; other figures from the websites of the
                                      relevant municipalities.



                                                                                                                                             95
such as a multi-storey car-park or underground garage at open market value is
on average 42 times higher than a parking place on or along the street99.

Other municipalities follow the cost price of parking places in their pricing policy.
This ensures that parking on the street is cheaper than parking in a covered
parking facility.

Parking charges subsequent to the introduction of the Euro

At the request of the Lower House of the Dutch parliament the Ministry of                                  Charges € 0.20 - € 2.80: no
Finance published an extensive overview of the parking charges prior to and                                relationship to characteristics of
subsequent to the introduction of the Euro in 134 Dutch municipalities. The                                the municipality
charges per hour vary from € 0.20 (Delftzijl) to € 2.80 (Amsterdam). The vast
majority of the municipalities apply an hourly charge of about one Euro per hour.
There does not seem to be any clear link between the rates of the charges and
the size of municipality or any other characteristics of municipalities (Table 6.2).

According to the ministry the majority of the municipalities was very careful in
dealing with the conversion of the parking charges. A certain number made no
adjustments at all in charge (including the municipalities of Den Bosch, Utrecht
and Zeist) or they rounded down to the nearest lower Euro figure (including
Amstelveen, Venray and Zaanstad). Other municipalities claim to have
compensated for any price increase by allowing a longer or shorter parking
duration (including the municipalities of Culemborg, Haaksbergen and
Rotterdam).
Quite a large number of municipalities allowed the conversion to the Euro to
coincide with a –sometimes considerable- increase in charges. In 46 of the 136
cases studied there was an increase higher than the rate of inflation. The
reasons that these municipalities gave for this increase were: setting out a long-
term charge adjustment policy (including Leeuwarden), not having instituted any
increase in charges for quite some time (including Dordrecht), redeeming on
infrastructure parking projects (such as in Oldenzaal), budgetary problems
(Muiden) or a combination of reasons (such as in Veendam). In twenty or so
cases the municipal authorities responded to the charge conversion to the Euro
by “simply” dividing by two instead of the set figure of 2.20371100.




99
   The annual costs of a parking place in a covered parking facility amount to € 4,500, while the costs
of a parking place on the street is € 108 (see Table 5.21). By taking account of the social costs the
difference between both types is significantly less. In the same way the political priorities are hereby
expressed as these are expressed in the charge difference per type of parking place.
100
    Letter from the Minister of Finance to the Chairperson of the Second Chamber of Parliament on the
parking charges of Municipal authorities, FM 2002-00787 M, 11 June 2002.



96
                                       Table 6.2 Parking charges in the town centres of 134 municipalities as of 1-
                                       1-2002 (€)

         Charges € per hour   Number of Municipalities   Names of Municipalities
         ≥ 2.00-2.80          7                          Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Dordrecht, Delft, Amersfoort, Apeldoorn.
         ≥ 1.50-2.00          11                         Goes, Oosterhout, Groningen, Zwolle, Alkmaar, Noordwijk, Leiden, Breda,
                                                         Zandvoort, ’s-Gravenhage, Hoorn.
         ≥ 1.25-1.50          10                         Muiden, Almere, Eindhoven, Nijmegen, ’s-Hertogenbosch, Arnhem, Amstelveen,
                                                         Zaanstad, Leerdam, Maastricht
         ≥ 1.00-1.25          35                         Hardenberg, Weert, Texel, Barneveld, Doetichem, Dongeradeel, Pumerend,
                                                         Gouda, Zoetermeer, Bergen op Zoom, Waalwijk, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Venlo,
                                                         Leeuwarden, Sneek, Oss, Zijpe, Sittard-Geleen, Deventer, Den Helder,
                                                         Vlaardingen, Rijswijk, Hengelo (O), Velsen, Zeist, Haarlem, Spijkenisse,
                                                         Roosendaal, Venray, Helmond, Gorichem.
         ≥ 0.75-1.00          22                         Geldermalsen, Heusden, Etten-Leur, Valkenswaard, Harderwijk, Roermond,
                                                         Alphen a. d. Rijn, Lelystad, Meppel, Vlissingen, Harlingen, Assen, Amelo,
                                                         Woerden, Haarlemermeer, Weesp, Katwijk, Oostburg, Emmen, Schouwen-
                                                         Duivenland, Ede, Schiedam.
         ≥ 0.50-0.75          35                         Kampen, Oldenzaal, Veendam, Ridderkerk, Steenwijk, Rhden, Simpelveld,
                                                         Bloemendaal, Heerenveen, Wageningen, Oud-Beijerland, Hulst, Terneuzen,
                                                         Zwijndreacht, Boxtel, Haren, Cuyk, Bergen NH, Bussum, Veere, Tilburg, Lochem,
                                                         Heemstede, Haaksbergen, Zaltbommel, Kerkrade, Winschoten, Veenendaal,
                                                         Deurne, Geldrop, Hoogeveen, Denekamp (Ootmarsum), Oisterwijk, Zutphen,
                                                         Raalte.
         ≥ 0.20-0.50          14                         Doesburg, Veldhoven, Gulpen-Wittem, Smallingerland, Uden, Tiel, Nijkerk,
                                                         Delftzijl, Veghel, Beverwijk, Nijefurd, Breukelen, Culemborg, Franekeradeel.
         Total                134


                                       Source: Ministry of Finance, appendix to letter to parliament FM 2002-00787M
                                       dated, 10 June 2002


                                       6.3 Permit charges for parking places

                                       The charge structure for local residents and business parking permits is even
                                       more varied than the fees charged for parking on the street. The charges vary
                                       according to area, size of area, validity in terms of days of the week and times of
                                       day, first or second permit per household etc.

                                       Permit charges for residents

                                       The cheapest or lowest charge for a resident’s parking permit in medium-sized
Resident’s parking permits: € 12       municipalities is 16.80 Euro per annum (Hoorn) and the most expensive charge
to € 190 per year                      is 145 Euro per year (in Leeuwarden). On average the charge in 16 medium-
                                       sized municipalities was 71.59 Euro per year (Table 6.3). In three of the medium-
                                       sized municipalities it is the case that residents are able to get a permit free of
                                       charge (i.e. in Veenendaal, Spijkenisse and Nieuwegein).

                                       Of the other fifteen medium-sized municipalities included in the IOO-survey, it is
                                       not known whether they recognise resident’s parking permits as a component of
                                       their parking policy. In all probability a large number of these municipal
                                       authorities do not (yet) make use of this instrument.

                                       All twenty-five large municipalities (>100,000 population) apply resident’s parking
                                       permits as a part of their parking regulation. The distribution of the charges is
                                       greater than with the medium-sized municipalities. The cheapest municipality
                                       charges 12.43 Euro per year (Zoetermeer) and the most expensive municipality
                                       charges 190.59 per year (Rotterdam). The residents parking permits in the most
                                       expensive municipality (Rotterdam) are four percent more expensive than in
                                       Amsterdam and 17% more expensive than those in Maastricht and Utrecht. On
                                       average a resident’s parking permit costs 101,48 Euro per year in the large
                                       municipalities.




                                                                                                                                   97
Table 6.3 Charges for residents and business parking permits in Euros per
year in 2001/2002 in municipalities according to size category

Permit charge per group of municipalities                 50,000 – 100,000              > 100,000
                                                                (34)                       (25)
Permits for residents                                                       16                    25
- lowest charge per year                                                 16.80                 12.43
- highest charge per year                                               145.00               190.59
- average                                                                71.59               101.48
- standard deviation                                                     43.79                 47.19
Permits for businesses                                                      18                    24
- lowest charge per year                                                 18.00                 68.06
- highest charge per year                                               500.00               626.16
- average                                                               275.12               294.29
- standard deviation                                                    147.66               160.34


Source: www.volkskrant.nl/gemeenten; supplemented by data from websites and
from interviews with municipalities that were not included in the Volkskrant study
“Municipalities Measured”; for details of Volkskrant study see Michael Kruijt,
Amsterdam gets far and away the most from automatic parking machines, 19
February 2002.

Permit charges for businesses

Apart from the residents parking permits the municipal authorities also issue                          Business parking permits: € 18 to €
parking permits for businesses. These permits are much more expensive than                             626 per year
parking permits for local residents (Table 6.3). The cheapest business parking
permit in a medium-sized municipality costs 18 euro per year (Smallingerland)
and the most expensive permit costs 500 euro per year (Purmerend). In two
medium-sized municipalities which have free parking permits for local residents,
businesses on the other hand are required to pay for parking permits:
Veenendaal (181.51 euro per year) and Spijkenisse (326.76 euro per year). It is
only in the municipality of Nieuwegein that both residents and business parking
permits are free. In the other 15 medium-sized municipalities either the business
permits do not exist there or no information is available regarding this matter. In
25 large municipalities (> 100,000 population) it is known that 24 of these issue
business parking permits. The cheapest business parking permits in these large
municipalities cost 68.06 euro per year (Zaanstad) and the most expensive
business permits cost 626.16 Euro per year (Apeldoorn and Groningen).
                                                                                                       There is no relationship between the
On average the larger municipalities charge 294.29 Euro per year for a business
                                                                                                       rate charged for the business
parking permit (Table 6.3)101. Remarkably enough the charges maintained for
                                                                                                       parking       permit     and        the
business parking permits in the biggest cities are below the maximum set by
                                                                                                       characteristics of the municipality
other municipalities. The charge for a business parking permit in The Hague is
235.20 Euro per year and in Utrecht this is 490.20 Euro per year.

Charges for residents versus charges for business permits

The amount charged for business parking permits and those charged for local                            Business or commercial parking
residents differ from one municipality to another. This also applies to the politics                   permits are considerably more
of charges applied. On average business parking permits are 430% more                                  costly than parking permits for
expensive than permits for local residents (Table 6.4). This average is largely                        local residents
influenced by the four municipalities where business parking permits are more
than 1000 percent more expensive than residents parking permits. This is the
case with Zoetermeer (where business parking permits are 41 times more
expensive than parking permits for local residents) , Rijswijk (where business
parking permits are 28 times more expensive than parking permits for local
residents), Purmerend (where business parking permits are 12 times more

101
   From a telephone survey of businesses in 21 municipalities in 1999 it appeared that the average
cost of a parking permit at the most expensive location was 536.95 euro. This is 82% more than
appears from table 6.2 Marnix de Bruin, Remon Enting, Nico Nieboer, Ben Crum, Benchmark
municipal business climate, Research for Policy, Leiden 1999, page 97



98
                              expensive than parking permits for local residents) and Hoorn (where business
                              parking permits are 12 times more expensive than parking permits for local
                              residents).

