Meats

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					                   Meats
 Usually   the most expensive of all food
 items
     30-70% of food cost
     20-40% of operating cost
 Make-up:
  – 75% water, 20% protein, 5% fat
  – Shrinkage and deterioration
     Humidity
     Temperature
               Animal Fat
 5% of animal tissue
 30% of carcass?
 Bred and raised leaner




 Some   fat is desirable . . .
            Fat is not all bad!
 Juiciness
  – Marbling
     “Juiciness”   when eating
 Tenderness
     Muscle   fibers separated by fat
 Surface   Fat
     Protects   during cooking
 Flavor
     The   “Beefy” flavor is fat soluble
                     Meats 3




 Connective   Tissue is Tough to Eat!

  – Collagen and elastin
  – Old versus young
  – Use of muscle
  – Marbling
            ROT for Cooking
 Much   collagen?
  – Long, slow, moist cooking.
     Collagen    dissolves into gelatin and water
 Much   elastin?
  – Remove
  – Mechanically tenderize
     Grind,   cube, slice very thin, pound,
         – Break up the fibers!
 Meats: Inspections and Grading
           by Agricultural Marketing Act
 Authorized
 The Wholesome Meat Act
  – All meat must be inspected
  – Grading is voluntary
     Quality
     Yield
        The Seal of Approval?
 The   Circular Inspection Stamp
  – Wholesome and Fit for Human
    Consumption
 The   Shield shaped Grading stamp
  – A Quality Designation
     Clearly   specified
                        Quality
   Beef                       Veal and Lamb
    –   Prime                   – Prime
    –   Choice                  – Choice
    –   Select                  – Good
    –   Standard                      and more
    –   Commercial
    –   Utility
    –   Cutter Canner
                     Quality
 Proprietary    Quality Grade?
  – Caveat Emptor!
      Know   your supplier
  – You can none-the-less specify USDA
    grade
                             Yield
 Ratio   of fat to meat
  – 1 is highest yield
      Beef 1-5
      Pork 1-4
      Lamb/Mutton 1-5
      Veal is not yield graded
          – Naturally lean
                       Aged Meat?
   Green Meat
    – Myosin and Actin
          Stiff and inelastic
                     Aged Meat?
   Tenderize:                      Tenderize:
    –   Natural                      – Dry aging
    –   High temperature                   May lose up to 20%
                                            of moisture content
    –   Enzymatic
                                     – Wet aging
    –   Vacuum aging
                                           Less initial moisture
    –   Electrical stimulation              loss
                                              – Greater cooking
                                                loss
                 Aged Meat
 Slightly   changed flavor profile




 Ifmeat smells (or tastes) spoiled, it
  probably is
                  Meat Cuts      7




 Four   forms:
  – Carcass
  – Partial carcass
  – Primal cut
  – Fabricated cuts (pre-fabs)
     IMPS   or NAMPS
              Bone Structure
 Important   to know:
  – Help identify a cut of meat
  – Help minimize loss when de-boning
  – Help you avoid messy carving/carving loss
Know the carcasses
               Cooking Meats       8




 Low  temp if possible
 ID-the connective tissue/cut
  – ROT for cooking methods:
      Moist   heat
        – Larger or tougher cuts
      Dry   heat
        – Smaller or tender cuts
           Rib and Loin Cuts
 The most tender (on any animal)
 Beef and Lamb
  – Often served rare to medium: roast, broil or
    grill.
 Veal   and Pork
  – Generally eaten (more)
    well done: as above,
    but also braised on occasion.
              Leg or Round
 Beef   (round)
  – Typically less tender      braise
  – Roasting OK for Prime or Choice
     Marbling
     Long cooking time - beef’s own moisture helps
      tenderize
              Leg or Round
 Veal,   Lamb or Pork (leg)
  – More tender than beef
      Younger!!


                   Excellent for roasting
             Chuck or Shoulder
 Beef                        Braise
 Veal,   Lamb and Pork
                              Braise
                              or
                              Roast
      NB:The shoulder may be tender, but will have
      multidirectional muscle tissue
Shanks, Breasts, Briskets and Flank

 Usually   not tender even on young
 animals
  – Shanks are high in collagen: excellent for
    braising
  – Beef flank, if carefully cut across the grain,
    can be broiled: London Broil
 Mechanically     tenderized meats, such as
  cubed or ground, can be cooked by dry or
  moist heat
 Searing and blanching? . . . does not
  seal in the
  juices !
 Do not cook meats when frozen
 Does   not retain or increase moisture
  – Same or slightly increased (delayed)
 Complicates   the cooking process
  – Timing
  – Surface dry and done - center frozen
 Waste   of energy and time
               Doneness?
 Dry  heat vs. Moist heat
 Carry-over cooking
 Critical for product quality
                     Doneness?
 Color   Change
  – Red Meats
     “Blue”
          – Barely seen the heat, cold and “blue” center
     “Rare”
          – Browned surface, thin grey layer, red interior, slightly
            warm.
     “Medium”
          – Browned surface, more grey, pink center.
     “Well    Done”
          – Grey throughout
                     Doneness?
 Interior   temperature the best approach:
  – Beef:
      Rare:
        – 130 F
      Medium
        – 140-145 F
      Well   done
        – 160 F
   Doneness for White Meats?
 Pork:
  – Cooked well done: 160-170 F
     Must  pass 137 F throughout for minimum 10
      seconds to avoid trichinosis!
     Play it safe and hit 150 -155 F (FDA)

