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The Puritans English II—Pre AP Davenport Who were the Puritans? They were a group of people who grew discontent in the Church of England and worked towards religious, moral and societal reforms. The Puritans believed that the Bible was God's true law, and that it provided a plan for living. Puritans stripped away the traditional trappings and formalities of Christianity which had been slowly building throughout the previous 1500 years. Theirs was an attempt to "purify" the church and their own lives. Facts about Puritans cont. • Most of the Puritans settled in the New England area. As they immigrated and formed individual colonies, their numbers rose from 17,800 in 1640 to 106,000 in 1700. Religious exclusiveness was the foremost principle of their society. The spiritual beliefs that they held were strong. This strength held over to include community laws and customs. Since God was at the forefront of their minds, He was to motivate all of their actions. This premise worked both for them and against them CRUISE THE ATLANTIC—CRUISE SHIP REVIEWS Travel Guide for the “PURE” Puritan beliefs Their interpretation of scriptures was a harsh one. They emphasized a redemptive piety. In principle, they emphasized conversion and not repression. Conversion was a rejection of the "worldliness" of society and a strict adherence to Biblical principles. While repression was not encouraged in principle, it was evident in their actions. God could forgive anything, but man could forgive only by seeing a change in behavior. Actions spoke louder than words, so actions had to be constantly controlled. The doctrine of predestination kept all Puritans constantly working to do good in this life to be chosen for the next eternal one. God had already chosen who would be in heaven or hell, and each believer had no way of knowing which group they were in. Those who were wealthy were obviously blessed by God and were in good standing with Him. The Protestant work ethic was the belief that hard work was an honor to God which would lead to a prosperous reward. Any deviations from the normal way of Puritan life met with strict disapproval and discipline. Since the church elders were also political leaders, any church infraction was also a social one. There was no margin for error. The great tempter… The devil was behind every evil deed. Constant watch needed to be kept in order to stay away from his clutches. Words of hell fire and brimstone flowed from the mouths of eloquent ministers as they warned of the persuasiveness of the devil's power. We have school, thanks to the Puritans. With the Puritans, free schooling was offered for all children. Puritans formed the first formal school in 1635, called the Roxbury Latin School. Four years later, the first American College was established; Harvard in Cambridge. Every good puritan must read! The motive to educate was largely religious. In order for Puritans to become holy, they needed to read the Scriptures. As the articles of faith of 1549 had proclaimed, “holy Scripture containeth all thingS neceSSary to Salvation.” Types of Puritan Literature 1. Journals 2. Sermons 3. Narratives 4. Poetry All religious and didactic in nature. The VIP’s of Puritan Literature William Bradford Anne Bradstreet Jonathan Edwards Mary Rowlandson Cotton Mather William bradford William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected Governor of the Colony for 15 two-year terms. He was the second signer and primary architect of the Mayflower Compact. He also wrote another one after the first one had been destroyed. His journal was published as Of Plymouth Plantation. Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim what popular American culture now views as the first Thanksgiving. Puritan or Pilgrim? Or both? Do you know the difference? ► Puritan: A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking "purity" of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Protestant Reformation of the Church of England. ► Pilgrim: A pilgrim is one who undertakes a religious pilgrimage, literally 'far afield'. This is traditionally a visit to a place of some religious significance; often a considerable distance is traveled. In the United States the word "Pilgrims" usually refers to the first European settlers of New England, who celebrated the "First Thanksgiving" with the Native Americans in 1621. HOW TO LOOK GOOD IN BLACK & WHITE: A PURITAN DIVA’S GUIDE Puritans wore a simply cut, plain costume in black with white collar and cuffs. No lace edged. The ladies' tucked their hair away under plain caps and the gentlemen wore plain, high crowned hats. Personal adornment was against their religion. Puritan Essential Beliefs The Puritans had two major beliefs, The Doctrine of the Elect and Theocracy. The Doctrine of the Elect better known as predestination or foreordination is the belief that when a person is born or at any time later in their life, they might be chosen by God to become one of the Elect, which is one of the people who would receive divine salvation. Those who were not among the select would not receive divine salvation. There is nothing that a person could do to be chosen, it was entirely predestined by God. No amount of good works, righteous living or moral behavior could help a person achieve this status. Since no one knew if they were one of the Elect, everyone lived a good life in order to be prepared for being elected when the day came. Beliefs and Ideologies cont. The Puritans also believed that if God could elect certain people to be saved, then the Devil could select certain people to be bewitched. The Devil, to the Puritans, was an active enemy to mankind because they accepted the story that the Devil was once one of God’s angels who had fallen from grace, and that now the Devil’s job is to continually try to destroy what God has made. The Puritans had a strict view of sin and they thought that everyone was constantly tempted by the Devil to sin. They also believed that once someone did sin they must openly confess, then repent and finally do some sort of penance. Without this open confession, there would be way for that person to be saved. More Puritanical thoughts… The Puritans second belief is that of Theocracy. Theocracy is the belief in a government that is totally controlled by the church. If a person was not a member of the church, they could not vote in elections or hold offices. The ministers were the main officers and administrators of the civil government. If a person does not know the beliefs or rules of the church they become a suspect of many things. The church was very powerful and held most of its authority. SALVATION: IT CAN BE YOURS THANKSGIVING: IMPRESS YOUR FAMILY WITH A TOAST Here's to the great American bird, Who has fettered our heart with his cable, 'Till no Thanksgiving can seem complete Without the turkey on the table •Here's to the venturesome Puritans, Of valiant Mayflower stock; And here's to the good old boat that anchored Somewhere off Plymouth Rock. •Then here's a health to all of you Who're glad that you're a-living, And may you see much cause for which To celebrate Thanksgiving.
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