                              Table 6.4 Degree of difference between the charges for business parking
                              permits and residents parking permits in 42 large and medium-sized
                              municipalities

                              Difference between charge for residents and business parking permits                       Amount
                              Charge for business permit < charge for residents parking permit                                1
                              Charge for business permit = charge for residents parking permit                                6
                              Charge for business permit > charge for residents parking permit, of which
                              - 8 to 100% more expensive                                                                       3
                              - 100 to 200% more expensive                                                                     9
                              - 200 to 300% more expensive                                                                     7
                              - 300 to 500% more expensive                                                                     7
                              - 500 to 1,000% more expensive                                                                   3
                              - > 1,000% more expensive                                                                        4
                              - residents free, business parking permit > 0 euro                                               2
                              Total                                                                                           42
                              Business permits average amount more expensive than permits for local residents              430%


                              Source: www.volkskrant.nl/gemeenten; supplemented by data from websites and
                              from interviews with municipalities that were not included in the Volkskrant study
                              “Municipalities Measured”; for details of Volkskrant study see Michael Kruijt,
                              Amsterdam gets far and away the most from automatic parking machines, 19
                              February 2002.

                              Acceptance rate for permit charges

Often insufficient economic   In general the amounts charged for permits for commercial companies or
foundation for charge         businesses are much more expensive than those for local residents. With 84% of
differences                   the medium-sized and larger municipalities the business permits are more
                              expensive than the parking permits for local residents. Fourteen percent of the
                              municipalities apply the same charges for residents as for business parking
                              permits, though only the municipality of Zwolle sets slightly lower charges for
                              business parking permits than for residents102. Business owners can get quite
                              upset when the cost of a parking permit for commercial use is set higher than
                              one for use by private individuals. Such a difference in charges is only
                              permissible under the law if the business parking permit allows broader options
                              for use than that of the residents parking permit. Many municipalities do not
                              differentiate much at all in terms of the possible options for use between permits
                              for business and permits for residents parking. For as far as there are
                              differences in quality, these will often be in terms of a more expansive area
                              covered by a permit and a wider period during which the permit is valid i.e. on
                              more days of the week or hours of a day. In Amsterdam for example the permit
                              for businesses is valid in two parking zones and for residents the permit is only
                              valid for one zone103.

                              The negative perception of businesses about the costs of parking permits
                              appears to only partly depend on the rate of the charges. What is equally
                              important is whether the business community agrees with the need for a permit
                              system. This is for example more often the case in the Randstad area of the
                              Netherlands than in the rest of the country. It is particularly in the smaller towns



                              102
                                  Comparisons of permit charges between residents and businesses in 42 municipalities according
                              to the inventory carried out by SGBO for the Volkskrant newspaper in March 2002, see
                              www.volkskrant.nl/gemeente and the inventory of IOO for the missing municipalities.
                              103
                                  Marnix de Bruin, , Remon Enting, Nico Nieboer, Ben Crum, Benchmark municipal business climate,
                              Research for Policy, Leiden 1999, page 97,98; Twijnstra Gudde, Parking meter 1995; Inventory of the
                              organisation and performance of municipal parking policy, Amersfoort, March 1997, page 8



                                                                                                                             99
(Apeldoorn, Helmond) where comparisons will be made with cheap or free
parking in the surrounding areas104.

In general the municipalities experience the greatest politically related difficulties
in gaining acceptance when they attempt to increase the price of a permit for
local residents.

Rise in the price of permits

From a rough comparison of sources that are not all that easy to compare, it                             Hardly any increase in the charges
appears that the charges have hardly risen at all over a five year period, or may                        for parking permits
even have fallen slightly. In 1995 the charge for residents parking permits varied
in 58 municipalities between 11.34 and 226.89 Euro per year, while the charge
for business parking permits lay somewhere between 4.54 and 544.54 Euro per
year. The average charge for a parking permit taken over all these 58
municipalities in 1995 was €119.12 per year for residents and €274.54 per year
for businesses105. The average five years later was at €86.54 per year (27%
lower) for residents and €284.71 per year for businesses (4% higher). The
limited increase in the rates charged for parking permits is quite remarkable
when compared to the increase in parking charges over the same period.

6.4 Gross revenues from public parking places

The gross revenues from the public parking places in The Netherlands are
known as the benefits of the product ‘parking’ of the municipalities (par. 6.4.1)
and as the revenues of the municipal parking taxation (par. 6.4.2). The municipal
parking taxation is a component of the municipal parking benefits. Apart from the
revenues of the municipal authorities, the revenues of private operators and
owners of public parking places and the revenues of Central government (par.
6.4.3) should also be taken into consideration. In paragraph 6.4.4 an indication is
given of the ways in which the municipalities use these revenues.

6.4.1 The benefits of parking policy

In the municipal accounting and budgeting the benefits of the regulated public                         Benefit > parking tax: € 362 million
parking places are accounted for by the product ‘parking’. The benefits include                        in year 2000
all revenues of the municipal authority from parking charges, parking taxes,
violations of parking tax, parking permits and concessions. The definition of
benefit is broader than the revenues from municipal parking tax (see par. 6.4.2).
Those revenues from parking fines that go into the government coffers under the
terms of the Mulder Act are not included under benefits. In the year 2000 the
revenues amounted to € 362 million, in the year 2001 € 392 million and in 2002
€ 474 million (table 6.5)106.
In these three years the revenues increased by an average of 9% per year.




104
    Marnix de Bruin, , Remon Enting, Nico Nieboer, Ben Crum, Benchmark municipal business climate,
Research for Policy, Leiden 1999, page 97.
105
    Twijnstra Gudde, Parking meter 1995; Inventory of the organisation and performance of municipal
parking policy, Amersfoort, March 1997, page 7.
106
    Extrapolation of municipal data from the IOO-survey to national revenues lead to practically the
same result.



100
                                     Table 6.5 Municipal benefit “parking” in 2000,2001,2002 (in millions of
                                     Euro)

                                     Municipalities                                                  2000               2001          2002
                                     Population < 5,000                                               0.2                0.1           0.1
                                     5,000 – 10,000                                                   1.3                1.4           1.4
                                     10,000 – 20,000                                                  6.9                6.9           7.6
                                     20,000 – 50,000                                                 37.6               40.5          47.3
                                     50,000 – 100,000                                                50.1               56.2          61.5
                                     100,000 – 150,000                                               45.0               49.2          53.0
                                     150,000 – 250,000                                               46.4               34.5          47.4
                                     ≥ 250,000                                                      174.2              203.6         255.3
                                     Total                                                          361.7              392.4         473.3


                                     Source: CBS, Functional specification of municipal levies per product (function
                                     214)
                                     Legend: all benefits and expenses related to parking provisions, including
                                     parking attendants/traffic wardens and parking meters. Further included in this
                                     regard are the revenues from parking taxes

                                     The average benefit from ‘parking’ per municipality according to size category
                                     may be converted into the revenue per capita and per municipality (Table 6.6).
                                     On average the benefits of parking policy in the year 2000 amount to € 23 per
                                     capita, €41 per public parking place and € 764,000 per municipality.

                                     Table 6.6 Benefits of ‘parking’ per capita, per public parking place and per
                                     municipality according to size category in 2000 (in Euros)

     Type of Municipality                                                            Per capita   Per public parking       Per Municipality
                                                                                                               place
     Population < 20,000                                                                     2                     4               27,000
     20,000 – 50,000                                                                         8                    13              225,000
     50,000 – 100,000                                                                       21                    38             1474,000
     population ≥ 100,000                                                                   54                   103           1,0624,000
     Average of all municipalities                                                          23                    41


                                     Source: CBS, Functional specification of municipal levies per product (function
                                     214)

                                     6.4.2 The revenues from parking tax

                                     In the year 2000 the gross revenues for the municipality from parking tax – a
Parking tax: € 285 million           component of the municipal benefits of the product ‘parking’ – amounted to
                                     € 285 million (Table 6.7). It was particularly in the large municipalities
                                     (populations of > 100,000) that revenues increased considerably in the period
                                     1995 – 2000: an average increase of 16%107.




                                     107
                                       Also see Ed Verburg, parking incomes continue to grow, in : Monthly statistics on Traffic 2000/04,
                                     page 9.



                                                                                                                                     101
Table 6.7 Parking tax according to size category of municipality and
budget year 1995 – 2000 (in million Euros)

Size of Municipality                                                        1995        1006       1997        1998      1999       2000
Population < 20,000                                                           6.0        6.9         6.5         7.4       7.0        7.5
20,000 – 50,000                                                              20.2       23.8        26.7        27.4      31.0       35.3
50,000 – 100,000                                                             37.0       33.2       37.7         40.0      44.3       45.6
population ≥ 100,000                                                         92.8      131.0      138.5       163.1      173.9      196.9
Total of all municipalities                                                 156.0      194.9      209.4       237.9      256.2      285.3


Source: CBS Statline, municipal budgets; converted to Euros by IOO

6.4.3 Estimate of total revenue

Public revenue

From the IOO-survey it appeared that seventy-eight percent of the revenues of                                Municipal surcharges on parking
municipal authorities (€ 361.7 million) consists of the revenues gained from                                 tax: 22% of revenue gained
parking taxes, parking charges, permits and concessionary parking. Twenty-two
percent of the municipal revenues consist of revenues from fines and tax
assessments imposed for violations of municipal parking tax. In the survey
twenty-four municipalities were able to differentiate between revenues from
fiscalised fines and the revenues from parking taxes, parking charges and for
permits. Using these figures it is possible to calculate that 17% of the revenues,
consisting of fines and extra tax assessments came from the small municipalities
(2) 20% of the revenues of the small-intermediate sized municipalities (5), 18%
of the revenues from large-intermediate sized municipalities (10) and 24% of the
revenues from the large municipalities (7). These figures were used to divide the
public revenues from municipal parking policy according to the nature of the
revenues concerned (Table 6.8).

The Ministry of Justice also realises ‘parking revenues’. Where there are Parking fines Ministry of Justice: €
offences committed against the Mulder Act the police will impose fines. In the 39 million
year 2000 996,757 sanctions were imposed for parking offences108. On average
it is assumed that the revenue per sanction amounts to € 40. The total revenues
for Central Government can therefore be estimated at € 38.7 million (Table 6.8).

The total public revenues of the regulated public parking places in the year 2000                            All revenues: € 400 million
may be estimated at 400 million Euro.