 Veal
  – Generally cooked well done
  – Hues of pink increasingly accepted in the
    most tender cuts
       Doneness by Touch?
 Takes   much experience!
  – Small steaks/chops
     Touch   the raw product first!
       – Rare: Firmer, but still soft and pliable
       – Medium: Firmer, springs back
       – Well done: Firm, does not yield to pressure
      Dry Heat Meat Cookery
 Seasoning
  – If you season just prior to roasting
      Onlyfractions of an inch will be seasoned
      Browning will be retarded

  – 3 choices:
      Season  several hours/days in advance
      Season after roasting
      Do not season, but have a well seasoned
       sauce
 Roast fat side up
 Basting only needed for lean meats
  – Baste with fat, not stock
  – Bard (cover with fat) or lard
 Broil,   grill, pan broil
  – browning and internal doneness
  – ROT: the shorter the cook time (the rarer
    the interior), the higher the temperature
  – brush with oil if necessary, avoid the “oil
    dip”
 Sauté   and Pan Fry
  – Only tender cuts!
  – The smaller or thinner the piece the higher
    the heat
  – ROT for sauté:
     Hot  pan
     Do not overcrowd
     Flip only as needed

  – Deglazing
        Moist Heat Cookery
 Simmering
  – Fresh meats, start with boiling liquid
  – Cured or smoked meats, start with cold
    liquid
 Braising
 Stewing
          Meats “elsewhere”
 Grainfed versus “double duty cow”
 Horsemeat
 Goat
  – Increasingly found in US
                         Veal
 Formula      (milk) fed
  – Farming conditions?
 Free-range
 Color   of flesh is indicator
  – Milk fed
      White   (pork-like)
  – Grain fed
      Reddish   flesh
                     Veal
 Two   general types:
  – “Special Fed” (85% of market)
  – “Bob Veal” (15% of market)

 Special   Fed (a.k.a. milk- or formula-fed):
     Removed     from the cow within 3 days
     Fed a nutritionally balanced soy or milk based
      diet until 16-18 weeks
     Sent to market upwards of 450 lbs.
                    Veal
 Bob   Veal
     Veryyoung calves
     No more than three weeks old
     Usually no more than 150 lbs.
          Lamb and Mutton
 Lamb
  – Most 6 (3) months to 1 year
  – Less than 3 months: Milk lamb
  – I year: yearling
     Thereafter   it is mutton
 Lamb   versus Mutton
  – Tenderness, cooking methods, doneness,
    flavor
         Variety meats (offal)
 Two   categories
  – Glandular meats
     Liver,   kidney, sweetbread, brains
  – Muscle meats
     Heart,   tongue, oxtails, and tripe
                       Glandular
 Liver
  – Easy to prepare
      Remove   outer skin and tough membranes
      Cut on the bias
      Cook carefully and to order
          – Slightly pink or it will be dry
  – Calf liver the most tender and prized
  – Beef also OK
  – Pork mostly used in pate and sausage
                     Glandular
 Kidneys
  – Lamb and Veal best
     Dry   heat
  – Beef OK
     Moist   heat
  – May need blanching or milk marinades
  – Split in half
  – Remove any white fatty tissue and veins
                 Glandular
 Sweetbreads
     (Thymus   glands of young cattle)
  – Soak
  – Blanch and refresh in ice water
  – Remove membrane
  – Press?
  – Braise or Sauté
                  Glandular
 Brains
  – Low priority in the US
  – Delicacy elsewhere
     “Mad   Cow Disease” . . . .
                    Muscular
 Heart    (Veal or Beef)
  – Tough
      Casseroles    and forcemeat preparations
 Beef   (veal) Tongue
  – Fresh, cured or smoked
      Braised:   Entrée or as “deli meat”
 Oxtail
  – Very high gelatin and good flavor
      Excellentfor soups and stews
      Cut between joints
  Receiving and Storing Meats
 Fresh
  – Check upon arrival
  – If not vacuum packed do not wrap tightly
     Molds   and “off” flavors may develop
  – Store at 32-36 F
  – Separate by type
     Fresh   below cooked
  – Unless you have proper facilities, use
    quickly (2-4 days)
  Receiving and Storing Meats
 Frozen
  – Check upon arrival: Receive frozen!
  – Store at 0 F or colder
     Lean  meats max 6 months
     Fattier meats (pork) max 4 months

  – Never refreeze

				
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posted:8/17/2011
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