Table 6.8 Public revenues from regulated public parking places (million €)
according to municipality per size category (in 1,000 population) in the
year 2000

Public revenues                                                         ≤ 20           20-50           50-100          >100          Total
Municipalities :
- Parking taxes. charges and permits                                     7.0            30.1               41.1        201.9        280.1
- Fines and tax assessments due to violations of parking tax             1.4             7.5                9.0         63.7         81.6
Total of municipalities                                                  8.4            37.6               50.1        265.6        361.7

Government (penalties under Mulder Act)                                  N/a             N/a               N/a           N/a         38.7
Total of Municipalities and Central Government                                                                                      400.4


Source: CBS, Functional specification of municipal levies per product (function
214), written IOO-survey, estimate of revenues on the basis of statements on
WAHV-matters in the year 2000 of the Central Department of Collections of the
Ministry of Justice



108
  Statement of the Central Department of Collections of the Ministry of Justice in Leeuwarden of the
number of WAHV cases handled in the year 2000 per police region.



102
                                  With this no account is taken of the positive economic effects and social benefits
                                  (access, economic dynamics, competitive position, establishment site factor,
                                  location factor etc.) of the public parking places. These social benefits are
                                  difficult to define and are mainly of a local nature and are already partly
                                  absorbed by the parking charges.

                                  Private revenues from public parking places

Estimate of approximately 550     With the revenues in table 6.8 no account has been taken of the public parking
million private revenues per      places in covered parking facilities and on car-parks that are privately owned and
annum from public parking         privately operated (135,000 – 150,000 parking places). If it is assumed that the
places                            revenues are at least enough to cover their annual financial costs (including
                                  basic costs) then these places will generate approximately € 535 – 552 million in
                                  gross revenues. (Table 6.9).

                                  Table 6.9 Estimate of annual private revenues from public parking places
                                  in private ownership and privately operated (million €)

       Type of parking place       privately owned                                               Privately operated
                                         Number      cost per place        million €   Number        cost per place    million €
       Car-park place                      42,750             2,520             108     58,500                2,250          147
       Covered parking place               94,076             4,540             427     89,210                4,540          405
       Total                             136,826                                535    147,710                               552


                                  Source: IOO Ltd., see Table 4.14 and 4.15 and Table 5.29; cost per place: total
                                  financial costs (depreciation costs, operating costs and basic costs)

                                  This cost estimate of the private revenues can be overestimated because a
                                  portion of the parking places is in public ownership and is privately operated; the
                                  municipality will receive reimbursement for this that is also added to the
                                  municipal benefit. The gross revenues may also be overestimated because the
                                  basic costs are not applied in all cases (the actual annual costs < total financial
                                  costs).
                                  The gross revenues of the privately owned public parking places may be
                                  underestimated because a positive operating result is not taken into account in
                                  the costs.

                                  Total revenues of the public parking places

Total revenues of € 945 million   In the year 2000 the total public and private revenues of the parking policy and
                                  from the regulated public parking places amounted to € 945 million. 38% of
                                  these revenues went to the coffers of the municipal authorities, 4% to central
                                  government and 58% to the private owners and operators of public car-parks
                                  and covered parking facilities (Table 6.10).

                                  Table 6.10 Public and private revenues from regulated public parking
                                  places (million €) in the year 2000

                                  Public revenues                                                          million €         %
                                  Public revenues:
                                  - Municipalities                                                              361          38
                                  - Central government (fines under Mulder Act)                                  39           4
                                  Total public revenues                                                         400          42

                                  Estimated private revenues (average)                                          545         58
                                  Total revenues                                                                945        100
                                  Source: CBS, estimate on the basis of figures from Central Department of
                                  Collections of the Ministry of Justice, IOO-survey




                                                                                                                          103
These revenues are generated by 4,297,000 fee parking places. The average
annual revenue for each fee parking place is € 1,918. If the revenues are divided
over all the regulated public parking places (1,708,100) or all public parking
places (8,864,200) then the annual revenues per place amount to € 553 and €
107 respectively.

6.4.4 Application of the revenues

To a large extent the municipalities use the revenues from the parking policy to Parking revenues form part of the
supplement general resources (41%) or they apply the revenues for general general resources of municipal
resources as well as their own parking policies (45%). It is only rarely the case authorities
that the municipalities are able to fully apply the revenues for use in the parking
policy (Table 6.11).

Table 6.11 Designated application of municipal parking revenues in
percentage terms (n =22)

Application                                                                          %
Fully general resources                                                              41
Fully parking policy                                                                 14
Partly for general resources and partly applied to parking policy                    45
Total                                                                                100


Source: IOO-survey (the municipalities with revenues that have answered this
question)

6.5 Net revenues from public parking places

Introduction

The figures on revenues given in this chapter are combined with the figures on
costs from the previous chapter in order to estimate the net revenues of public                     Municipal accounts: net
parking places in The Netherlands. In this regard three angles of approach have                     revenues € 34 m.
been opted for: the net revenues of the municipal parking policy according to the
costing as recorded in the municipal administrations (par. 6.5.1), the net
revenues of the regulated public parking places if account is taken of the total
financial costs (par. 6.5.2) and the net revenues of all public parking places if
account is taken of the total costs (financial and social) (par. 6.5.3).

6.5.1 Net revenues of municipal parking policy

Net revenues according to municipal administrations

The figures of the Central Office of Statistics (CBS) on the costs and benefits of
the municipal parking policy may be used to determine the net revenues
(benefits minus costs) of the policy. In the year 2000 the total net revenues
amounted to € 34 million according to the municipal authorities (Table 6.12). This
is € 20 on an annual basis per regulated parking place in the year 2000 and € 4
per public parking place109. From the figures in Table 6.12 it can not be
concluded that the regulated public parking places for the municipalities are an
important source of income. Besides, the net revenues have not increased over
the last three years.




109
   Net revenues per parking place calculated by dividing the revenues (€ 34.1 million) by the 1.7
million regulated public parking places and by 8.9 million public parking places.



104
                                   Table 6.12 Total benefits minus costs of parking levies in municipalities
                                   according to size category in years 2000, 2001,2002 (in million Euro)

                                   Municipalities                                                          2000    2001   2002
                                   < 5,000 population                                                       0.1     0.0    0.0
                                   5,000 – 10,000                                                           0.2     0.4    0.5
                                   10,000 – 20,000                                                          1.3     1.6    1.6
                                   20,000 – 50,000                                                          6.1     6.1    7.5
                                   50,000 – 100,000                                                         6.6     6.5    6.0
                                   100,000 – 150,000                                                        6.9     7.5    8.3
                                   150,000 – 250,000                                                        4.2     4.1    4.6
                                   ≥ 250,000                                                                8.7     3.2    1.5
                                   Total                                                                   34.1    29.4   30.0


                                   Source: CBS, Functional specification of municipal levies per product (function
                                   214)
                                   Legend: all benefits and expenses related to parking provisions, including
                                   parking attendants/traffic wardens and parking meters. Further included in this
                                   regard are the revenues from parking taxes

                                   The limited net revenues of the municipal parking policy may possibly also be
Extent of net revenues depending
                                   explained by the cost apportionment of the municipal authorities. If for example
on cost apportionment
                                   donations which are made to the mobility fund from the parking revenues are
                                   attributed to the expense of the parking policy, then the net revenues decrease.

                                   Net revenues of individual municipalities

                                   With the aid of the budgets of individual municipalities a study was made of
                                   whether the aggregated figures of the Central Office of Statistics on the costs
                                   and benefits of the municipal parking policy were identifiably distinctive. In the
                                   year 2000 the per capita net revenues of the municipal parking policy amounted
                                   to €3.85110 according to the aggregated figures of the Central Office of Statistics.
                                   The net per capita revenues varied from -/- € 6 in Amsterdam to € 13 in
                                   Eindhoven (Table 6.13). The figures in Table 6.13 make clear that the
                                   conclusions on the net revenues of the municipal parking policy strongly depend
                                   on the method of apportionment of costs and revenues to the parking policy
                                   within the municipal budgets and accounts.




                                   110
                                         The net revenues € 34.1 (Table 6.13) divided by population of 8,864,200



                                                                                                                          105
Table 6.13 Municipal costs and benefits of the parking taxes of a few
municipalities in 2001 or 2002 (1,000 Euro)

Municipality                                           Population (as of 1-1-2000)           Benefits        Costs          Balance
Pijnacker                                                                   22,404                  0           45               -/-45
Diemen                                                                      23,807                  0           39               -/-39
Culemborg                                                                   24,768                63            72                -/- 9
Hellendoorn                                                                 35,674                  9          133            -/- 124
Doetichem                                                                   46,967             1,998         1,830                168
Assen                                                                       58,445             2,117         2,062                  55
Venlo                                                                       64,864             4,395         3,861                534
Zwolle                                                                    105,801              5,744         5,064                680
Leiden                                                                    117,191              4,690         4,115                575
Breda                                                                     160,615              8,136         8,136                    0
Eindhoven                                                                 201,728              6,226         3,623             2,603
Utrecht                                                                   233,667             13,948        13,662                286
The Hague                                                                 441,094             19,469        16,260             3,209
Rotterdam                                                                 592,673             31,358        26,135             5,223
Amsterdam                                                                   73,288           134,567       138,716      -/- 4,109111


Source: Budgeting of municipal authorities (function 214)
Legend: all benefits and expenses related to parking provisions, including
parking attendants/traffic wardens and parking meters. Further included in this
regard are the revenues from parking taxes

6.5.2 Net revenues regulated parking places

For the municipalities the cost of the parking policy is related to all regulated                       Net revenues versus total financial
public parking places while the Central Government revenues (offences against                           costs: € 235 to € 565 million
the Mulder Act) can be realised anywhere (inside and outside built-up areas,                            negative
regulated and unregulated area). The estimated revenues of the private
operators of public parking places can also not be divided over the municipalities
according to size category.
The total public and private revenues are set against the total financial and social
costs of the regulated public parking places from the previous chapter (Table
6.14). With the costs no consideration was given to acquisitions and acquisition
costs of the Central Government revenues.




111
   The municipality of Amsterdam included the payment of 16 million Euro to the Mobility Fund in the
costs in the budget for 2002.



106
                                               Table 6.15 Net revenues of regulated public parking places (in million
                                               Euros) according to size category of Municipality in (x 1,000 population) in
                                               the year 2000

        Net revenues of all                                  ≤ 20          20-50         50-100        >100            total
        regulated parking places
        Public income municipal authorities                  8             38            50            266           361
        Public income Central Government                     N/a           N/a           N/a           N/a           39
        Estimated private revenues                           unknown       unknown       unknown       Unknown       545
        Total public and private revenues                    unknown       unknown       unknown       unknown       945

        Total financial costs: conclusion                    150           495           170           365           1,180
        Public net revenues (financial)                      -/-142        -/-457        -/-120        -/- 99        -/-779
        Public and private net revenues(financial)           unknown       unknown       unknown       Unknown       -/- 235

        Total costs: financial & social                      190           625           220           475           1,510
        Public net revenues (social)                         -/-182        -/-587        -/-170        -/-209        -/-1109
        Public and private net revenues                      unknown       unknown       unknown       unknown       -/- 565
        (social)


                                               Source: See Table 6.11 and Table 5.32.

                                               If the revenues of Municipal authorities, Central Government and private
                                               operators (€ 945 million) is set against the total financial costs of the regulated
                                               public parking places (€ 1,180 million) then the net revenues show € 235 million
                                               in the red. The revenues make up 80% of the total financial costs.

Revenues cover 63% of the costs                If the public and private revenues are compared with the total social costs of the
of the regulated public parking                regulated public parking places (€ 1,510 million) then these revenues will cover
places                                         63% of the costs. This means that the municipality provides the users of parking
                                               places with an implicit annual ‘subsidy’ of € 565 million or € 330 per regulated
                                               public parking place.

                                               6.5.3 Net revenues of public parking places

                                               As was discussed in chapter 5, costs are not only incurred for the (1,708,100)
Net revenues of all public parking             regulated public parking places but also for the (7,156,200) unregulated public
places: € 3.6 to € 5.2 billion in the          parking places. The total financial costs of all (8,864,200) public parking places
red                                            amount to € 4 billion in the year 2000. If the social costs are also taken into
                                               consideration then the total costs of these parking places is € 5.6 billion. The
                                               public and private revenues only cover 24% (financially) or 17% (socially) of the
                                               costs (table 6.16).




                                                                                                                               107
Table 6.16 Net revenues of all public parking places (in million Euros)
according to size category of Municipality (x 1,000 population) in the year
2000


Net revenues of all                           ≤ 20        20-50           50-100         >100          total
regulated parking places
Public income municipal authorities           8           38              50             266           361
Public income Central Government              N/a         N/a             N/a            N/a           39
Estimated private revenues                    unknown     unknown         unknown        unknown       545
Total public and private revenues             unknown     unknown         unknown        unknown       945

Total financial costs: conclusion               870       1,360           600            1,170         4,000
Public net revenues (financial)               -/-862      -/-1,322        -/- 550        -/- 904       -/-3,599
Public and private net revenues (financial)   unknown     unknown         unknown        unknown       -/-3,055

Total costs: financial & social               1,220       1,860           840            1,670         5,590
Public net revenues (social)                  -/-1,212    -/-1,822        -/-790         -/- 1,404     -/-5,189
Public and private net revenues (social)      unknown     unknown         unknown        unknown       -/-4,645


Source: See Table 6.11 and Table 5.34

The revenues of Municipal authorities, Central government and private operators          Social subsidy of € 524 per public
(at € 945 million) are € 3,055 million in deficit in relation to the (€ 4,000 million)   parking place per annum
total financial cost. These negative net revenues can be regarded as a ‘subsidy’
from the tax-payer to the public parker. This ‘subsidy’ comes to € 4,645 million if
the social costs of these parking places are also taken into account, or in other
words € 290 per capita or € 524 per public parking place.

6.6 Summary of revenues from public parking places

Parking charges
The rate of the parking charges of municipalities is subject to a great degree of
difference according to the type of parking place, the time of day and the sort of
use. In the variation in the parking charges there is no clearly discernable pattern
according to the characteristics of a municipality (size, nature or character of
urbanisation, region) (Table 6.17).




108
                                       Table 6.17 Parking charges (€) in the town centres of 134 municipalities as
                                       of 1-1-2000 ordered according to the rate charged and the distribution
                                       within the group

        Charges in € per hour    Number of        Names of Municipalities
                                 Municipalities
        ≥ 2.00 – 2.80                   7         Highest charge within group € 2.80: Amsterdam (population 731,288),
                                                  Lowest charge within group € 2.00: Delft ( population 96,095)
        ≥ 1.50 – 2.00                  11         Highest charge within group € 1.82: Leiden (117,191),
                                                  Lowest charge € 1.50: Groningen (173,139) and Oosterhout (52,291)
        ≥ 1.25 – 1.50                  10         Highest charge within group € 1.41: Eindhovenn (201,728),
                                                  Lowest charge within group € 1.25: Nijmegen (152,200)
        ≥ 1.00 – 1.25                  35         Highest charge within group € 1.20: Texel (13,425), and Enschede (149,505),
                                                  Lowest charge € 1.00: Valkenburg aan de Geul (17,879) + Haarlem (148,505)
        ≥ 0.75 – 1.00                  22         Highest charge within group € 0.92: Meppel (29,652),
                                                  Lowest charge € 0.75: Etten-Leur (37,023) and Emmen (105,972)
        ≥ 0.50 – 0.75                  35         Highest charge € 0.70: Bergen NH (13,736)and Tilburg (193,116)
                                                  Lowest charge € 0.50: Simpelveld (11,589) and Rheden (44,313)
        ≥ 0.20 – 0.50                  14         Highest charge within group € 0.45: Beverwijk (35,802),
                                                  Lowest charge within group€ 0.20: Delftzijl (29,015)
        Total                          134


                                       Source: Ministry of Finance, appendix to letter to Parliamentary Lower Chamber
                                       FM 2002- 00787M dated: 10 June 2002; population per municipality 1-1-2000
                                       (CBS).

                                       Permit charges


  Great variety of permit              The charge structure for residents and business parking permits has a greater
  charges                              variety than the charges for parking on the street. In sixteen large medium-sized
                                       municipalities (50,000 – 100,000 population) a parking permit for residents cost
                                       an average of € 72 per year and in 25 large municipalities (>100,000 population)
                                       € 101 per year. Within both groups of municipalities the range of distribution of
                                       the charges for residents at about the average is quite considerable. In general
                                       there is substantial political opposition in the municipalities against increasing the
                                       permit charges for residents.

                                       In the case of business parking permits the range of distribution is even more
                                       considerable. In eighteen large medium-sized municipalities (50,000 – 100,000
                                       population) a parking permit for businesses costs an average of € 275 per year
                                       and in 24 large municipalities it costs an average of € 294 per year. The lowest
                                       charge for a business permit in these 42 municipalities was € 18 per year and
                                       the highest charge was € 626 per year. There is no discernable pattern in the
                                       charge differentiation. The highest charges for business parking permits was in
                                       Apeldoorn and Groningen. The charges in the largest cities are clearly below this
                                       level: The Hague (€ 235 per year), Amsterdam (€ 365 per year), Rotterdam (€
                                       381 per year) and Utrecht (€ 490 per year).

                                       On average the parking permits for businesses are 430% more expensive than
Business parking permits are           the permits for local residents. The difference in rate between a permit for
considerably more expensive than       residents or businesses is applied without hardly any or no real basis in a
resident’s parking permits             number of municipalities. So the rate of the charges often meets with quite a bit
                                       of opposition from the private sector.

                                       Public revenues

                                       The public revenues of the parking policy in The Netherlands in the year 2000
Considerable range in revenues         were € 362 million Euro. This was an average of € 23 per capita and € 41 per
per municipality                       public parking place. The public revenues differ considerably from one
                                       municipality to another according to size category (Table 6.18).




                                                                                                                                109
Table 6.18 Public revenues from parking per capita, per public parking
place per municipality according to size category in the year 2000 (in
Euros)

Type of Municipality                                    per capita     per public parking place (€)   per municipality (1,000 €)
< 20,000 population                                              2                                4                           27
20,000-50,000 population                                         8                              13                           225
50,000-100,000 population                                      21                               38                         1,474
≥ 100,000 population                                           54                              103                       10,624
Average all municipalities                                     23                               41


Source: CBS

The benefits of the municipal parking policy in table 6.18 in principle include all
revenues earned by the municipal parking policy: income from parking taxes,                   Public revenues € 400 million
fines due to violation of the parking tax regulations, income from permits, parking
charges and income from concessions. The only form of income that has nor yet
been included is income due to offences committed against the traffic
regulations. These fines are paid to the Ministry of Justice and may be estimated
at € 39 million (Table 6.19).

Table 6.19 Public revenues from parking places in the year 2000 (€ million)

Nature of the gross incomes                                    € million
Municipalities:
Parking taxes, charges, permits                                280.1
Fines and assessments for violations of parking tax            81.6
Total municipalities                                           361.7

Central government (fines under Mulder Act)                    38.7
Total municipal authorities & Central government               400.4


Source: CBS, IOO-survey and Central Department of Collections of the Ministry
of Justice

The municipalities use the parking revenues for general resources (41% of the
municipalities) or for general resources as well as parking policy (45% of
municipalities).

Public and private incomes from parking policy

A part of the revenues from the public parking places goes to private operators
and owners of public parking places on car-parks and in covered parking
facilities. The number of public parking places in private ownership and under
private operation is estimated at 135,000 – 152,000 parking places. In the study
it was estimated that this generates an annual revenue of € 535-552 million (with
an average of € 545 million). This estimate is probably not an underestimate of
the revenues.
The public parking places and private income from the public parking places can               Total revenues of public parking
be estimated at € 945 million (Table 6.20).                                                   places € 945 million




110
                                                 Table 6.20 Public and private incomes of all public parking places (million
                                                 €)

                                                 Public and private incomes                                               Mln. €                %
                                                 Public incomes municipalities                                              361                 38
                                                 Public incomes central government                                           39                  4
                                                 Private incomes                                                            545                 58
                                                 Total of public and private incomes                                        945                100


                                                 Net revenues of regulated public parking places


Purported € 72 million net                       The municipal authorities execute their parking policy for 1.7 million regulated
revenues                                         public parking places and obtain their revenues from parking charges, parking
                                                 taxes, surcharges of parking tax, permits and concessions. The public parking
                                                 places for which fees are required that produce income, make up 30% of the
                                                 regulated public parking places. If the parking fines paid to Central government
                                                 (under the Mulder Act) are added to the revenues of the municipal authorities
                                                 then the public revenues from regulated public parking places in the year 2000
                                                 amounted to € 400 million. According to the municipal administration the costs
                                                 incurred by the municipal parking policy amounted to € 328 million. Purportedly
                                                 the net revenue from parking policy amounted to € 72 million. With this estimate
                                                 of the net public revenues the enforcement and levying costs have not been
                                                 taken into consideration for Central government incomes (Table 6.20).
                                                 If account is also taken of the costs and revenues of regulated, fee public
                                                 parking places that are in private hands and are privately operated then the net
                                                 revenue would remain € 72 million. The net revenues are € 42 per regulated
                                                 public parking place or € 8 per capita.

                                                 Table 6.21 Net annual revenues of regulated public parking places in year
                                                 2000 (in million €)

      Net revenue (million €)                              Municipal               Public and private        All financial costs    Social costs
                                                         Administration            operating accounts
      Income                                              400                           945
      Costs                                               328                           873
      Net revenues (mill. €)                               72                             72                  -/-235                -/- 565
      - per regulated public parking place (€)                            42                            42               -/- 138              -/- 330
      - per capita (€)                                                     5                             5                 -/- 15               -/- 36


                                                 Source: IOO Ltd.


                                                 As the municipalities do not fully apply all the costs of regulated public parking
Net revenues of regulated                        places to the parking places (including for instance investment costs, capital
parking places actually € 235 to                 costs, basic costs, overhead costs) the net income of the regulated public
€ 565 million in the red                         parking places is overestimated in the municipal operating accounts. If IOO
                                                 make a correction to adjust this overestimate then the conclusion must be that
                                                 the annual net revenues of the regulated public parking places are not positive,
                                                 but are in fact 235 million euro in the red. The revenues of municipal authorities,
                                                 Central Government and private operators only cover 80% of the total financial
                                                 costs.

                                                 If in addition consideration is given to the costs of the negative external effects of
                                                 the parking places (adversely affecting quality of life, environment, public safety)
                                                 and these social costs of the regulated public parking places are compared with
                                                 the public and private gross revenues then the revenues show a deficit of 565
                                                 million euro.
Annually an implied “subsidy” of                 The revenues cover the social costs for only 63% which also means that each
140 –330 Euro per regulated                      regulated parking place is ‘subsidised’ from general resources to the tune of 330
public parking place                             Euro annually.



                                                                                                                                               111
Net revenues of all public parking places

In the analysis of IOO there were also many unregulated public parking places
(7,156,000) besides the regulated public parking places (1,708,100). The
unregulated public parking places also require investment costs, make use of
precious public space and require maintenance costs (to a limited extent). In
total the annual financial costs of all 8.9 million public parking places amount to
four billion euro.                                                                  Revenues cover 17 – 24% of the
The parking revenues of all municipalities and the Central government make up costs of all public parking places
only ten percent of the costs (Table 6.22).

Table 6.22 Net annual revenues of all public parking places in year 2000 (in
million €)

Costs and revenues (€ million)                                                   All financial costs                         Social costs
Revenues of municipalities, central government and private parties                    945                                    945
Costs                                                                               4,000                                  5,590
Net revenues (million €)                                                        -/- 3,055                              -/- 4,645
- per public parking place (€)                                                                         -/- 345                              -/- 524
- per capita (€)                                                                                       -/- 193                              -/- 292


Source: IOO Ltd.


If account is also taken of the cost of the negative external effects of the parking
places (adverse effect on quality of life, environment, public safety) then the
annual cost of public parking places will increase to 5.6 billion Euro. The public
and private revenues of the parking policy only make up for 17% of the social
costs of all public parking places.

It is conceivable that the general public and motorists in actual fact pay a larger                              The tax-payer “subsidises” every
portion of the actual costs of public parking places via other taxes and levies                                  public parking place annually by €
(Property taxes, income tax, duties). By only charging for 17% of the social costs                               345 (financially) and up to € 524
of all public parking places directly, the user of parking places only pays a limited                            (socially)
amount for their direct use of said parking places. The major share of the social
costs of public parking places are paid by the tax-payer and not by the user. The
tax-payer subsidises each public parking place annually by € 345 (financially) to
€ 524 (socially).

By not charging fully for the right costs in the parking and permit charges it is                                By not directly applying all costs it
made considerably more difficult for the municipal authorities to achieve                                        is harder to achieve policy
municipal objectives with regard to quality of life and amenity, public safety and                               objectives
mobility. Because the user/polluter only pays to a limited degree directly for the
pollution they cause there is over-consumption of usage and mobility, too much
is invested in public parking places and valuable land resources are wasted. The
negative net revenues mean that the parking places are subsidised from other
municipal income and that the municipal authority is not able to make considered
social choices. Apart from that it is notable that the non-motorist subsidises the
motorist for using public parking places.

If it is assumed that all basic costs of the 8.9 million public parking places are
applied and are included in the basic costs of housing and commercial buildings,
then the total financial costs (excluding basic costs) may be estimated at € 1.8
billion and the total social and financial costs (excluding basic costs) estimated at
€ 3.4 billion112.The revenues then cover 53% and 28% of the costs respectively


112
     From table 5.19 it appears that the estimated basic costs make up 55% of all financial costs and
that 45% consists of the annual depreciation of the investment costs and the operating costs (0.45 * 4
billion = 1.8 billion).



112
                                      and a substantial “subsidy” is still provided to the car owner/user of public
Even if the basic costs cannot
                                      parking places from general tax resources.
be attributed to the direct cost of
                                      With regard to public parking places a situation is still nowhere near being
parking places there is still a
                                      achieved where the user of a parking place will pay all the costs relating to that
considerable “implicit” subsidy
                                      place themselves. As a result from a social point of view too much is invested in
                                      public parking places, precious space is being used up, parking places on
                                      private property are not utilised because the public parking places on the street
                                      are ostensibly free of charge and that non-car owners also contribute towards
                                      the costs of a parking place for the car owner. Those people that are not car
                                      owners will therefore probably also experience the negative external effects of
                                      public parking places more strongly than car owners and yet will nonetheless
                                      have to pay for their use.
                                      With regard to the costing of public parking places the Pareto-optimum will be
The user of a parking place only      brought nearer if the public parking places are forced to bear the full cost of the
pays a limited amount for its use     financial and social costs and if the access costs are applied to the basic costs of
                                      housing and commercial properties and sanitised for the investment costs of
                                      public parking places.




                                                                                                                     113
Appendix 1 Glossary of Terms used

ABC- location policy
By applying maximum parking standards in Town and Country planning it is
intended that the right business should establish at the right location and that car
use be reduced. At or around A-locations in the Randstad conurbation area,
around urban transport interchanges and in other metropolitan districts there are
less parking places available per 100 employees or per square metre of gross
floor area than at B-locations outside the Randstad area, at urban interchanges
and in other metropolitan districts.

Depreciation of investment costs
The distribution of the investment costs over the economic lifespan of a parking
place. It is assumed that there is annual linear depreciation of the investment
costs continuing over a twenty year period. The fictitious concept is assumed
that all investments were made starting in the year 2000 because the lifespan of
all parking places is unknown.

Effects, positive external
The “revenues” that are generated by parking places for the good of society in
general are not just measurable without further ado and are not attributed to the
parking places in question: the social benefits of better access include increased
economic activity, more attractive sites to establish a business etc.

Effects, negative external
The “costs” that are not immediately apparent and that are not charged to the
parking places; these costs are expressed in the loss of prosperity of users and
non-users of parking places due to: environmental pollution, noise pollution,
visual pollution of landscape, adverse effects on overall quality of life and public
safety.

Basic costs of parking places
The annual interest loss of 5% on the market value of the land. Parking places
on and along the street: 17½ m2, parking places on car-parks: 24½ m2, parking
places in covered parking facilities such as multi-storey and underground car-
parks: 32 m2
Investment costs
The costs that have to be incurred in order to be able to construct a parking
place (often exclusive of basic costs). By means of annual depreciation the
investment costs are included in the financial costs of the parking places.

Costs, operating
The cost of supervision, collection, energy, maintenance, insurance, overheads,
ground lease and attributed basic costs. In practice, unless there are exceptional
extenuating circumstances the basic costs are applied in the operating costs.

Costs, financial
The annual depreciation of the investment costs, the operating costs and the
loss of interest for land use.

Costs, social
The costs of public parking places consist of the financial costs and the negative
external effects of parking places. The positive external effects have not been
included as negative costs or as benefits.

Costs, public
The costs relating to governmental authorities as public bodies.




114
Costs at market prices
The costs charged for parking places are determined according to free and open
market conditions.

Revenues, gross
The revenues generated by public parking places from parking charges, parking
permits, parking taxes, parking fines

Revenues, net
Gross revenues minus costs.

Parking policy, control-orientated
Policy for influencing the behaviour of motorists and to steer the establishment
behaviour of residents and businesses in the desired direction.

Parking standards
Standards used by municipal authorities in their Town and Country Planning in
order to estimate the required number of parking places on private property and
the required number of parking places at all type of provisions (housing, schools,
hospitals, social-communal provisions, cultural provisions etc.)

Parking place
A place or space that is intended and/or used for storing, stationing or leaving
motor vehicles at the end of a completed trip.

Parking places, regulated
Parking places where parking is subject to restrictions (on use, stay, cost,
accessibility).

Parking places, public
Parking places that are open to use by anyone –whether or not a fee is charged
– and which is not situated on private property.

Parking places on private property
Parking places at a home or business premises that are not freely accessible to
all.

Parking places on or along the street
Parking places that are situated either parallel with or perpendicular to the axis of
the road and where there are no prohibitive conditions applying; the parking
places need not be distinctively recognisable as such (average area covered by
place is 17½ m2).

Parking places on car-parks
Parking places on car-parks; the parking places need not be distinctively
recognisable as such (average area covered by place is 24½ m2).

Parking places in covered (parking) facilities
Parking places in covered parking facilities such as multi-storey or underground
car parks or special parking garages; in determining the basic costs it is
assumed that the average space is 32 m2




                                                                                115
Appendix 2 Sources used for costs of parking places

Investment costs of parking places on and along the street

The Hague: Department of Urban Development, Parking and Housing; a
framework for parking in residential areas of The Hague, December 1999;
Rotterdam: December 1999; Rotterdam; Kolpron Consultants, Policy advice in
matters pertaining to the financing and organisation of parking in Rotterdam up
to and including 2010, Augustus 1999; Lelystad: interview; Dordrecht: interview:
Leiden: interview; Dordrecht interview; Amsterdam interview; Eindhoven:
interview; Veenendaal: interview; AVV (Advisory Service on Traffic and
Transport) Design of taxi ranks: queue or ride?, November 1999, pages 52-59
(excl. V.A.T.).

Operating costs of parking places on and along the street

The Hague, Parking and Living, December 1999; Kolpron, Policy advice in
matters pertaining to the financing and organisation of parking in Rotterdam up
to and including 2010, Augustus 1999; Annual accounts 2001 municipality of
Rotterdam; Apeldoorn: written information from municipal authority; Amersfoort:
written information from municipal authority.

Investment costs of parking places on car-parks

Rotterdam Zoo: interview; general: Government buildings department,
Government offices in figures, price level in January 2000; The Hague, Parking
and Living, December 1999; Kolpron, Policy advice in matters pertaining to the
financing and organisation of parking in Rotterdam up to and including 2010,
1999; Patrick Snijders, The economic balance of parking, a preliminary
exploratory study in three municipalities, AVV, Rotterdam, 1995, page 48.

Operating costs of parking places on car-parks

AVV, Opportunities for car-pooling, Rotterdam, 2000; Rotterdam Zoo: interview;
Annual accounts for 2001 of the Municipality of Rotterdam; Patrick Snijders, The
economic balance of parking, a preliminary exploratory study in three
municipalities, AVV, Rotterdam, 1995, pages 30, 36 and 42 (average of ‘parking
meters/automatic parking machines’ and ‘permit places’).

Investment costs of parking places in covered parking facilities

Amsterdam: interview; Leiden: interview; Lelystad: interview; Veenendaal:
interview; The Hague: Department of Urban Development, Parking and Housing;
a framework for parking in residential areas of The Hague, December 1999;
Rotterdam: December 1999; Rotterdam; Kolpron Consultants, Policy advice in
matters pertaining to the financing and organisation of parking in Rotterdam up
to and including 2010, Augustus 1999, figures from Rotterdam Parking
Corporation, adjustment to the rate of the lump sum indemnity payment for
exemption with regard to parking requirement at or in buildings, SOB 99/2631,
dated 26 August 1999; Amersfoort: information from municipal authority; Bergen
op Zoom: information from municipal authority; ‘s-Hertogenbosch: information
from municipal authority; Arnhem: written information from municipal authority;
Tilburg:    written   information   from      municipal     authority;  Breda      :
www.parkeermakelaar.nl/nieuws.7.html; general: CROW, Constructed parking
provisions, design guide, Ede, 1996, pages 45 and 47 (rough characteristic
figures on costs of covered parking facilities; excl. cost of land acquisition, cost
of management, parking management system and temporary provisions while




116
work is being executed); Government buildings department, Government offices
in figures price level January 2000.


Operating costs of parking places in covered parking facilities

Amsterdam: interview; Leiden: interview; Lelystad: interview; Veenendaal:
interview; The Hague: Department of Urban Development, Parking and Housing;
a framework for parking in residential areas of The Hague, December 1999;
Rotterdam: December 1999; Rotterdam; Kolpron Consultants, Policy advice in
matters pertaining to the financing and organisation of parking in Rotterdam up
to and including 2010, Augustus 1999 and figures from Rotterdam Parking
Corporation, including budget for 2001; Amersfoort: Annual accounts for
municipality for 1999; ‘s-Hertogenbosch: Patrick Snijders, The economic balance
of parking, a preliminary exploratory study in three municipalities, AVV,
Rotterdam, 1995, page 42, and information from the municipal authority of
Arnhem: written information from municipal authority; Tilburg: written information
from municipal authority; Breda : Patrick Snijders, The economic balance of
parking, a preliminary exploratory study in three municipalities, AVV, Rotterdam,
1995, page 36, and www.parkeermakelaar.nl/nieuws.7.html, Apeldoorn:
information from Environment Service, Mobility and Public Spaces, and Patrick
Snijders, The economic balance of parking, a preliminary exploratory study in
three municipalities, AVV, Rotterdam, 1995, page 30; general: CROW,
Constructed parking provisions, design guide, Ede, 1996, pages 45 and 47
(rough characteristic figures on costs of covered parking facilities; excl. cost of
land acquisition, cost of management, parking management system and
temporary provisions while work is in progress).




                                                                              117
Appendix 3 Databank ‘Parking in The Netherlands’

All amounts are in Dutch Guilders; 1 Guilder = 0.45378 Euro

Variable                                               Source               Used
General characteristic features
Municipal code                                         CBS
Corop-area                                             CBS
Name of Municipality                                   CBS                  √
Population as of 1-1-2000                              CBS                  √
Size of municipality in categories                     CBS                  √
Density (population / km2 land)                        CBS
Housing density (housing units per square km           CBS
Urbanization                                           CBS
Central places                                         Bos Atlas
Length of road in built-up area                        CBS                  √
Length of road outside built-up area                   CBS                  √
Area of municipality in hectares                       CBS
Number of housing units                                CBS                  √
Number of housing units according to type              CBS                  √
Number of jobs / employees                             CBS                  √
Number of business premises                            IBIS
Area of business premises                              IBIS
Area of business premises                              IBIS
Area of office locations                               IBIS
Number of Intermediate vocational colleges/students CBS                     √
Number of Higher Vocational Colleges/students          CBS                  √
Universities                                           CBS                  √
Number of passenger cars                               CBS                  √
Number of commercial vehicles                          CBS
Characteristic features of parking
Number of covered parking facilities                   Parking monitor
Number of parking places in covered parking facilities Parking monitor      √
Capacity of covered parking facilities in 1999         Parking monitor
Number of parking places on the street                 Parking monitor      √
in shopping areas
Number of parking places on car-parks                  Parking monitor      √
in shopping areas
Number of parking places on the street and on          Parking monitor      √
car-parks in shopping areas
Capacity on the street in 1999                         Parking monitor
Maximum charge for first hours parking                 Parking monitor
in covered parking facility
Maximum charge for first hours parking                 Parking monitor
in covered parking facility in 1999
Maximum charge for first hours parking                 Parking monitor
on the street in 1999
Highest parking charge on the street                   De Volkskrant Newspaper
                                                       SGBO, websites of
                                                       Municipal authorities,
                                                       Written IOO-survey
Floor area of retail sector                            Parking monitor
Total number of places                                 Parking monitor
Capacity in 1999                                       Parking monitor
Regulated public parking places                        WS-IOO               √
on and along the street
Regulated public parking places                        WS-IOO               √
on car-parks



118
Variable                                                 Source              Used
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
in covered parking facilities
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
Fee-paying public parking places                         WS-IOO              √
Number of parking permits in 2000                        WS-100              √
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
on and along the street owned by municipality
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
on car-parks owned by municipality
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
in covered parking facilities owned by municipality
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
on and along street operated by municipality
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
on car-parks operated by municipality
Regulated public parking places                          WS-IOO              √
in covered parking facilities operated by municipality
Amount paid for fines and tax assessment penalties       WS-IOO              √
based on the Mulder Act in year 2000
Amount paid for fines and tax assessment penalties       WS-IOO              √
based on offences committed against parking tax
in year 2000
Total revenues from parking policy in 2000               WS-IOO               √
Benefits of municipal parking policy                     CBS, functionally
                                                         specific municipal
                                                         levies, function 214
Total cost of execution of municipal parking policy      WS-IOO               √
Costs of municipal parking policy                        CBS, functionally
                                                         specific municipal
                                                         levies, function 214
Average price of land in central area of municipality    WS-IOO               √
per square metre
Average price of land outside the central area of        WS-IOO              √
municipality per square metre
Cost of business parking permit                          De Volkskrant Newspaper
                                                         SGBO, websites of
                                                         Municipal authorities,
                                                         Written IOO-survey


WS-IOO = written survey of IOO




                                                                                  119
Appendix 4 Telephone survey IOO

Included in this appendix are the questions from the telephone questionnaire.
Following every question is the answer of the respondent. Where possible and
where relevant these answers have been categorised according to the size
category of the municipality concerned.

Question 01
More often than not there are more general objectives that form the real basis of
the concrete parking policy of municipal authorities. Which general objectives do
you hope to achieve with parking policy?

Table B4.01 The objectives of parking policy according to the size
category of municipality, expressed in percentages of the size category
(several answers are possible)


                                           Size category of municipality
                                   < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000    Total
n=                                       97             55             29      19       200
accessibility                             21            27             45      58        30
distribution of parking pressure          17            24             24      42        22
no objective                              33            11               3      0        20
less parking pressure                       8           20             24      37        17
maintaining area or standard              21            15             14       0        16
free parking                              12            18               3      0        12
quality of life and public safety           5            9             17      42        12
increasing area                           13             7             17       5        12
free or low-charge for residents            3           15             24       5        10
reduction in car use                        7            4             21      26        10
free parking or low charge near shops       0            6             14       5         4
more covered parking facilities             0            2              6      26         4
promoting use of public transport and bike 0             2              6      26         4
realising revenues                          1            2             10       5         3
positive balance of costs-benefits          0            2             14       0         3




Question 02
In the objectives is there any mention of differentiation, for example according to
area or target group?

Table B4.02 Differentiation in the parking policy according to the size
category of municipality, expressed in percentages of the size category
                                       Size category of municipality
                               < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000        Total
n=                                   97             55             29      19           20
Yes                                  40             67             90      79            59
No                                   60             33             10      21             41

Total                                100           100          100           100       100




120
Question 03
Is your parking policy on the move at the moment?

Table B4.03 Movement in the parking policy according to the size category
of municipality, expressed in percentages of the size category
                                           Size category of municipality
                                   < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000    Total
n=                                       97             55             29      19       200
Yes                                      53             56             72      79        59
No                                       46             44             28      21         41
Don’t know/not sure                        1                                               1

Total                                    100             100           100       100    100


Question 03A
What are the discussion points and what is the impetus or reason for this
discussion?

Table B4.03A Discussion points named by municipalities, expressed in
percentage of the number of municipalities with a fluid parking policy
(more than one answer is possible)
n=                                                                               117
availability of parking options for visitors to shops / town centre              29
evaluating or regauging parking policy                                           26
availability of parking provisions for local residents                           21
limited supply                                                                    21
Introducing or expanding fee-parking                                             17
Introducing or expanding a permits system                                         16
Better utilisation of existing supply or spreading the parking pressure around   16
More covered parking facilities                                                   13
Improve access to town centre or nightlife and entertainment centres             10
Introduce or (re)consider charge differentiation                                 10
Increase supply of parking places                                                  9
Reduce supply of parking places on the street                                      6
Quality of life and public safety                                                  5
Stimulate less car traffic and more public transport via parking policy            3
Bring about a positive balance of costs and benefits                               3


Legend: More answers are possible.




                                                                                          121
Question 04
Which target group do you think deserves the most attention in your parking
policy?

Table B4.04 Target group with the greatest focus of attention according to
size category of municipality, expressed in percentages of the size
category

                                         Size category of municipality
                         < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000       Total
n=                             97                 55                 29        19       200
No specific target group       43                 34                 38        42        40
Residents                      21                 20                 34        26        23
The disabled                   11                  9                  -         -         8
Visitors                       22                 34                 21        26        25
Employees                       3                  2                   7         5        3
Total                         100                100              100          100      100




Question 05
Which type of parking place is afforded the most attention in your parking policy?

Table B4.05 Type of parking place afforded the most attention according
to size category of municipality, expressed in percentages of the size
category

                                                                      Size category of municipality
                                                    < 20 000     20 000-50 000         50 000-100 000   > 100 000   Total
n=                                                  97           55                    29               19          200
Parking on and along the public highway             76           71                    55               37          68
Car-parks                                           39           67                    48               47          49
Covered parking facilities                          7            16                    55               74          23
Don’t know                                          6            2                     7                            5


Question 05A
If Question 05 is parking on or along the public highway
Does this concern parking places situated actually ON the road itself or
ALONG(SIDE) the public highway?

Table B4.05A Municipalities affording attention to parking on or along the
public highway, %
n=                                                                             138

Parking places on the public highway (street parking)                           12
Parking places along the public highway (parking lay-bys)                       28
Both, on as well as along the public highway                                    59
Don’t know                                                                        1




122
Question 05B
If Question 05 is about car-parks
Does it in this regard mainly involve:
1: public transferia and P+R parking provisions
2: other car-parks wholly open to use by the general public
3: car-parks that are partly open to use by all
4: non-public car-parks of private companies or institutions
5: don’t know/ not sure

Table B4.05B Municipalities affording attention to car-parks, %
n=                                                                 99

Public transferia and P+R parking provisions                       76
Other car-parks wholly open to use by the general public           19
car-parks that are partly open to use by all                       17
non-public car-parks of private companies or institutions           5
Don’t know                                                          6



Question 05C
If Question 05 is about covered parking facilities
For whom are the parking places in these covered parking facilities intended for?

Table B4.05C Municipalities affording attention to covered parking
facilities, %
n=                                                                 46

Visitors                                                           91
Residents                                                          41
Businesses                                                         37
It mainly involves transferia and P+R provisions                    -
Don’t know                                                          2




                                                                            123
Question 06
In some municipalities those parking places situated on the private property of
businesses are made freely available to the general public outside of office
hours. How is this issue handled in your municipality?

Table B4.06 Policy with regard to private parking places of businesses , %
n=                                                                            200

obligatory in municipality                                                     2
not obligatory but common practice                                            16
obligatory as well as not obligatory                                           4
does not occur in municipality                                                78
Don’t know                                                                     2



Question 07
If making such places available to public use is obligatory, then how many
parking places does this approximately involve in your municipality?

Table B4.07 Number of private (company) parking places that you are
obliged to make available
n=                                                                             34

Minimum number of designated places                                            10
Maximum number of designated places                                           900
Average                                                                        80



Question 08
Does your municipality operate a system of parking permits?

Table B4.08 Does your municipality operate a parking permit system? (%)
                                          Size category of municipality
                                  < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000    Total
n=                                      97             55             29      19       200
Yes                                     49             67             93      100       66
No                                      51             33               7       0        35

Total                                  100          100        100            100      100




Question 09
If Question 08 is yes, then is there a waiting list for parking permits at the
moment?




124
Table B4.09 If your municipality operates a parking permit system, is
there a waiting list for such permits at the moment? (%)
                                    Size category of municipality
                            < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000     Total
n=                                 48            37             27      19        131
Yes                                 6             8             41      68         23
No                                 90            84             59      32         73
Don’t know/not sure                 4             8                                 4

Total                             100         100         100           100       100



Question 10
If Question 09 is yes, then how long is this waiting list for parking permits at the
moment, how many months ?

Table B4.10 Waiting times for parking permits according to size category
of municipality concerned
                            Size category of municipality
                            < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000   Total
n=                                 1           2          8              9     20
Average number of months           3           8          8             15     11


Question 11
Do you employ the services of private parties in the execution of your parking
policy?

Table B4.11 Use of private firms in execution of parking policy according
to the size category of the municipality, expressed in percentage of the
size category concerned
                                    Size category of municipality
                            < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000    Total
n=                                97             55             29      19       200
Yes                                8             22             34      74        22
No                                90             78             66      26        77
Don’t know/not sure                2                                               1

Total                            100          100        100            100      100



If Question 11 is No or Don’t know then move on to question 13A

Question 12
For which of the following functions or activities does this apply?




                                                                                   125
Table B4.12 Activities that are put out to private tender, % (more than one
answer is possible)


        N =43

Operating parking places/covered parking facilities                           47
Enforcement                                                                   44
Maintenance                                                                   40
Towing away vehicles / wheel clamp service                                    33
Other                                                                         33
Don’t know/not sure                                                            2



Question 13
If private companies are involved in the execution
Are these private operators of parking places free to set prices?


Table B4.13 Private operators free to set prices, %
                                                                          N = 20

Yes                                                                           15
Yes, must be reported to municipality                                         20
No                                                                            60
Don’t know/ not sure                                                           5




Question 13A
As far as parking is concerned do you operate a differentiation in prices in your
municipality?

Table B4.13A Differentiation in parking charges according to size category
of municipality, expressed as a percentage of the size category
                                          Size category of municipality
                                  < 20 000    20 000-50 000 50 000-100 000 > 100 000    Total
n=                                      97             55             29      19       200
Yes                                     10             25             72      100       32
No                                      86             73             28                66
Don’t know/not sure                      4              2                                3

Total                                   100           100      100            100      100



If Question 13A is No or Don’t know then move on to Question 15




126
Question 13B
In what respect do you differentiate?

Table B4.13B Differentiation in parking charges according to……(%)
                                                                        N =64
Site/location                                                               45
Target group                                                                14
Time of day                                                                 11
Area                                                                         9
Combination                                                                  9
Between street parking and covered parking facilities                        3
Parking pressure                                                             2
Don’t know                                                                   2
Other                                                                        5

Total                                                                       100




Question 14
What is intended with this differentiation in price?

Table B4.14 Intended objective of differentiation in parking charges (%)
                                                                         N = 63
Promoting short-stay parking                                                  24
Improved access                                                               22
To attain optimum utilisation of the available parking space                  21
Car-free town centres                                                         11
To discourage parking on the street                                           10
Financial motives                                                              5
To stimulate use of Public Transport                                           2
Other                                                                          6

Total                                                                       100




Question 15
We would like to follow-up this telephone interview in the near future with a
written questionnaire. Would you be willing to offer your co-operation in this
regard?

1: Yes
2: No
3: Don’t know/not sure


Question 16
Thank you very much for your co-operation. May I make a note of your name
and address?




                                                                                 127
Appendix 5 Written survey IOO

General

Definition:
The term “publicly accessible parking places” are understood to mean:

All parking places that are open to and accessible for use by any motorist,
regardless of whether or not a fee is charged for such use.

1. How many publicly accessible parking places does your municipality have
within built-up areas?

……………(number)


2. How are these publicly accessible parking places distributed over the following
types of parking places?

number
♦ parking places on the public highway (‘street parking’)              ……….
♦ parking places along the public highway (‘parking lay-bys’)          ……….
♦ public transferia and P+R parking provisions                         ……….
♦ other car-parks entirely accessible to the general public            ……….
♦ covered parking facilities open to public access                     ………+
Total (= total question1)                                              ……….


3. How many of these publicly accessible parking places (question 1) are parking
places where either always or at certain times a charge has to be paid for
parking?

………..(number)


4. How are these publicly accessible parking places (question 1) distributed in
terms of short-stay parking, medium-stay parking and long-stay parking?

Number
♦ Short-stay parking (up to one hour)                                  ………..
♦ Medium-stay parking (one to three hours)                             ………..
♦ Long-stay parking (longer than three hours)                          ………..+
Total (= total question 1)                                             ………..




Property ownership ratio

      If there are no public transferia or P+R provisions in your municipality
      (question 2c = 0), then leave out question 5.

5. How many of the parking places or transferia and P+R provisions are owned
by the municipal authority?

……………(number)




128
   If there are no other entirely publicly accessible car-parks in your
municipality
   (question 2d = 0), then leave out question 6.

6. How many of the parking places on entirely publicly accessible car-parks are
owned by the municipal authority?

……………(number)


   If there are no public covered parking facilities (such as multi-storey and
underground car-parks) in your municipality
    (question 2e = 0), then leave out question 7.

7. How many of the parking places in public covered parking facilities are owned
by the municipal authority.

………….(number)




Operation

   If there are no public transferia or P+R provisions in your municipality
(question 2c = 0), then leave out question 8.

8. How many of the parking places or transferia and P+R provisions are
operated by the municipal authority?

……………(number)


   If there are no other entirely publicly accessible car-parks in your
municipality
   (question 2d = 0), then leave out question 9.

9. How many of the parking places on entirely publicly accessible car-parks are
operated by the municipal authority?

……………(number)


   If there are no public covered parking facilities (such as multi-storey and
underground car-parks) in your municipality
    (question 2e = 0), then leave out question 10.

10. How many of the parking places in public covered parking facilities are
owned by the municipal authority.

………….(number)




                                                                                 129
11. Which of the following forms of fee parking or restrictive parking exist in your
municipality?

                                                               Yes           No
♦ Fee-parking for unlimited stay period                        ‫ٱ‬             ‫ٱ‬
♦ Fee-parking for limited stay period                          ‫ٱ‬             ‫ٱ‬
♦ Fee-parking for only one part of the day                     ‫ٱ‬             ‫ٱ‬
♦ Parking for users/visitors only                              ‫ٱ‬             ‫ٱ‬
♦ Parking on parking places equipped with clamps               ‫ٱ‬             ‫ٱ‬
♦ Parking allowed on one side of street and parking
prohibited on the other side                                   ‫ٱ‬             ‫ٱ‬
♦ Parking disc required                                        ‫ٱ‬             ‫ٱ‬


12. How many fines and penalty assessments were imposed in your municipality
in the year 2000 on the basis of the Mulder Act? This concerns fines and penalty
assessments where the proceeds go into Central government coffers.

……………(number)


13. What was the total amount of money involved regarding these fines and
penalty assessments?

ƒ…………….


14. How many fines and penalty assessments were imposed in your municipality
in the year 2000 on the basis of parking tax violations? This concerns fines and
penalty assessments where the proceeds go into Central Government coffers.

……………(number)


15. What was the total amount of money involved regarding these fines and
penalty assessments?
ƒ…………….


Costs and Revenues

16. How much was the total amount in revenues from parking policy that was
raised in your municipality in the year 2000, excluding those revenues from fines
and penalty assessments imposed on the basis of parking tax violations?

ƒ ……………




130
17. How can this revenue from the parking policy be divided according to the
following categories?

♦ Monies from parking charges                                   …………..%
♦ Parking for special interest groups                           …………..%
♦ Revenues from concessions                                     …………..%
♦ Other revenues, that is……………………………                            …………..%
total turnover                                                     100%


18. How much was the amount of the total costs for implementing and executing
your parking policy in the year 2000?

ƒ …………….


19. How far can the following costs be attributed to your parking policy?

                                          Fully          Partly            Entirely
                                          attributed     attributed        attributed
♦   Staffing costs                        ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Capital costs                         ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Material costs                        ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Maintenance costs                     ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Housing costs                         ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Automation expenses                   ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Collection charges                    ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Cost of tendering out work activities ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Overhead costs of the service/dept. ‫ڤ‬                ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬
♦   Basic costs                           ‫ڤ‬              ‫ڤ‬                 ‫ڤ‬


20. How much is the average land price per square metre in the town centre
area of your municipality?

ƒ ……………… per m2

21. How much is the average land price per square metre outside the town
centre area of your municipality?

ƒ ……………… per m2


   If the ‘basic costs’ in your municipality (question 19 = none at all)
are not attributed to your parking policy, leave out question 22.

22. Are the basic costs of a parking place are applied at open market prices?
(please tick only one answer)

       Yes, with all types of parking places
       Yes, with certain types of parking places
       No




                                                                                    131
23. Are you hoping for full cost recovery with the following types of parking
places?

                                                       Yes    No
♦   Resident-related parking places                    ‫ٱ‬      ‫ٱ‬
♦   Visitor-related parking places                     ‫ٱ‬      ‫ٱ‬
♦   Commercially-related parking places                ‫ٱ‬      ‫ٱ‬
♦   Parking places in each area                        ‫ٱ‬      ‫ٱ‬


24. Where do the parking revenues go?
(please tick only one answer)

‫ٱ‬      entirely to the general finances/resources
       entirely ploughed back into parking policy
       partly to general finances/resources and partly to the parking policy
‫ٱ‬      other, namely:………………………………………………..




We would like to thank you very much for your help and co-operation in
successfully carrying out this survey




132
Appendix 6 Bibliography


     Algemeen Dagblad (18 maart           1997),     "Ondernemers:     stadscentra
     verpauperen door parkeerbeleid"
     Althuisius, R. (2000), "Slecht parkeren om prettig te winkelen; zoeken naar
     het evenwicht tussen kwaliteit en bereikbaarheid" in Vexpansie nr. 1
     Althuisius, R. en R. Meilof (1999), "Kwaliteit en bereikbaarheid
     uitwisselbaar, goede stadscentra vaak slecht bereikbaar per auto", in
     Verkeerskunde, mei 1999
     AGV Adviesgroep voor verkeer en vervoer en dienststadsontwikkeling
     Gemeente Rotterdam (2000), Quickscan Tarifering Park+ Ride Terreinen
     AVV (1999), "Taxistandplaatsen: rijen of rijden?", Rotterdam
     AVV (2000), "Raming maatschappelijke kosten van ruimtegebruik door het
     verkeer; efficiënte prijzen voor het verkeer", Rotterdam
     B&A Groep Beleidsonderzoek en -Advies (2000), "Kennisvragen over
     parkeren; verslag van een expertmeeting parkeren op 27 september 2000,
     Den Haag"
     Beek, P. van. H. Meurs en F. Rosenberg (1996), "Kwantitatieve effecten van
     parkeerbeleid; ervaringen in de praktijk"
     Binnenlands Bestuur      (1993),   "Rotterdam    fiscaliseert   voortaan    de
     verkeersboetes"
     Bruinsma, F.R. e.a. (AVV) (2000), "Raming maatschappelijke kosten van
     ruimtegebruik door het verkeer; efficiënte prijzen voor het verkeer",
     Rotterdam
     Button, K.J. (1994), "Overview of Internalizing the Social Costs of
     Transport", Paris, in: "ECMT, Internalising the Social Costs of Transport,
     Parijs, 1994
     CE (1999), "Efficiënte prijzen voor het verkeer, raming van maatschappelijke
     kosten van het gebruik van verschillende vervoersmiddelen", Delft
     CBS (2001), "Statistisch Jaarboek", Voorburg/Heerlen
     CROW-werkgroep Effecten van Parkeermaatregelen (2001), conceptrapport
     "Effecten van parkeermaatregelen", Ede
     Dienst Infastructuur Verkeer en Vervoer Gemeente Amsterdam (2000),
     "Parkeren is manoeuvreren", Amsterdam
     Dienst Stedelijke Ontwikkeling Den Haag (1999), "Parkeren en Wonen; een
     kader voor parkeren in de woonwijken van Den Haag", Den Haag
     Drees, W. (1994), "Parkeersubsidie smoort distributieland", in: Openbare
     Uitgaven, nr. 2
     ECN (1996), "External Costs of Transport and Internalisation", Pettem
     Elsevier nr. 38 (september 1996) "Parkeerbeleid: het laatste wapen tegen de
     verkeerschaos"
     Gaudappel Coffeng (2001), "Effecten van bereikbaarheid"
     Gemeente Nieuwegein (1998), "Beleidsnota parkeren 1998", Deventer
     Gemeente Rijswijk (2001), "Parkeernota Gemeente Rijswijk", Rijswijk
     Groen Licht Verkeersadviezen BV (2001), "Parkeeronderzoek Leiden;
     inventarisatie situatie november 2000", Tilburg


                                                                                133
      Hoff, J.P. van het en D.C. Zoutendijk (1999), "Monitorstelsel Planwet
      verkeer en vervoer, T99-21", Veenendaal
      Hoogeveen, C.P. (1996), "De dynamiek van de parkeerbalans; reactie op het
      Grontmij-rapport 'Parkeerbalans, instrument voor mobiliteitsbeleid'", Quatro
      Horen, L. van der P. van Geffen en R. van der heuvel (1999), "Sturend
      parkeerbeleid in het KAN, balanceren op het randje "
      Huibers-Haneveld, I.H.G. (1994), "Effecten van de autoluwe binnenstad"
      Maij-Weggen, J.R.H. (vergaderjaar         1991-1992),    "Uitvoeringsnotitie
      parkeerbeleid", Tweede Kamer 22 383
      Kennisplatorm              Verdi,              "http:www.kennisplatform-
      verdi.nl/nieuws/knowhowitem2.htm parkeerbeleid"
      Kuijpers, C.B.F. (1999), "Meer ruimte voor parkeren?" in Vexpansie, nr. 4
      Kurri, J. (2001), "Parking policy measures and their effects on shopping and
      work trips – a case study in the Helsinki metropolitan area", Espoo
      Ligtermoet, Dirk en Rien Sleurink (1998), "De effectruimte van
      vraagbeïnvloedend mobiliteitsbeleid", Gouda
      Loon, Pim van (2000), "Exploitatie van openbare parkeergarages" in
      Vexpansie, september 2000
      Martens, Karel (1996), "ABC-locatiebeleid in de praktijk; de rol van
      gemeenten, provincies en Inspecties Ruimtelijke Ordening in de doorwerking
      van het ABC-locatiebeleid in strategisch beleid en operationele
      beslissingen", Nijmegen
      Ministerie van Economische Zaken (1999), "Ybema pleit voor marktwerking
      bij parkeerbeleid in steden", Den Haag
      Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (1976), "Structuurschema Verkeer en
      Vervoer"
      Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (1994), "Evaluatie Parkeerbeleid; De
      Hoeksteen Getoetst", Den Haag
      Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (2000), "Beleidseffectrapportage 1999:
      Beleidseffectmeting Verkeer en Vervoer", Den Haag
      Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (2000), "Nationaal Verkeers- en
      Vervoersplan"
      Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (1991-1992), "Uitvoeringsnotitie
      parkeerbeleid", Tweede kamer 22 383, nr. 1
      Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer
      (1994), "Locatiebeheer in uitvoering; een tussenstand", Den Haag
      Mosch, L.P.J. (2000), "Regionaal parkeerbeleid Twente" in Vexpansie
      Opbergen, F.J.M. van (1993), "Bundeling van financiën in parkeerfonds
      maakt gericht parkeerbeleid mogelijk", in CROW, Parkeren en mobiliteit, nr.
      6, januari 1993
      Oppwal, Harmen e.a. (EIRASS) (1997), "Economische effecten van
      parkeermaatregelen: winkelcentrum en vervoerswijze keuze van consumenten
      in Noord Brabant" in Sturend parkeerbeleid in het KAN, balanceren op het
      randje erkeerskunde, julie/augustus 1999
      Raad voor de volkshuisvesting, de ruimtelijke ordening en het milieubeheer
      (VROM-Raad), (1999), "Mobiliteit met beleid, Advies 017", Den Haag



134
Rothengatter, W (1993), "Externalities of transport" in European Transport
Economics, J.B. Polak en A. Heertje (eds.)
Snijders, Patrick (AVV) (1995), "De economische balans van parkeren;
verkennend onderzoek in drie gemeenten", Rotterdam
Tweede Kamer (vergaderjaar 1996-1997), "Parkeerbeleid", 22 383, nr. 9
Twijnstra Gudde (1997), "Parkeermeter 1995; inventarisatie van organisatie
en prestaties van gemeentelijk parkeerbeheer, Amersfoort", Amersfoort
Verhoef, E.T. (1994), "External effects and social costs of road transport" in
Transportation Research, vol. 28a, nr. 4, blz. 273-287
Verhoef, E.T. (Tinbergen Institute) (1996), "Economic Efficiency and Social
Feasibility in the Regulation of Road Transport Externalities", Amsterdam
Verkeerskunde (januarie 2000), "Consument koopt steeds meer in eigen
regio, parkeerruimte veel belangrijker dan parkeertarief"
Vos, André de (1999), "De toekomst is aan de overdekte parkeerplaats" In
Binnenlands Bestuur
Vossestein, Marcel (1999), "Als we mobiliteit op prijs stellen" in Bundeling
van bijdragen aan Colloquium Vervoersplanologisch Speurwerk
Wit, J. de en H. van Gent (1996), "Economie en transport", Utrecht




                                                                         135

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:45
posted:8/17/2011
language:English
pages:135